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THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Charles Duval, Alex Decounter, Andrea Dickman Anatomy 5:45 Monday

Why is digestion important?

Digestion is the process by which food and drinks are broken down to build and nourish cells to provide energy.




Nutrition Grain: Whole grains are an important source of energy. You should eat from whole-wheat flour, rather than white flour. They are not as processed, and therefore still contain many of their vital nutrients and fiber. It is recommended that you eat 6-11 servings from this group each day.

Fruits and Vegetables: Fruits and Vegetables are loaded with many different nutrients, including fiber, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, iron, potassium, and folic acid. Eat a wide variety of each to get the greatest health benefits. Try to get 3-5 vegetable servings and 2-4 fruit servings per day.

Proteins: Proteins help your body to build and retain muscle, as well as provide the energy you need each day. Protein-rich foods such as beans, lean meats, poultry, fish, and eggs also provide healthy doses of zinc and iron. Some of the foods in this group can be high in cholesterol, so keep that in mind when making food choices. 2-3 servings of protein are recommended each day. .

Dairy: Dairy products provide bone-building calcium. While this is a very important food group to include in a balanced diet, it is important to remember that some dairy foods are high in fat, such as ice cream and cheese. Remember portion control, and try to get 2-3 servings of dairy daily. Fats and sweets: The foods in this group, which include butter, candy and desserts, oils, and sugars, provide very little nutritional benefit when consumed. Use these foods in moderation.


General GI Disorders Pancreatoiliary Diseases Esophagus Disease Disorders of the Bowel Disease of the Stomach Liver Disease

Gallstones: •

The gallbladder is a small sac found just under the liver. It stores bile made by

the liver. This bile helps you digest fats. •

Gallstones are made from cholesterol and other things found in the bile.

They can be smaller than a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. •

Gallstones form when cholesterol and other things found in bile make stones.

They can also form if the gallbladder does not empty as it should. People who are overweight or who are trying to lose weight quickly are more likely to get gallstones.

Pancreas disease — the pancreas produces and releases insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream to keep blood sugar levels within a normal range. The pancreas also produces enzymes to aid in the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates in the intestine. Disease of the pancreas include: Pancreatitis (acute and chronic inflammation of the pancreas) Solid tumors (malignant and non-malignant) Cystic tumors (may be benign, pre-malignant or malignant) Pseudocysts (a fluid collection of pancreatic enzymes) Strictures (blockages)

Appendicitis: •

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a 3 1/2-inch-long tube of

tissue that extends from the large intestine. •

Appendicitis occurs when the appendix becomes blocked, often by stool, a

foreign body, or cancer. Blockage may also occur from infection, since the appendix swells in response to any infection in the body. •

Classic symptoms of appendicitis include sharp pain to the lower right

abdomen, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, fever, and Inability to pass gas. •

Surgery is used to cure appendicitis by removing the appendix.

Jaundice: •

Jaundice is a yellow color of the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes. The yellow coloring comes

from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. •

Jaundice is often a sign of a problem with the liver, gallbladder, or pancreas.

Jaundice can occur if too many red blood cells are dying or breaking down and going to the

liver, the liver is overloaded or damaged, or the bilirubin from the liver is unable to move through the digestive tract properly. •

Common causes of Jaundice in older children and adults include viral infection of the liver,

parasite infection of the liver, gallstone, or cancer of the pancreas. •

Treatment depends on the cause of jaundice.

Newborn jaundice is when a baby has high levels of bilirubin in the blood.

Diabetes: •

Diabetes is usually a lifelong disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be

caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. •

Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or

young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown. •

Type 2 diabetes makes up most diabetes cases. It most often occurs in adulthood.

However, because of high obesity rates, teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. •

Treating both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes involves medicines, diet, and exercise to

control blood sugar levels and prevent symptoms and problems. •

Keeping an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.

Unfortunately here is no way yet to prevent type 1 diabetes.

Abscesses — single or multiple collections of pus within the liver as a result of infection by bacteria or other agents End-stage liver disease — the last phase of progressive liver disease (terminal disease)



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