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A Review of Architectural Vocabulary and Representation in Our Condition of Remote Communication David Waite


David Waite RISD M.Arch Thesis 2021


I Think We Have Some Connection Difficulty

A Review of Architectural Vocabulary and Representation in Our Condition of Remote Communication



Abstract

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The distance required to slow this pandemic created a need for videotelephonic technology in maintaining our economies of mental production and social closeness. Just like scientists examined the COVID-19 virus globally in its petri dish under the electron microscope, Zoom exposed our domestic interiors. This platform stitched together our personal existence into an infinite interior. To some extent Zoom thrusted its participants into a new space of vulnerability where the platform turned passive observers into active participants in a hyper self-aware virtual world where all are forced to share their fragile environments of everyday life. While videotelephony software thankfully facilitated communication beyond just language, we lost the connectedness of a myriad of stereo sensations such as time, touch, gesture, and context. Using the architectural tools of drawings, scans, probes, and models at varying scales, one may better connect spatially to their own interiors and empathize with other distant rooms. This thesis proposes an addendum to the architectural discipline’s forms of representation and language in the framework of this past year’s spatiotemporal condition. A reexamination of vocabulary and representation may provide a model of how to curate our spaces for more empathetic connectedness.


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Contents 03 07 44 47

Abstract Glossary Glossary Citations So, Captain, How Long Shall We Stare At Each Other Across The Neutral Zone? Essay

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Representation and Information Essay

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Glossary

“Architecture does not exist without drawing, in the same way that archit​ecture does not exist without texts... Buildings have been erected without drawings, in the same way that architecture itself goes beyond the mere process of building. The complex cultural, social, and philosophical demands developed slowly over centuries have made architecture a form of knowledge in and of itself. Just as all forms of knowledge use different modes of discourse, so there are key architectural statements that though not necessarily built, nevertheless inform us about the state of architecture — it’s concerns and its polemics — more precisely than the actual buildings of their time.” — Bernard Tschumi, Architecture and Disjunction, 1996.

cast control domesticity dwelling face plan FaceTime frame home space

implied space living space meatspace mirror Personal Access Display   Device (PADD) poché posture

probe room(s) scan screen section perspective surveillance trace tricorder

transporter room viewscreen window workplace Zap Pad zoom Zoom


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cast representational noun • the act of casting or throwing • considered, as a performance, with reference to its quality • a competitive throw at a mark in which the results are so close as to require measurement

* These full-scale floor casts allude to the fragment drawings architects and masons would use to produce the ornamental character of a building. A series of casts imply belonging to a set made from similar negatives. A cast creates a volumetric archive of surfaces. The resultant cast will have a translation of all of the surface effects that the mold experienced. A cast with a new medium does not maintain the olfactory qualities of the negative’s material besides it’s threedimensional character.

PALLADIO’S DETAIL DRAWINGS OF THE PORTA DEI LEONI, VERONA. THESE PROVIDE A TAXONOMY OF ORNAMENTAL RELIEF IN MASONRY.

PLASTER CASTS OF THE THRESHOLDS OF BETWEEN ROOMS OF MY HOME.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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noun • the action or fact of holding in check or restraining; restraint; earliest in without control: prevention or limitation of the spread of disease or a noxious agent. • also in extended use: the confinement or limiting of a socially undesirable phenomenon or tendency, usually with modifying word or of-phrase • the capacity or power to manage an animal, vehicle, or moving object • a button, switch, lever or the like by means of which an operator can regulate the action or performance of a device, machine, vehicle, etc., or some aspect of its operation frequently in plural: the instruments used to operate a device, machine, vehicle, etc., considered collectively verb • to hold in check or repress (one’s passions, emotions, tears, etc.) • controlling the spread of disease with the restraint from congregating and remaining isolated • also to regulate: to exert control over or curate one’s own space • to control one’s appearance, narrative, and others’ perception of oneself through digital communication

* Only an omnipotent God could see the souls hidden behind the digital artifacts we communicate through. We must exercise extreme control over our digital existence. This extends to the internets archive of all text, images, videos, and audio files. Understanding the authorship and ownership of technology and space, grants oneself a margin of greater control in decision making.

control

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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domesticity spatial noun • the quality or state of being domestic, domestic character; home or family life; devotion to home; homeliness • having the character or position of the inmate of a house; housed — to be domestic with (also of): to be of the household of, at home with • of or belonging to the home, house, or household; relating to one’s place of residence or family affairs; household, home, ‘family’ • figurative: belonging to what concerns oneself • indigenous: made at home or in the country itself; native, home-grown, home-made

• of animals: living under the care of man, in or near his habitations; tame, not wild • tamed/controlled/confined opposed to the natural world. • depending on the force, this term connotes low agency or high control • emphatically a place opposite of work-place • a domestication of the workplace (the place of human enterprise

ALLISON AND PETER SMITHSON, HOUSE OF THE FUTURE, 1956.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

dwelling spatial adjective • remaining, lasting, abiding verb • to abide or continue for a time, in a place, state, or condition • to lead into error, mislead, delude; to stun, stupefy • to dwell on, upon (in): to spend time upon or linger over (a thing) in action or thought; to remain with the attention fixed on; now, esp. to treat at length or with insistence, in speech or writing; also, to sustain (a note) in music

• to remain in place/live/fixate negatively • to stay fixed upon a place or idea • to continue in existence, to last, persist; to remain after others are taken or removed • to remain (in a house, country, etc.) as in a permanent residence; to have one’s abode; to reside, ‘live’ • to contemplate

SEE POSTURE, PAGE 67.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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face plan representational noun • the front elevation of a plan or drawing

* Concerning Zoom aesthetics, persons’ meeting on the platform often display themselves, shoulders square to their camera and screen. Their environment is often in the same orientation —  mostly oblique to the monitor. Of course, they are subject to perspective and lens distortion, but this front-facing communication is inorganic to how humans often posture themselves to one another when in dialogue. This perpendicular conversation would encourage an awkward, if not aggressive, confrontation if the individuals were in meatspace.

TYPICAL ZOOM POSTURING RELATIVE TO A WEBCAMERA AND MONITOR. (REFERENCE — TRACE OF MY ZOOM FRAME DURING A MEETING APR. 22, 2021)

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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FaceTime videotelephony noun • time spent appearing in the media; media exposure or attention; time spent face to face with another person, esp. a person regarded as important; interpersonal contact • Apple platform for video calling

* While artist Pipilotti Rist is intensely preoccupied with the notion of the screen she presents it as an unstable concept in constant flux. The screen becomes multiplied, fragmented, and transformed, moving from the optical to the environmental. A smartphone lies in the middle of a narrow staircase leading from the museum’s upper floor. At first sight it seems that someone must have accidentally dropped their device on the ground, yet it quickly becomes clear that even this object is part of the exhibition. On the phone’s display a video shows the naked artist crying out and reaching toward the spectator as if she were trapped in a miniature hell. It provides a humorous and self-reflexive commentary on our condition of distraction in a world permeated by screens. While the smartphone is reconceived as a site of the artist’s suffering associated with existential dread and anxiety, it is safely contained within this portable format in the visitor’s reach. (See also: screen) PIPILOTTI RIST, SELBSTLOS IM LAVABAD (SELFLESS IN THE BATH OF LAVA)(BASTARD VERSION), EXHIBITION VIEW: NEW MUSEUM, SINGLECHANNEL VIDEO AND SOUND INSTALLATION, COLOR, ON MOBILE PHONE; 6:20 MIN, 2016.

MEHTA, IVAN. “HUZZAH! APPLE ENABLES HD FACETIME CALLS ON IPHONE 8 THROUGH IPHONE 11.” TNW | PLUGGED, 27 APRIL, 2021.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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frame spatial verb • to shape, form, direct (a person, a person's life, thoughts, actions, etc.); to discipline, train (a person, animal, one’s tongue, etc.); to dispose, lead, incline (someone) to something • also in passive, to be in a certain frame of mind or mood • to conform, submit; to suit, fit; to adapt; adjust (usually something immaterial) to or unto something; to reconcile • to compose • to devise, invent, fabricate (a rule, story, theory, etc.); to contrive (a plot, etc.); to put together, fashion, compose; to put into words, express; to formulate • to direct (one’s steps, one’s course, etc.); to set out on (a pilgrimage, etc.). Also reflexive: to betake oneself, make one’s way

* The frame thus objectifies our experience as an aesthetic presentation, yet as Professor Amy Kulper explains it, this frame, when occupied, turns the aesthetic into an experience. In the Anglo-American painting canon, frames facilitate a transition from the wall to this newly introduced, painted space. Additionally, the frame makes the aperture or crop of the scene far more intentional, much like a window or a door, thereby objectifying the landscape into an objectified vista.

THE ZOOM IMAGE FRAME ILLUMINATES THE SPEAKING PERSON, BUT IS TRIGGERED BY ANY AUDIO. IT IS DESIGNED TO BRING ATTENTION TO ONE OR TWO PEOPLE AT A TIME IN THE MATRIX OF MEETING ATTENDEES.

LEFT: TAVIS GLOVER. “CHRISTINA’S WORLD STUCK IN A CORNER AT THE MOMA.” IPOX STUDIOS & CANON OF DESIGN, 11 SEPT. 2014. RIGHT: WYETH. WORLD, MODERN

ANDREW CHRISTINA’S MUSEUM OF ART, 1948.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

home space spatial * Just before the COVID-19 pandemic, the larger part of American society would categorize workspace and homespace as different spaces geographically, socially, economically, and physically. The home space (like homeplace) was a place of nostalgia, rooted in the phenomenologically distinct characteristics of the American dream. Homeplace is a location, while home space is a volume. This term implies an environment of material ownership as well as control. I mean intentionally as a derivative of homestead. Owning, renting, and occupying in the AngloAmerican worldview still imply a worldview of leisure, enterprise, and ownership.

SCHRODER HOUSE, UTRECHT, NETHERLANDS, G. RIETVELD, 1924. THE HOME IS OFTEN REGARDED AS THE PROTOTYPE FOR THE ‘FLEXIBLE’ MODERN INTRIOR CREATED BY TECHNICAL MEANS.

WITHIN THE PROGRAMMATIC ROOMS EXIST SUB-PROGRAMS. EACH REQUIRE DISTINCT SPACES AND MAY OVERLAP IN VOLUME.

ENTRY

KITECHEN

DINING ROOM

PANTRY

TO OFFICE + LIVING ROOM

REST

VIEW TO OFFICE/ OUTSIDE

DRESSER

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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implied space spatial noun • illusion of created depth in a two-dimensional work

* In two-dimensional artwork space is implied through a constructed reality of perspective and scale. It is framed and what is beyond the frame is implied. The viewer must infer the meaning from contextual clues. When dealing with three-dimensional artwork such as sculptures and installations, the viewer must consider the space as an extension of the piece. It becomes the conduit that connects the viewer to the artwork. The relationship between the two exists in implied space. Since two-dimensional lines may trigger a vivid perception of three-dimensional space, I will argue implied space from three-dimensional objects may encourage the perception of four-dimensional space. Implied space may be prompted but not entirely controlled as it depends upon what the viewer brings with them.

GORDON MATTA-CLARK, SPLITTING FOUR CORNERS, 1974, SAN FRANSISCO MUSEUM OF MODERN ART.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

living space spatial noun • room or space for living • territory which a group, state, or nation believes or asserts is needed for its natural development or expansion • a habitable area in a room or house, intended for general, everyday use

* This space may also be understood as unbuilt. This is the volume someone takes up as they live in their dwelling, and is a different volume than the space that architectural elements inscribe.

PRESSURES OF USE SKETCH (SEE FOLLOWING PAGE).

KEN ISAACS, HOW TO BUILD YOUR OWN LIVING STRUCTURE, 1974.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


PRESSURES OF 18 USE SKETCH SHOWS

THE AREAS OF MY APARTMENT I USE AS OPPOSED TO THE FLOOR SPACE BOUNDED BY WALLS.

I Think We Have Some Connection Difficulty


Glossary

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meatspace spatial * In meatspace, there exists the physical existence of one’s environment without artificiality. (Let us assume we do not live in the simulated reality of Wachowski’sThe Matrix). There exists here sights and sounds (as exist digitally too), tactility, scents, flavors, weight, temperature, and time. In contrast to physical space, this term emphasizes human existence.

2020 SAND BAR BASH, OSHKOSH, WI. SADOWSKI, JONATHON. “NO MASKS, NO DISTANCING: PEOPLE KEEP GATHERING OUTSIDE AND IT’S CAUSING COVID OUTBREAKS.” UPNORTHNEWS, 13 JAN. 2021.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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mirror spatial noun • a person or thing embodying a feature or characteristic deserving imitation; a pattern; an exemplar • a thing regarded as giving a true description of something else • a reflective surface, and related senses • a looking glass • all done with mirrors and variants: performed or achieved by trickery, illusion, or some other explicable means, and not by magic or miracle verb • to be a model for (a person) in conduct or behaviour. • to be reflected in, or as in, a mirror • to reflect or reproduce accurately; to represent or express (an idea, emotion, etc.). also: to duplicate, imitate • to imitate (the gestures and posture of a person with whom one is interacting) • to write (data) on to two separate devices (esp. two hard disks) simultaneously, to protect against the possible failure of one; to create (a duplicate disk) in this manner, also: to copy (a website) onto a different server

* Foucault calls the mirror a utopia as it is a placeless place: “I see myself there where I am not, in an unreal, virtual space that opens up behind the surface; I am over there, there where I am not, a sort of shadow that gives my own visibility to myself, that enables me to see myself there where I am absent.” I cannot agree that it is utopic — it does not represent a perfect world as it is a site of critique, affirmation, and looking back at. It doesn’t physically exist, but I agree that it is mentally occupiable as it affirms selfhood when one may see themselves as an object. This is an egocentric space, unique to the observer. It changes the perceptual feel which has physiological repercussions. A surface also does not have to be created as a mirror for it to perform the reflectivity of a mirror. A window, digital screen, pool of fluid, and the waxed hood of a car are also mirrors. The point here is to consiously identify and predict a material’s capacity to illuminate selfhood, surveillence, and self design.

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE WINDOW IN FRONT OF MY DESK WHICH ACTS AS A MIRROR AFTER THE SUN GOES DOWN.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


“MIRROR PLAN” IN 22 CONTRAST TO THE PHYSICAL AND TYPICAL PLAN OF MY HOME(PURPLE), THIS MIRROR PLAN DRAWS THE VISIBLE EXTENTS OF MY HOME AS IT REFLECTS AGAINST WINDOWS AT NIGHT FROM THE POSITION OF MY DESK.

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Glossary

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Personal Access Display Device (PADD) Star Trek * The Personal Access Display Device, PADD, or HoloPADD in some instances; was a handheld computer interface in widespread use since at least the Star Trek universe. Initially consisting of a large touchscreen display and minimalistic manual interface or control panel, generally only one or two buttons, the typical PADD was used for a variety of functions, including logging crew manifests, compiling duty rosters or diagnostic reports, entering personal data, and/or accessing library computer systems using the LCARS Interface. The identification as a PADD comes from the call sheet which listed it in the props section.

“PERSONAL ACCESS DISPLAY DEVICE.” MEMORY ALPHA, TOP LEFT: PADD DISPLAYING ARBORETUM PLANS. TOP RIGHT: RED PADD SHOWING IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION. BOTTOM RIGHT: BAJORAN PADD, 2375. BOTTOM LEFT: PADD USED FOR VIRTUAL SECTIONING OF AN ALVERA TREE.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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poché representational * Poché is an instrumental invention of architectural drawing practice. In its typical manifestation, poché is a technique to draw the thickness or space inside walls or floors that intersect the plane of the section cut. Stone and masonry buildings that are constructed of thick materials indulge in poché to illustrate the shear thickness and mass of their walls. However, in most contemporary buildings not constructed out of heavy masonry, the solid rendering of poché in drawings is misleading because it represents in-between space rather than material thickness. Pockets of leftover, liminal space frequently contain structure, ductwork, and mechanical, electrical, and plumping equipment. As such, the demarcation of poché on a drawing can function as a specialized instance of "bounding lines, [i.e.] the sequential passing off of work" from architects to other specialists. Unlike more explicit bounding lines, however, the

highly accepted and routinized nature of poché as a drawing convention comes with ambiguity and mystery. The innards of a poché typically remain completely undefined. “From its surroundings, a pocket universe appears solid or opaque. But its emphatic thickness and staged solidity suggest that it contains hidden inner workings and vital viscera. At their best, pocket universes are pregnant bellies—fat and fertile and ready to emit a new object into the world.” — Joseph Altshuler The poché is structural, it gives volume to an interior or space and it is measurable, but in the virtual interior, there exists a new immeasurable poche between us. What information then may travel through this poche and is contained?

LIDAR SCAN OF A ROOM DEPICTS ONLY THE SURFACE FROM THE VANTAGE OF THE SCANNER. USING THIS TOOL TO PRODUCE A DRAWING OMITS THICKNESS, AND REDUCES OBJECTS TO FRAGILE VOLUMES.

A BLACK POCHE HERE SHOWS WALL THICKNESS, AND GOUND CUTS TO THE PROPERTY LINE ON THE LEFT AND CONCRETE MECHANICAL CORE BOUNDARY ON THE TOP.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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posture body noun • the relative disposition of the various parts of something; esp. the position and carriage of the limbs or the body as a whole, often as indicating a particular quality, feeling, etc.; an attitude, a pose. Hence, more generally: the manner in which a person bears himself or herself; natural carriage or deportment. • in zoology: a particular pose or stance adopted by a bird, mammal, etc., especially when intended as a specific signal to others; any of the poses used in a display. • the position of a thing (or person) relative to another; position, situation • a state of being; a condition or situation in relation to circumstances

* In Designing the Lifeworld: Selfhood and Architecture from a Critical Perspective, authors Lukas Ebensperger, Suparna Choudhury, and Jan Slaby explain the relationship between architecture and philosophies of selfhood: “architecture is an object (objectum) that materially opposes us; us as beings that are subjects—plastic, mimetic beings that are subjected to the structures imposed by architecture.” These authors define two modes to explain how humans experience architecture. The first of these is a more Cartesian understanding—a geometric idealization of space which prescribes a unique location to all objects in space. In this view, the object’s location is an “external property, projected onto and defined via a system of coordinates.” The second mode is based upon a phenomenological view which develops ideas of space and time as derived directly from experience. All experiences, no matter how banal, filter and justify an understanding of an environment. Posture as it relates to gesture is an emotional component of visual communication which is syntactical and emphatic.

RIGHT: AXONOMETRIC DRAWING OF TYPICAL POSTURES IN KEY POSITIONS OF MY APARTMENT. ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWING IN GENERAL IS A PROJECTION OF INNOCENCE, WAITING FOR THE METAPHYSICAL INPUTS SUCH AS LIGHT, SMELL, TOUCH, AND TIME. I’M NOT PROPOSING ANY REASONABLE METHODOLOGY TO BRIDGE THIS DISTANCE BETWEEN CONCEPT AND PERCEPT, BUT IT IS VALUABLE TO RECOGNIZE THAT THIS CONDITION OF TRANSLATION FROM ORTHOGRAPHY TO LIVED EXPERIENCE LACKS QUANTITATIVE SUBSTANTIATION.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom



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probe representational noun • a penetrating or critical investigation • a tentative exploratory advance or survey verb • to physically explore or examine (something) with the hands or an instrument • to seek to uncover information about someone or something • to operates at the scale, 1:1

HAUS-RUCKER-CO, MIND EXPANDER 2, 1968. PHOTO: ULI BOECKER, COURTESY ARCHIVE ZAMP KELP.

PROBE 1 INSTALLED IN MY LIVING ROOM.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

room(s) spatial noun • space in general • dimensional extent, space; spec. the amount of space that is or may be occupied by a thing • capacity to accommodate a person or thing or allow a particular action; accommodation • opportunity or scope • a specific space or area; a particular portion of space adjective • clear, unoccupied, unobstructed, empty enclosure as well as the space between

verb • to become clear of obstruction • to extend, enlarge • to reach or stretch out • to vacate, leave, abandon • to give way; to depart • to make room

JOINING OF TWO ZOOM ATTENDEES ROOMS BY LIDAR SCAN MODELS.

SECTION OF MY HOME: A STRUCTURAL WALL DIVIDES THE MAIN ROOM FROM MY BEDROOM MAKING ROOM BETWEEN THE ROOMS. OFFICE

DRESSING SLEEPING

BIRD WATCHING READING/ TV

CLASSROOM DININGROOM

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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scan (cognitive) representational noun • a single line or sweep produced by or in a scanning action; also, an entire raster. verb • to pass judgement on, upon; to form an opinion of • to examine, consider, or discuss minutely. to scan out: to discover by examination

• to criticize; to test or estimate the correctness or value of; to judge by a certain rule • to traverse or alight upon (a constituent element) as part of the scanning of the larger whole • the action of scanning; close investigation or scrutiny;    perception, discernment; a scanning look

COGNITIVE SCAN PROCESSING AND LABELING.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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scan (digital) representational

ZOOM H6 AUDIO RECORDER I USED THROUGHOUT THESIS EXXPERIMENTS TO RECORD SPECIFIC SOUNDS OF MY HOME SUCH AS AMBIENT SOUNDS AND ACTIVITY SOUNDS.

LIDAR SCAN OF MY LIVING/OFFICE ROOM RECORDED BY FIXING MY GOOGLE PIXEL PHONE TO MY HAT AND CARRYING ON WITH WORK AT MY DESK FOR 45 MINUTES WITH THE APPLICATION, “3D SCANNER” 2021.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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screen spatial verb • to give shelter or protection to with or as if with a screen • to separate with or as if with a screen • to shield (an opponent) from a play or from view of a play • to pass (something, such as coal, gravel, or ashes) through a mesh to separate the fine part from the coarse • to remove by a screen • to examine usually methodically in order to make a separation into different groups • to select or eliminate by a screening process • to test or examine for the presence of something (such as a disease) • to provide with a screen to keep out pests (such as insects) • to present (something, such as a motion picture) for viewing on a screen • to view the presentation of (something, such as a motion picture) • to hide, conceal, screen, secrete, bury mean to withhold or withdraw from sight.

* hide may or may not suggest intent. to hide in the closet; a house hidden in the woods * conceal usually does imply intent and often specifically implies a refusal to divulge; concealed the weapon * screen implies an interposing of something that prevents discovery; a house screened by trees * secrete suggests a depositing in a place unknown to others; secreted the amulet inside his shirt * bury implies covering up so as to hide completely; buried the treasure * the digital screen is a device of physical loneliness as opposed to the public space of the cinema * the screen is philosophically immaterial

UNIQUE HOLOGRAPHIC PADD (SEE PERSONAL ACCESS DISPLAY DEVICE). A SCREEN MAY HAVE MEDIA MATERIALITY WITHOUT TACTILE MATERIALITY.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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• senses relating to light, vision, and visualization • the art of drawing solid objects on a plane surface so as to give the same impression of relative position, size, or distance, as the actual objects do when viewed from a particular point • a visible scene; a view or prospect, esp. an extensive one • the appearance of viewed objects with regard to relative position, distance from the viewer, etc. • a section is an imaginative representation which may only exist in drawing • perspective is an attempt to depict space as ‘real’, and is impossible to measure without knowing the height of the view and their distance from the picture plane • a section perspective gives the allusion of measurability, reality, and imagination

* The films and photo collages Gordon Matta-Clark made of these pieces dovetail with the experimental, disorienting quality of his architectural cuts, which constitute a denunciation not just of the functions of architecture but of the American dream of progress. A section perspective with multiple vanishing points (as seen in the photograph below) announces its existence as a fabrication, distancing itself from perceptual reality. MattaClark’s almost ignorable poché thickness makes this image comparable to the section perspective of a Zoom grid. Their desaturation and intentional avoidance of the exterior makes this perspectival Frankenstein easily compose together.

section perspective representational

GORDON MATTA-CLARK, SPLITTING, MOMA 1974.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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surveillance noun • watch or guard kept over a person, etc., esp. over a suspected person, a prisoner, or the like; often, spying, supervision; less commonly, supervision for the purpose of direction or control, superintendence survey • the act of viewing, examining, or inspecting in detail, esp. for some specific purpose; usually spec. a formal or official inspection of the particulars of something, e.g. of an estate, of a ship or its stores, of the administration of an office, etc • the, or an, act of looking at something as a whole, or from a commanding position; a general or comprehensive view or look

• a comprehensive mental view, or (usually) literary examination, discussion, or description, of something • the process (or art) of surveying a tract of ground, coastline, or any part of the earth's surface; the determination of its form, extent, and other particulars, so as to be able to delineate or describe it accurately and in detail; also, a plan or description thus obtained; a body of persons or a department engaged in such work

PLAN OF JEREMY BENTHAM’S PANOPTICON PRISON, DRAWN BY WILLEY REVELEY IN 1791.

DIGITAL DRAWING OF A FIELD OF ARTICULATING SURVEILLANCE CAMERAS

FOUCAULT FAMOUSLY DESCRIBES THE PRISONER OF A PANOPTICON AS BEING AT THE RECEIVING END OF ASYMMETRICAL SURVEILLANCE: “HE IS SEEN, BUT HE DOES NOT SEE; HE IS AN OBJECT OF INFORMATION, NEVER A SUBJECT IN COMMUNICATION.”

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

35

noun • the way or path which anything takes; course, road; esp. in to take one’s trace, to make one’s way, take one’s course, proceed • a course of action or conduct; way of proceeding; ‘path’, ‘way’, ‘road’; esp. in phrases to follow, take, tread the trace • the track made by the passage of any person or thing, whether beaten by feet or indicated in any other way • vestiges or marks remaining and indicating the former presence, existence, or action of something • an indication of the presence of a minute amount of some constituent in a compound; a quantity so minute as to be inferred but not actually measured; esp. in chemistry; transferred very little • a change in the brain as a result of some mental experience; the physical after-effect of such • a non-material indication or evidence of the presence or existence of something, or of a former event or condition; a sign, mark • a line or figure drawn; a tracing, drawing, or sketch of an object or of a piece of work; the traced record of a self-recording instrument; in fortification the ground plan of a work

verb • senses relating to making one’s way or treading • to follow, pursue (instructions, example, etc.) • to follow the course, development, or history of • to make out and follow (with the eye or mind) the course or line of; to ascertain (the course or line of something) • to make a tracing of (a listed item); to derive (a tracing) from an index or catalogue • to mark, make marks upon; esp. to mark or ornament with lines, figures, or characters • to make a plan, diagram, or chart of (something existing or to be constructed); to mark out the course of (a road, etc.) on, or by means of, a plan or map; to mark or set out (the lines of a work or road) on the ground itself. also figurative, to devise (a plan of action), map out (a policy) • to draw; to draw an outline or figure of; also, to put down in writing, to pen • to copy (a drawing, plan, etc.) by following the lines of the original drawing on a transparent sheet placed upon it; to make a tracing of

trace representational

WORKING FROM SHEETS OF VELLUIMN, I WAS ABLE TO TEASE OUT SPECIFIC INFORMATION OF ANY PREVIOUS DRAWING, AND USE IT TO ILLUSTRATE SPECIFIC INFORMATION ON A NEW LAYER.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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tricorder Star Trek * In Gene Roddenberry’s Star Trek a tricorder was a multifunctional, hand-held device useful for data sensing, analysis, and recording, with many specialized abilities which made it an asset to crews aboard starships and space stations as well as on away missions. Tricorders were often useful for recording entries in personal or official logs. Three main variants appear in shows. The standard tricorder is a general-purpose device used primarily to scout unfamiliar areas, make detailed examination of living things, and record and review technical data.

The medical tricorder is used by doctors to help diagnose diseases and collect bodily information about a patient; the key difference between this and a standard tricorder is a detachable hand-held high-resolution scanner stored in a compartment of the tricorder when not in use. The engineering tricorder is fine-tuned for starship engineering purposes. There are also many other lesser-used varieties of special-use tricorders. See scan, page 30.

SPOCK USES HIS TRICORDER TO ANALYZE THE MINERALS IN SOIL AND TO LOOK FOR SIGNS OF LIFE. STAR TREK: THE ORIGINAL SERIES.

A TR-560 MEDICAL TRICORDER VI. STAR TREK: NEXT GENRATION.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

transporter room Star Trek * The transporter room was part of a starship or space station which was specially outfitted to transport lifeforms and small, inanimate objects. This room included a transporter chamber with a transporter platform. The number of transporter rooms varied per ship or station, the main criteria being the ability to evacuate all personnel within a specified time. While the transporter room carries the physical body to an environment, the Holodeck creates artificial environments, bringing the space to the body.

LEFT: AN NX-CLASS TRANSPORTER ALCOVE. RIGHT: A CONSTITUTION-CLASS TRANSPORTER ROOM.

CROSSFIELD-CLASS DESIGN, 2256.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen• window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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viewscreen Star Trek * A viewscreen (or main viewing screen, main screen, or main viewer) was an audio/visual device used as early as the 2150s aboard starships, space stations, and at planetary facilities by space-faring organizations including Starfleet, the Borg Collective, the Cardassian Union, the Klingon Empire, and the Romulan Star Empire. Typically used to display images of the area immediately around or in front of a starship, the viewscreen could provide views from all directions, as well as call up data from the library computer. It was also essential in ship-to-ship communication, allowing face-to-face conference if so desired, utilizing subspace and other communications systems.

While it is clearly a plot device, visual contact could only be achieved when in visual range. Intra-ship communications were also possible, though the main viewer was rarely used for this function. When necessary, the image on the viewscreen could be magnified — 24th century starships easily gaining a magnification of 106. The image could also be augmented, with the ship’s computer displaying extrapolated images or graphics displaying sensor data. While our zoom spaces are figuratively curated like the Enterprise’s bridge, the veiwscreen technology provides innummerably more information in communicationg and connecting persons in Star Trek.

VIEWSCREEN FROM STAR TREK: THE ORIGINAL SERIES. THE VIEWSCREEN ABOARD THE USS ENTERPRISE-D WITH A TARGETING RETICULE, 2364. MUROC AND TELEV IN A MULTI-PARTY COMMUNICATION. “VIEWSCREEN.” MEMORY ALPHA, MEMORYALPHA.FANDOM.COM/ WIKI/VIEWSCREEN.

EPISODE 16, NEXT GENERATION. COMMUNICATION WITH VULCANS. NOTE THE NEARLY FULL CHARACTERS ARE DISPLAYED AND ARE CONFRONTATIONALLY FACING OPPOSITE EACH OTHER

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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Glossary

window spatial noun • an opening in the wall or roof of a building, for admitting light or air and allowing people to see out; esp. such an opening fitted with a frame containing a pane or panes of glass (or a similar transparent substance); the glazed frame intended to fit such an opening, sometimes with hinges, a sliding mechanism, etc., so that it may be opened or closed • also: a similar opening in the side of a ship, train, car, or other vehicle • chiefly in the window: the area of a room behind or beside a window • a sensory organ, esp. the eye, regarded as a portal between the mind, soul, heart, etc., and the outside world;

• a gateway through which a particular state, condition, etc., can be entered, accessed, or understood; (also) a means of letting in knowledge or gaining insight • with into, on, onto, to • means of gaining knowledge or understanding of something unknown or obscure; that which affords insight • an opening or gap in an object; esp. one affording a view into or through the object; each of the small openings in the side or top of a salt cellar; a blank space left in a document

GLASS ACTS AS A WINDOW WHEN THE VIEWER IS ON THE DARKER SIDE OF THE GLASS.

THE WINDOW IN FRONT OF MY DESK.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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workplace spatial • the site or location where a person works • the premises of a company, business, etc., such as an office, factory, or shop, at which its employees work, also with the setting or environment particular to such places; the professional milieu • tied to a certain financial enterprise • not a place of leisure

* This definition does not mean to prescribe what a workplace should be, but how workplaces were familiar in the United States prior to remote working.

PRE-COVID WORKPLACE DIAGRAM SEPERATES WORK FROM HOME GEOGRAPHICALLY. OFFICE FURNITURE FACILITATES INDIVIDUAL WORK, COLLABORATIVE WORK, AND PRESENTATIONS. TECHNOLOGY HERE IS DESIGNED AND SELECTED TO ACCOMMODATE PRODUCTIVITY.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


Glossary

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Zap Pad videotelephony zap • liveliness, energy, power, drive; also, a strong emotional effect • computing: a change in a program • zzzzzz like the unlocatable hum of a machine • to kill, esp. with a gun; to deal a sudden blow to • to overwhelm emotionally. • to send, put, or hit in a forceful way • to move quickly and with vigour • to use a fast-forward facility on a video recorder to go quickly through the advertisements in a recorded television program; to switch through other channels for the duration of the advertisements when watching programmes off-air

* The Zap Pad of Zenon, Girl of the 21st Century, a made f or TV Disney movie, is a handheld videotelephony device with additional (but minimal) computing capacity. Characters use their Zap Pads to communicate between Earth and the space station where most of the movie takes place. Characters never Zap each other from space station to space station or Earth to Earth. Unsurprisingly, characters only Zap each other when a situation is critical. Cinematographically, all Zap Pad shots frame the audience over the shoulder of the character veiwing in the frame. When more than one character views a Zap call, they also look over the person's shoulders.

DIR: KENNETH JOHNSON. ZENON: GIRL OF THE 21ST CENTURY. DE PASSE ENTERTAINMENT, BUENA VISTA TELEVISION, DISNEY CHANNEL ORIGINAL MOVIE, 1999.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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I Think We Have Some Connection Difficulty

zoom noun • a camera shot that changes smoothly from a long shot to a close-up, or vice versa, without loss of focus; the act or process of smoothly changing the magnification of a shot in this way; frequently attributive verb • to move or travel very quickly, esp. making a continuous humming, buzzing, or droning sound; to make such a sound while moving quickly. Also occasionally transitive: to cause to move in this way; to propel quickly. Frequently with adverbs and prepositions indicating the direction of travel (e.g. along, away, into, off).

* Artist Pipilotti Rist believes that machines are always connected to our bodies and identity, so we must merge with them, treat them like the echo of another person. “We are surrounded by so many humming sounds, cables and things going zzzzz: electronic devices and air conditioning and cars, and all this stuff which apparently makes too little sense and too much noise. The subsequent essays frequently use the word, zoom, as an imporper noun to refer to a multitude of videotelephony services and platforms.

ZOOM-IN, ZOOM-OUT FAMILAR GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION USED IN DIGITAL MODELING AND VIEWING SOFTWARE.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


43

Glossary

Zoom videotelephony verb • intransitive and transitive. to communicate with (a person or group of people) over the internet, typically by video-chatting, using the Zoom application. * To “hop on zoom” or “may we zoom?” This means the parties need to share more information than the linguistic communication of a phone call, text message, or email. This thesis often uses the word, zoom, as an imporper noun to refer to a multitude of videotelephony services.

* Zoom lubricated the demand for distance as it allowed for far more participants to meet digitally and economically than most previous videotelephony services. * To an extent, the medium, [Zoom], coauthors our presentation. * “It alters the reality of the story its carrying. The medium is the message” (Hurwitz-Goodman) * The effect of the program is huge and incidental. * These remote tools are extensions of ourselves. * There exists a bizarre hybridity between our raw physicality combined with the lightspeed abstraction of the internet. How has this changed our personal existence, worldview, and collective values?

ZOOM ATTENDEES: BILAL AHMED BLAIR RAMSEY ELENA FORAKER IAN KIENBAUM LIAM BURKE QUINN WILCOX SARA BURASHED TRACY GO NOV. 28,2020.

cast • control • domesticity • dwelling • face plan • FaceTime • frame • home space • implied space • living space • meatspace • mirror • Personal Access Display Device • poché posture • probe • room(s) • scan • screen • section perspective • surveillance • trace • tricorder • transporter room • viewscreen • window • workplace • Zap Pad • zoom • Zoom


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cast pp. 08

“cast, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/28530. Accessed 15 May 2021.

mirror pp. 21–23

“mirror, n. and v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/119110. Accessed 15 May 2021.

control pp. 09

“control, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com view/Entry/40562. Accessed 15 May 2021. “control, v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/40563. Accessed 15 May 2021. Gioni, Massimiliano. “PIPILOTTI RIST: DESIRING MACHINES.” CURA., 11 Mar. 2021, curamagazine.com/digital/pipilotti-ristdesiring-machines/.

Personal Access Display Device pp. 24

“Personal Access Display Device.” Memory Alpha, memory-alpha.fandom.com/wiki/Personal_ Access_Display_Device.

poché pp. 25

Altshuler, Joseph. “Pregnant Poché,” Potent Mass | Massive Potential, Plat 4.0, Rice University, Houston, TX, 2014. “posture, n.and v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/148707. Accessed 15 May 2021.

posture pp. 26–27

Hauptmann, Deborah. Cognitive Architecture: from Bio-Politics to Noo-Politics: Architecture & Mind in the Age of Communication & Information, 24-25. “posture, n.and v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/148707. Accessed 15 May 2021.

domesticity pp. 10

“domesticity, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/56673. Accessed 15 May 2021.

dwelling pp. 11

“dwell, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/58764. Accessed 15 May 2021.

face plan pp. 12

“face-plan, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/67425. Accessed 15 May 2021.

probe pp. 28

“probe, n. And v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/151718. Accessed 15 May 2021.

FaceTime pp. 13

“face-time, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/67425. Accessed 15 May 2021. Sondervan, Jeroen. “Confronting the Screen. Pipilotti Rist: Pixel Forest at the New Museum.” NECSUS, 13 July 2017, necsusejms.org/confronting-the-screen-pipilotti-ristpixel-forest-at-the-new-museum/.

room(s) pp. 29

“room, n.1 and int.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/167302. Accessed 15 May 2021.

scan pp. 30–31

“scan, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/171868. Accessed 21 May 2021. “scan, v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/171869. Accessed 21 May 2021.

screen pp. 32

“screen, n.1.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/173439. Accessed 15 May 2021.

section perspective pp. 33

“section, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/174593. Accessed 15 May 2021. “perspective, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/141520. Accessed 15 May 2021.

surveillance pp. 34

“surveillance, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/195083. Accessed 15 May 2021. “survey, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/195089. Accessed 15 May 2021.

frame pp. 14

“frame, n. and adj. 2.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/ view/Entry/74151. Accessed 15 May 2021.

home space pp. 15

“home place, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/87914. Accessed 15 May 2021.

implied space pp. 16

Dark Pines. (2014, July 26). All About Implied Spaces. Implied Spaces. https:// impliedspaces.wordpress.com/all-aboutimplied-spaces/.

living space pp. 17–19

“living space, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/39857097. Accessed 15 May 2021.

meatspace pp. 20

“What Is ‘Meatspace’?” Merriam-Webster, MerriamWebster, www.merriam-webster.com/wordsat-play/what-is-meatspace. Sadowski, Jonathon. “No Masks, No Distancing: People Keep Gathering Outside and It’s Causing COVID Outbreaks.” UpNorthNews, UpNorthNews | Wisconsin News For You, 13 Jan. 2021, upnorthnewswi.com/2020/08/06/ no-masks-no-distancing-people-keepgathering-outside-and-its-causing-covidoutbreaks/.

trace pp. 35 tricorder pp. 36

“trace, n.1.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/204174. Accessed 15 May 2021. “Tricorder.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Apr. 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tricorder.


Glossary transporter room “Transporter Room.” Memory Alpha, memoryalpha.fandom.com/wiki/Transporter_ pp. 37 room#:~:text=The%20transporter%20 room%20was%20part,lifeforms%20 and%20small%2C%20inanimate%20 objects.&text=The%20number%20 of%20transporter%20rooms,personnel%20 within%20a%20specified%20time. viewscreen pp. 38

“Viewscreen.” Memory Alpha, memory-alpha. fandom.com/wiki/Viewscreen. EC Henry. “TOS Is More Advanced Than We Thought.” YouTube, YouTube, 21 Aug. 2018, www.youtube.com/watch?v=r__ XbSEdndw&t=19s.

window pp. 39

“window, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/229262. Accessed 15 May 2021.

workplace pp. 40

“workplace, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/399103. Accessed 17 May 2021.

Zap Pad pp. 41

Johnson, Kenneth, director. Zenon: Girl of the 21st Century. De Passe Entertainment, Buena Vista Television, Disney Channel Original Movie, 1999. “zap, v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/232698. Accessed 15 May 2021.

zoom pp. 42

“zoom, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/233040. Accessed 15 May 2021.

Zoom pp. 43

“zoom, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2021, www.oed.com/view/ Entry/233040. Accessed 15 May 2021. Hurwitz-Goodman, Jacob. “The Drone Is The Message.” Vimeo, 4 Mar. 2021, vimeo. com/519616416.

45



Essay

So, Captain, How Long Shall We Stare at Each Other Across the Neutral Zone?

A Review of Videotelephony Through Sci-Fi Pop Culture

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“What I like about science fiction and dystopian kind of stuff is their apocalyptic nature, and I take the meaning of that word to be important. Apocalypse is not the end times or end of the world, but actually means “revealing,” a great revealing. Apocalypse is that time in which the truth is shown and revealed. And so I think that a lot of dystopian work is interesting because it says if there’s some kind of crisis or disaster, that something true about the world or ourselves comes out in a way that is normally covered over.”

Orosco, Joseph, and Gabriel Granillo . “An OSU Professor on What Star Trek Can Teach Us About the Pandemic and Philosophy.” Portland Monthly, 11 Dec. 2020, www.pdxmonthly.com/arts-and-culture/an-osu-professor-on-what-star-trek-canteach-us-about-the-pandemic-and-philosophy.


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KUBRICK, STANLEY. 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, 1968.

Science fiction attempts to predict the future, yet always does a better job of describing the present. It reveals the limits of human creativity in all the most exciting and laughable ways. If we can look back, and recognize the resilience of humankind, we can have some consideration of how we got here in a way that helps ground us in the conditions of our present. The continuation of this essay traces the trajectory of videotelephony in cinema and asserts a few nuances these films reveal about the technology and its authorship today. These examples parallel potential uses of technology, methods for making remote communication more tactile, and warning signs of potential misuse. Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey is an easy entry to this review as it most plainly predicted the Zoom condition as we know it. Picturephones of Space Station V are architecturally like a pay phone except

there exists a chair and the dialing interface is much like a desk. While I see the window and glass door as unimaginative artifacts of the payphone, it is amusing to see the comparison of this to our home-offices. The picturephone is a room with a single program, but the design of the door as sliding, floor-to-ceiling glass, which Floyd never touches, makes it almost immaterial.This softens the boundary between the public gathering room and the personal communication room. Like the rarely blank zoom room, the window is a reminder of context and distraction. Floyd starts the call by inserting a card (likely a pay phone credit card), and punches in a few digits likely to be a phone number. I like to think of the number pad as being a passcode to prevent zoom bombing. The ensuing conversation with his daughter is especially boring.


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Video Telephony and Control

Metropolis

Jetsons

Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (1927)1, gave the world the first example (I have found) of videotelephony in cinema. The scene is set in the home of Joh Fredersen, the stern master of the vast, futuristic, titular industrial city of 2026. In order to best rule all he surveys — and to complete the image of a 20th-century dystopia — he lives high above the infernal roil of Metropolis, safely ensconced in one of its vertiginous towers and equipped with the latest hulking, wall-mounted, inexplicably paper-spouting video phone technology. Fredersen, writes Joe Malia in his notes on video phones in film, “appears to use four separate dials to arrive at the correct frequency for the call. Two assign the correct call location and two smaller ones provide fine video tuning. He then picks up a phone receiver with one hand and uses the other to tap a rhythm on a panel that is relayed to the other phone and displayed as flashes of light to attract attention.”2 I see the paper trail as today’s email chain artifacts of zoom and the tuning of a machine to the on screen windows to check internet connection, audio input source, etc. This system allows the Master of Metropolis to oversee production and send orders from his cultured utopia down to the bleak underworld populated by, and large, mistreated workers.

Similarly, George Jetson’s boss, Cosmo Spacely, uses his technology to oversee employee productivity without leaving his desk. In this scene Spacely checks in on the office watercooler to find Jetson goofing off with coworkers. He reprimands him through the device, and demands he come to his office (by pneumatic tube) to scold him in-person immediately.3 Clearly, this video screen was not a tool for Spacely to communicate across a complex environment, but exists to maintain his capitalist position of control and production.

1 Lang, Fritz. Metropolis, UFA, 1927. 2 Malia, Joe. “Notes on Videophones in Film-Post #6711.” BERG, Mar. 2012, berglon don.com/blog/2012/03/13/notes-on-videophones-in-film/. 3 Hanna, William. Episode 104, The Jetsons, 1963.


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Back to the Future Part 2 This last example, from Back to the Future Part 2,4 I include not for redundancy, but to emphasize how the film uses the technology a bit differently. The size of the videoscreen in the Jetsons was relatively small because that was the average size of TV’s then. In 1989, the bigger the TV, the closer you were to achieving the American Dream. Marty McFly’s boss takes up nearly a whole wall! It sits mounted above the fireplace, an element previously foundational to the American home as a place for cooking, warmth, and congregation. Furnaces, ovens, and microwaves

4 Zemeckis, Robert. Back to the Future Part II, Amblin Entertainment, Universal Pictures, 1989.

confused American homes with no recommendation for how to repurpose this nostalgic gathering place. Here, it is the backdrop to McFly’s professional existence. Maybe more interesting is this example is the text in the scene, giving it the rhetorical strength of a meme. Text, an abstraction of human communication, paired with syntax of video compound to drive the point home; YOU’RE FIRED. If that wasn’t enough, the fax made the message physical. He made the message into matter. Now, McFly knows he has lost the gig through sight, sound, and touch.


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I Think We Have Some Connection Difficulty

“On-Screen”

Star Trek: The Original Series When the stay at home orders first began, Trekkies sprung at the opportunity to download Zoom backgrounds of the bridge of the USS Enterprise so they could sit as Captain Kirk or Picard, looking at their simple computer as if it were the main viewscreen of the ship. 2021’s monitors are not simple by any means, but they pale in comparison to the capacity of the Star Trek Universe’s viewscreens. While a monitor displays a two dimensional raster image, the viewscreens can look in any direction around the ship, zoom in, and show any and all sensor data and communications signals. To be explicit, the viewscreen (especially those with the blue frame in The Original Series) are not two dimensional screens, but provide a three dimensional, mostly immersive space. Considering posture and gaze, through contemporary media, others see us through channels outside our optical control. That means that for the contemporary subject the gaze of the other remains unidentifiable; it is constituted only through an assumption, through a suspicion. Imagine the connectivity we could have if we knew our blood cameras5 were looking at each other or at the same coordinate?

5 Gioni, Massimiliano. “Pipilotti Rist: Desriring Machines.” CURA., 11 Mar. 2021, curamagazine.com/digital/pipilotti-rist-desiring-machines/.

Beyond our sedentary existence on zoom, when characters meet through main viewer, it happens in times of great conflict. The distant person(s) appear often with their full bodies on screen. While persons on the main viewer very occasionally gesture with their hands, I see this framing as more of a framing of honesty. By capturing almost the entire body there is little to hide. To be extreme, this contrasts the zoom faceplan which is almost like a western movie’s poker player; concealed fisticuffs under the table, ready to strike. The ability to communicate in a crisis with the nuance of expression and full body vulnerability is one of exposure, diplomacy, and assertiveness. Of course, to be kind, the more one crops out of their zoom frame, the less there is to have to control and curate. Regarding the view out of the ship, the viewscreen grants a nearly stereo view without the lens distortion of panoramic photography as we know it today. From the interior, the mainviewer is at the technological disposal of the officers of the bridge as an extreme stereo sensory extension of the body.


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Star Trek: The Next Generation One of my favorite scenes in The Next Generation is from Season 1 Episode18, “Heart of Glory”,6 when the bridge and viewers at home finally get a glimpse of what Geordi La Forge sees through his visor. For background, we learned earlier in the season that La Forge’s visor is actually a VISOR (an acronym for Visual Instrument and Sensory Organ Replacement), a medical device used in the Federation to aid patients who suffered loss of eyesight or who were born blind. Instead of giving standard vision of the visible light spectrum, Le Forge can, “see much of the electro magnetic spectrum, ranging from simple heat and infrared through radio waves, etcetera, etcetera…”7 Using the visual acuity transmitter, the Enterprise’s bridge sees the first-person VISOR view on the main viewer. Data explains, “the information from Geordi’s VISOR is so complex it is difficult to encode. Therefore, the signal breaks down easily.” The following scene show’s a derivative of La Forge’s technicolor world with frequent clarifying questions from Picard on the bridge: Picard: Can you filter out the extraneous information? La Forge: No. I get it all simultaneously. Picard: But it’s just a jumble... How do you make head or tail of that? La Forge: I select what I want and then disregard the rest. Picard: But how is that possible? La Forge: Well, how in a noisy room can you select one specific voice or sound? Picard: Of course, something you learn...

6 Bowman, Richard , director. Season 1 Episode 18, “Heart of Glory”, Star Trek Next Generation,. 1988. 7 Bowman, Richard, director. Beverly Crusher and Geordi La Forge, 2364; Season 1 Episode 1, “Encounter at Farpoint”, Star Trek Next Generation, 1988.

This brief glimpse through his VISOR gives us immediate access to his egocentric view, and also warrants respect for the attention and filtering he is capable of. Considering the unique qualities each crew member possesses, this makes us realize the perceptual differences this crew may hold. Just being different is not exactly important here, but thinking about the collective benefit the crew gains by seeing and understanding the perceptual capacity of La Forge’s world. By seeing the material stress in the damaged hull, La Forge saves the five lives on the ship. As a recurring theme, by employing different characters’ perceptual and cognitive abilities aboard the ship, they are unbelievably strong problem solvers who experience vastly complex emotional situations. For a painfully boring comparison, this scene reminds me of zoom screen sharing and the request remote control feature. Almost always, someone needs clarification as we step into someone else’s frame that they’ve already been watching and are accustomed to. These moments are also brief glimpses into the attention capabilities of others. How can you keep track of so many tabs? Let’s stop this comparison here before I ruin a good piece of cinema any further. Regarding the main viewscreen throughout all of Star Trek, I do not believe that the audience is ever told what the material of the viewscreen is. A scene8 from First Contact prompts this question. The bridge’s crew is staring at a wall which flashes into a holographic projection when Picard says, “on-screen.” Any

8 Frakes, Jonathan, director. Star Trek: First Contact, 1996.


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other time in the saga, hero ships’ main veiwer shows a generic starfield. This is all conjecture here, but this gives a default view of looking forwards, with the command “on-screen” otherwise suggesting a refocusing, or re-orienting, towards a specific goal. This may involve panning or zooming. It makes sense that the bridge should exist in the middle of the ship for safety purposes, but what an abysmal existence — sitting in a permanently stressed room with no windows in the middle of space. Based on the clip, I can just assume the bridge crew never lets their eyes leave that blank wall. Since they never showed this style of main viewer again, we can assume the writers also realized how weird this was. While possibly an error, it is valuable to this discussion. Monitors and screens have a wasteful existence in our lives while they are dormant, not flashing information. We wish they would disappear from view like all the best houses on shows like MTV Cribs. Remember when celebrities pressed some button and a plasma screen rose sexually from the fish tank, fireplace, jacuzzi, dresser, concrete, or whatever else that was clearly not previously a TV. For the majority of ships in Star Trek, the default view is a star field, and the screen is always on. It’s supposed to function as a window would until activated. It may even be a window. We know for sure that the Enterprise of JJ Abrams’s universe actually is just a window; it’s very thick glass, and from the bridge, we can actually see the saucer hull (which is different from all of the previous portrayals of the main viewer).9 Images are superimposed onto the glass. Across this massively wide main viewscreen, images appear poorly cropped in front of a starfield. Each

9 Abrams, J.J., director. Star Trek, Spyglass Entertainment, 2009. 10 Johnson, Kenneth, director. Zenon: Girl of the 21st Century. De Passe Entertainment, Buena Vista Television, Disney Channel Original Movie, 1999.

time characters pop onto the screen, the cropping of their picture mimics the overcropped frames of people today on webcams. Whereas characters before stood in the open for their call to the Enterprise, Abrams’s characters are most likely sitting in front of a computer. This doesn’t say much other than society’s physical posturing with technology and our subsequent dialogic posturing across technology. In contrast, characters calling between Earth and the Space Station in the Disney Channel Original Movie, Zenon: Girl of the 21st Century, show a more cinematographically speculative posture with videotelephones.10 The iPad-like Zap Pad is a personal tablet characters use when their email and phone calls are not communicative enough for the urgent emotional, or rhetorical demand of a message. Director Kenneth Johnson intentionally framed all Zap Pad scenes over the shoulder of the character. The audience is able to join in the directional gaze of the character. Watching with is a novel comparison to watching at (see faceplan in glossary). This dialogic framing keeps the viewer in a situation where we can join in the situation alongside them. Johnson reinforces this framing by having the characters use the Zap Pad with each other the same way. As half of Zap calls involve multiple people, Johnson’s use of this tool almost makes the audience another character, temporarily existing in the scene. Cinematographically, this also means that the audience gets a completed front and rear facing view of the scene.


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Person Access Display Devices (PADD)

(SEE ALSO SCREEN; PAGE 32)

Not too distant from Zap Pads are Star Trek’s Person Access Display Devices (PADD). These devices are hand held communication and data devices, powered by sarium krellide power cells (this probably makes as much sense to some as the term lithium-ion battery). PADDs often display schematics, or subspace transmissions, and are capable of wireless computer networking as well as playing movies, recording logs, and audio playback. Crewmembers are seen a few times “reading” from them in their downtime in the mess hall. I don’t mean to linger on this as its similarities to phone and tablet computers is blinding. What does need mention is that there is not a universal PADD design.11 In fact, PADDs vary based upon the species of their manufacturer or user which means that not only do they look different, but they all function a bit differently. The authorship and intended usership affect its functionality which affects the content and perceptual quality of its functioning. One cannot blindly accept an interface’s output considering how much the medium is the message when it comes to technology.

11 “Personal Access Display Device.” Memory Alpha, memory-alpha.fandom.com/ wiki/Personal_Access_Display_Device. 12 Pellington, Mark, director. “Children of Mars”, Star Trek: Short Treks, 2018. 13 See also screen; page 32.

My favorite PADD is from the recent Star Trek: Short Treks series. We see a holographic display on pocket-sized PADDs in 2385.12 By 2385, a pocket sized version was available to civilians on Earth. It has a pop-up, holographic display and a lip-stick sized physical interface.13 In this episode, a group of rogue synth attack Mars. The Federation News Network’s red alert caused the device’s display to automatically activate, flashing red. The red alert is somewhat like the emergency text messages the U.S. government currently uses. It’s possible these PADDs are maybe just devices distributed for government to civilian emergency communication, but I would like to think these are simply civilian PADDs which the government can access. This PADD as an object still had some physicality to it (I wish it didn’t), but that physicality is simply that of a computer and projector. The interface (the part we care about) is an immaterial, holographic screen. Once again, it’s content but not matter (let’s not talk about photons).


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Tricorder

Star Trek: The Next Generation I see Star Trek’s Tricorder as the mascot of this whole study. This small device senses, analyzes, and records. It is used as an environmental scanner, and a medical scanner when an attachment is added. Characters frequently call it a scanner which is really cutting it short. As it draws data, it analyzes it based upon how it was programmed, and rapidly publishes its findings e.g. there’s life — there’s no life. For the away teams (groups who leave the ship to go explore often dangerous environments), the tricorder is a must-have as it quickly informs them if lifeforms exist nearby. It’s dead wrong far too often though. Why? It was designed by a lifeform who does not know what ALL signs of life are! This is as of yet the most obvious example of witness bias and authorship error in trusted technology. It doesn’t take a genius to realize that Starfleet should let the Tricorder remain as a

medical device for humanoids, but find something new for the away team right away. What separates the Tricorder from the smartphone of today is its interface. One can see all of the buttons of the Tricorder. It makes obvious all of its functions and reveals its innards. Sure, its sinews and algorithms for processing are packaged in its case, but it’s functionally is discernible, material, and tactile, unlike the magical capabilities and processes our devices are doing presently. Clarity in this way brings with it some honesty and trustworthiness which may be the reason Starfleet continues using it. Theoretically that would make sense. In recognizing that Star Trek is just a show, the Tricorder’s errors just make for a great plot device.


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Transporter Room or Holodeck

Star Trek: The Next Generation As our future bends toward the greater capabilities and implementation of virtual reality and augmented reality, this review concludes at Star Trek’s transporter room and holodeck. The transporter room moves lifeforms and objects to and from the ship to anywhere else in near proximity. This speeds up the plot, and is a tool to get crew members in and out of danger in an instant (should the operator be able to lock onto them). Immediate action takes place as the transporter beams crew members down, and it often removes them from the physical consequences of a situation with the blink of an eye. As this thesis seeks to understand the implications of remote connectedness, I find the transporter room fascinating as placing crew into an alien environment and reporting to the bridge is often the most accurate and telling information the bridge may obtain. Digital communication and main viewscreen calls rarely handle diplomatic situations as effectively as the meatspace conversations which are only achievable through the utilization of the transporter room. Spatially, the transportation requires the room. I do not believe one may beam from one location to another without returning to the transporter room first. One space anchors (rather frangibly) this teleportation. Inversely, the holodeck creates a virtual environment for crew members to visit. Starfleet installs holodecks aboard starships, space stations, and at

Starfleet institutions for use in entertainment, training, and investigative purposes. Holo — from the greek holos, means “whole” or “entire” which is an accurate naming of the completely immersive environments it creates. Aside from touching a keypad, people have no contact with the sliding doors as they walk right into an entirely alien world and time. When Lieutenant Tasha Yar dies on an away trip, a scene at the end of the episode “Skin of Evil’’ shows the crew holding a funeral for her on the holodeck.14 It gets weirder. Lieutenant Yar is speaking at her own funeral on the holodeck. The space projects a pastoral scene looking like Bliss (1996), and a prerecorded postmortem address by Yar apperates. This moment brings the entire crew, including Lieutenant Commander Data to an emotional goodbye. Is it pre-recorded though? It would make more sense that this is some sad and early forecast of deepfake technology. Maybe it is only me; I don’t think I want a deep fake of my friend to eulogize herself at her funeral. This disassociation would only mean that the digital soul may exist independent from one’s physical existence, and emotions are quantifiable. While there exist numerous themes from these examples of science fiction, they press the importance of maintaining some facture of real space and real sensations as we continually evolve as a society in our dual, digital existence.

14 Bowman, Richard , director. Season 1 Episode 23, “Skin of Evil”, Star Trek Next Generation,. 1988. 15 Charles O’Rear, Bliss, film, 1996.





Essay

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Representation and Information

Most methods of architectural representation rely on imagination. Think about a section drawing of a concrete foundation, or maybe your computer; there’s no way to physically see that section unless you rather violently sawed it at a specific measurement. Representational methods are tools of abstraction which demand some knowledge and imagination in order to read them and glean specific information. This is a survey of the representational methods I used to try to develop a deeper local relationship to my home as well as to the people I was digitally connected to through remote communication.


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Methods for Grounding Myself in My Home Plan Drawing Orthographic drawing in general is a projection waiting for the metaphysical inputs such as light, smell, touch, and time. It is valuable to recognize this condition of translation from orthography to lived experience lacks perfect quantitative substantiation. This is also a western condition where we want numbers for natural phenomena instead of allowing for a certain je ne sais quoi. Architects most often draft plan drawings to illustrate overall layout in order to communicate the amount of space allotted to each program. They also show wall thicknesses and openings. As plans are most often employed for a construction document set, rarely would an architect include the geometry a future occupant would consume (unless it is for proof of accessibility). To be explicit, plans are most often drawn before a space exists, not after it exists.

FIG. 2

one side of the glass. Again, this image would not be used for construction, but illustrates the heterotopic space of my home as Foucault would describe it. Since a plan typically delineates occupiable from nonoccupiable space, this plays off that reading as being the mentally occupiable space the mirror reflects beyond the physical threshold. It is worth noting here that this drawing is time sensitive (nighttime with the lights on), and egocentric (the view radiates from the position of my eyes at my desk). Information from this image was best suited to help me comprehend my home further, and communicate to other viewers the heterotopic area my home may make.

4’33”— Isometric Drawing Others’ Spaces

FIG. 1

The first image (Fig. 1) shows a plan of my home |in a way to only show the walls as perimeters of rooms, and the shading represents the area I use as I live in the space.This drawing is not intended to mean that the negative spaces are unnecessary. It is merely an exercise to illustrate my spatial, habitual existence as not entirely the same volume as my home space. However, it does not show how I use it, give information regarding its depth, or any environmental context. The second image (Fig. 2) draws (in plan) the visible boundary of my home in the evening as my windows turn into mirrors as light reflects back on only

The nine square grid here relates to the video still below titled 4’33”. This process is a heuristic of the mental world building and spatial closure the brain forms specifically as we create some context while looking at cropped perspectival zoom views. Webcams record analog space as a series of digital frames per second (the number of frames depends upon the specific hardware one’s computer has). Zoom then compresses and publishes the video to the meeting. For this video, I sequentially drew (in analog) my mental image of others’ rooms which evolve as I receive new information about their space. These drawings were scanned digitally, and animated through a timeline, rasterizing them just like the participants’ existence was. Regarding the type of projection employed, isometric drawing plots two axes orthogonally to the picture plane and plots the third axis obliquely. This distortion prioritizes an orientation-in this case the axis of the shoulders in the zoom video.


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ISOMETRICALLY DRAWING OTHERS’ SPACES

Orthographic drawing in this style is a projection of innocence, lacking metaphysical animation. This technique is also highly Cartesian which helps in identifying where things are relative to each other but now how they are relative to each other. Drawing in this way turned the zoom attendees’ existence into a spatial object, alluding to the objectification a frame does to a scene.

Joiner Painter David Hockney commented that, “Photography is all right if you don’t mind looking at the world from the point of view of a paralysed cyclops-for a split second.” His tough opinion, however, changed when in February 1982 a curator visiting his house in the Hollywood Hills forgot some Polaroid film and Hockney started to experiment with it, trying to capture the three dimensions of surrounding reality. Another important element is time, which according to Hockney is best conveyed by movement through space. What started as an exploration of the spaces of his 1 Michalska, Magda. “David Hockney and The Camera: A Composite Polaroid Reality.” DailyArtMagazine.com – Art History Stories, 22 Nov. 2018.

house, transferred to the portraits of his family and friends, developed into monumental works depicting vast American scenery. Yet instead of simply documenting the landscapes, Hockney depicted depth, trying to overcome the limits of eye-vision. He viewed his collages as combinations of painting and photography; by showing multiple perspectives at the same moment, he makes it clear that there is never a single true and privileged perspective that we should blindly accept.1 As we try desperately to control our zoom space to prevent unwanted guests e.g. pets, roommates, and heaven only knows from distracting the meeting, this curation can cause a degree of mistrust. Think of the censored public personas of celebrities and politicians. The public responds to these designed surfaces with suspicion and conspiracy theories. JOINER Thus, to make


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JOINER

JOINER

politicians look trustworthy, one must create a moment of disclosure — a chance to peer through the surface to say, “Oh, this politician or media star is as bad as I always supposed him or her to be.” With this disclosure, trust in the system is restored through a ritual of symbolic sacrifice and self-sacrifice, stabilizing the celebrity system by confirming the suspicion to which it is necessarily already subjected. Joiners, when used as a zoom background, could be considered as a method for controlling and flattening your virtual space, all while maintaining some honesty by allowing others into your visual and temporal existence. As a disclaimer, this only works in theory. Zoom overcompresses and minimizes complex backgrounds.

Casts I cast a series of thresholds of my home with the intent to make volumes of these surfaces and abstract those materials archivally into their bump textures. These objects imply interstitial space, allowing the viewer to insert themselves between them, completing the space with their memories and assumptions of how the space may exist.

Theoretically one could remove these from the home, and they would still connote a fragment of its character. However, I’m the only one who could touch these casts. Considering the obvious fact that these plaster bricks must exist digitally in order for me to show them to you, they would be nearly the same here if I digitally manufactured them. If you can trust that these actually are plaster though, these objects emphasize their physical existence as products of the architectural thresholds of my home. Translating the materiality of the floor to an object for touching and holding asserts the tactility of the physical programmatic transitions I contend with. These objects preface and intentionally contrast the probes (discussed later), which make physical the new immaterial boundaries of my home.

Model Scale is a quality of architectural models. It allows designers the freedom to explore the spatial qualities of a design without the consequence of bringing that design to its full existence. Since the site of my thesis was my living room, it was first necessary to model


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Representation and Information

CAST: OFFICE TO TV

CAST: KITCHEN TO LIVINGROOM

CAST: KITCHEN TO LIVING ROOM

CAST: BATHROOM TO KITCHEN

the probe at the scale of my desk. Hand modeling is a knowledge-building exercise as the tactility forces one to understand the tectonic qualities of the design. Visually, it is a proof of proportion. Physically, it is proof that the design follows the basic laws of physics. This model of 3D-printed nodes and coffee stirrers helped me validate that I was buying all the correct connectors and metal rods for my probe.

Probe 1

MODEL

Using hardware from Maker Pipe, ¾” electricalmetallic-tube conduit, and tule, this first probe made physical the new mental threshold of programmatic hybridity. This contrasts the plaster castings of physical thresholds. This catenary screen existed as a hybrid element by acting as a wall, ceiling, window, and door between the leisure space of my couch and my productive desk space. Most architectural design tools work to either propose or to represent analysis,


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PROBE 1: NEW THRESHOLDS

but a 1:1 scale probe intends to study and prove a concept. Acting on this soft wall/ceiling/screen, I moved to work or rest in one space or the other. To my surprise, its existence in the room was quite grounding. It helped me stay in one space without the guilt or desire to go into the other. As I lived with the probe, it became something I kept editing to be more functional. While this drape may describe to you how my home changed, it is still an object tied to my home and does not connect us together.

Methods for Connecting to Each Other 4’33”— Recording Early in the COVID-19 lockdown, society witnessed a bizarrely vacant public world. As we learned that disease filled the volume between us, the distance between us grew dramatically empty. Hyperstimulation, RECORDING stress, and fear filled our lonely lives as we dwelled in our homes, waiting for the next meeting, delivery, or horrific news. The radical emptiness reminded me of John Cage’s 4’33”. Its forced silence made way for the uncontrollable existing sounds of an environment. 4’33” is novel because people around the world still perform it, and the number of performers varies wildly. Given the novelty of the current situation, I zoomed

eight of my peers for 4 minutes and 33 seconds of silence; cameras on, unmuted. Ambient bits of audio and video brought themselves to our meeting. We have an almost drunken lack of control over this platform which only records and publishes compressed video and audio data. As each bit of data arrives, they compound, giving the viewer more clues to the character of their distant environment.

Lidar Scan Beyond the spatial sensing of geolocation, smartphones are now capable of using LiDAR technology to record the geometry and imagery of space. Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote sensing method that uses light in the form of a pulsed laser to measure distance between the emitter and sensor. With a free LiDAR scanning app running as I attached my phone to my hat, I spent periods of time in my home doing different tasks such as working at my desk or watching TV from my couch. In what felt like hours, but was actually seconds, my Google Pixel 6 spat out a sexy spinning digital model of what looked like

LIDAR SCAN


Representation and Information

LIDAR SCAN: JOINING INTERIORS

either a plane crash or my living room. I explicitly state here to take no authorship of the models and images this software created. A great deal of authorship goes to the programmers who wrote the code for how my phone records, synthesizes, and displays its data. It interests me how the digitization of my room space flattens objects into triangulated skins. My frangible existence in a digital public space is like that of a poached egg; lacking a structural boundary. As only a skin without thickness, this representation has no consideration of poché in the traditional sense. As a poché was previously measurable, this new poche may represent a the thickness between us as we meet virtually. For the sake of representational play, we could conceive of our interiors connecting now at the fourth wall (Fig. 2). It is not necessarily the drawing of these half shells which is important, but a contemplation of what is maintained and lost through this joining.

probe’s previous metal scaffold and reflective window privacy film, I had a new, analog zoom background which appeared as an abstraction of the weather outside. IRL, it looked horrible. For the sake

PROBE 2: EXTERIOR TO INTERIOR

Probe 2 What is the material of this new poché? Let’s try atmosphere. These are the conceptual renderings for a probe which employs the aesthetics of the weather outside as a zoom backdrop. When actualized using the

PROBE 2: EXTERIOR TO INTERIOR

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of argument, we will only talk about it’s conceptual existence. This probe sought first a connection between the home office interior and the exterior environment, and second to serve as a tool for remote connectedness. Climatic context may reveal time of day, the physical distance between us, and maybe the physiological disposition the weather is placing someone in.

Probe 3 The final probe in this series questions a spatial connectedness by making my workspace quickly responsive to whomever I’m meeting with. Artist and architect Vito Acconci’s Instant House heuristically inspired me as it transformed the geopolitical plane into a rapidly contrasting container. How could I experience my spatial existence in duality with someone else’s?

PROBE 3: NESTED INTERIORS

PROBE 3: NESTED INTERIORS

PROBE 3: NESTED INTERIORS

I turned my room into a series of planes using fabric panels which could raise and drop to mimic the wall openings of others. After reading someone else’s space behind them, I articulated my fabric panels to mirror theirs. Doors, windows, and walls all contribute to the defensible nature of a space, as well as directions of attention and distraction. Seeing an apartment’s front door behind someone implies the circulation of the room. Maybe there’s a bird nesting in the window to the right. Although minor, these nuances of wall openings compile to affect dialogic space. Fabric’s flexibility makes this proposal possible, but of course it still lacks the important traits of gravity, mass, thickness, and depth. Using more tools like projectors, this probe may work more effectively in dancing between two worlds, but I think it would be just as important to see the projection as well as the source projector in this situation.Virtual reality and augmented reality are getting ever closer to fooling the mind into thinking the body is in another place over there, but that was never what this project was about. I believe there is a loss of sanity when the mind loses its footing from the body’s physical, geographic existence. This period of hyper remoteness made me yearn for emotional and intellectual closeness. As human existence abstracts ever strangely through our digital dystopia, architects must come to engage with the physicality, hapticity, and present paranoia of digital public space by retooling architectural methods for design and represention. The radical loss of sanity and human life this last year showed me the necessity for architecture to ground people in the environment they occupy as well.


Representation and Information

PROBE 3

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Graphic Design by Elena Foraker Typeset in Alto Mono by Thomas Thiemich, Arial by Monotype, Arial Narrow by Monotype, and Eurostile by Aldo Novarese


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