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This project required me to be in constant conversation with a lot of people from within DAIICT as well as outside. I would like to thank

First and foremost, I would like to thank my mentor, Professor G.N Devy, for his guidance. It was his constant encouragement and trust in my efforts which pushed me to work harder when I almost caved in to self doubt. Indeed, having a mentor who believes in your work is a huge moral boost and without him, I would not have seen the end of this project.

all those students – boys across different batches of B.Tech and Post-Graduate courses – who took out time for me and patiently explained their point of views and feedbacks. I would also like to thank Adira Thekkuvittil (Ahmedabad) and Payal Arya (Mumbai) for giving me insights into their projects which dealt with the perception of women in public spaces and sexual harassment respectively.

I am also grateful to Professor Vishvajit Pandya and Professor Madhumita Mazumdar for their valuable critiquing which pushed me to question and justify every aspect of this project. Without their guidance, the very basis of this project would have been on shaky ground.

My heartfelt thanks to Ms. Nandita Gandhi, Co-Director of Akshara Foundation (Mumbai), for making time for me in her busy schedule and helping me to clarify objectives and questions for the primary research. The Akshara handbook, Unwanted Attention, and their short film on sexual harassment has also been tremendously helpful

Huge thanks to my classmates, the girls – for their support and late

strengthening the background for my research.

night discussions, and the boys – for their point of views – especially Manu Kamath and Avik Ganguli, who were my very first interviewees. Theirs were the most extensive and polar point of

Last but not the least, I extend my thanks to all the respondents of

views regarding sexual harassment which encompassed a lot of

the online qualitative survey. I believe I am as anonymous to most

points. Those points formed the basis of further interviews for the

of them as they are to me – but thanks to them anyway, for their

preliminary field research.

valuable point of views which helped me to create the resulting products of this research project.




1. ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1 2. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 2.1- Why not call it ‘eve-teasing’ 2.2- What is Sexual Harassment about? 2.3- Problem Statement 2.4- Research Objective (Initial) 2.5- Research Objective (Final) 3. Background………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6 3.1- Understanding the Patriarchal Indian Society 3.2- Some campaigns against Sexual Harassment 3.3- Changing Mindset of the Indian Male 4. Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………16 4.1- Sample group for study 4.2- Resources and Methods of Data Collection 4.3- Design Strategy 4.5- Design Problem

4.6- Medium of Communication 5. Product………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..38 5.1- How to make the PSA effective? 5.2- The Success of Online Campaigns 5.3- The Posters 5.4- The Video 5.5- The Website 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….46 7. Citations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….47 8. References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..49

that power and keep it under control by inculcating in women


a certain sense of self doubt and dependency. “At the level of values, human progress can be seen as an expanding awareness of the subtler and more institutionalized forms of inequity and the suffering born of it.” (Nandy, A. (1988). Woman versus Womanliness in India . In R. Ghadially, Women in Indian

The superiority complex (or it could really be the fear of feminine power) that men harbor in our patriarchal society manifests itself various forms, the most prominent being

Society (p. 69).).

violence against women. It is often used as a tool for rethe

establishing the equation of domination-subjugation between

‘institutionalized forms of inequity’ – why is it desired and

the two sexes. Almost every woman, at some point in her life,

sustained. Most Indians are brought up with the mindset that

has been subjected to sexual harassment, if not outright

women are inferior to men. If not explicitly said, it is definitely

violence, by men (known or unknown). Most women learn to

indicated through various social, cultural and religious

live with it. There are some who learn to fight the advances of

practices which have been inbred in the Indian psyche for

leering men while some quietly endure for fear of worse

thousands of years. Men are ambivalent in their view towards

situations. However, there are some women who are driven

womanhood – it swings from awe to contempt and from

to take desperate measures like withdrawal from education

respect to scorn. For them, women play powerful roles, the

and even, suicide to escape from it.








most important being that of a nurturing mother and the dutiful wife. It is understood that a woman in control of her

One must question, at a time when we are quickly picking up

sexuality is a dangerous one. She can choose to nurture and

on western lifestyles and ideas of modernity, why is sexual

flourish or to destroy. Thus, the men saw the need to curb

harassment still treated with such callousness? Why is it trivialized by using a term like ‘eve-teasing’? Moreover, this


act, which already demeans and violates a woman’s sense of

Through this project, one can come across the point of view of

personal space, is often believed to be solved by

men regarding why sexual harassment exists. They are

strengthening control over the victim’s whereabouts, dressing

encouraged to question and reflect upon themselves about

and lifestyles.

various situations and patriarchal norms which are used as excuses to harass women.

After looking at various discourses which try to come to a conclusion regarding this issue, one can comment that in most

Finally, through public service advertising on internet, the

cases, the focus is invariably turned to the victim. Apart from

project tries to highlight the voice of those men who have a

that, a lot of finger-pointing at patriarchy, sudden flourish in

liberal idea about women’s role in the society and how they

women’s freedom and extent of criminal intent of the act is

should be treated.

involved. Each of the arguments might (or might not) resolve the problem one case at a time but the existence of sexual

This new model of masculinity is not widespread but is

harassment as a national phenomenon is bypassed. The

distinctive in its logic and indications that equality for women

understanding that each isolated case of sexual harassment

does not necessarily mean lesser rights for men; that sexual

has deeper implications regarding the Indian male psyche and

harassment, in particular, is a misuse of biological and social

our society as a whole, needs to be propagated.

privileges accorded to men in the Indian Society.



Why not call it ‘eve-teasing’? A lot of people have various excuses to defend what they call

An Oxford English Dictionary definition for “teasing” is “to

as ‘eve-teasing’ – some say that it is ‘harmless flirting’ while

tempt someone sexually with no intention of satisfying the

others say it is ‘just for fun’; some indicate that it is a reminder

desire aroused.” Both parts of the term put the blame on the

for women to remain in the boundaries that the society has

woman; she is the temptress who isn’t providing something

created for them; still others say that it is plain appreciation of

she has promised…Using a euphemism leads us to believe

a woman dressing up and obviously wanting to be looked at.


All in all, it is a widely tolerated (if not encouraged) practice in

hypothetical, instead of something visceral, dirty and


immediate.” (Mohanty)

‘Eve-teasing’ is a euphemism used instead of ‘sexual

However, most of the people might not be consciously using

harassment’. According to Ranjani Iyer Mohanty, a writer and

this euphemism. When asked about it, most male and female

academic editor, based in Delhi, “We use euphemisms for

subjects described verbal harassment as ‘eve teasing’ while

various reasons: to make something more socially acceptable;

physical harassment is counted as ‘sexual harassment’.






to sound more upper class; to hide the severity or truth of an event from others and even from ourselves. In the Indian term “eve-teasing,” the word “eve” alludes to the biblical story of Eve tempting Adam to stray from the path of righteousness.

What is sexual harassment about? The Supreme Court describes sexual harassment as follows – ‘Sexual harassment includes sexually determined behavior


such as physical contact, a demand or request for sexual

In the Indian society, young girls often refrain from

favors, sexually colored remarks, showing pornography, any

mentioning such incidents to their families for fear that they

other unwelcome physical, verbal or non verbal conduct of

will not be allowed to stay out after dark or because they

sexual nature.

themselves are unsure of what to say. They often are themselves held responsible for what befalls them – for being

This means that: 

Sexual harassment is different from sexual desire,

in the wrong place at the wrong time and for wearing wrong clothing.

mutual romance or love 

It is unwelcome

Despite being a nationwide, everyday phenomenon, the

It can come in many forms like physical, psychological,

existence of this issue has mostly been trivialized or

verbal and non-verbal

overlooked or simply put up with. Mere catcalls, singing songs

It is a criminal offence

and commenting are often shrugged off while the more

(Akshara, 2009)

serious offenses like stalking and physical advances are treated with wariness. But one must understand that often

Most people are not aware of the above definition and hence

the lesser forms of sexual harassment can escalate to the

hold sexual harassment as a different offence from ‘eve

more serious forms. In many instances, apart from leaving the

teasing’. Sometimes, when a woman becomes a victim of ‘eve

victim with a bitter taste in the mouth, such harassment can

teasing’, she does not know whether creating hue and cry

become traumatizing, humiliating and a violation of a

over verbal harassment is worth it or they themselves will be

woman’s freedom in public spaces.

ridiculed for being ‘hyper sensitive’.


Sexual harassment is not about sex. It is about power play for

The commonly voiced solution to tackle the issue is that

the perpetrators. Such men harass because they think they

women should be careful not to provoke harassment. The

can get away with it. They are often cowardly and retreat at

root of the problem is believed to lie with the victim as

being firmly treated by a prospective victim. A quiet victim

opposed to the perpetrator.

only increases their euphoria at being able to show off their

bystander is not taken into account although their

‘manliness’. In such a scenario, what do the men, who might

involvement (or the lack there of) at the scene of offense

not necessarily be indulging in sexual harassment but are a

makes a difference too.

Moreover, the role of the

bystander nonetheless, have to say? Research Objective (Initial): To introduce a new area of Problem Statement

discourse – the self reflexive discourse among men – about this problem’s existence which could help us to understand

Sexual harassment is rampant across India and is the bane of every woman’s existence. For a long time, debates have raged

the wider implications of this social problem and tackle it at the root level.

over how to tackle this issue and like every problem, there is a perpetrator, a victim and a bystander. All of them have come

Refined Research Objective (Final): To generate a reflexive

up with various discourses on this issue – that of criminality, of

discourse among men about the roots of sexual harassment

feminists and of the conservative patriarchal society – which

and their roles as, both, the perpetrator and the bystander.

clash with each other, leaving no specific stand whereupon

This is to be generated by designing a communication solution

action could be taken.

in the form of Public Service Advertisement.


BACKGROUND Understanding the patriarchal Indian Society

transition which involves changes in physiological and psychological dimensions. With growth of cognitive skill,

Role of Traditional Indian Parenting in Generating Sex Stereotypes: Patriarchy literally means rule of the father in a maledominated family. It is a social and ideological construct which considers men (who are the patriarchs) as superior to women. (Ray). Women have been targets of subjugation for so long

interaction with the environment and socialization experience, the sex role behavior of adolescent children gets more strengthened.

Differential socialization of the two sexes

within the family, school and in wider socio-cultural set up is perhaps the single most important contributor to sex stereotyping in children. (Sukanya Das, 1988)

that one cannot change the scenario overnight. The roles of sexes have long been stereotyped and are reflected through

The structure of a traditional Indian family is heavily

the powers and privileges accorded to men. Family,

influenced by the religious scriptures. Most of the teachings in

community, education, media, religion and culture – all have

these scriptures portrayed women as dual beings who hold

played a crucial role in the social construction of gender and in

tremendous power which can be nurturing or devastating,

the process of women’s subordination. The ‘sex’ of a person is

benevolent or malevolent.1 Thus, it was necessary that they

either male or female but the sex stereotype is what turns the perception of ‘sex’ into ‘gender’. Socialization for the development of appropriate sex traits and roles start from childhood and pass through the phases of adolescence and adulthood. Adolescence is a period of


For instance, according to Hindu cosmology, there are two images of the woman linked by the basic conceptions of the nature of femaleness: that the female is both shakti (power/energy) and prakriti (nature). As power and nature and in control of her own sexuality, the female is potentially destructive and malevolent. With the control of her sexuality transferred to men, the female is consistently fertile and benevolent. Understanding the dual character of the Hindu female’s essential nature, shakti and prakriti, provides a backdrop for understanding the rules and role models for women in Hindu South Asia. (Wadley, 1988)


be controlled by men. Although we are well into the modern

differences between the two sexes (R.Helmreich, 1978). Thus

age, the seed of stereotypical roles as was embedded in the

parents with a given sex role orientation are expected to

traditional family structures still function. Young boys are

display these personality characteristics. They become role

encouraged to be aggressive, assertive, independent and

models for the children who emulate similar personality



characteristics from childhood through observation learning,

encouraged to be more domesticated and expected to be

imitation and mechanisms of identification. (R.Walters, 1963).





agreeable to whatever situation that is thrust upon them. Such an atmosphere during the growth years has fueled the For instance, if a young boy falls, he is unwittingly told that he

moral conservatism among Indian men; adding to it, are their

must not cry because he is a boy and he must be strong

patriarchal views about gender roles in a society where

whereas if a girl child in the same family falls, it is often seen

economic modernization is outstripping social attitudes.

that she is pampered by her parents. A boy is hardly

Although the society has progressed towards education of girl

encouraged to help in the kitchen or to put clothes on the line.

children and their progress as independent individuals in life,

But all these chores fall on a girl’s part. During adolescence,

the mindset that a woman should be domestic in nature still

the impact of school, peers and mass media also affect this

largely exists. Even the education, for some families, has

understanding of sex roles in the social structure. As such,

become a ticket to getting a good groom for their daughter

there is a rift between the two sexes from an early age, which

who is expected to give up her profession once she has settled

in turn, leads to most boys growing up expecting women to be

into marital life. Views regarding what kind of clothes a

the same as what they have been conditioned to live with.

woman should wear, where she can go, who she can marry and even to an extent, what she can eat, still loom large.

To sum it up, traditional sex role attitude is found to be significantly







Attitude towards Westernization and Liberalization:

the women, which in turn prompts men to harass them. The words of Mohan Bhagwat, the leader of RSS (a paramilitary,

The concept of equality, as a correlate of the concept of individual freedom, is still alien to the Indian society. It was first introduced into the Indian culture through western

Hindu nationalist group), condense what perhaps a million of pro-patriarchy Indians believe regarding the boom of Western influences in the country: “Rapes happen in India, not Bharat.”

education and through the exposure of western educated Indians to liberalism. In recent times, the status of women has

For instance, if a woman is open to interaction with men and

changed socially, politically and economically. By attending

is forward and assertive in her behavior, the more

colleges and universities, entering the occupational world and

‘conservative’ people (both men and women) outside this

political arena, women are contributing to the development of

environment tend to perceive such a woman as morally

the Indian society (Rao, 1988). It is also seen that children

corrupt and a threat to their ‘culture’.

whose parents are not so ‘traditional’, grow up to be more liberal in their view towards woman’s rights and roles in the society.

A similar view is harbored when it comes to such women’s clothing. If men across the country – across religions, castes, and economic, educational background – are questioned, one

Westernization has brought about a change in lifestyles of the

would come to know that enough of them would want to keep

people – liberal clothing styles, newer forms of entertainment

women in shackles and tie them again if they have escaped.

with friends, more open approaches to courtship, and so on.

This impulse is expressed in many ways: as brute misogyny or

The diversity in social structure in our country is not able to

stifling protectionism. But running common through it all is a

cope with these changes. The conservative faction of the

fear and abhorrence of women who display autonomy over

Indian society still stands by men while it censures women.

their own bodies and sexuality. It is almost as if women’s

Most believe that Westernization is corrupting the morals of


clothes are the ‘greatest internal security threat in this

and overcoats (as the Puducherry government has recently

country’. (Chaudhary, 2013)

tried to do with schoolgirls) also means that you are unable to see women as anything but sexualized bodies, requiring either

“Dressing skimpily is like showing a red rag to a bull. You can’t

to be revealed or covered up. (Krishnan, 2013)

complain what happens to you thereafter” - RAMEEZ SUDEN, 30 (School Teacher, Uri, J&K)

Portrayal of Women in Mass Media and its Effects:

“The clothes today’s girls wear provoke even the most upright

The double standards, which Indians portray as a society, are

men. They have moved away from Hindu culture” - VIJAY

manifested in many forms through media like cinema and

PRASAD SHETTY, 57 (President, Udupi Bar Association,


Karnataka) The power of mass media to create, select and convey (Chaudhary, 2013)

particular kinds of images about women cannot be underestimated. The medium that is most watched and

Time and again, the solution to curb sexual harassment has been meted out on the women themselves. When women are blamed for the harassment they face because of their behavior or clothing, one does not consider the fact that men do not ‘provoke’ harassment when they relieve themselves in public or move about in their banyaans in the localities. The point that needs to be put across is that it is not the woman’s sexuality or clothing which is at fault but the perpetrator’s

provides a window to the sexist attitudes of the patriarchal society is Hindi Cinema. The sheer quantity of stereotyping and aggression against women drowned in the morass of the traditional imagery of our society. (Ghadially, 1988). The personality of the virtuous women in Hindi films (pre 1990s) was resplendent with characteristics such as chastity, patience and selflessness. Almost in every film there was an instance of a woman being subjected to sexual assault and violence which

view. Moreover, the solution of putting women in purdahs


the hero saves her from. There were also instances where

Helen), in contrast to the lead actress of the film who would

societal sanctions, in the forms of public humiliation,

be demure and traditional with an overwhelming sense of

ostracism, slander, etc. seem to wait for the women who dare


to transgress from the traditional role prescriptions of the chaste wife and devoted mother. (Lakshmi, Ek Hi Bhool, etc.) (Hegde, 1988). Moreover, the vamps and bar dancers were mostly shown as Western - clothes clad women who were brash and sexually forward in nature (Bindu, Aruna Irani,

In recent times, the Indian films have adapted the portrayal of the characters to match the West-influenced modern lifestyles of the people in cities and towns. Although the traditional sense of morality says a virtuous girl is one who is not in any kind of physical relationship before marriage, everybody has a curiosity and a perverse interest in watching and hearing

Yesteryear actresses Aruna

about the liberal atmosphere that the West projects about

Irani and Bindu were

such issues. However, when Indians in urban cities start to

frequently portrayed in

adapt to such approaches towards sex, i.e., when the on-

negative roles as opposed

screen content starts manifesting itself into real life, the

to the demure, traditional

conservative society finds it difficult to cope with.

positive roles of the lead actress. Image source: d-baddies-100-years-of-indiancinema/articleshow/19707425.cmshttp://ibnl

Take for example the projection of Deepika Padukone in the movie Cocktail. She is an independent woman with a successful career and enjoys drinking and a physical relationship with her boyfriend. However, in the end her boyfriend falls for her virginal roommate who cooks and prays


– an epitome of the good Indian woman. In an attempt to woo

as a factor to try and ban depictions of smoking in movies

him back, Deepika herself has to change her lifestyle.

countless times. Scientific studies have been done in the west which established a link between the media's obsession with

Why this hypocrisy? In the same medium, we talk about how modern we are and on the other hand, we try to project this

size-zero women and incidences of anorexia. (Deshpande, 2012)

modernity as something we are not going to live with, in the end.

Thus, one can safely say mass media works both ways – it reflects what its viewers want to see and promotes what it

Beside the hypocrisy, there lies the fact the our film industry

thinks its viewers will be impressed with and pick up.

breeds the common idea that if one pursues a woman relentlessly, she will eventually give in – even when she says




‘no’, it means ‘yes’ because she plays hard to get. This often



translates into real life which can be cited as one of the


reasons for sexual harassment. Several people in the film

objectify women as


industry have vociferously denied this giving statements such as "Life doesn't imitate art, art imitates life". However, any observant person can vouch for the many haircutting salons across the country, including in the smallest of villages, prominently showcase the hairstyles of movie stars as an inspiration for their customers to copy. The influence of smoking on screen on young impressionable minds been cited

One of the many Axe ads which show women running after a single man because of how he smells. Image source:


http://www.cuttingthechai com /2007/09/241/janmashtamithe-axe-effect/


sex objects with no opinion or conscious thought when they

Objectifying any human would mean disregarding the fact

come across a man who smells good. (Axe, Set Wet, Wild

they are capable of conscious thought or action and have

Stone and so on). Do women truly behave like that? Most men

emotions and needs. When women are objectified, it

wish they did.

automatically re-establishes their inferiority and lack of control over their own lives (as is preferred in a patriarchal

Another example could be that of a recent ad for a mobile phone brand, Micromax's Superfone Ninja, which has an inbuilt artificial intelligence speech handset assistant called Aisha. The ad shows Aisha as a real woman who conforms to stereotype, what the man in the ad wants her to be. Man: "I can sleep with you, but I can't marry you." Aisha: "It's okay I will find you a girl in the matrimonial." Man: "I am going out with Vanessa." Aisha: "Shall I book you movie tickets?" Man: "Aren't you jealous?" Aisha: "I am not programmed for that."

society) while elevating men to the level of a dominating, conscious factor in the society. By dehumanizing a person, one loses the capability to sympathize with them and might commit to actions whose consequences are not of any concern. Same is the case when a man sees a woman as an object only for the purpose of his various needs. Some campaigns against Sexual Harassment A number of efforts across various media have been mobilized over the years. Some of the famous ones are: 

GotStaredAt (online campaign)


Man: "Wish every girl was like Aisha." (Sharma, 2013)




Project/Activism) 

Besharmi Morcha (street campaign)

Manipuri Mother’s Protest (street campaign)

“Safe Delhi” Jagori (ad campaign)


“When No One Is Looking” – Installation at Kala Ghoda

In other cities, where the walk had taken place, the main focus

Festival (2013)

was that women’s clothes have no effect whatsoever on a

GotStaredAt is a successful blog which has an immense

man’s intention to harass them. They had come out in scores

number of followers both in India and abroad. It shares

wearing revealing clothing as an open dare to such men.

thoughts and experiences of men and women against sexual

However, in a conservative country like India, such an

harassment. It is now expanding as an organization which has

approach of putting across the idea did not work. The

been drawing more and more followers.

volunteers themselves had admitted that “it would be a peaceful gathering to spread awareness. No provocative

Besharmi Morcha, the Indian equivalent of the famous

clothes would be worn to hurt the sentiments” – the

Slutwalk which was conducted in cities across the globe could

statement itself being a contradiction to the entire idea of the

not really reach the Indian masses. Although it gathered a lot

walk. In a way, it turned out to be one of young India’s

of followers through Facebook, the response to the maiden

attempts to ape the West without considering the context in

show in Bhopal came nowhere close to the hype and

which it will function.

expectations created over social networking sites. About 5,000 people had signed up on Facebook expressing their support;

The same idea had been beautifully captured by Blank Noise, a

at least 500 were expected to join the march; eventually, just

project initially started by a Student of Srishti School of

about 50 showed up with more men than women. There were

Design, Bangalore. She had rounded up garments of women

a number of other reasons for their failures. Moreover, it was

from across the country for an installation against sexual

a walk which only the English speaking urban crowd could

harassment. The special part of these clothes was that they

relate to. Thus it did not have a mass appeal.

had notes attached to them describing the situation in which the owners had worn these garments and subjected to


harassment by men. The point that women’s clothing play no

had to pass. When they would do so, they would feel the

role in sexual harassment was put across effectively because

brush of hands which were attached to the walls of the

of the wide collection of salwar kameez, jeans, tshirts and so

narrow passage. It received rave reviews not only from

on, that the student had managed to collect.

women, but also men who came out visibly disturbed. For a change, most of the men felt empathy, instead of sympathy,

Manipuri Mother’s Protest: A much more radical form of protest was seen in Manipur when a group of 12 middle aged women went on a naked protest against the Indian Army stationed at Imphal. They came out with loud slogans of ‘Indian Army Rape Us! Take Our Flesh!’ for the Army, often

for the women who have been victims of such treatment in reality. One of the visiting men had a remarkable suggestion to make: “I think you should have made an adjoining chamber with one way looking glass, which can register the guilt on a guys face as he goes through that.”

taking advantage of the AFSPA, abducted and raped many Manipuri women. There was anger, there was pain. It shocked

Changing Mindset of the New Indian Male

the country and the image stayed. There has been a gradual change in the way that masculinity is When No One is Looking by Payal Arya, a fine arts student,

seen in recent times. The New Man has shifted completely

received much acclaim and popularity based on the realistic

away from the traditional model by stressing equality

and effective way she put across her message. It was an

between male and female. This meant new codes of conduct

interactive installation at the Kala Ghoda Festival which

leaving space for women, not pushing for control within

expresses the agitation faced by women because of the

families, not demanding the initiative in sex. It has meant

harassment they go through on a daily basis at public places –

trying to build new relationships: caring for children, opening

in local trains, at bus stops or even while walking on the road.

up emotionally to other men. (The Evolving Man, 1987)

It was an L shaped enclosed space through which the visitors


Although this idea took it’s time to reach our country, changes

for ‘Men Against Rape and Discrimination’. Their objective is

are indeed visible. In fact, more and more men think it is okay

to create awareness amongst men to instill gender equality

express interest in not-so-macho arenas such as fashion,

and respect towards women. ‘MARD’, meaning ‘man’ in Hindi,

performing arts and so on. A large number of men share

can be considered as a really effective plan as it shows the

domestic responsibilities with their partners, respect the

support of the Indian Film Industry to the cause – and as

women’s sexuality and do not perceive their independence as

already been established, most Indians swear by their favorite

a threat to their own. They mix freely with members of the

film stars.

opposite sex and not always with romantic intentions. Such men take an interest in the world of women and try to understand their emotional and intellectual side which dispels the ‘mystery’ that a lot of men see in women. This, in turn, cuts a clear passage for a healthy interaction between both the sexes based on mutual understanding.

One hopes that the youth of the country, being the most impressionable (and already quite liberal) will contribute to this movement and bring it to a common man’s level. Only then will the streets be safe for women to walk on, anytime of the day, irrespective of their clothing.

The New Man understands the political implications of the traditional model of masculinity and actually shies away from it. He understands inequality when he sees it and this acts as a beacon of hope for those struggling to rid the society of evils like sexual harassment. Giving a voice and a platform for such liberal men, Farhan Akhtar, a well known Indian actor, has started ‘MARD’, short



Working men, on the other hand, will reflect the kind of backgrounds they have grown up in and will have stronger

Sample group for study

opinions about the issue – although less malleable, they can be more experienced and outspoken in their stand without getting

Age group – 18-30 Not all men are of the same disposition. The Indian idea of masculinity has been reconstructed to quite an extent. There are some who see injustice and recognize it, whether it was in

easily influenced.

The communication product will be based upon the men’s own point of view regarding the issue. It is a communication done by the men, for the men.

their own families or outside, or in the contrast between the two. They have the logic to question the norm of male

Resources & Methods of data collection

dominance and female submission. PRELIMINARY FIELD WORK: This was an attempt to familiarize College students, being more radical in nature and prone to

oneself with the different viewpoints of the study group

picking up on new ideas, have mainly been chosen as the

before going into deeper observation to support the same.

study group. They are in an atmosphere where they are

Study group: Male students of DA-IICT

surrounded by students of various backgrounds and upbringing – influences which shape the adult they are going

It required me to initially converse with a few boys who had

to be. The dynamics between boys and girls within the campus

specific views about the issue. Speaking to them helped me to

can explain a lot about what changes this generation can bring

locate the key points of the issue and come up with questions

about in the society in future.

for further conversations with other boys. The initial questions were:


What is their definition of eve teasing?

Who do they think is responsible?

Why exactly are the perpetrators indulging in it?

What is their idea of any woman’s appearance in public?

What do they think would make it safer, even if not immediately, for their females friends, family members

Is Westernization involved in this issue somehow?

Is the status of Indian women involved in this issue

and other acquaintances to walk in the streets without being eve teased?

somehow? Notable points which surfaced during the conversations were: 

Do they think touching can be considered as eve

issue. People tend to comment on each other all the

Do they know anybody who has eve teased? What

time – it is just a matter of ‘dealing with it’.

Do they think educated and married men can also indulge in eve teasing? If yes, why?

The questionable existence of ‘eve teasing’ as social


prompted them to do so? 

How open are they with their female friends? What is

A girl is eve-teased only when she FEELS teased.

Role of Indian movies in this issue.

Double standards (Sexism) in the Indian society

Whether ‘eve-teasing’ can be considered as sexual harassment?

their idea of poking fun at their female friends? How would they look at it if a stranger did the same with

(To be noted: Initially, the questions regarding the issue were

their female friends?

addressed with the terminology ‘eve-teasing’ as there was an ambiguity regarding the usage of ‘sexual harassment’ – it could be deemed too harsh. Gradually, with the gathering of 17

more and more information, I could justify the use of ‘sexual

Drawing from the conversations, one can give a general

harassment’ in this project.)

explanation of sexual harassment through the following info graphic:


PRIMARY RESEARCH: Qualitative survey The sample group for this survey was initially planned to be

Advantages of the online qualitative survey: 

Since the problem of sexual harassment is widespread,

from colleges in Mumbai. Mumbai is one of the busiest cities

an online qualitative survey will allow further reach

in the country with different areas which can be categorized

towards men of different cities and backgrounds.

on the basis of social structure, industries and population.

Since the survey was filled through networking, it was

Also, a large number of women travel till late in the night to

made sure that most of the respondents met the age

and from these areas.

criteria of 18-30. 

It was felt during the conversations during the

Mumbai is often counted as a ‘safe’ city for girls in country,

preliminary field work that the respondents knew the

although unfortunate cases such as the Keenan and Reuben

‘politically correct’ thing to say. Whether they truly

murder case keep surfacing once in a while. The city’s youth is

thought in the same manner is questionable. People

open and forward in their lifestyle – they can dress as they

are more open to speak about sensitive issues when

want and stay out till late hours of the night.

they are not asked questions face to face. They, then, need not require to mentally edit their point of views

Any discussion with the student community here, regarding sexual harassment would have given an interesting insight

to suit the person shooting the question (more so, if it is a female).

owing to their lifestyle. The questionnaire, being qualitative, tries to give an idea of However, practically, it was not possible to generate such a discussion in individual colleges. Thus, the plan of an online

how the educated Indian male looks at women and their roles in the society.

It required them to put themselves in a

qualitative survey.


situation and introspect about various instances which are

The responses from the questionnaire will be used to create

often used as excuses to harass women.

the communication product.


Overview of the responses:

Figure 1

Figure 1: The ‘other’ responses to this question mostly implied

conditioned in his early years, starting from home. However,

that the perpetrators were not brought up in a certain way

most men seem to treat teasing and commenting as ‘harmless

that they would respect women; they seemed to believe they

flirting’ and it raises questions whether they classify such acts

had an authority over women and the law would not stop

as sexual harassment.

them. This could lead to the inference that a number of men think that how a man behaves towards a woman is


Figure 2

Figure 2: Most of the responses for this question showed that

wrong signals to a man who might take it as positive sign to

men were aware that beyond a point, a man should be

progress to a sexual banter. One response, however, indicates

perceptive enough to sense if he is making a woman

power play by men whose advances had been harshly nipped

uncomfortable. Flirting is mutual and when the woman is not

at the bud. “When the good looking girl appropriately

responding positively, one should back off. The line from

responds to uninvited flirting with harsh words, it is not

flirting to harassment is crossed when the banter moves from

acceptable to men's overblown ego. The 'harmless flirting'

subtly, acceptable comments with sexual undertones to

now takes shape of 'aggressive humiliation'. And for people

downright vulgar comments. A fair number of men also stated

who have no respect for womankind, the best way to insult a

that a woman who is drunk and inebriated can also send

woman is to talk about her body parts.� Also, as can be seen


from Figure 2, the need to prove oneself in the presence of

intention might be just ‘harmless flirting’).

peers also can egg on a man to harass a woman (though the

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 3 & 4: These two questions were asked to see how

the excuse that a woman’s ‘no’ actually means ‘yes’. She just

many men out of the respondents think that girls play hard to

needs to be given importance and attention and shown how

get and need to be pursued relentlessly as is glorified in

much she is wanted before finally giving in. However, a large

Bollywood films and songs. A lot of men harass women using

number of respondents were clear that even if a woman is


playing hard to get they would just move on. This is justified in Figure 5.

Figure 5

Figure 6


Figure 6: This question was trying to generate a thought about

aggressor, more men preferred to go and talk to the victim

how a bystander’s role is vital in an act of sexual harassment.

and accompany her. In the ‘other’ responses, however, a lot of

A bystander, when supporting a victim, discourages further

men said that they would rather gauge the situation first and

acts of harassment not only towards the particular victim but

then act accordingly if the things get out of hand. Here is an

also others. The perpetrator then is notified that his actions

indication that people are ready to sympathize but not rectify;

are being noticed and disapproved by people. However, a

even worse, they would rather wait for something serious to

silent bystander becomes an unintentional ‘accomplice’ to the

happen before taking action.

perpetrator as he/she does not do anything to stop the offense. Being quiet never helps the victim, it only encourages the perpetrator.

According to Figure 6, although a large

number of men did say that they would speak to the

Figure 7: This question gives the bystander a more personal stake in the offense. True that majority of the men said that they would ask their friends to stop. But one wonders if the smaller voices are truer than the mob’s. In the ‘others’ section

Figure 7


two insightful comments give an idea that the particular

“Talk to them after the event and point out my displeasure.”

respondents actually might have put themselves in the

“This gets complicated if the person happens to be your boss

situation and not done what is deemed ‘politically correct’.

or someone higher up in the ranks”

Figure 8

Figure 8: Deemed inappropriate by some of the respondents,

who had not experienced any such instance, it hoped to

this question was an attempt for men to think back and

generate a scenario where they will be forced to think about

remember incidents where they had been subjected to

how they would have reacted. The point was to gauge how

unwelcome sexual advances. In case of those respondents

those men deal with such situations and how it is any different


or similar to a case of a woman getting sexually harassed. The

been victims, the offense was put to a stop then and there by

main difference was that, in case of respondents who have

voicing their outrage or moving away from the perpetrator.

Figure 9

Figure 9: Here one tries to understand why and how men

other half believes that a woman who is drunk and clothed

perceive as girls “asking’ to be harassed. The response to this

inappropriately is possibly ‘asking’ for it. There is another

question can be broadly divided into two categories – one half

minor segment of respondents who seem to indicate that a

which believes that nobody ‘asks’ to be harassed and the

woman who is trying to deliberately grab attention is ‘asking’


for it. It is a taboo in the Indian society for a woman to be

Figure 10: The last question is an attempt to see how today’s

drinking and be dressed in short clothing, although people do

men view the patriarchal norms of the society and how much

not mind watching such behavior in the much beloved

of it influences their judgment. It is an important question

Bollywood films. According to the responses, one might be led

because unless the men are aware of the oppressive nature of

to believe that a lot of men either find it necessary to show

the patriarchal norms towards women, they themselves will

women their ‘place’ or take advantage of the situation

not be able to see how certain kind of thought process lead to

guiltlessly just because the society lets them have their way.

dehumanizing and objectifying a woman – from there,

This leads us to the last question of the survey.

‘disrespecting’ is only a short distance. According to the

Figure 10


responses, most men were aware of how they have an upper

women in terms of physical strength, number, more tolerance

hand in terms of sexuality and freedom of expression in the

by the society for things like adultery, alcoholism, violence,

Indian society. In fact, a lack of the same is considered a taboo

polygamy and chastity.”

in men. “In the place I have been working I tend to think the other way round. I feel promiscuity in men is considered a social status but called a stigma for women. Such a mindset in the society is a huge privilege for men.” “In our society (male dominated patriarchal Indian) men have privileges over

They are also aware that as men, they are rarely subjected to sexual harassment or blamed for the same. “People only talk about the respect of women is gone after sexual harassment, why not men's?”

DESIGN STRATEGY The male voice which has a different view regarding women’s

One way this movement will sustain momentum is definitely if

rights is very niche at the moment. The main reason it

the common masses start implementing what the celebrities

surfaces now and then in the limelight is because of the

are supporting. It is much like a new product which needs

celebrity support it receives. Actors like Rahul Bose, Farhaan

constant advertising. However, one should understand the

Akhtar and Hrithik Roshan are involved in the promotion of

implications of the changes that are required for the new

men against sexual harassment and its reception is quite

model of masculinity to stay afloat. The men have to question

promising. However, being a cause which has to go against

and introspect on various situations – something that cannot

age old patriarchal ideas that the Indian society holds, it will

be merely guided by celebrity endorsement. It is a much

be a long time before a marked difference is seen in the

deeper questioning of age old values and norms which one

attitude of people towards sexual harassment.

must be able to let go with good justification. Otherwise, they


will tend to waver from their resolve. They must know it in

about the success of this old lady, one comes to know that the

their hearts and mind why this change is necessary.

secret lies in the character’s ability to relate to people – a refreshing relief to have someone create a light atmosphere

Through this project, I am trying out the ordinary-people-

out of what people can only grumble about.

driven discourse on the new model of masculinity as opposed to the celebrity driven one. INITIAL STRATEGY: I had created a male persona which tried to promote the new model of masculinity based on the views collected through the qualitative survey.

The persona

reflected upon various situations and gave his stance. Taking the case of ‘Aunty Acid’, an explanation of how this persona functioned can be explained. Case Study 1: Aunty Acid is a fictional character created to give


Image source: http://www.auntyacid com

the ‘crazy, old lady in us’ a voice. She is sarcastic, funny and tells things as they are. Her fan base keeps growing by thousands every day. She isn’t glamorous; she could be the

Similarly, the persona for the new model of masculinity was

cranky old lady next door; she deals with everyday problems

average in every way, and talked about the problems and

with the dry amusement and sarcasm, much like common

express opinions about them, but not preaches.

people would. She does not preach but just says what she thinks and pretty much follows it. When questioning around


U.R. DAMAN is a fictional character who has been brought

How effective was the Facebook page for U.R. DAMAN?

up by his mother in a metropolitan city where he studies in a reputed co-educational college. Being extremely close to his mother, he is sensitive to what she has often gone through as a woman. And in turn, is careful not to become one of ‘those’ men. U.R. Daman is often found dwelling on various situations which are used as excuses to harass women and points out how things could be different with a little introspection. 'U.R. Daman' is actually a pun for 'U R Da Man' (‘da’ stands for

Figure 11: Percentage of male and female viewers who have come to know about this page through their Facebook connections.

‘the’ in the instant messaging language). It tried to insinuate that a true man does not blindly follow the taboos of the age old patriarchal society. The thought behind this is that masculinity is no longer a reciprocal of femininity. One who realizes that safety and equality for women does not necessarily mean lesser rights for him is The Man. Manliness lies in realizing your strengths and using it in a way which benefits one and all, not just as individuals but as an entire society.

Figure 12: Highest number of viewers who have come to know about this page.


The page was ‘Liked’ by a total of 160 users within a time

solution. By this I mean, that the idea of a persona with a

period of 20 days. ‘Liking’ a Facebook page is equivalent to

specific profile and biography could not address to both the

becoming a part of a group which will send notifications to the

students and the working males in the same tone. Thus, only

members whenever there is an update of content (be it in the

the responses of the college students were separated from

form of images, posts or links). There were a total of 11

the original online survey I had conducted. 32 out of the 60

posters which were uploaded on the page and 8 links with

respondents were college goers.

relevant content on which the members could discuss and give their point of views. Apart from that 2 videos of content relevant to the topic were shared as well.

The new communication solution is based on two archetypes of students who would be the audience: the Urban and the Semi-urban.

It was observed that the page was getting a lot of views and even if the viewers agreed with a certain post and ‘liked’ it, they were not responding with any comments.

The Urban – Educated, frequently English speaking Indians, inclination towards non-Indian television shows, brought up in liberal environments, cool, liberal, open minded, niche.

It was required that I conduct another round of one to one interviews which included Facebook users who had ‘liked’ the page. This was to understand the lack of responses in spite of visible support.

The Semi-Urban – Educated, average street Indian who can speak English, colloquial in their conversations, inclination more towards Indian films and television shows in comparison to The Urban, brought up in traditional or semi


traditional environments, average, slightly conformist but open minded, more in touch with the ‘real’ India.

It was found that the implications of the initial survey were too wide to be encompassed in a single communication


The Urban and the Semi-urban mix in colleges and often their

Named as YOU ARE THE MAN, the campaign as the same ideas

specific traits dissolve through peer groups. The age of 18-23

relayed to both the sections but in ways that will appeal to

is an impressionable time in a student’s life – he gets out of his

their baser traits as has already been listed. Here, I am

parents’ wings and truly gets to experience the effects of peer

working on the assumption that the influence for change is

groups. This is a period of possible transformation of traits and

not only from the liberal peer groups but also education and

building up individualistic opinions about different issues

application of logic to question traditional ideas which create

without too much parental guidance and intervention. With

a gap between the sexes.

such an opportunity, introducing the idea of the new model of masculinity to this mix of young minds might lead to a good reception of the same.

DESIGN PROBLEM How to promote and sustain the surge of men supporting

confusion which currently take place in interactions between

women against sexual harassment through the cyber media?

women and men in everyday life. Thousands of daily online interactions, the choices of ways of speaking, and of subjects

Medium of Communication The cyber space has the potential to be liberating, and it has the potential to duplicate all the misunderstandings and

have gradually shaped the cyberspace culture. Although on the surface, it would seem that the cyberspace tends to be friendly to women and allows them to adopt more active


personas, and to speak on an equal plane with men, it is often

fact that even those pictures might or might not be of the

seen that real life patterns of thought and interaction are

original user is not taken under logical consideration.

reflected online. This outdated myth jests that the internet is essentially a male It is often seen that anonymity in the cyberspace, propels

dominated dimension, where a small number of men pretend

people to be more forward in their opinions – some opinions

to be women in pursuit of misleading other male users for fun,

even bordering on malicious. These opinions might be true or

or getting an advantage over games and interaction and so on.

might be just a façade for achieving a specific kind of image

But the fact remains that this belief also ends up being an

online. For instance, continuing from the early days of internet

excuse for sexist behavior against the female internet users,

usage, a large segment of males users go by the rule ‘There

who have been steadily rising in number.

Are No Girls On The Internet’ – a belief that all female users on the internet are men pretending to be women, looking for the added ‘advantages’ and ‘privileges’ that comes with being a woman. Even if you are actually a woman, making an announcement of the same is indicative of your need for attention and special treatment. Such occurrences happen on social networking sites which provide the user with an option

Thus one sees, like real life, the cyberspace, too, has been overpowered by the male users. However, on social networking sites like Facebook, the identities of the users are visible hence the sexism of the cyberspace is much toned down. Facebook is now one of the mediums which, unlike most other social networks, have an

of remaining ‘anonymous’ while interacting with other users.

indefinitely huge number of female users. Thus any male who

There is a common demand to post pictures of their breasts as

wants to appear favorable and not provoke antagonistic

a confirmation of their statements of being a female user. The

attitude from the opposite sex will know the politically correct thing to say.


The cyber domain is currently the fastest form of relaying

Salwa is the image of the first campaign against sexual

information, thanks to the surge of social networking among

harassment in Lebanon. This was first launched on Facebook

the youth of today. All information can be accessed on-the-go

and gradually went on to have a web page of it’s own. Salwa is

and a single piece of information has unimaginable reach.

an average Lebanese woman who is fed up with the sexual

Facebook allow the user not only to view the information but

harassment that has become part of her life and decides to

also to comment or show support by ‘like’-ing it. Thus, one

combat it on her own. Her weapon is a red bag which she uses

has to take a leap of faith because it is as good a medium of

at the instance of an unwanted sexual harassment. This

putting across the new model of masculinity as any other with

campaign basically encourages women to speak up, if not

the added advantage of at least showing the number of

strike back against their harassers, and give visibility to the

people who have viewed, commented or shared.


A lot of social causes these days have had humble beginnings

After the initial launch by The League of Independent Activists –

from Facebook. If not Facebook, most social causes have an

IndyACT, Salwa graduated from Facebook to other media such as

online presence. Some case studies of efforts of online

newspapers, magazines, blogs, TV, etc. A booklet containing

campaigns of sexual harassment will give an idea of how such

guidance for young women to defend themselves in case they are

social campaigns fare online, highlighting the liberating the far reaching effectiveness of cyberspace.

subjected to harassment or rape, and instructions on how to file a complaint was also launched. In addition, awareness workshops are often




Case study 2: The Adventures of Salwa (Lebanon)



Image source: http://www.adventuresofsalwa com


Case Study 3: Young Women for Change (Afghanistan)

abuse and violence. YWC has also opened the first ever women’s net cafe in Kabul and a learning center for men and

Founded by Afghan women for Afghan women in 2011, it was established to empower women across the country and recruit them to the struggle for gender equality. They held the very first anti-street harassment march in Afghan history, and had conducted the first ever large-scale study of sexual harassment in Afghanistan. In April 2012, YWC held a protest to ask for justice for the women who have faced domestic

women to teach literacy and language and computer skills. The cafĂŠ is a haven for women seeking to learn about and come in contact of women from other countries, and see wider possibilities beyond how they have been living for so long. YWC is not only supported for women, but a lot of educated young Afghan men are also contributing to the movement.

Image source:


PRODUCT How to make the PSA effective?

Eventually the momentum of the entire movement slows

‘To be effective, broadcast PSAs should be relevant to their

down. Hence, they need a constant reminder to continue

audience, interesting or entertaining and have leave the


audience with a message that can be summarized in a single declarative sentence. Most importantly, the message should

The aim would be to use the views of those men who could be

be actionable, meaning we evoke the desired response from

called the ‘stalwarts’ of the new model of masculinity and


convince not only men, but the Indian society to consider the

Good PSAs move the audience or viewer along in a continuum

idea that sexual harassment although seemingly woman

that ultimately results in attitude or behavior change (though

centric, is a blot on the face of the male population as well. All

not due to PSAs of and by themselves).’

in all, it is a negative reflection of our society.

(Goodwill) The success of online campaigns: In terms of relevance, this issue is very much under fire. The turning point in the struggle against sexual harassment came in December 16, with the brutal rape of a 23 year old medical student. The youth of the entire nation rose up in protest and for justice. Justice is yet to be served but the thought still remains. However, attitude and behavior change doesn’t come so easily and like most issues, people tend to move on.

It is seen that being a tool for those with the privilege of internet access, the online success of sexual harassment campaigns are almost always accompanied by a parallel real life effort. They could be walks, discussions, theatre, installations and so on. The more varied the collaterals, the further the reach of the message. Same could be suggested for the YOU ARE THE MAN campaign.


The Posters:


The Video: It stresses on how there should be a change in the

doesn't really help. When they have to show support they do.

behavior that people have towards sexual harassment. People

But when the actual crime is happening nobody comes

often wait for the consequences of a sexual harassment case

forward and they remain mute witnesses. The storyline is as

and according to the severity of the case, they respond. That

follows –


1.In a dark area candles are burning – although there is the candle’s light, it doesn’t entirely dispel the darkness –

2. one by one all start to fade out in the wind and darkness starts to encroach them – Only one remains lit –

3. the flame in the candle turns into a flame in the heart. It’s a man’s heart .


4. he carries the flame with him while news of sexual violence against women continue

5. how long can one man fight? He sits and wonders – he cannot stop them all

6. another man comes to him and tries to light a candle from the flame in this man’s heart – the first man refuses to light the candle


7. he passes the flame from his heart to the other man’s heart

8. soon other men leave the candles behind n light flames in their heart – now their hearts are burning with the flames

9. they stand united – the wind is not able to blow it out – the light spreads (colors start filling into the scene) and the world becomes a better place.


The Website: The posters of the campaign will be seen across social

also have news and events related to the idea of YOU ARE THE

networking sites. However, if anybody requires more


information about the same, a website will be helpful. It will give detailed information about the campaign and can have a blog where the latest posters and videos can be posted. It can








CONCLUSIONS from the fact that the youth is liberal, forward and impressionable, some more so than the others. The campaign has a vision – a long term goal; this project is an attempt to set the wheels in motion to bring about a

For instance, a student coming from a traditional environment

consciousness about the kind of thinking which goes behind

will be exposed to the urban and liberal students. They might

the act of sexually harassing a person. The aim was not to

or might not get along but exchange of ideas happen all the

stop sexual harassment overnight. It is practically not even

time. It is common in the student life to try and emulate the

possible to do that for the present state of affairs is a result of

so called ‘cooler’ crowd in a campus. Also, college days are a

hundreds of years of societal conditioning.

chance at liberty and forming individual opinions. Thus, it might be so that a student with previously patriarchal views

Just like charity, change begins at home. When each person begins to think of the driving force behind acts of sexual harassment, they see how age old patriarchal norms play a

might become more liberal about issues such as women’s rights of dressing and behavior in public spaces (and with good logic gained from mixing and learning from his peers).

role in it. This line of thought, once settled in the consciousness of a person will, in turn, generate more liberal

The effort is not trying to undermine the importance of Indian

family structures in future and the building sex stereotypes

traditions in any way. Sexual harassment is an outcrop of the

from an early age can be kept in check.

more orthodox rules of the society which might have had base when they were formed but do not apply anymore. As often

The logic behind choosing the mix of urban and semi urban students to target the YOU ARE THE MAN campaign comes

happens with changing times, old rules outlive their usefulness, and new adaptations are to be made. The new


model of masculinity is one such attempt. However, it will

generation to next and from that to the one after it for a

take time to spread its roots and anchor itself in the majority

visible change in the state of affairs in future.

of the Indian society. The idea has to trickle down from this

CITATIONS Akshara. (2009). Unwanted Attention. Mumbai. Chaudhary, S. (2013, January 19). Rape and How Men See It. Retrieved April 30, 2013, from Deshpande, S. (2012, December 30). Retrieved May 10, 2013, from Ghadially, R. (1988). Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt ltd. Goodwill, B. EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SERVICE AD CAMPAIGNS. Hegde, S. D. (1988). Mistreatment of women in Hindi Films. In R. Ghadially, Women in India Society (p. 214). New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt ltd. Krishnan, K. (2013, January 25). Patriarchy, Women’s Freedom and Capitalism: Kavita Krishnan. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from Kafila: Mohanty, R. I. (n.d.). The Term ‘Eve-Teasing’ Must Die. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from The Wall Street Journal - IndiaRealTime:


Nandy, A. (1988). Woman versus Womanliness in India . In R. Ghadially, Women in Indian Society (p. 69). New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt ltd. R.Helmreich, J. a. (1978). Masculinity and Feminity, Their Psychological Dimensions, Correlates and Antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press. R.Walters, A. a. (1963). Social Learning and Personality Development. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Rao, V. R. (1988). Sex Role Attitudes of College Students in India. In R. Ghadially, Women in Indian Society (p. 122). New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt ltd. Ray, S. Understanding Patriarchy. Sharma, S. (2013, March 6). Pin-ups push out real women in ad-mad world. Retrieved May 10, 2013, from The Times of India : Sukanya Das, R. G. (1988). Parental Sex Orientation and Sex Stereotypes of Children. In R. Ghadially, Women In Indian Society (p. 124). Sage Publications. The Evolving Man. (1987, September 5). Retrieved May 2, 2013, from New Internationalist Magazine: Wadley, S. (1988). Women and the Hindu Tradition. In R. Ghadially, Women in Indian Society (pp. 28-29). New Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt ltd.



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50 Readings: Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction: Volume 14/ Issue 2/Article 13 - Elen Turner The Study of Gender in India : A Partial Review Understanding Patriarchy - Suranjita Ray Unwanted Attention - The Akshara Team Structures of Patriarchy. The State, The Community and the Household – Bina Agarwal Women in Indian Society – Rehana Ghadially Student Projects: Women on Walls – Adira Thekkuvittil When No One is Looking – Payal Arya


The New Model Of Masculinity: A Reflexive Discourse to fight Sexual Harassment