ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS UNITEC RESEARCH
A SOCIAL NARRATIVE.................................................................................... 4
TOSH, MEG, RUDOLF, MATT + BRAD
02. ENERGY........................................................................................................... 34
GENEVIEVE, DUSTYN, ANDREA + BRENDAN
03. ECOLOGY ....................................................................................................... 47
LAUREN, JULIE, ZAC, TOM + GERARD
04. ESTUARY.......................................................................................................... 66
CHLOE, NICK, MORGAN + MICHELLE
05. WATER............................................................................................................. 93
NATASHA, ORAPHANH, KEVIN + ZARA
06. OPEN SPACE + HOUSING...............................................................................111
VAUGHAN, SHAYNE + RIYASP
07. LAND USE....................................................................................................... 129
LOGAN, LOGAN, MICHAEL + NICK
08. CHINESE CASE STUDIES................................................................................ 148 NCUT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS A SOCIAL NARRATIVE
Ōtara is a predominantly Polynesian settlement in South Auckland, New Zealand. It is located close to the Southern motorway and near the upper reaches of the Tamaki Estuary that flows north into the Waitemata Harbour. It is a suburban area, with a town centre, several parks and green spaces as well as an industrial area that comprises of the Contact Energy power stations and Highbrook Business Park. The topography of the area is low lying and it forms part of the wider east Tamaki catchment. The area has several historic volcanoes, mangroves and a Lake that has formed as part of the upper reaches of the estuary. Ōtara is a multicultural community with a youthful population, a strong sense of identity and history and makes up an important part of Auckland’s diverse community.
EARLY SETTLEMENT Arrival
Māori origins The Auckland isthmus has been home to Māori since around 850 AD. A second wave of Māori migration occurred around 1350. Captained by Hoturoa, Tainui first made landfall at Whangaparaoa, west of Cape Runaway, then sailed along the coast to the Hauraki area. Landing briefly near Wharekawa, then the Tamaki Strait, Te Whakakaiwhara, near the Turanga estuary and Motukorea, before entering the Tamaki River. From there the Tainui was hauled overland to the Manukau Harbour. (Wilson, 2014) 1 Hoturoa – Commander of the Tainui waka 2 Taikehu – Chief and key ancestor of the Ngai Tai People 3 Horoiwi – Chief who settled at Tamaki Head
FIGURE LEFT: Achilles Point, Pou of Tainui waka Retrieved from http://www.mypictorialworld.com/2010_11_01_archive.html
Members of the Tainui waka settled around the isthmus and began to intermarry with the ancestors of Te Wai-o-Hua their descendants forming the Ngai Tai tribe; others intermarried with the Nga Iwi people of the Mangere area. It was this intermarriage, and the development of other bonds between the people of the isthmus and the new arrivals, that led to the recognition of Tainui as the waka for the area. (Wilson, 2014) The Ōtara-East and Tamaki lands were highly contested by the early Maori tribes who occupied the Auckland region during pre European times. (Coombes, 2013). Around 1575, the people of the isthmus became known as Te Wai-o-Hua, after the death of their paramount chief Hua Kaiwaka (the consumer of canoes/the terminator). By that time, settlement had occurred mainly on the eastern shores and land area surrounding the Manukau Harbour in places such as Ihumatao, Māngere, Pukaki, Wiri, Papatoetoe, Manurewa, Ōtara and Papakura. (Wilson, 2014) There are different interpretations to the meaning of the name Ōtara. One version describes the mythological figure of Ōtara who was caught in a fishing net and was pricked in the hand by a fish called Tara (Coombes, 2013). Another similar story states that Tara means bent hand after the same figure was poisoned by the spine of a fish. Another translation is that Ōtara is the place of Tara or the territory of Tara- an ancient chief of the area (Coombes, 2013). According to Ngāi Tai tradition, Te Puke o Tara and Ōtara are named after the Ariki (Paramount Chief) of Ngāi Tai known as Tara Te Irirangi, who lived from the late 18th Century until 1852. (‘Alatini, 2004)
FIGURE RIGHT: Tara Te Irirangi Retrieved from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/artwork/741/tara-te-irirangi
The Ōtara landscape is volcanic formed from the outflow of the four main cones in the area. These are
Each tribe desired the entire area for its own people. The result was much quarrelling, murders and raiding
Matanginui/Green Hill (The pa that was taken with much crying - has been quarried since 1870), Te
of stores in the district. These battles plus epidemics led eventually to the abandonment of several of the
Puke O Tara (Ōtara or Smales mountain), and the tuff craters of Styaks Swamp (no longer exists and
villages in the district. These problems led to missionary, Samuel Marsden to visit some of the villages in
covered by Greenmount industrial park) and Pukewairiki (small waterfall, located on foreshore Ōtara lake,
1820 and affect a temporary peace making process between the tribes. (‘Alatini, 2004)
part of Ra Ora stud, and now part of Highbrook Industrial Park. Situated opposite the Otahuhu power station). (‘Alatini, 2004)Lava flowed from Te Puke Ō Tara, which is now the Ōtara Town Centre. Lava also flowed from Matanginui towards the Pakuranga creek. Both these cones provided natural defences from any unwelcome visitors. Archaeological evidence proves there was Maori occupation around these mountains. (‘Alatini, 2004) The topography was generally low lying with undulating land. East Tamaki was in the beginning inhabited by large groups of Māori who’s existence relied heavily on the natural resources of the district such as fern, berries, bark, leaves and flowers of native trees, fish from nearby streams and the sea and wild animals and birds from the local bush and swamps. In addition, extensive kumara patches were cultivated. (‘Alatini, 2004) The area was believed to have supported a relatively dense Māori population in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The land was regarded as very fertile and beautiful. This was a well sought after commodity by Aki Tai and Ngati Kahu two new tribes in the area.
FIGURE RIGHT: Ōtara Maunga/Volcanic Cones. - Hochstetter Map 1859
European arrival The early Europeans settlers to East Tamaki were Scottish and Irish Presbyterians who sailed up the Tamaki River and set up camp on the shore (‘Alatini, 2004). They slowing bought land from the Māori and established farms in the area. In 1836 Reverend William Thomas Fairburn bought 40,000 acres in the Ōtara district which became known as the Fairburn Block (‘Alatini, 2004). He also established a mission station at Maraetai to establish peace amongst the local Maori (‘Alatini, 2004). In 1837 he returned one third of the land to local iwi then handed over another one third to the Church Missionary Society (‘Alatini, 2004). LEFT: Reverend William Thomas Fairburn
In 1854 the crown purchased the remainder of the land from Ngai Tai who are the Mana Whenua of the
area. (‘Alatini, 2004). The current situation of Mana Whenua has been described by Brad Coombes thus; Because urban Māori are denied the status of tangata whenua, the issue of who hold Mana whenua becomes far more complex for this area. The periodic displacement of the Ngai Tai unsettles the traditional reading of “tangata whenua”. (Coombes, 2013). In 1855 another missionary arrived in the area, Reverend Gideon Smales who purchased 400 acres and farmed the land for crops, mostly wheat. The land continued to be used for crop growing up to the 1900’s until grass was grown for dairying. (‘Alatini, 2004). As technology increased, dairying continued to dominate the Ōtara area through the early 20th century and Ōtara became an important source of milk for Auckland. Electricity was installed into farms in the 1930’s and milk production continued to increase into the 1940’s. As Auckland’s population was growing, pressure was put on farming areas such as Ōtara for land for housing. (‘Alatini, 2004).
LEFT: Reverend Gideon Smales http://muse.aucklandmuseum.com/.../librar.../96432.detail...
In 1955 the Metropolitan Urban Limited (of Auckland), which was set in an effort to control urban sprawl, was overruled by the State Housing Division via a national government exemption. The subsequent access to rural land, obtained as cheaply as possible, was part of the plan to create “the greatest number of houses, in the quickest time, at the cheapest cost” (Mayor Luxford, NZ Herald, 18, July 1955 as quoted in Coombes 2013) in Ōtara. Unfortunately this attitude of cheapness extended to the infrastructure, with storm water and sewerage pipes which broke down within only a few years, and outlets directly onto the Ōtara Creek, considered at that time to be a “natural stormwater drainage outfall” (memorandum from 1954, as quoted in Coombes 2013). The Power Station was already planned for the area, having been considered as early as the 1930’s. The latter years of the 50’s see the continuation of the addition of key infrastructure in the formation of Ōtara: the extension of the Southern Motorway to Redoubt Road, the Ōtara Luxury Cinema, a branch of the Auckland Hospital Board in Bairds Rd, the “Ōtara Foodtown” supermarket and the Ōtara No 1 Primary School. At the same time the Manukau County Council and Ministry of Works sign a memorandum of understanding over the future development of Ōtara, the Ōtara Sports Club and Ōtara Social Club are formed, and the Ōtara PTA (parent teacher association) starts up. Finally in 1959 the St John the Evangalist Catholic Church opens in a converted hay barn on Ōtara Rd.
figure to rigrt: The area in 1959 (Source: ALGGI http://maps.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/aucklandcouncilviewer/ )
Arrival of Industry
The 1960’s sees the continuation of the development of Ōtara, with more schools, playcentres, churchs and other facilities and the Ōtara Town Centre celebrating its official grand opening in 1966. Large industrial estates are also springing up around the district including the Fletcher Trust 40 acre Ōtara Industrial Estate. In 1968 the Ōtāhuhu Power Station, later known as Ōtāhuhu A becomes operational, including a weir across the Ōtara Creek to control the intake of water. Before the building of the weir, Maori considered the creek to be a “food basket”, providing flat fish and eels (interview with elder in 2008, as quoted in Coombes 2013). This value was negated by the European powers of the time (of the planning of the power station), considering the wet lands to be inferior in terms of value, and making promises in 1967 of improved public amenity. The Government of the time insisted that the decision on where to site the
: the suburb is predominately European (source: statistics NZ)
power station was dictated by sound engineering, and not “the targeting of low income ethnic groups” (letter from the Minister of Energy to the Manukau City Council, 1966, as quoted in Coombes 2013). In the 1960’s there were indeed few houses in Ōtara, and the power station land had been designated for some time. However the plan for developing Ōtara as a State Housing Subdivision turned the Housing Corporation into an agent of social control which now had the power to dictate who lived where (Barton et al 1979). The design for Ōtara was based on a suburban settlement pattern with single unit dwellings on sections along curvilinear streets, initially with 1600 acres (650 hectares) catering for 4,600 people; a number of tenants which rapidly doubled, rising to 20,000 residents)(Derby 2012, Coombes 2013). These lanes led to main streets that fed into arterial highways (Derby 2012). This configuration unfortunately did not consider the communities it was to cater for. Maori were facing a dramatic displacement at the time from 84% in rural tribal settlements in 1926 to 80% in urban centres by 1986.
As they often faced discrimination when looking for a place to live, state housing areas such as Ōtara became the new location for their communities, adjacent to the industrial areas of Penrose and Ōtāhuhu (Schrader 2012). At the same time the encouragement of Pacific Island immigration to provide labour for industry, and the relocation of these and other low income groups from the inner city “slum housing” to the new southern suburbs led to a change in the Ōtara demographic from 62% Pakeha population in 1966 to only 15% by 2006 (Derby, 2012). This new suburb of private and state housing was described even by the 70’s as “bland and unimanginative”, but moreover ignored the importance of the extended family unit for those of Polynesian, or Maori background, additionally made no allowance for space for customary practices such as Tangi (Barton et al, 1979). These omissions have been blamed for such subsequent problems as overcrowding and/or family breakdown. Hilita Alatini, a Tongan immigrant who arrived in Ōtara in the 70’s worried more about her children: in Tonga they were always surrounded by family. In Ōtara that was more difficult; neighbours kept to themselves and the wide Ōtara streets had many potential dangers for small children (Hart & Joblin 1989).
Otahuhu A. Meg Back.
The feeling of social disadvantage is not lowered by the inclusion of undesirable infrastructure into the suburb: by 1969 the Hills Road rubbish tip in ĹŒtara is closed, and a new landfill for the entire region is opened at Greenmount. The construction of the power station was controversial and there was strong local opposition at the time due to the lack of community consultation before its construction and concerns about the environmental effects on air, land and water quality (manukau.infospecs.co.nz). (â€˜Alatini, 2004) (Ringer, 2010) (www.manukau.infospecs.co.nz).
OPPOSITE PAGE: the suburb in 1976 from the Whites Aviation Collection
1970’s: “the Dawn Raids and other ways they control us” The negative social influences exerted on the suburb as it developed are extremely significant for the Ōtara Lake and Waterways Placemaking Project, as, for the residents’, cultural memories and the pollution in Lake Ōtara are impossible to disassociate (Coombes 2013). On our field visit of 03-03-2014 local resident Mary and Ōtara Lake and Creek Committee Chair Jim Sinclair reminisced about being able to fish for flounder in the stream, and the subsequent pollution from the arrival of three separate rubbish tips to the watershed, which they had no control over. The dawn raids –the forcible removal of Polynesian immigrants from suburbs including Ōtara, were one of the more significant social events of the 1970’s. For Māori the dawn raids of the 70’s and the pollution of the lake were interconnected: “They’re a reminder that no matter how much time we put into making Ōtara a community, the government has total control over us” “ You need to be very confident about your standing if you want to demand justice for that creek. Who has standing and authority in the place of the Dawn Raids?” (interview with resident, as quoted in Coombes 2013). This lack of control and stigmatization of place also extends to the Marae (the first stage built in 1972 as a much needed cultural facility for the region): “Our landscape gives out cues and clues about what is possible and what isn’t. In the sixties, we wanted to build a pan-iwi marae for our collective wellbeing –for us and the Island folk too – but we were forced to beg for the land for twenty-five years or so. above: The weir at Ōtara Creek (Meg Back)
The council eventually gave us part of the old landfill. Physically, that affects the [lake] restoration because
FIGURE: 1976 census (statistics NZ)
of leachate, but it’s the symbolic damage –the shame which goes with it –that counts most.” (interview with Marae Committee member, 14 May 2004, as quoted in Coombes 2013). In the 70’s the demographic is now starkly different to that of 1963 (shown in the pie chart on previous pages) yet while the different cultures are known, there is still very little in the way of actual planning
One activity which is thriving is the Saturday morning fleamarket, seen by many as the most successful
to cater for them. Probation Officer J McLay refers to the creation of Ōtara as “apartheid by accident
of its kind in Auckland, and vital both socially and economically.
or design”, and it is seen by many as a planning disaster (Barton et al, 1979). The 1979 Confidential Report on Acculturation notes that the Pacific Island groups, in complete contrast to the local European
The publicity coming out of Ōtara is increasingly negative with the media thriving on the thought that
shoppers, use the shopping centre as an integral meeting and socializing point, and notes that improved
at last New Zealand had its own “Harlem” which would “yield a sensational story whenever news was
seating and playground facilities is needed for these groups (Barton et al, 1979). There is also a lack of
short” (Barton et al, 1979). Analysis of statistics expose this as “myth” and further more noted a possible
community centres to cater for this disversity of population. The Whaiora Marae (or Catholic Maori Centre)
higher rate of enforcement in Ōtara meant actual crime was probably lower than suburbs such as Howick
opens adjacent to the Catholic Church on Ōtara Road to not only cater for the 2000 Catholic Maori and
and Pukuranga. However even positive news stories were somehow given a negative spin. One noting
additional non Catholic Maori population of 7000, but also to provide facilities for the community in
high achievement by the children of the district opened “Ōtara chidren are often in the news, but for the
general (Harrison, 1977).
wrong reasons” (Barton et al, 1979).
FIGURES ABOVE: the Alatini Family from “A Tongan Family in Ōtara” FIGURE RIGHT: NZ HERALD articles (as printed in Barton et al 1979) FAR RIGHT: 1996 as seen in ALGGI (http://maps.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/aucklandcouncilviewer/)
THE 1990’S - PRESENT Right & Responsibility
The subsequent years see up and downs for Ōtara with community facilities opened, but closure of industry including the Southdown Freezing works leading to the loss of thousands of jobs. Bombing –large scale spray painted graffiti becomes a widespread problem, and tension between Samoan and Tongan teenagers is well publicized. The Ōtara band Ardijah hits the NZ music charts, and the Ōtara Music and Arts Centre is opened. This is followed in the 1990’s by other inspirational events such as the outright success of OMC (the Ōtara Millionaires Club) with their hit song “How Bizarre”, and the building of the “Fish Canopy” designed by Rewi Thompson at the Ōtara Town Centre; however soon after this the closure of the Ōtara New World marks the departure of the last of the town centre’s anchor stores with Farmers, Rendells, Woolworths and Deka already gone. Ōtara is showcased to the world in the film “Once were Warriors” –a tale of domestic violence and disadvantage. In 1988 the documentary “Ōtara: Defying the Odds” screens on TV3 to tell the story of seven people who grew up in Ōtara and went on to success in their various fields. Ōtara continues to experience highs and lows as Auckland extends out towards it, with the last of the farmland developed into Highbrook Business Park in 2007.
ABOVE: The Fish Canopy (from rimoni-maloman.blogspot.com) ABOVE RIGHT: Workers in the Industries (from A Tongan Family In Ōtara)
Otahuhu B. The Otahuhu B power station was built along side the Otahuhu A power station in 1998 and was handed over to Contact Energy in 1999 (Fallon, 2004). It also uses estuarine water from Ōtara Creek and is gas powered though it is far more efficient at producing electricity than Otahuhu A Station and it supplies about 9% of New Zealand’s electricity demand (Fallon, 2004). Sedimentation and pollution had continued to build up in the Ōtara Lake so in 1994 the Ōtara Lake accord was signed by the former Electricity Corporation, Manukau City Council, Auckland Regional Council and members of the community. Key elements of the accord include a commitment to improve water quality, public access and amenities. This does not however place any legal obligation on the signatories and is criticised 20 years on by the locals for its ineffectiveness (Morgan, S; as retrieved from http://www.stuff.co.nz/.../6353202/Cost-stalls-lake-clean-up) .
FIGURE ABOVE: Otahuhu B Power Station. Retrieved from http://www.drehmo.com/en/markets/power-generation/cc-power-plants.html.
The land that Highbrook Business Park was built on was formerly a stud farm known as Ra Ora and was owned by the prominent industrialist Sir Woolf Fisher who founded the company Fisher and Paykel (www. highbrook.co.nz). The Fishers managed the 177 acre farm for 40 years. The land was valuable because of its strategic location close to the Southern motorway and for its natural setting and was designed as a modern business park by Peter Walker in 1998 (www.highbrook.co.nz). Pukewairiki, a small waterfall that is located on the foreshore of ĹŒtara lake was once part of the Ra Ora stud and is now part of the Highbrook Park (â€˜Alatini, 2004). The volcanic crater of Pukekiwiriki is also located within Highbrook Park. (www.highbrook.co.nz). Fisher House, the original homestead owned by Sir Woolf Fisher, was built in 1962 and now serves as a function centre and restaurant within the business park. (www.fisherhouse.co.nz). Highbrook business park now covers 107 hectares and includes 40 hectares of parkland and has views of the Tamaki River and surrounding Auckland landmarks such as One Tree Hill, Rangitoto, the Sky Tower and Mount Wellington (www.highbrook.co.nz). It mixes business and commercial spaces within open green space, shelterbelts and coastal parkland. (www.highbrook.co.nz).
FIGURE ABOVE: Highbook Business Park - Pre Development. Retrieved from http://stateofauckland.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz
YOUNG & DIVERSE
The total Ōtara
FIGURE ABOVE: Comparison of Ethnic Groups (source: 2013 census)
The 2006 and 2013 census figures confirm Ōtara’s position since the 70’s as NZ’s most ethnically diverse, and youngest suburb, with over half the residents under 25 years. It is a culturally diverse area which demands solutions which take into account the cultural narrative of the area. While it is an easy target for media and others who wish to portray it as the Harlem of the south, even a handful of field trips have exposed us as a class to a strongly committed community. Recent initiatives have had marked success, including Garden to Table and the Ōtara Health Charitable Trust, while others such as the Glenn Family Foundation are also following. The demographic features combined with other possible future trends such as the Linear City (on next page) make this potentially an extremely influential area for Auckland in the years to come
FIGURE LEFT: Ōtara: from ALGGI (http://maps.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/aucklandcouncilviewer/)
FIGURES ABOVE: source: 2013 NZ census
The Linear City. As the population of Auckland City grows, the Auckland Council believes that best strategy for future growth is to create a compact city within its existing boundaries (Bogunovich and Bradbury, 2012). However as Auckland has already seen significant growth along a north to south axis due to its geography, motorway and rail system, it is quite likely that it will continue to experience a linear form of growth in the future. With this, nodes of development will become evident along several sections of Aucklandâ€™s linear shape and this will place suburbs (such as ĹŒtara) in strategic locations along this corridor (Bogunovich and Bradbury, 2012).
FIGURE TWELVE: The Linear and Water City Retrieved from http://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10652/2166/PQ.pdf?sequence=1
Garden 2 Table Program East Tamaki School’s disused swimming pool was removed and the hole that once was the pool filled up with soil. This very large garden was then split up into smaller gardens with paths in between and a distinct Pacifica theme to it with banana trees and taro planted in the middle. The old changing sheds were given a makeover and now serve as a potting shed and extra storage space. In the past three years the size of the vegetable gardens has increased allowing more of the students to share the experience. The students continue to enjoy planting, harvesting, cooking and eating the fruits and vegetables they grow in their gardens. They are becoming experts at identifying different types of vegetables, which they may not have been exposed to at home and really appreciate the opportunity to try something new. Children willingly give up their lunchtime to sow seeds, thin out seedlings, weed the vegetable garden or just wander through to see what is growing. The vegetable garden has become even more attractive with the addition of some garden themed murals. The Garden to Table Program is a significant part of the school and they are very proud of it. (http://www.easttamaki.school.nz/Site/What_s_Happening/Garden_2_Table_Programme). ABOVE: East Tamaki School’s ‘Garden 2 Table’ Program. Retrieved from http://www.easttamaki.school.nz/Site/What_s_Happening/Garden_2_Table_Programme
Ōtara Health Charitable Trust The District Health Board estimated that in 2011 the ethnic breakdown of the area was 20% Maori, 65% Pacific, 4% Indian, 5% other Asian, and 6% other, making Ōtara one of the most ethnically diverse suburbs in New Zealand. It is also known as one of the youngest with 51% of the total population of 32,000 people under 25 years (Fleming et al, 2008). Health issues arose soon after Ōtara was formed in the early 1950s with low incomes, over-crowding and sub-standard housing partly responsible for these health problems. Early in 1994 a group of community leaders and health professionals began to meet to look up what could be done to improve the situation. In 1997, due to the determination and persistence of the group, Ōtara Health Incorporated was formed. Ōtara Health Inc. started operating in May 1998. In September 2010 they changed from being an incorporated society to a Charitable Trust and began operating as Ōtara Health Charitable Trust. The organization remains today an integral part of the community because it is of the community. Ōtara Health Charitable Trust is involved in a number of projects, services and programs aimed at achieving our annual goals and ultimately our vision of having all of Ōtara’s children thrive and achieve within a nurturing family environment and a healthy, flourishing community. Our work serves a high need and vulnerable population. 85% of the people in Ōtara live in areas classified as being in the highest range of socioeconomic deprivation (poverty) in New Zealand. ABOVE: East Tamaki School’s ‘Garden 2 Table’ Program. Retrieved from http://www.easttamaki.school.nz/Site/What_s_Happening/Garden_2_Table_Programme
The Glenn Family Foundation Businessman and philanthropist Sir Owen G. Glenn founded the Glenn Family Foundation more than thirty years ago, however the Ōtara Project is one of it’s more recent undertakings. The Foundation has given an estimated NZ$41 million to a variety of worthwhile causes all over the world including: India, Macau, China, the Philippines and Nepal in Asia; Africa, the UK, the USA and, within the Pacific, New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa and Australia; but it is Ōtara, the area he lived in when young, that Owen Glenn feels a special affinity for. The Glenn Family Foundation wants to promote strong communities by supporting the families that live in them. After speaking to more than 180 people with key positions within the community the foundation is initially working in three key areas: Education, Sport and Wellbeing. With the high proportion of youth in the area, the aim is to improve education, youth development and family dynamics.
WABOVE: East Tamaki School’s ‘Garden 2 Table’ Program. Retrieved from http://www.easttamaki.school.nz/Site/What_s_Happening/Garden_2_Table_Programme
The Southern Initiative is an important part of the Auckland Unitary Plan, it will focus on South Auckland and is designed to improve educational achievement, economic development, job growth, public transport, housing and social conditions. Activity to date: Scope of Area spatial Plans Long-term (30-year) vision for: -
Future Land use and activities
Infrastructure development and sequencing
The desired types of working environments
The size, role and function of town centres
Key transport routes and improvements
Recognition of Heritage, landscape, landmarks, and natural features.
Social and cultural facilities/ infrastructure
Public open space
Local economic development opportunities
FIGURE ABOVE: Retrieved from http://theplan.theaucklandplan.govt.nz/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/MAP-1.3Southern-Initiative-120424.pdf
In summary Ōtara exhibits an extremely rich and diverse cultural history, and is set apart in the present due to a near unique demographic. It is a motivated community which still remembers the days before the pollution that now marrs the waterways. Recent succesful programmes have proven this community can provide return on investment in community initiatives. With over half the population under 25 years of age it is an area where the lessons and narrative of the past must be called upon to help the future for the sake of all of Auckland. When Fleming et al (2008) spoke to the young about their health concerns they found a significant number concerned for the environment “We want people to think Ōtara is a cool place to be -clean up our creeks, waterways and our environment“. When asked in general what they didn’t like about Ōtara included was“dirty environments such as public toilets, the creek, parks and shops, graffiti and roaming dogs” and “creeks, waterways should be cleaned up to a standard where maybe the DHB (District Health Board) committee would put their feet in”... Better amenity for youth including places for sports and just to hang out was a common theme. As empowerment and environment are closely links in the hearts of the locals, it is clear that, if senstively done, there is potentially an exponential benefit to the community from the seemingly simple act of remediating the waterways and provding improved amenity.
FIGURE RIGHT: Retrieved from http://theplan.theaucklandplan.govt.nz/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/MAP-1.3-SouthernInitiative-120424.pdf
REFERENCES Matt’s, Meg’s, Tosh’s, Rudolf’s and Brad’s references Anderson, R.(2012,May15). The Southern Initiative. Retrieved from http://theplan.theaucklandplan.govt.nz/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/MAP-1.3-Southern-Initiative-120424.pdf ‘Alatini, M.N (2004). Housing and Related Social Conditions of the Tongan Community living in Otara, Masters Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Barton, C., Iles, M., Robinson., and Stanish, R. (1979). Otara Acculturation Project. Stanish and Withers Architects Report. Auckland, New Zealand. Bogunovich, D and Bradbury, M (2012), Alternative Auckland 2040, Planning Quarterly, March 2012, No. 184. Retrieved from http://unitec.researchbank.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10652/2166/PQ.pdf?sequence=1 Coombes, B. (2013). Maori and Environmental Justice. In C. Anderson, E. Peters, (eds) Indigenous City: Contemporary identities and Cultural Innovation. Vancover, Canada. University of British Columbia. Derby, M. (November, 2012). Suburbs - New suburbs, 1950s–1970s. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved from URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/suburbs/page-5 Fallon, H, (2004), Power Plant Chemistry, A Performance Based Approach to Cooling Water Chemistry Control. Retrieved from http://www.chemtrack.com.au/ppchem-4-2004-2.pdf Fleming, T., King, M., & Tregonning, T. (2008). Otarians Taking Care of Business: strengthening youth health and wellbeing in Otara. Counties Manukau District Health Board. Retrieved from http://www.countiesmanukau.health.nz/About_CMDHB/Planning/ Health-Status/Child-Youth/Otarians-report.pdf Fisher House, (n.d) Retrieved 13 March 2014 from http://www.fisherhouse.co.nz/ Garden 2 Table Programme.(nd).Retrieved March 16 2014, from http://www.easttamaki.school.nz/Site/What_s_Happening/Garden_2_Table_Programme.ashx Harrison, P., Macintosh, J., and Dansey, H. (1977) Whaiora Marae and Te Wai Ariki Meeting House, Otara Hart, J and Joblin,K (1989). A Tongan Family in Otara- the Alatinis. Auckland, New Zealand, Longman Paul Ltd. Highbrook, (n.d) Retrieved 13 March 2014 from http://www.highbrook.co.nz/?gclid=CJP2tef6lb0CFRdwvAodRBgAa Manukau’s Journey, a Manukau timeline, (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2014 from http://manukau.infospecs.co.nz/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?BU=http%3A%2F%2Fmanukau.infospecs.co.nz%2Fjourney%2Fhome.htm&QF0=TimeLineRef&QI0==21%20 December%201968&MR=1&TN=source&AC=QBE_QUERY&RL=0&RF=English Oldfield, J. (1990),.City of Manukau, Otara stream flat bush comprehensive flood manangement plan, Auckland, New Zealand. Otara Lake and Catchment Development Proposed Implementation Plan, (July, 1996). Auckland, New Zealand: Manukau Consultants Ltd and Kingett Mitchell and Associates. The Otara Lake Development (1977), The Anthos Landscape Co, Hamilton, New Zealand. Otara Project. (n.d).Retrieved March 16 2014, from http://www.glennfamilyfoundation.org/new-zealand-projects/otara Ringer, B. (2010, September). Otara: 55 years of community life, An Otara timeline from 1955 to 2010. Retrieved from http://www.manukau-libraries.govt.nz/EN/ManukauOurHistory/ManukauTopics/Pages/AnOtaraTimeline3.aspx Simons, B. (1993). A Brief History of Otara. Manukau City Council, Auckland, New Zealand. Schrader, B. (November 2012). Housing and government - A property-owning democracy, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 15-Nov-12. Retrieved from URL:http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/32432/otara Wilson, M. (n.d.). A History of Maori Migration in Manukau. Retrieved March, 2014 from http://www.manukau-libraries.govt.nz/EN/Maori/Pages/MaoriHistoryofManukau.aspx Who we are.(nd).Retrieved March 16 2014, fromhttp://otarahealth.org.nz/who-we-are/
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS ENERGY
A L B - S V L- A
HE N - MP E - A
ALB -HP I-A
HE N - MD N - A
WRD-HOB-A underground cable
Huapai ! Henderson
OTA - P E N - C
PEN- ROS- A
H E P- R O S - A
OTA - P E N - B OTA - OTG - A OTA - P E N - A
Hepburn Road !
Mangere ! Southdown
Pakuranga Otahuhu !
In total, 45% of New Zealand’s natural gas consumption during 2012 was used for electricity
OTA - PA K - A
generation (including co generation). Contact Energy Limited, a private electricity generator
BHL-PAK-A, BHL-PAK-B U n de r g r o u n d c a b l es 11.5 k m fro m Brownhill
since 1999, (Otahuhu B, Taranaki Combined Cycle and Stratford) and Genesis Energy Limited
M N G - OTA - A B O B - OTA - A
G L N - D E V- A
(Huntly – including the unit 5 combined cycle plant) are the main electricity generators in New Zealand using natural gas.
Drury ME R -TA K- A
Bombay ! BO B-MER- A
ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION Power is transmitted around NZ by Transpower NZ Ltd, which collects all the electricity
OTA -W K M - A
HLY- OTA - A
generated by producers like Contact Energy and feeds it to local transmission lines for
OTA -W K M - B
HA M- M E R - B
AUCKLAND’S ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
HA M- M E R - A
Auckland City uses more electricity than any other city in NZ at 28% in 2012.
OTA -W K M - C
HLY- D E V- A
HA M- W H U- A PAO-TEE-A
Piako ! HA M- D E V- A
TW H- D E V- A
Te Kowhai U n de r g r o u n d c a b l e 0. 4 k m s e c t i o n
Hamilton ! HA M- K P O - A ARI -HAM-A
HLY-T M N- A U n de r g r o u n d c a b l e 1.25 k m s e c t i o n
ARI -HAM- B
KP O-T M U- A
Te Awamutu ! HI N - K P O - A
Power Transmission Network North Island (ECNZ, 2010)
underground cables 2.6km
energy in auckland
HOB-PEN-A underground cable
HEN -RO S -A H E N - H E P- A
H E N - OTA - A MNG- ROS- A
ALB- HE N-A
ALB-WRD-C underground cable
Electricity Demand by Region for 2012 (Energy in NZ, 2012)
N A - Otahuhu Political Boundary B - Contact Energy Site
Contact Energy Otahuhu Site Visit 3.3.14
1:5000 Contact Energy Otahuhu Site Visit 3.3.14
HISTORY contact energy in
ōtara + otahuhu a
21 December 1968 – The first stage of the Otahuhu power station becomes operational. The weir is built (eastern arm of the Tamaki Estuary damned). This is later known as Otahuhu A. 1978 – Two further gas turbines were added to Otahuhu A. June 1980 – The last of a new 220kV overhead connection line is made between Otahuhu and Huntly. This will be the fifth row of power pylons in south Auckland. Tamaki Estuary pre 1968 Power Station construction (Auckland Council, 2014)
Late 1990’s – Otahuhu A gas turbines are retired from service. January 2000 – Otahuhu B is commissioned. 2001 – Consent granted for the Otahuhu C power station. 2002 – Contact announced that the construction of Otahuhu C would be deferred due to the insecurities of gas supply. 2005 – Upgrades to Otahuhu B increase its capacity from 385MW to 404MW. 2007 – Otahuhu C power station still deferred due to Contact Energy moving more towards renewable energy generation. Otahuhu A was a gas turbine system. The first four units were commissioned in 1968 making it the first large gas turbine power station in Australasia. It consisted of four 45MW gas turbine
units. In 1978 two further generating units were added, these were twin pack units using Rolls Royce Olympic gas turbines. In the late 1990’s the gas turbines were retired from service. Up until a few years ago, two of the three available units were used to provide ‘reactive power’ for the electricity transmission system.
Otahuhu 1943 Historical Map (Auckland Council, 2014)
A - Otahuhu A Power Station
F - Water Intake & Pump House
B - Otahuhu B Power Station
G - Dredge Settlement Pond
C - Contact Energy Offices & Storage
H - Water Outflows
D - Substation
I - Weir
E - Water Holding Pond
1:2000 All Photos: Contact Energy Otahuhu Site Visit 3.3.14
CURRENT site analysis
The first four units of Otahuhu A were commissioned in 1968. It was the first large gas turbine power station in Australasia. The first four generating units at Otahuhu were open cycle gas turbine units. In 1978, a further two generating units were added in order to cope with the growing demand for electricity in Auckland. The Otahuhu A gas turbines were retired from service by the late 1990s. Until last year, two of the three available units were operated to provide ‘reactive power’ for the electricity transmission system. This provides stability to the electrical system and helps minimise electricity transmission losses. The 380 megawatt power station is the largest of its kind in New Zealand and one of the most efficient in the world. The combined cycle technology which utilises both a gas turbine and steam generator using the exhaust heat produces significantly more electricity from the same amount of gas than conventional single-cycle plants like Huntly or New Plymouth. Even so, the power plant uses approximately $500,000 worth of natural gas each day to run. This natural gas fired plant comprises a Siemens V94.3A(2) gas turbine in single shaft configuration. The Heat Recovery System Generator is an unfired triple pressure with reheat. Steam cycle cooling is by a hybrid wet to dry cooling tower, using sea water makeup. At commissioning, the plant capacity was 385 MW. Running at full load, Otahuhu B provides around 25 percent of Auckland’s daily power (2014). The development of the project also saw a ground-breaking accord between the company and the Greenpeace environmental group. As a result of this accord, Contact will reduce its overall emissions from electricity generation from gas by utilising the Otahuhu plant in place of the less efficient New Plymouth station Otahuhu B Power Station (Contact Energy Website)
WATER USAGE Otahuhu B Power Station pumps water from the damned eastern arm of the Tamaki estuary to use as a cooling agent in the power generation process. In order to uptake this water the site has an inlet near the pump house. This inlet is dredged every 3-4 years to clear it of excess silt which may clog the intake pipes. Due to the toxicity of the silt in the estuary any silt that they remove in this process must be settled on site then removed and disposed of as toxic waste at an approximate cost of $200,000. On a daily basis the power station uses 250 liters of sea water every second and loses 60 liters a second to evaporation. The remaining 150-200 liters of sea water must be returned to the estuary at a temperature relative to the existing conditions of the harbour. Therefore all the water is collected in a cooling pond after use in the generation process where it cools to the required temperature before being released slowly back into the main body of the Tamaki Harbour. This process is outlined as a condition of operation by Auckland Council and is Cooling Towers, Otahuhu B. Contact Energy Otahuhu Site Visit 3.3.14
therefore tested regularly. Contact Energy also partakes in regular analysis of the estuary sea water, testing it for contaminants and to ensure they maintain the right temperature at their outflow points.
COMMUNITY ACCORD + WIER ECNZ (Electricity Corporation of New Zealand) do not hold any responsibility for the overall condition or health of the Tamaki Estuary, or lake, except where they have consent conditions involving maintenance of the weir and their water outflow requirements.
However in 1994
they did agree to improve access around the shoreline of the Contact Energy site allowing the public to walk along the shoreline. This has not yet been honored.
Contact Energy Boundary Fence. Contact Energy Otahuhu Site Visit 3.3.14
FUTURE fueling the future of auckland New Zealand faces some difficult energy choices in the years ahead as we attempt to reduce our reliance on carbon. Our electricity system has lacked strategic planning and we cannot share electricity networks with other countries. Our country has the opportunity to explore new energy pathways to provide Kiwis with a more secure future in a carbon-constrained world. Electricity plays a pivotal role in New Zealandâ€™s social and economic development, but there are currently concerns about the depletion of the Maui gas field, responses to climate change and increasing electricity use. Our future energy options are limited as there are finite stocks of fossil fuels (oil, gas, and coal). Photovoltaic Solar Panels in NZ. (Green Party website, 2014).
Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, tides, flowing water and biomass (organic matter such as plants and wood) are the best options for building a secure energy future. New Zealandâ€™s power usage is changing, large industries are using the biggest share of electricity today, compared to 25 years ago when the residential sector used the most. Most electricity is used in the main urban centers, Auckland utilizing a massive 10% and has doubled within the past 25 years. To sustain a growing economy the government predicts that energy use will grow by at least 2% each year. A secure and reliable system that is resilient to both short- and long-term disruptions to electricity use and supply is needed, but most forms of renewable energy are intermittent; they fluctuate and vary (often dependent on different weather anomalies) so need to be designed to manage these variations. Biomass and geothermal energy do not generally fluctuate, so could be combined with other renewable sources to offer more stability
Wind Turbines in Lower North Island. (Meridian Energy website, 2014).
FUTURE fueling the future of auckland Two scenarios are looked at in the report Future Currents, Electricity scenarios for New Zealand 2005–2050, published by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, that analyse the most likely paths New Zealand’s future could take. Scenario 1 continues along the current trajectory, with more major infrastructure being built to exploit New Zealand’s environmental resources to meet the increasing demand for electricity. In contrast, scenario 2 emphasizes smart design to provide energy services making Scenario 1 - Future Currents (PCE, 2005).
major changes early on, utilising human resources (knowledge, skills, and expertise) and new technology and research into renewable energy sources with alternative approaches being actively pursued to provide energy services in very efficient and innovative ways. In scenario 1 the Otara gas-fired power plant is replaced by coal between 2015-2030 as research and development investments are made into carbon dioxide capturing and sequestration and ‘Clean coal’ technologies, while in scenario 2 the Otara plant is retired as energy-efficient technologies, smart energy management systems, solar energy systems and wave power systems are implemented. Both scenarios have similar increasing energy costs to the consumer, but the latter creates a more efficient energy system with a lower impact on the environment and the earth’s limited resources. Although New Zealand needs to develop an approach that suits local needs, it is important to learn from the initiatives of other countries.
Scenario 2 - Future Currents (PCE, 2005).
ENERGY ISSUES The storage of electrical energy is one of the biggest difficulties facing our world today, but
FUTURE fueling the future of auckland
new research into renewable technologies is revealing some interesting breakthroughs that could completely change the way we use, manipulate and store energy. Some emerging technologies include solar photovoltaic, polymer solar cells, NASAâ€™s wind kites, hydrogen fuelcells, bio-fuels and hybrid energy solutions like solar/wind combinations. Combining an array of renewable sources and increasing the efficiency of the energy collected is the key. The current cost of most renewable energy sources is high, but is estimated to dramatically reduce in the near future with a large reduction in solar,wave and tidal and a moderate reduction in geothermal and wind. The power station in Otara currently holds a combined cycle power plant fired by natural gas, but a proposal has been made for a 400MW combined cycle power station. Resource consents were granted by Auckland Regional Council for the plant in 2001, but construction has never commenced. Although more efficient than coal, the natural gas being taken from the quickly depleting Maui gas field is predicted by the Environmental Defence Society (EDS) to release 1.2 million
Energy Cost Reduction - Future Currents (PCE, 2005).
tonnes of carbon dioxide in gas emissions annually. (EDS, 2002) Contact has decided priority should be given to a renewable form of power generation and is deferring a decision on the project.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY By focusing on the local Otara region, we can implement an array of localised power-saving methods within homes and businesses that increase the efficiency of the power currently being used, to minimise reliance on large power companies. By using energy more efficiently
Gas Reserves NZ (ECNZ, 2012).
CASE STUDIES fueling the future of auckland CASE STUDY ONE: GERMANY Germany’s renewable energy sector is one of the most successful in the world, producing 25% of the world’s renewable energy. It combines wind turbines and biomass plants to deliver more than 70% of its renewable generation, set a new world record installing 7,400 MW of solar PV in one year and has strong government support, policies amd legislation. Their vision for a completely renewable energy system is in full swing, with about 100,000 new jobs created in the renewable energy industry. The implementation of the German Renewable Energy Act created incentives for investment in clean energy with tax cuts and feed-in tariffs. Germany also has a strong community Localized solar panel use in Germany (Climate Change Commission, 2010).
involvement, with 90 percent of wind turbines owned by community cooperatives. They also plan to fully phase out nuclear power by 2030. New Zealand could learn from this by creating stronger policy incentives for businesses to implement efficient green energy solutions.
CASE STUDY TWO: SWEDEN Sweden has an unusual way of combining its waste and energy systems, making it the world leader in recovering energy from waste. Each year its two million tonnes of rubbish, along with extra imports, are almost completely recycled, with only 4% of all waste going into landfill. Sweden is actually being paid by other countries to create its own energy, with Norway paying Sweden to take away its excess refuse. This could be a solution to New Zealand’s energy and waste problems, although disposing of the polluted ash could become an environmental issue. As more power companies are Waste to Energy in Sweden (Climate Change Commission, 2010).
retired, designs are needed to retrofit the leftover land.
CASE STUDIES fueling the future of auckland CASE STUDY THREE: BATTERSEA POWER PLANT Rafael Viñoly Architects‘ have retrofitted the old coal-fired power plant into a carbon-free energy plant and used the site’s iconic architecture to create a vibrant mixed-use community with commercial, residential, cultural, and event spaces. It will feature the first zero-carbon office space in Central London, a new promenade running along the river, a 6 acre park and provides a new transportation solution. The design establishes an energy strategy that reduces consumption and generates a clean supply of energy through the use of renewable sources. A similar design could be implemented on the power plant site in Otara when it is retired.
CASE STUDY FOUR: WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANT BY BIG, COPENHAGEN Danish architects Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) have designed a power plant for Copenhagen that converts waste to energy and doubles as a ski slope. It will replace the neighboring power plant and will have a smokestack that expels rings of smoke whenever a ton of fossil Co2 is Battersea Power Plant Perspective (Chino, 2010).
released, acting as a signal to raise awareness of ecological issues and energy consumption amongst the inhabitants of Copenhagen. The building is wrapped in a vertical green facade made of planter modules and forms a man-made park for sporting events. Public access to new event spaces could be used when retrofitting the Otara power station.
Waste to Energy, Copenhagen. (ww, 2011).
BIBLIOGRAPHY Chino, M. (2010). Carbon-Free Battersea Power Plant Renovation Gets the Green Light. Retrieved March 2014, from Inhabitat: http://inhabitat.com/carbon-free-battersea-power-plant-renovation-gets-the-green-light/ Contact, Grant King and Sue Sheldon. (2013). Contact Annual Report. Wellington: Contact Energy. Dezeen Magazine. (2011). Waste to Energy Plant by BIG. Dezeen Magazine Online. Source: www.dezeen. com/2011/01/27/waste-to-energy-plant-by-big Environmental Defence Society Inc. (1991). SUBMISSION ON AN APPLICATION FOR RESOURCE CONSENT UNDER SECTION 96 OF THE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ACT 1991. Auckland: Environmental Defence Society Inc. Manukau City Council, Auckland Council and ECNZ. (1994). Otara Lake Action Plan and Accord. Auckland: Manukau City Council, Auckland Council and ECNZ. Modelling and Sector Trends team of the Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment (MBIE). (2013). Energy in New Zealand. Wellington: Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. New Energy Technologies. (2014). Motion Power and Solar Windows. Retrieved 2014, from New Energy Technologies: http://www.newenergytechnologiesinc.com/ Otara/Papatoetoe Local Board. (2013). Presentation to Environment and Sustainability Forum; Otara Lake Remediation. Auckland: Ōtara‐Papatoetoe Local Board . Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (PCE). (2005). Future currents, Electricity scenarios for New Zealand 2005–2050. Wellington: Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. (2005). Future Currents: Electricity Scenarios for New Zealand 2005–2050 Technical Report. Wellington: Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. Renhart T. (2014). Site Visit to Contact Energy, Otahuhu Power Station on 3.3.2014. 46
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS ECOLOGY - FLORA AND FAUNA
CONTENTS 01. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 02. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 03. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 04. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 05. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 06. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 07. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 08. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 09. HEADING .................................................................................. xx 10. HEADING .................................................................................. xx
ECOLOGY- FLORA AND FAUNA Introduction
The ecology of this region has drastically changed over the last 100 years. Originally the site was pristine coastal podocarp forest, growing on nutrient rich volcanic soils. Early settlers burnt the forest to create productive agricultural land, which it remained until being absorbed by Auckland’s sprawl. Now the area is a mixture of industrial and residential developments and the estuary that was dammed by a weir in the late 1960’s, forming what is now known as Ōtara Lake. The lake, once a rich source of fish and shellfish and a popular site for aquatic recreation is now a polluted, rubbish filled mess that has lost its character. Almost all the native vegetation has disappeared and with it most of the native birds. This change has taken away the naturally occurring ecosystem services such as storm water treatment and water filtrations and left is a fragile landscape. This is a study of the current state of flora and fauna related to the site.
FIGURE ONE: Pohutukawa Flower (Panoramio)
This map highlights the vegetation land-cover types with the Auckland region. The predominant patches indicated in the mid green colour are the native indigenous forest of the Waitakere Ranges (west) and the Hunua Ranges (east). The dominating light green represents High Producing Exotic Grassland, a vegetation cover that has low ecological benefits
connectivity. The map already demonstates a lack of indigenous forest within the urban zone.
Ecology Vs Surroundings
This 5kmradius map shows clearly from an observational point the overwhelming space used for Industrial and residential purposes in comparison to the available ecology and the Otara
lake. The further exterior of the ecology seen are mostly recreational parks and public trees that do not necessarily connect with the river so to further to acknowledge the lack of ecology in the site. Legend
Map not to scale
Native VS Exotic The mapping here illustrates the competition of native vs exotic vegetation species within the Auckland region. It is clear that native forest has more of a predominant residence in Aucklandâ€™s ecology than exotic forest, indicating a rich native ecology.
Patch-Corridor-Matrix The Patch-Corridor-Matrix map classifies Aucklandâ€™s native and exotic forests into patches according to Meurk & Hall Patch-Corridor-Matrix model. The map illustrates bird connectivity between the Waitakere Ranges and the Hununa Ranges, each patch being a habitat for bird breeding and the corridors acting as feeding spots or stepping stones between patches.
Each patch is
categorised on area size, a large patch is of 25 hectares or greater, a small patch is between 5-25 hectares and a corridor/stepping stone is an area of forest that may not be big enough to be considered a patch but contributes to the connectivity of birds between patches. The distance between the two dominant patches within Auckland is growing, ĹŒtara presents an opportunity to act as a stepping stone between these two ranges. FIGURE TWO: Meurk & Hall Patch-Corridor-Matrix model.
Fauna: Bird and Aquatic Bird Species
Bellbirds are green with a short curved bill with a fast and direct flight. They are found in native and exotic forest, scrub, farm
The Bellbird and Tui are noted Keystone species of the area. Meaning these
shelter belts, urban parks and gardens.
species have a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. Such species are described as playing a critical role
Tui prefer broadleaf forests but will tolerate quite small remnant
in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many
patches, regrowth, exotic plantations and well vegetated sub-
other organisms and ecosystems. Helping also to determine the types and
numbers of various other species in the community.
The Kereru is the only disperser of large fruits such as those of karaka, puriri and taraire. Meaning the disappearance of the kereru would be a disaster for the regeneration of native forests. The Kereru is a large bird with iridescent green and bronze
feathers on its head and a white vest. The silvereye is a common small songbird recognized by its distinctive white eye ring. Silvereye are a mobile species that forages actively for food in parklands, woodlands, suburban gardens, forests and scrublands.
The fantail is one of the most common and widely distributed native birds in New Zealand. It is easily recognized by its long tail which opens to a fan. Fantails exhibit wide tastes in habitat from mangrove forests to highly modified agricultural and urban environments.
Bird Migration Connecting birds to the ranges: The Tamaki Catchment and Otara Basin is located halfway between the Waitakere Ranges and the Hunua Ranges. Meaning that the ĹŒtara Basin and Tamaki Catchment could play an important role in connecting these two ranges for the Native Bush Bird species. Coast and Marine Bird life: At the mouth of the estuary lies the Tahuna Torea spit and this is meant to be the area with the best environmental quality and habitat diversity. As you move further down the estuary towards ĹŒtara Creek a decrease in habitat diversity is noticeable. The area is muddier and more contaminated and has a more extensive mangrove community. It has a degraded habitat which is still utilized by a few species of bird. These Coast and Marine birds have their migrations patterns to feeding grounds such as the Tamaki Estuary, Upper Waitamata and Manukau.
Aqautic Wildlife of the ĹŒtara Creek Species
The shell is a brown colour, dark brown in older specimens; pale yellow zigzag lines in younger specimens. Internally the shell is usually purple above and white below the umbonal keel. Xenostrobus secures habitat is in the upper reaches of estuaries where salinity is low for a considerable part of the year. Its common size is between 20-30 mm in length.
Small olive-green, yellow-green or greenish-brown mussel, which grows to a maximum length of 35 mm. The shell is smooth and shiny, and the interior is a lustrous purplish-gray, with the stripes often showing through the thin shell. It is reported to be tolerant of low salinity and low oxygen levels. Musculista senhousia matures in about 9 months and can live for 2 year.
Amphibola crenata is also known as the titiko or the mud-flat snail. It is a species, which lives in a habitat that is intermediate between the land and the sea, not entirely terrestrial and not entirely marine. This snail is a detritus or deposit feeder. It extracts bacteria, diatoms and decomposing matter from the surface sand. It egests the sand and a slimy secretion that is a rich source of food for bacteria. This is one of very few air-breathing marine snails with an operculum and a veliger larva. The thick shell of this species is about 20 mm in size.
Potamopyrgus is a genus of native snails. They are small, black, brown or pale snails with an obvious spire, an operculum (protective
shield) covering the aperture (shell opening) when the animal withdraws, and sometimes with nodules around the shell. Like most snails they are grazers, scraping biofilms from submerged surfaces. This species is found in upper to lower estuaries and is likely to require a certain level of salinity. Particularly high densities are found on stable mudflat areas. It can be found among rushes and under stones in the high inter-tidal zones
The Helice crassa is most commonly known as the tunnelling mud crab. It has a squarish back and two short stalked eyes, and is brownish in colour. But older specimens are beautifully coloured greenish orange. When the crab is fully grown it can reach up to measures of 4cm across. The crabs live for an average of five to six years, but sometimes they can live as long as 10 years. The crabs are found in a burrow or tunnel that they make in the mud at the high tide level. The tunnelling mud crab eats tiny living organisms - diatoms, algae and bacteria - from the mud. This type of crab is very wary and will scuttle and scurry away at the slightest movement. When out of the burrow it is easy prey for many of the Inlet’s birds and also for fish like flounder. It will defend the burrow
against intruders and may adopt a threatening posture if it’s in danger. The Aldrichetta forsteri is commonly known as the Yellow-eyed Mullet. The back is olive-green, and the belly is silver, usually with a yellow tinge. The eyes are a distinctive bright yellow, as its common name suggests, which easily distinguishes it from other coastal fish. They commonly grow to 25 centimeters. The yellow-eye mullet schools in large numbers in summer and enters bays and estuaries, and
may enter rivers. They feed on benthic detritus, algae and small invertebrates. Anguilla australis is commonly known as the Short-finned eel. The body is long and snakelike, roughly tubular and the head is small, with the jaws reaching back to below the eye or further. The colour varies considerably from one individual to another; a deep olive-green is typical but it can be much lighter; golden or even (rarely) yellowish. There are no markings of note, but the underside is pale, often silvery, and the fins greenish. When full grown, they reach about 90 cm. The short-finned eel has a typical regeneration time of 15 to 30 years for females and it reaches a maximum size of about 1.1 m and 3 kg. Males tend to be slower growing and reach a smaller adult size.
The Changing Ecology 1996
The development of ĹŒtara lake and the areas surrounding it over the past 55 years are shown in these images. At a glance it is easy to see the site has undergone dramatic industrial and residential growth. The transition prior to these images from coastal/ estuarine native podocarp forest to the image in 1959 showing the site as agricultural farm land. This transition drastically changed the ecology not only for the obvious flora change but also for the fauna of the area. The further development of the site into an urban environment with open cast mines and large scale earthworks have left the site almost unrecognisable from its
original condition. The rapid growth of the mangroves is a good indicator of the effects of these developments. Mangroves are know to increase with sediment levels. Sediment erosion is a well know effect of land use development and an ongoing issue within urban environments. In New Zealand, the rapid filling of estuaries with sediment associated with catchment deforestation has created new habitat for our only mangrove species, Avicennia marina.
The rapid expansion of mangrove forests in NZ estuaries over the last several decades has resulted in large-scale and permanent environmental changes. Effects include increased displacement/loss of other estuarine habitats such as salt marshes, sand flats and shellfish beds; impacts on navigation and recreational use; and changes in aesthetics and natural character of estuaries (NIWA,2010). These changes have been observed at ĹŒtara lake region and have prompted concern for the health of the estuary and lake due to worryingly large amounts of pollutants being released into it.
2010 The other obvious concern from these images and contributing factor to sediment increase in the estuary is the increasing impervious land cover of the region. This means more and more water is entering storm water devices and being displaced into the estuary without the natural ability of being filtered before entering. This ecological service along with others have been diminished due to the extensive environmental manipulation and damage.
Potential Development This proposed development map shows an area around the lake and lower estuarine areas showing a buffer of 60 meters from the edge. According to Meurk & Halls Patch-Corridor model this would make the lake and 10 meters from the edge a â€˜coreâ€™ grade ecological patch. Otara has the potential to become a valuable ecological stepping stone within the wider Auckland network and increase the potential for ecological services to help solve some of the current environmental issues in the area. Such a development would not only help clean up the water and provide a healthy habitat for native flora and fauna but also provide the community with a beautiful natural park to enjoy Otara lakes full potential. The issue is the current development already exists within this buffer and is shown as the red patches on the map. A potential solution would be to increase the buffer in certain areas, especially to incorporate the volcanic crater. This would still allow ĹŒtara lake to become a valuable ecological patch.
Case Study 1 Elevated Wetlands Toronto, Canada The Elevated Wetlands are functional sculptures, symbols of the integration of the plastics industry, art and the environmental stewardship of the area. The sculptures were developed through a partnership between the City of Toronto, the Plastics Industry Association and the artist Noel Harding. The sculptures draw attention to the importance of wetlands as an ecosystem. A solar powered pump lifts water from the Don River into a series of raised “planters” where native wetlands plants and trees naturally remove pollutants from the water. From the smallest container, water is emptied into a natural land based wetland, and flows back into the Don River. The surrounding area has been naturalized through volunteer tree plantings to create a natural buffer between the sculptures and the Don Valley Parkway (Ruthard, 2005). An idea like this could be implemented into Otara to bring attention to the environmental issues and help the community understand the potential of a healthy wetland. A fun design solution like this could bring Ōtara to the forefront of storm water treatment in New Zealand and push the boundaries for all future developments.
FIGURE THREE: Elevated Wetlands
Case Study 2 Renaturation of the Seymaz Geneva, Switzerland This project looks specifically at renaturalisation, promoting the idea of ‘dialogue’ between land, erosion, construction and digression. In order to tackle the problem at hand, this project looks to redefine problem solving through interpretation rather than ‘definitive solution’. The rich, exuberant wetlands and water management, together help yield connection and set out a rich, diverse system that enhances the public rural space.
FIGURE FOUR: Renaturation of the Seymaz
The assessment of the site has demonstrated how the ecology has changed extensively over the last 100 years. The site currently indicates an unhealthy environment that does not fulfill its ecological potential. The analysis of the connectivity of the wider Auckland region showed that the cities ecological hubs are growing more and more apart. The benefit of another healthy steeping stone would increase the value of the whole regions network. ĹŒtaraâ€™s location within Auckland presents an opportunity for it to become a valuable ecological corridor between the two predominant ecosystem hubs. The native fauna of Otara seems to have depleted to a depressing level due to the deforestation of the inner city. Through looking at various case studies and this greater understanding of the flora and fauna conditions it is still possible to recreate a healthy ecological environment in this area that would not only benefit the local community but the entire Auckland ecological network.
FIGURE FIVE: Tui Bird (Terrain)
References & Bibliography
Figure 1- http://www.panoramio.com/photo/46332101 (Panoramio)
Figure 2- Lindenmayer D B, Fischer J. 2006. Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change:
an ecological and conservation synthesis. Island Press. Washington D.C
Figure 3- http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/elevated-wetlands-art-
Figure 4- http://www.ar-ter.ch/publications/paisea_sept09_web.pdf (Ar-ter)
Figure 5- http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/new-plant-page/nz-flax.html
In-text citation: (Ar-ter)
In-text citation: (Ruthard)
In-text citation: (NIWA)
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS TAMAKI ESTUARY + ŌTARA LAKE
The Tamaki Estuary is a 17km tidal inlet on the eastern border of Auckland City and northwestern
catchments that also contribute to stormwater discharge. Other areas of the catchment are
border of Manukau City. The estuary covers an area of approximately 1600 ha, and has an
mostly residential with some rural aspects still remaining.
urban catchment of approximately 11,500 ha. The channel has a depth of approximately 14m, though much of it is less than 5m deep. (Abrahim and Parker 2002). There are a number
Most of the estuary contains low relief, intertidal sand/mudflats. Mangrove forests have
of tributaries that radiate out from the main channel, the largest of these are: Pakuranga
established in the main body of the channel and have spread expansively in the upper
Creek, Panmure Basin, Otahuhu Creek and Otara Creek.
reaches of the estuary and the connecting tributaries. There are a number of designated coastal protection areas on the Tamaki, the main reasons are to protect, geology and
There are areas of localised contamination and sedimentation that attest to the industrial
landforms, wading birds, mangroves, wildlife, habitat and intertidal banks.
history of the region. The Tamaki Estuary is one of the more contaminated estuaries in the Auckland area. This report investigates the current state of the waterway and how site specific
Water velocity is typically less than 1m.s-1 except where the current passes through
remediation techniques could help to restore the water body and associated ecosystems to
constrictions such as the Panmure Basin and the ĹŒtara weir. Maximum current velocities in
a level where human interaction and community connection is possible.
the main channel are at the lowest above Otahuhu Creek and greatest on the constricted bends of Panmure, Point England and Tahuna Torea. The upper reaches of the estuary are
Stormwater and occasionally wastewater is discharged throughout the length of the estuary.
almost dry at low tide, as are large areas of the outer estuary in the vicinity of Tahuna Torea.
Tamaki, Mount Wellington and East Tamaki, are the major industrial areas that discharge
The main channel remains filled at all times, at high tide the estuary is almost completely
stormwater into the estuary. There are a number of smaller industrial and commercial
underwater (Kelly, 2008).
THE ESTUARY Current State of the Estuary Ōtara Lake is situated to the east of state highway one and feeds into the Tamaki River. Ōtara Lake was formed in 1968 when the New Zealand Electricity Department constructed a weir across the mouth of the Ōtara Creek tributary. The construction of the weir provides a constant pool of water used to cool the Otahuhu Power Station. Suspended Sediments
Urbanisation -Impervious surface increase -Housing development -Commercial development -Roads -Weir
cycle, allowing water to flow in and out of the lake. Although a large amount of water is flowing into the creek at each tidal cycle the once fully tidal estuary is now a permanent lake that is held below the level of the weir. There are removable gates meant to occasionally drain the lake or carry out maintenance. Ōtara Lake is approximately 50 ha in area and receives runoff from a catchment area of
approximately 3,500 ha. The main sub-catchment area affecting Ōtara Lake is the Flatbush Wastes
-Industrial -Heavy metals -Roof runoff - Zinc -Landfill Leaching
-Residential -Commercial -Infrastructure
Stormwater Figure 1. Pollution Contributor Diagram
The top of the weir is approximately at sea level; it is over topped around half tide each tidal
WeirTidal flowsEstuary bed frictionroughness, mangroves, vegetation
catchment. Other sub-catchments affecting the lake are: Mayfield, Lorien, Glibert, Rongamai, Hillary, Power Station (Hellbays), Spring (Leonard), Kerwin, Lovegrove, Ngati, Ōtara Stream. An accord was signed in 1994 between Auckland Regional Council, Manukau City Council and the former Electrical Corporation of New Zealand. The accord conveyed the need to improve the environment of Ōtara Lake, by improving the water quality, access to the lake and local amenity. The construction of the weir altered the natural process of the tidal flow, causing a number of significant changes to the lake’s environment. The containment of the water resulted in sediment build up in the lake, and altering the tidal cycle of the lake has caused mangroves to expand across the lake. The construction of the weir means the water is no longer flushed tidally, which has caused siltation and the rapid expansion of mangroves (Golder Associates, 2010).
Figure 2. Current state of the Estuary Diagram
Land use and Species Diversity Many parts of the estuary have been heavily modified since the 1950s. Changes include “reclamation”, and the construction of bridges, Wharves, marinas, breakwaters, a weir (Ōtara Creek), storm water ponds (the Grange Golf Course), and boat ramps. Three main bridges dissect the main body of the estuary: Panmure Bridge (SH10) and the Pakuranga Motorway (SH5) in the mid-estuary, and State Highway One in the upper estuary and Otahuhu Creek. Ti Rakau Drive also crosses the upper Pakuranga Creek, and Highbrook Drive crosses Ōtara Creek. All these bridges carry significant volumes of traffic (ARC 2008). Copper, Lead and Zinc concentrations are elevated in this area, most likely due to the close proximity to industry and these major arterial roading networks (NZTA 2011). High sediment loading from the greater catchment has allowed mangroves to dominate the waterway South West of the SH5 bridge Poor water quality, sedimentation and infrastructure disturbance have negatively impacted the ecology of the estuary especially in the highly contaminated areas in its older, densely urbanised headwater zones such as Ōtara, Middlemore, Pakuranga, Otahuhu, and Panmure, however species abundance and diversity increases in the outer estuary. This could be attributed to land use immediately adjacent to the lower reaches of the waterway being almost exclusively residential and green space including two nature reserves at Wai O Taiki Figure 3. Tamiki Estuary
and Tahuna Torea Spit.
The colonisation of mangroves expanded rapidly during 1959 and 2001, most of the growth is along the middle and upper reaches of the creek. The construction of the weir in 1968 to form the lake is most likely what has caused the spread of mangroves. The weir has altered the tidal flow, which would otherwise naturally flush out siltation with the out going tide. This has resulted in a build up of sedimentation in the lake and caused the growth of mangroves. Current studies around the growth patterns and water levels in the creek suggest that most of the mangrove habitat has reached its full potential extent. If sedimentation built up in places such as the mudflat at the upper reaches of the lake creating an exposed intertidal zone, this area would be prone to mangrove expansion in the future (Golder Associates, 2010).
There are two dredging techniques that are considered suitable for ĹŒtara Lake depending on the material properties and dewaterability of the material. These options are cutter suction dredge and barge mounted excavation. Cutter Suction Dredge This involves pumping the dredged material directly to the dewatering site through an enclosed pipeline. This method minimises disturbance and turbidity in the lake and eliminates Figure 4. Cutter Suction Dredge
the multiple sludge handling required by other dredging techniques. This method does have a disadvantage of being relativle slow as it removes water as well as sludge. Large quantities of water onshore needs to be managed and can be problematic when dealing with contaminated sludge. Barge Mounted Excavator This method would allow a large amount of water to free drain from the sludge before it is transferred to the dewatering area or equipment. This will most likely need to be transported ashore by floating barges or something similar. This material then needs to be transported by truck to the dewatering area, which results in an increase in the level on handling required and can lead to odour issues for the surrounding area (Auckland Council, 2012).
Figure 5. Barge Mounted Excavator
LAKE REMEDIATION DEWATERING TECHNIQUES Mechanical Dewatering Utilises a mobile, containerised centrifuge. The solids content of the dredged material will likely exceed the optimum parameters for dewatering with centrifuges, so further investigation is required before utilising this technique. Geobag Dewatering Typically used with cutter suction dredging. Geobag dewatering takes approximately twice as long as mechanical dewatering for a given sludge volume, which, given the estimated volume of sediment, would be in excess of four years. Area restrictions for this method would apply to ĹŒtara Lake and needs to be investigated further. Figure 6. Air Drying Process
Air Drying This is the most efficient method of dewatering for large quantities of sludge when suitable areas and weather windows are avaliable. In order to maximise effeciency of this dewatering method, barge mounted excavation is recommended. A bunded drying area on-site would be used to spread the excavated sludge, turned and windrowed to speed the air drying process. An area of approxamitley 2 hectares is avaliable and around 8000 cubic metres could be dried at a time. Once the desired solids content is reached, the sludge can either be spread on the surrounding site, or mixed with cement to produce mudcrete and used as an engineered fill material on other parts of the site. Based on the above process, a period of 1824 months should be achievable for air drying and spreading (Auckland Council, 2012).
Constructed Wetlands Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to utilize the natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and the associated microbial
Schematic layout of a constructed wetland with horizontal subsurface flow.
assemblages to assist in treating wastewaters. They are designed to take advantage of many
1 Inflow distribution zone filled with large stones; 2 impermeable layer;
of the same processes that occur in natural wetlands, but do so within a more controlled
3 filtration material;4 vegetation; 5 water level in the bed; 6 outflow collection
environment. This is option could work best as an initial remediation device on the ĹŒtara Lake
zone; 7 drainage pipe; 8 outflow structure with water level adjustment.
and estuary site. Because wetlands have a higher rate of biological activity than most ecosystems, they can transform many of the common pollutants that occur in conventional wastewaters into harmless byproducts or essential nutrients that can be used for additional biological productivity. These transformations are accomplished by virtue of the wetlandsâ€™s area, with the inherent natural environmental energies of sun, wind, soil, plants, and animals. Because of the natural environmental energies at work in constructed treatment wetlands, minimal fossil fuel energy and chemicals are typically needed to meet treatment objectives Constructed treatment wetlands have evolved during the last five decades into a reliable treatment technology which can be applied to all types of wastewater including sewage, industrial and agricultural wastewaters, landfill leachate and stormwater runoff. (Vymazal 2010). With areas of the site containing a closed landfill, treatment of the leachate runoff is an essential
Figure 7. Constructed Wetland Diagram
REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES to improving the water quality of the lake. Constructed wetlands offer an opportunity to
landfill, any potential of leachates being deposited into the Cape Fear River, is prevented.
cleanse leachates through a natural process. By utilizing constructed wetlands, it can reduce
costs, minimize operational costs, and provide habitat for wildlife. The constructed wetland is able to cleanse the water due to the matrixes of cells containing gravel and wetlands plants. By keeping the leachate water at a level within the root zone, the rhizosphere of plants such
as reeds and cattails are able to chemically react to degrade toxins within the leachate
Phytoremediation is a technology that utilizes plants to remove and degrade contaminants
water. The flow between the cells is controlled by hydraulic pressure that moderates water
found in soil,groundwater,surface water and the atmosphere. Plants have the potential to be
flow from cell to cell and controls the amount of flow during rain periods. In some cases, the
useful in wastewater and soil cleanup, due to their ability to evapo- transpirate groundwater,
newly cleansed leachate water is re-circulated back onto the capped landfill to increase the
and produce enzymes that help in the degradation of contaminants found in soil and water.
decomposition process. (Mulamoottil 1999)
Due to the high toxicity of leachate,phytoremediating plants would have to be used as a
In most cases the use of constructed wetlands results in a one-fourth less cost over conventional
subsequent process in the treatment of toxins (Granley & Truong. 2012)
leachate treatment systems. Plants can be used as a natural rhizomatic cap for a landfill. Through dense production of Case Study
rhizomatic and capillary roots, hybrid poplar trees have the ability to provide a dense matting
Knotts A. M, (2005). A landfill reclamation project. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State. USA
that prevents water from penetrating into the core of the land- fill. Natural caps have the potential to replace synthetic caps. By creating a “sponge and pump” system water is
New Hanover County in North Carolina utilized the construction of wetlands to treat landfill
discouraged from penetrating the caps. These so-called “Tree Caps” rely on rootable soil
waste. The five acre site project was made possible by a $785,000 grant from the North
and other vegetated cover on top of the landfill. Other trees can be utilized such as fast
Carolina Clean Water Trust Fund. Not only has the system provided a natural environment
growing Cottonwoods and Aspens. A study done on the Ecolotree Buffer, showed that the
for the cleansing of leachates but has also provided habitat for local wildlife, improved the
natural barrier reduced groundwater nitrates concentrations from 50-100 mg to less than 5
aesthetics of the site, and reduced operational and maintenance costs. By creating a closed
mg. Poplars are the ideal tree in this system since they are fast growers, after 7 years of growth
loop system that collects the treated leachate water that is then re- applied to the capped
they grow to a height of 7’-0”. (Poplar Technology)
Inflatable Weir An inflatable weir is a bladder made of heavy-duty nylon-reinforced rubber, with a special
•Greater opening expanse provides greater passage for debris
cover to withstand ozone and ultraviolet light. Advantages include low cost compared to
•Better provision for fish passage
other controlled gates, low environment impact, long service life, very low maintenance,
•Can be used in conjunction with undershot gates
and ease of construction. Potential disadvantages include a chance of resonance, sloshing,
•No vertical limitation above culvert for actuation
potential vandalism, and damage through puncturing or cutting (Savatech. 2014). Disadvantages Tilting Weir (lay-flat gate)
•Expensive, the installation of concrete supporting structure both intensive and expensive. •Ongoing maintenance can be intensive and expensive
The tilting weir closes vertically against a culvert and opens horizontally. When vertical water
•Manual operation requires human intervention
passage is prevented in both directions. When fully horizontal, water transfer is allowed in both directions. The horizontal action requires little space above the gate for operation. Mostly
constructed from marine grade aluminium or stainless steal, lay-flat gates can be retrofitted
Fish passage is inaccessible when the gates are closed. When open, fish passage is only
between existing concrete walls, pipes or stand alone units to suits system requirements. These
possible when water levels are high enough to over top of the gate. When the gates are fully
structures provide excellent water level control within the system can assist in management
opened, only the dimensions of the culvert and the velocity of water restrict passage.
of the ground water ASS remediation and the manipulation of tidal or storm waters. Sluice Gates Advantages •Provide excellent water level control, flood protection, drainage or tidal exchange capacity
Sluice gates use a sliding panel to regulate flow through an aperture. Sluice gates can be
•Provides excellent sealing capacity
designed to provide a vertical, horizontal or rotational direction of this action. The nature of
•Fully adjustable to maintain desired water level about the entire depth of the watercourse
this action not only allows tidal flushing but also provides excellent water level control as the
•Can be retrofitted to existing headwalls or piers
aperture size can be adjusted as required to suit management objectives. The position of the
•Manual actuation systems less expensive. Provision for data logging equipment and
aperture can be varied to further enhance water level control. The action can be operated
automated actuation systems for development as a smartgate
by a worm drive or by cable winches to suit the system in which it is to be installed.
WEIR STRUCTURES Advantages •Fully adjustable for excellent water level control in non-flood events •Can be retro-fitted to existing gates or culverts •Designs are often inexpensive •Better provision for fish passage •The vertical action can be operated in all conditions and water levels •In winch activated systems; the handle may be removed to reduce the risk of unauthorised tampering or vandalism. Disadvantages •Friction can develop in the tracks whilst opening or closing gates •Requires manual operation, although less so than for winches •Requires manual closure during flood events Fish Passage Although the aperture size is a restriction on fish passage, the greater opening periodicity of the gate allows passage during both tide events. Passage is blocked completely for the duration of closure. Narrow apertures combined with high head pressure can increase the velocity of water to a rate beyond those navigable by fish. Considerations Figure 8. Weir structure
The timing of gate operation is significant in respect to climatic conditions, agricultural cycles and tidal height. The design may have a vertical limitation above the culvert to make room for operating mechanisms. Plans for achieving management objectives and ongoing maintenance should be developed to ensure correct operational functionality of sluices (Rampano, 2009).
Tui Mine Remediation project, Waikato The project was undertaken in two stages of remediation. Phase one involved the preparatory work and treatment of the old, underground mine workings. The site is 1.5 ha of dam. Historically the workings in the mine discharged contaminated water into the Tunakohora stream. These workings were capped with an alkaline solution (lime) and cement. The cement and lime was injected into the ground to balance the strong acidic conditions of the site. Phase two involved remediating the tailings of the dam are. A one-meter cap of clean fill was placed over the new shaped land and grassed over. This was to stop oxygen and water entering the newly stabilized tailings in short term until the young vegetation cover is established. Project concluded in 2013.
Figure 9, 10, 11. Tui Mine Remediation phases
Tahuna Torea, Tamiki Estuary Tahuna Torea is a 1.5km coastal reserve located on a sand spit that extends into the northern part of the Tamiki Estuary. It consists of salt marshes, sand banks, tidal lagoons and mangroves. Human disturbance such as farming caused harmful affects and degradation. A strategy was put in place to remediate the depredated land, to anticipate the course of succession and assist with the limited planting (Barfoot, 2007). A fresh water pond was created and filled by a near by natural stream. This enhanced the area for wildlife habitats and the community. The regeneration and revegetation aimed to recreate a swamp forest. Over the last thirty years restoration and tree planting has taken place and continues today. The reserve is still in working progress and has been designed for wildlife predominantly over humans. Through natural process it is anticipated that the reserve with revert back to its original condition as a stretch of coastal forest, marsh and swamp.
Figure 12. Tahuna Torea
Dredge City: Sediment catalysis Dredge City: sediment catalysis employs the idea as a catalysis by accelerating chemical change as a design strategy in the remediation of Lake Erie, North America. It aims to restructure the dredge management system and leverage it as a continuous, functional resource (Moffitt, 2013) The condition of lake has decreased over the last one hundred years and resulted in the loss of over fifty percent of its coastal wetlands and the emergence of toxic algae. The strategy involves the re-use of dredged material from shipping channels to assist with remediation of wetlands. Dredge city is sited near the lake in Edison Park in Ohio where the processing of the sediment takes place. Sediment is hydraulically dredged from shipping channels and transported to the park by barge. Once the dredge has arrived at the park it goes through a series of cells where it is treated and separated into classes or types of sediment. Each class preforms a unique function in remediation and construction of wetlands. These classes include sediment treated through a rhizofilltration process and released back into the river, de-watered dredge treated with phytoremediation (a valuable capping material for wetland remediation) and the third process involves a reserved container where additives are applied to the sediment, increasing its drainage and structural opportunities. The park not only acts as a catalysis for dredge management, but a social and recreational park where the land form creates a passive theater for the user consisting of raised a circulation system, elevated planters that bring shade to the park as well as assisting with erosion control and stormwater runoff. The proposed series of constructed wetlands act as a â€˜stopoverâ€™ site for water flow and wildlife. The location of the wetlands were determined through wildlife flight patterns and habitats. Figure 13. Dredge remediation and Process as theatre
Figure 14. Dredge remediation and Process as theatre
0.8M 0.6M 0.4M 0.2M 0M -0.2M -0.4M -0.6M -0.8M
This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.
Scale @ A4 1:8000
Created: Sunday, 16 March 2014,12:15:09 p.m.
0 37.5 75
Figure 15. Sedimentation volumes
SEDIMENTS Sediment volumes were determined by probing the depth of the mud, which indicated mud depths were shallowest in the main channel, and that there is a minimum of 175,000m3 of sediment in the lake. Comparing bathymetric survey information from 2001 and 2010 indicate that there are large areas of the lower lake where water depth has decreased by up to 0.2m, as well as areas where water depth has decreased by up to 0.8m in the given time period. Survey information shows that in the area up to just upstream of the intake has accreted at a rate of about 0.03m/year, with spot areas in the upper section of the lake also showing sedimenet buildup on average of 0.03m/year. Combining this information with previous estimates (1982-1991) show historically that sediment is accreting at a rate between 0.03 0.06m/year over the last 28 years. The physical characteristics of this sediment were composed of mud (silt and clay) with minor amounts of sand. Analysis of sediment samples indicated that major contaminants were â€˜urbanâ€™ metals, including copper, leand, and zinc. Copper concentrations have remained relativley static from a 1995 survey, whereas zinc concentrations have increased, due to an increase in zinc sources in the surrounding catchment, such as roofing materials and increasd vehicle numbers due to increased urbanisation. Lead levels were shown to have decreased dramatically, as a result of lead being removed from petrol. All three key metals are contributors to poor sediment quality, and as a result are leading to an impact on the well-being of estuarine biota inhabiting sediment in the lake (Golder Associates, 2010).
Figure 16. Lake Sediment
HIGHBROOK DRIVE RESERVE
NGATI OTARA PARK
APPROX 2.39 HECTARES
This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.
Map Title Scale @ A4 1:8000
Created: Sunday, 16 March 2014,12:15:09 p.m.
Figure 17. Landfill Location Diagram
LANDFILL Within Ngati Ōtara Park is a known closed landfill with anecdotal evidence suggesting that
sporadic landfilling within the northern areas of the park may have occurred, however, the extent of this and locations are unknown. There is no liner or leachate collection system
Gas coming from a landfill can also be used to evaporate leachate. The idea behind this
currently used within the closed landfill, and this area is known to produce gasses in dangerous
system is to use LFG collected on-site as an energy source to evaporate H2O and combust the
concentrations (Auckland Council, 2012).
volatile organic compounds in the leachate. Evaporation is the only “treatment” technology avaliable today that will rid the water component from water-based waste streams, which
Landfill Gas Energy Technologies
can potentially reduce the total volume of leachate to less than 5% of the original volume.
The closed landfill is a major problem for the health of the lake, as well as the surrounding
area due to gas emissions and leaching. This provides an opportunity for the possible introduction of landfill gas energy technologies to address leaching and energy generation.
Electricity production from LFG is the most common use application, with LFG being burnt in
Direct use of landfill gas (LFG) is most commonly used to offset the use of another fuel for
an internal combustion engine, gas turbine, or microturbine. Potential tecnologies that could
energy production or in leachate evaporation, and there is a number of potential methods
be explored include:
that could be applied to the Ngati Ōtara Park closed landfill. Reciprocating engines Process Heat Generation Work on the same principle as traditional liquid fuel powered internal combustion engines, This is the simplest and usually most cost effective use of LFG as a fuel for a boiler or industrial
but are modified to run on methane gas produced from a landfill.
process. This involves piping gas directly to a location where it can be used in a new or existing combustion engine as a replacement or supplementary fuel. This system also requires
on limited condensate removal and filtration treatment. A LFG gas turbine is very similar to a natural gas turbine and are one of the cleanest fossilInfrared Heaters
fueled power generation equipment avaliable.
This process involves a gas-fired infrared heater that burns gas to heat a radiating surface
that then emits infrared energy when at high temperatures. These are very effective for spot heating and heating large areas. These systems are especially helphul in providing heating to
These are small combustion turbones that can be used in stationary power generation
buildings surrounding the landfill.
application and can run on landfill gas with a methane content as low as 30% (Krakow, 2010).
Phase one: Remediation Implement remedial work to control the levels of sediment and pollutants entering the lake
Phytoremediation on site and throughout the wider catchment.
Investigate the use of rain gardens, swales and constructed wetlands to treat road and
industrial runoff at or close to the source.
and estuary from the catchment and immediate site. Bacteria and Viruses Sediment and Floatables
Lawns, roads, leaky sanitary sewer lines, sanitary sewer cross-connections, animal waste,
Streets, lawns, driveways, roads, construction activities, atmospheric deposition, drainage
channel erosion 1. Address sewage overflows from the old, combined wastewater/storm water drains. 1.
Community education and participation to reduce rubbish in the ĹŒtara Stream, Nagti
ĹŒtara Park, lake and estuary sties.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Improve wider catchment storm water management practices to reduce sediment
Lawn fertilizers, atmospheric deposition, automobile exhaust, soil erosion, animal waste,
and water volume entering the site.
Address techniques in construction and development to limit or mitigate exposed soil
particulate entering the waterways.
Metals inc. Zn, Cu and Pb
Investigate floating wetlands along lake edge.
Encourage the use of rain gardens, swales and constructed wetlands to treat road and
fertilizer runoff at or close to the source.
Automobiles, bridges, atmospheric deposition, industrial areas, soil erosion, corroding metal surfaces, combustion processes
On site works
Investigate the use of rain gardens, swales and constructed wetlands to treat road and
Initiate planting and green infrastructure projects including constructed wetlands, floating
industrial runoff at or close to the source.
wetlands, swales and rain gardens. In doing so, addressing water quality and sedimentation
Reduce Zn contamination by treating/painting exposed roofing material in adjacent
issues, enhancing habitat and improving community connection to the site.
Encourage green roof construction in new builds.
Investigate the implications of dredging ĹŒtara Lake and the potential to reuse the resulting material on site.
Oil and Grease/ Hydrocarbons Roads, driveways, parking lots, vehicle maintenance areas, gas stations, illicit dumping to
Carry out required stabilisation of the old landfill area. Issues involve methane gas
management, soil contamination land subsidence and leachate.
REMEDIATION TIMELINE Phase two: Utilization Take steps to make the water body usableâ€Ś Develop a design conducive to staged public access and enhanced community use of the area. This may include walkways, boat ramps, viewing platforms, active and passive recreation spaces and amenity planting. Reduce or eliminate the power stations reliance on the lake. Implement cyclical flushing of ĹŒtara Lake. This will most likely require redesign or rebuild of the weir structure. Closely monitor the effects this has on the homeostasis of the estuarine environment, specifically the impacts on sedimentation, salinity and habitat. Use bioremediation techniques to further improve the stream and lake water quality. Some examples to explore include the introduction of mollusks, bacteria and filtration planting. Maintenance dredging may be required
Phase three: Restoration Figure 18. Wetland
Explore the potential to remove the weir and return the whole site to a functioning estuarine environment where natural processes prevail to gain maximum ecological/green infrastructure benefits at minimum cost. This could strengthen the communities association with the waterway, providing food, recreational, educational and amenity opportunities while enhancing habitat and biodiversity. Entertaining the restoration of the estuary may mitigate or better accommodate future climate change issues including more frequent/ intense storm events, sea level rise and storm water management required with projected urban intensification of ĹŒtara.
Figure 19. Weir
The current state of the estuary is highly degraded and polluted and presently unusable for recreation activities. The main sources contributing to the degradation of the waterway are issues such as the storm water management in the greater catchment, the installation of the ĹŒtara Lake weir effecting natural tidal and sedimentation processes, adjacent industrial activities and the landfill at Nagti ĹŒtara Reserve. In light of these problems, different remediation techniques have been researched and the most applicable to the site explored. These include dredging techniques, dewatering of the subsequent sediment, the installation of various forms of wetland and phytoremediation, weir design techniques to replicate natural tidal cycles and better accommodate aquatic movement, and ideas for utilising sediment and landfill gas on site The time frame for this restoration has been broken into phases because of the scale of the clean up required and the length of time this is projected to take. Once each phase is complete the opportunity to advance to finer scale issues develops.
Figure 20. Tamiki Estuary
REFERENCES Auckland Regional Council. (n.d) Discharges to Land and Water. Retrieved from http://www.aucklandcity.
Manakau City Council. (2010) Otara Lake Bathymetry and Sediment Survey. Auckland, New Zealand: Golder
Chapter%205%20Discharges%20to%20Land%20and%20Water,%20and%20Land%20Management.pdf 10.03.2014 Manakau City Council. (1995) The Dredging and disposal of sediment from Otara Lake: A Scoping Study Auckland Council. (n.d) Greater Tamiki CRE Stormwater Network Feedback form. Retrieved from http://
Auckland, New Zealand: Kinegtt Mitchell & Associates ltd.
Moffitt, M. (2013) Dredge City. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org/2013studentawards
Barfoot, C. (2007) Tahuna Torea: tip-site to Nature Reserve. Tamiki Estuary Protection Society, Auckland Mulamoottil G, McBean A, Rovers F. (1999) Constructed wetlands for the treatment of landfill leachates. Campbell, C.S, Ogden, M.H. (1999) Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape. Retrieved from http:// books.google.co.nz/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CNNml_0IfKoC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=wetlands+treating+landfill+leac
Otara-Papatoetoe Local Board (2013) Otara Lake and Otara Creek: Report on remedial work to improve the
natural environment of the lake and creek. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/138200940/Otara-Lakeand-Otara-Creek-Report-on-remedial-work-to-improve-the-natural-environment-of-the-lake-and-creek
Dudek, J. Kilmek, P. Kolodziejak, G. Niemczewska, J. Zaleska-bartosz. (2010) Landfill Gas Energy Technologies. Retrieved from https://www.globalmethane.org/data/1022_lfg-handbook.pdf
Rampano, B. (2009) Water control structures: Designs for natural resource management on coastal floodplains: A review.
Retrieved from http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/302583/Water-Control-
Dyrhoff (2014) http://www.dyrhoff.co.uk/our-products/inflatable-rubber-dams/ 09.03.2014
Granley, B.A. Truong, P.N (2012) A Changing Industry: On-site Phytoremediation of Landfill Leachate Using Tress
Waikato Regional Council (n.d). Tui Mine Remediation Project. Retrieved from
and Grasses â€“ Case Studies. Global Waste Management Symposium. Retrieved from
Grogan, E. (2008) Industrial Stormwater Pollution Prevention Program ISP3 Implementation Plan. Prepared for
Shaver, E & Suren, A. (2011) . Assessing Impacts of State Highway Stormwater Runoff on Stream Invertebrate
Waikato Regional Council. Retrieved from http://www.waikatoregion.govt.nz/PageFiles/11274/TR0806.pdf
10.03.2014 Savatech. (2014) http://www.savatech.eu/environmental-protection-and-rescue/rubber-dam.html 09.03.2014 Kelly, S. (2008) Environmental Condition and Values of Mangere Inlet, Whau Estuary and Tamiki Estuary. Auckland, New Zealand: Coast and Catchment ltd. Technical Report 2008/031
Vymazal, J. (2010). Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Open Access Water
Image References Figure1. Chloe Nelson, 2014 Figure 2.Michelle Ineson, 2014 Figure 3. http://www.forestandbird.org.nz/what-we-do/branches/central-auckland/favourite-walks-in-the-city Figure 4.http://www.dredgingtoday.com/2013/04/15/usa-dsc-presents-shark-class-cutter-suction-dredger/ Figure 5. http://www.maritimejournal.com/news101/dredging/rowing_course_challenge_for_dredging_ contractor Figure 6. http://www.uat.com.au/geobags.html Figure 7. http://books.goolgle.co.nz/treatmentwetlandsolutions Figure 8. http://erubberdam.co.kr/en/index.asp Figure 9. http://www.tonkin.co.nz/News-Tui-Mine.asp Figure 10. http://www.tonkin.co.nz/News-Tui-Mine.asp Figure 11. http://www.tonkin.co.nz/News-Tui-Mine.asp Figure 12. http://www.auckland-apartment.co.nz/nearby_attractions Figure 13. http://www.asla.org/2013studentawards Figure 14.http://www.asla.org/2013studentawards Figure 15. Nick Sisam, 2014 Figure 16. http://www.kansas.com/2011/10/23/2073622/sediments-a-growing-problem-in.html Figure 17. Nick Sisam, 2014 Figure 18. http://www.visitzealandia.com/what-is-zealandia/conservation-restoration/wetland-restoration/ Figure 19. Chloe Nelson, 2014 Figure 20. Chloe Nelson, 2014
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS
OPEN SPACES | RECREATION NETWORKS | HOUSING
SHAYNE NORONHA | RIYASP BHANDARI | VAUGHAN MACKENZIE-BROWNE
Located 18 kilometers to the southeast of the Auckland CBD, New Zealand, Otara lies near the head of the Tamaki River, which extends south towards the Manukau Harbour. Otara is surrounded by the suburbs of Otahuhu, Middlemore, Mangere, Papatoetoe, Highbrook, Wiri, Manurewa, Manukau Heights, Flatbush, Botany Downs, Pakuranga and Howick. A large number of the population is made up by Pacific Islander residents (68%) and low number of New Zealand European (Pakeha) residents (13%). Politically, Otara falls under the OtaraPapatoetoe Local Board.
FIGURE 1: Ngati Ōtara Marae - Multicultural Marae for the community to share
FIGURE 2: John Rodgers Bridge
The subdivision consists of mainly medium density housing (2745 dwellings), which accommodates 13,182 residents. While a large percentage of the area is covered in housing, Otara also accommodates a number of open spaces and recreational services at varied scales. Adjacent to the south of the Otara Lake, Ngati Otara Park holds the potential to accommodate multiple sports fields as well as the implementation of remedial works to address the issues surrounding the contaminated lake. Today, Otara is a suburb that holds its sense of community at heart. Spaces are shared, and the community act as one. Our vision is to emphasize these qualities within a design methodology that both serve the community, and the sustainability of the landscape environment.
FIGURE 3: Poor landscape quality surrounding the Ngati Ōtara Marae
NGATI ĹŒTARA PARK
The Ngati Otara Park resides on a land of approximately 15 ha, adjacent to the Otara Lake. The historical park is built on a rubbish dump, similar to all parks and reserves within the Otara region. Alongside the park is the Sir Edmund Hillary Collegiate that is a school for primary, intermediate and secondary level students. The school was founded by its namesake, Sir Edmund Hillary. The park is primarily used for sports and various recreational activities. Ngati Otara Park consists of several rugby fields, being the main ground for Otara Rugby Club. The site is mostly flat due to playing fields, however the landform adjacent to the coastline has a gradual slope for stormwater runoff and pollutants to be washed off into the lake. Otara Lake is one of the most polluted lakes in the Auckland Region due to lack of filtration devices being instilled into parks & reserves. The contamination of lake being a key issue to the Otara local board has raised concerns over the focus of engaging the public and locals to the lake and its surrounding open spaces. FIGURE 4: Contact Energy Weir under Highbrook Drive Bridge
Future Development A new master plan is being developed for the whole of Ngati Otara Park. Within the park are a group of community buildings including a Marae, kindergarten and a sports club. With an increase in community activity the community leaders saw the need for an improvement in existing facilities for use by the greater South Auckland population. Jointly with Ngati Otara Marae and Otara Multi Sports Committees a brief was prepared to fully understand the needs and functions of the community. This includes various sports clubs who will be utilizing the buildings with the view of developing a business plan which would generate income for both buildings for its upkeep.
FIGURE 5: Disconnection between ĹŒtara road and the Lake
FIGURE 6: Embankments show a potential for re-vegetation schemes
CONTEXT Catchment Westfield
ĹŒtahuhu East Tamaki ĹŒtara Middlemore
The total area of the Otara Creek catchment is 3,487ha. The breakdown of landuse types in the catchment has been set out in the Manukau City District scheme as follows:
1363ha 324ha 22ha 1028ha 750ha
Rural Future Development
The residential figure includes reserves and designations such as schools.
Topography SH1 to Mo Ōtara
The topography in Otara is generally flat through the residential and industrial areas. Minor fluctuations occur through some of the open spaces. Along Ngati Otara Park and Contact Energy, the coastline displays steep slopes leading to the Otara Lake and Tamaki Estuary.
FIGURE 7: Viewshaft from Ngati Ōtara Park
A number of key areas from Ngati Otara Park offer stunning view shafts towards the Otara Lake and the wider context. These areas could be emphasized through design to encourage people to use the park and increase numbers within the area.
Legend: Contours Roads
Ngati Ōtara Park
OPEN SPACES Existing Public Open Spaces
Within the wider catchment, an exceptionally high percentage of the area is made up of open spaces, which allows for multiple recreational services. Mapping the reserves and parks, developed an interest in the field of an ecological and recreational link from Ngati Otara Park through Hampton Park (East Tamaki) and to Barry Curtis Park (Flatbush), which would connect the link through to Murphy’s Bush (Flatbush). The connection would define the outline for cycling and walking tracks, which will encourage the wellbeing of the community and promote a healthier lifestyle. The methodology for the recreation network creates an interrelated symbiotic system, where the individual ecological spaces act as one ecosystem and thrive in species growth and sustainability.
FIGURE 8: Poor quality landscape for sport and recreation
Seaside Park Highbrook Buisness Park y
e Lak Ngati Ōtara Park
Ngati Otara Park holds the potential to house 9 sports fields on site. We believe that the purpose of the large sporting complex should be complemented with strong remedial techniques that treat stormwater and contaminants on-site, before being discharged into the Otara Lake and Tamaki Estuary.
Mayfield Park East Tamaki Reserve
Legend: Rongomai Park Preston Road Reserve Sandbrook Reserve
Barry Curtis Park Open + Recreational spaces Roads Cadasterals
OPEN SPACES Public vs Private
The spatial layout of Otara during planning in the 1950â€™s with houses being built in medium density, has given the community many open space amenities. However, it looks as if there is plenty of open space areas, from further analysing what land is available to the public we found that a fair amount was taken up by private land.
Smales Road Landfill
Highbrook Drive Reserve
ĹŒtara Contact Energy
The Grange Golf Club
Although this land is not open to public use, it still provides a visual amenity for the community. By looking at the spread of the open spaces from the wider catchment we can start to see how we can link separated spaces and design a concept to bring them all together. Taking away private land away we can still see Otara has plenty of recreation areas available for public use. The community is in the perfect position to make use of these grounds and have a connected open space and recreation community.
Legend: Public Private Buildings Roads
PROXIMITY Distance of Amenities from Central ĹŒtara Starting from central Otara we divided the space with a 500m, 1500m and 3000m buffer to show the facilities included within each zone as well as the proximity from the center. 500m Buffer: Along with the MIT campus, a number of recreational facilities are found within the center of Otara. The Leisure Centre, Skatepark, Gyms, as well as parks are easily accessible within this section. 1500m Buffer: This section includes medium density residential areas, a number of parks and reserves as well as shops and schools. ĹŒtara
3000m Buffer: As well as including areas from the 1500m buffer zone, the 3000m buffer creates a close proximity to its neighbouring subdivisions.
Legend: 0.5 KM 1.5 Km 3.0 Km Roads Cadasterals
PROXIMITY Accessibility to Parks and Reserves
By locating the existing parks and reserves, we placed two buffers to map the proximity of recreational features within Otara and its surrounding context. The 200m buffer showed the proximity to the open space by walking. The 400m buffer showed the proximity to the open space by car or bike. Overlapping of these buffer zones displayed that a majority of open spaces can be easily access by the large percentage of the subdivision. ĹŒtara
Legend: 200m buffer 400m buffer
OPEN SPACE Case Studies Montebello Hills Community
Qunli stormwater wetland park
At the heart of the proposed Montebello Hills Community is a generous network of parks, trails and Open Space designed to connect neighbours and friends with outdoor places to gather, play and build new relationships. A new City Sports Park is planned, along with nearly five miles of publicly accessible multi-purpose trails and walkways that will link to about two acres of linear parks along the Scenic Promenade Trail of the Montebello Hills.
Stormwater from the newly built urban area is collected in a pipe around the circumference of the wetland, and then released evenly into the park after being filtered through the ponds. Native wetland grasses grow in the ponds at various depths, and groves of native silver birch trees (Betula) create a dense forest setting.
Golder assessed the ecological and functional values of Taiaotea Creek (Browns Bay, Auckland) before and after stream restoration works as part of the Bayside Restoration Project (BRP). The BRP is a long-term stream restoration project initiated by Auckland Council in partnership with the local community. The aim of the BRP is to enhance the ecological and functional values of Taiaotea Creek between Bayside Drive Reserve and Beach Road. Taiaotea Creek is a typical modified Auckland urban watercourse impacted by residential development so the BRP focused on community participation and education.
More than two-thirds of the entire site (about 314 acres, out of 488) will be reserved for these public Open Spaces, landscaped hillsides and a permanent Habitat Reserve for the federally threatened California gnatcatcher. Pedestrian walkways and multi-purpose trails will provide convenient links to regional recreational assets such as Whittier Narrows Regional Park and the Rio Hondo Bike Trail. -Scenic Promenade Trail -Community Parks -Sports Park -Neighbourhood Park 102
Raised platforms follow the path of the cut-and-fill water filtration system, as well as the outer rim. The experience is similar to walking through a forest thanks to the dense tree cover. Seats were also installed around the ponds to give people a chance to interact with nature. For those who want to stay out of the wetland, there is even a skywalk that links scattered mounds, giving local residents a chance to see the park from above via platforms, pavilions and viewing towers which form an artificial canopy.
Stream restoration work began in mid 2009 and to date has included the naturalisation of a concrete lined section, riparian weed control, planting of native vegetation, improved fish passage, and removal of inorganic litter. Approximately 9,000 native plants have been planted on public reserves and private property along Taiaotea Creek. Information panels explaining aquatic ecosystems and how they function to improve water quality and provide habitat for stream invertebrates, native fish, and bird life were installed.
ZONING Open Spaces, Industrial and Residential This catchment has a history of rural farming and until the 1950’s was a small rural area home to a few. During the urbanisation of Auckland over the last 60 years, Otara has grown to be home to over 13,000 inhabitants. With the opening of the Highbrook motorway interchange in 2007, Otara was connected to East Auckland in a more direct route. Furthermore with the development of Highbrook into a business Park showed Auckland business’s willing to move away from the CBD. The Business Park completed in 2009 covers 22.2 ha` and can be seen from Ngati Otara Park.
From our analysis, Otara has the potential for development, with more business’s coming into the area. Availability of open space gives designers the ability to provide more recreational facilities for the community within walking distance from their home. With housing being condensed around the centre and an area dedicated to business across the lake, the opportunity to make Otara into a walkable suburb with facilities being so close to home can be achieved. Legend: Open Space Residential Industrial Buildings Roads
Legend: Low density rural
Low density ĹŒtara
Rural Sub-urban Urban Urban rural
Middlemore Flat Bush
Using GIS mapping, it was made clear that a majority of the Otara subdivision is comprised of urban and sub-urban sections. With a large number of open spaces available, Otara holds the potential to accommodate a substantial growth in residential development. However, the balance between permeable and impervious surfaces, as well and ecology, still needs to be maintained. Vertical residential growth (e.g. passive apartment style living), is a possibility at the core of Otara, which would accommodate the expected population growth stated by the Auckland Unitary Plan. Economically, Otara offers low budget housing, provided by the government, for lower income families. With the development of the Highbrook Business Park, there is a significant increase in job opportunities, and therefore the proximity from Otara offers a short travel distance between work, leisure and home.
Legend: Rural Sub-urban Urban Urban rural
Otara Auckland/City 350" Auckland/NorthKShore Auckland/Rodney Auckland/Shamrock 300" Auckland/Schnapper/Rock Auckland/Albany/Heights 250" Auckland/Fairview/Heights Auckland/Great/Barrier/Island Auckland/Orere/Point/ 200"
Average/floor/area/(sqm) Average/floor/area/(sqm) 124.9 Average"ﬂoor"area"G"Auckland"Region"&"Otara" 158 176 164 306 259 255 244 91 91
This graph records the average housing floor area between Otara and the rest of Auckland region. Otara housing has an approximate floor area of 125 sqm, which is roughly half of average floor area in the rest of Auckland region. Regions such as Shamrock have predominantly instilled new housing development with larger floor areas than usual compared to low development regions.
Residen1al popula1on in rela1on to number of dwellings 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
Resident Population Otara West 3012 Otara North 1668 Otara East 4422 Otara South 3300 Ferguson 4050 Rongomai 4443 Clover Park 4170 Donegal Park 6762 Ormiston 5118 Papatoe East 5574 Papatoe North 5700 Otahuhu East 2088 Otahuhu West 4929 Fairburn 3549 Highbrook 36 Grange 666 Wymondley 1188 Dingwall 3684 Middlemore 105
Number of Dwelings 687 339 1032 774 882 1044 948 2034 1416 1674 Resident Popula1on 1887 Number of Dwelings 618 1506 1149 15 198 258 1146 6
FIGURE 9: State-housing
From exploring the vicinity of residential Otara, a common characteristic we discovered was the spatial layout of the dwellings. Houses are directed away from Otara Lake, which we found interesting, as the lake should be considered a communal amenity. We found private gardens producing fruit and vegetables, which acts as a strong design driver in terms of urban food production.
This graph is calculated from the total area of each region divided by the population each individual region. Highbrook region being an industrial area has the lowest population as well as density. The ratio of dwellings in each region in relation to the residential population is fairly even throughout.
2001 2006 2013 Residential population Auckland count 1160271 1304961 1415550 residen/al popula/on in rela/on to number of dwellings Dwelling count 424848 473031 506808 1600000
Resident population count Dwelling count
1000000 Residen/al popula/on count
Dwelling count 600000
Auckland has an increasing population and this graph shows the growth from 2001-2013. 400000
Auckland’s population has increased from 1.08 million to slightly over 1.4 million people, which is an increase of 23% over a 12-year period. However the numbers of dwellings have
had a very subtle increase over the same time frame, and currently hold 500,000 dwellings 0
Resident/population/count Dwelling/count 14000"
2001 2006 2013 12369 13185 12408 Otara"residen/al"popula/on"in"rela/on"to"number"of"dwellings" 2817 2832 2832
Dwellings per Hectare Residential area per person
This graph shows the growth patterns of number of dwellings in relation to the population from 2001-2013. There has been a subtle rise in number of dwellings since 2001, however there
13 2 26.4m
is also a minor fluctuation in population, rising in 2006 and dropping fractionally in 2013. Out of the total of 396 ha, 347 ha is dedicated to residential and Industrial zones. This currently 2001"
leaves 49 ha for open space and recreational use.
HOUSING Case Study Adelphi Villas, East Tamaki
- Medium Density
This development is an example of where privacy and open public space has been subsided for greater intensification. Each unit is two stories high and are semi detached. Each of which are separated with concrete strip. They are highly dominated with a garage door. Planting is insignificant and parking occupies all available space in this development. Poor planting has lead to huge privacy issues as surrounding housing can overlook each unit.
No. of units: 30 Parking ratio: 2.30 Total site area (m2): 8,135 Dwellings per hectare (Dph): 37 Floor area ratio (FAR): 0.52
Oates Road, Glen Eden, Waitakere City - Medium Density
The density at 51dph and a FAR of 0.55 places the layout in the middle of the density range, and at a high point for the layout type. This is partly due to the regular shape and dimensions of the site, and partly to the use of a hybridized layout design resolving the main street frontage access to seven units by the use of rear garaging. In other respects it is an unremarkable scheme of two story, three bedroom houses.
No. of units: 25 Parking ratio: 2.00 Total site area (m2): 4,941 Dwellings per hectare (Dph): 51 Floor area ratio (FAR): 0.55
Eden 1, Mt Eden, Auckland City - Medium Density
Eden 1, on Enfield Street in Mt Eden, is an early example of the advantage taken of â€˜Businessâ€™ zoning in Auckland City Council, to build high density housing without need of compliance with standard residential design controls. Eden 1 also exhibits many of the problems associated with higher density urban housing. The FAR at Eden 1, at 1.36, is the highest in the survey, which indicates a need for a building form of atleast four storeys, and with underground parking a necessary corollary of good design for public and/or private open space. 107
No. of units: 83 Parking ratio: 1.90 Total site area (m2): 6,641 Dwellings per hectare (Dph): 125 Floor area ratio (FAR): 1.36
HOUSING Case Study
Sacremento 1B, East Tamaki, Manukau City - Medium Density
This small unit, and the omission of public space, increases No. of units: 50 the net density to 72 dph. The average unit size is reduced Parking ratio: 1.64 from 113 to 74m2. More critically, in terms of the residential Total site area (m2): 6,900 environment achieved, the second stage necessitates the Dwellings per hectare (Dph): 72 majority of parking for the small units to be located off the Floor area ratio (FAR): 0.53 main access through the site, rather than contained in the garage court as in Stage 1.
North Sighthill, Edinburgh - High Density
The 4.4-hectare site contains 451 dwellings, of which 409 are social rented and No. of units: 451 42 privately owned. It includes a library, a community education center and Total site area (m2): 44000 four retail units and the 1960s housing consists of a twelve-story deck access Dwellings per hectare (Dph): 102.5 block, three eleven-story tower blocks and several four-story deck access maisonette blocks. A series of urban perimeter blocks create public streets and shared private rear gardens and the buildings are 4/5 storeys to reflect the surrounding context and a possible national sports stadium. Building heights within the center of the site are reduced to two and three storeys.
- High Density
2500 low-rise dwelling units Density of 100 units per hectare. New types of three-storey, ground-accessed houses deviating from the usual terraced house in being strongly oriented to the private realm by incorporating patios and roof gardens. At a larger scale, a delicately balanced relationship exists between the repetition of the individual dwellings, the roofscape and the great scale of the docks. 108
CONCLUSION Summary of Findings
Through GIS mapping and critical research, we were able to gain a thorough understanding of how the subdivision functioned in the past and how it is currently functioning. Statistical information gathered and graphed, displayed a trajectory for the potential increase/ decrease for Otara in the future. It is clear that there is a strong disconnection between the existing parks and reserves. Open spaces are not being utilized to their full extent, in terms of usability and ecosystem maintenance. The high percentage of open space is an important amenity for the community and one that should be treasured and endlessly sustained. We are interested in increasing the well-being of the community through providing recreational zones that provide social spaces as well as species diversity. Utilizing these spaces productively as a food source for the community (e.g. community gardens, vegetable gardens etc.). In terms of housing, the Auckland Unitary Plan projects an increase of 1 million residents within the next 20 years. With consideration to the percentage of open space for the residents, we believe that there needs to be a strong balance that benefits both nature and the community so that the subdivision displays inspirational ethical behaviour and strong characteristics of sustainability.
BIBLIOGRAPHY GIS Mapping Software. ArcGIS Highbrook Business Park http://www.highbrook.co.nz/ Ladner, P. 2011. The urban food revolution: changing the way we feed cities. New Society Publishers. Ministry for the Environment, Hampton Downs Landfill http://www.mfe.govt.nz/ Ngati Otara Park Masterplan â€“ Unitec Lecture Resource Otara and Papatoetoe Local Board Plan http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz Raskin, Ilya. 2000. Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean up the environment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Statistics NZ 2013 Census http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census.aspx
Open Space Case Studies: Montebello Hills http://montebellohills.com/?page_id=63 Qunli Stormwater Wetland Park http://www.archdaily.com/446025/qunli-stormwater-wetland-park-turenscape/ Restoration of an Auckland Urban Watercourse - Taiaotea Creek http://www.golder.co.nz/en/modules.php?name=Newsletters&op=viewarticle&sp_ id=164&page_id=709&article_id=531 Housing Case Studies: Medium Density Housing Best practice in medium density housing design. http://www.hnzc.co.nz/our-publications/research/research-and-evaluation/best-practicein-medium-density/best-practice-in-medium-density-housing.pdf High Density Housing Borneo Sporenburg Docklands http://courses.umass.edu/latour/Netherlands/livingstone/index.html High Density Living in Edinburgh https://www.rudi.net/books/8937WWW Photography of Otara by Shayne Noronha
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS
WATER ŌTARA CATCHMENT
WATER Tamaki River + ĹŒtara Lake Tamaki River is an estuarial arm and harbour of the Hauraki Gulf. One of its tributary arms is Otara Creek. Otara Lake was formed in 1968 when the New Zealand Electricity Department completed construction of a tidal weir on Otara Creek. The weir was constructed to provide a body of water to allow a continuous supply of cooling water to the Otahuhu Power Station The crest of the weir is approximately one metre below mean high water springs (MHWS) and, although there is a substantial amount of water flushing the creek during each tidal cycle, the once fully-tidal estuary is now permanently impounded below the level of the weir. As a result of this impoundment, Otara Creek is now more commonly known as Otara Lake. Otara Lake is approximately 50 hectares (ha) in area and receives runoff from a catchment area of approximately 3,500 ha. It gets runoff from Otara Creek, East Tamaki and Highbrook, where housing, commercial and industrial developments have increased sharply in the past 10 years. The construction of the weir and the subsequent changes in the flushing characteristics of the lake has resulted in a number of significant changes in the lake environment. The impoundment resulted in sedimentation within the lake, and the changes in the tidal regime
Tamaki River + Otara Lake
WATER ĹŒtara lake setting The surrounding land uses include an industrial area to the south consisting of the Contact Energy Ltd Otahuhu Power Station and Transpower New Zealand Ltdâ€™s Otahuhu Substation. A
New commercial and light industry activities are established at the Highbrook Business Park on the northern side of Otara Lake. There are also two recreational areas located immediately adjacent to Otara Lake: Highbrook B
Park on the northern bank (to the south of Highbrook Drive), and Ngati Otara Park on the
Ngati Otara park
southern bank to the east of the Transpower Substation. The Ngati Otara Park is understood have been a landfill in its former landuse but is now a popular sports ground for the local community being used for passive recreation, rugby leagueand kilikiti. Sir Edmund Hillary College is located further to the east of Ngati Otara Park which is the easternmost extent of the study area. The wider area south of the Lake contains residential and commercial developments.
A: The weir
B: view from Highbrook
C: Mangroves in the lake
Otara Lake is located in Otara catchment with an area of 3,500 ha. The main sub-catchment is the Flatbush catchment. Existing conditions of Flat Bush sub-catchment: • Catchment area 1735 ha. • Predevelopment land use was predominantly rural. • Drains into Otara Creek and discharges to Otara Lake and then the Tamaki River. • Existing streams below headwater streams have been degraded and somewhat modified by farming activities. • The district plan was changed to accommodate urban development of approximately 50,000 people. Current water management within Otara Catchment Upper catchment general approach: Revegetation (general and riparian) Dispersal of stormwater by dissipation over a broad area Water tanks Treatment and flow control Middle and lower catchment general approach is a subcatchment based approach, which relies on stormwater collection in ponds before discharge into protected streams, is necessary to meet the stormwater quality, extended detention and flood peak attenuation criteria.
Flat bush catchment
Catchment area 3,500 ha.
WATER water flows Otara creek is the main discharge point for all water run-off within the Otara catchment. Existing Catchment Management Strategies: Design concepts: • Discharge through pond systems is the most appropriate method in most situations and indicative locations are shown on a following slide. • Where practicable, overland flow paths should be directed to ponds to attenuate larger low land ephemeral streams
floods • Floodplains and stormwater pond locations must be retained • Discharge to the stormwater management areas should be through a vegetative filter strip, limited to 5 m in width Stream strategy: There are 3 types of stream status: • Fully protected streams in stormwater management areas, which are linked to headwater streams and on which there shall be no on-line ponds • Streams in stormwater management areas which are not linked to headwater streams and where on-line ponds are permitted, and • Lowland ephemeral streams, which may be modified or piped
Floodplain strategy: • As an underlying principle, as far as practicable, the full existing extent of flood plains should be retained. This achieves a range of objectives including: • Flood peak attenuation, • Provision of riparian planting and protection of stream habitat, and • Protection of streams from channel erosion • Impervious coverage assumptions • Impervious coverage
water flow mapping/ GIS
WATER history In the 1950s Otara was still largely a rural area. However, it was then chosen as the location for a large State housing development. Otara as defined for planning purposes was a large triangular block of land bordered by the Tamaki River and the Otara Creek to the north, the southern motorway to the west, Springs Road, East Tamaki Road and Preston Road to the east, and Puhinui Road or Boundary Road to the south. It also included the Wymondley Road area to the west of the motorway. This area later formed the nucleus of Manukau Cityâ€™s Otara ward, and with some extension to the east, is what is generally referred to as Otara today.
This map/plan is illustrative only and all information Historic map: Otara 1960/ GIS
should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.
Tamaki: Department of Lands & Survey, 1943. Scale: 1:25,000. This map includes the Otara area to the south of the Tamaki River.
WATER catchment land-use The upper catchment is mostly rural, non-built up land while the lower catchement is the developed end of Otara comprising of housing and industry. Both are areas house completely different activities. A broad look at settlement patterns and land use helps us understand the different types of contaminants that feed into Otara creek in the entire catchment. The Creek receives stormwater drainage from roadways, the emergency overflows from five Manukau City Council sewage-pumping stations and at least some overflows from blocked or surcharged sewers. The creek most likely flows through one and possibly two areas which were refuse tips (landfill) but which have since been developed as reserves. At the bottom end of the creek there is a ponding area with a final discharge into the Tamaki River. The ponding area was formerly a source of cooling water for the Otara oil-fired power station. Health risks: Bacterial water quality of the Creek Household refuse if it litters the banks of the Creek where it flows through the residential areas. Upper rural part of the catchment there are two horse studs and a pony club. The stormwater draining pastures would normally contain faecal coliforms of animal origin and may contribute to the bacterial pollution of the Otara Creek. parks and open spaces impervious/pervious surface/land use/ GIS
WATER contaminants built-up lower catchment Pollutants going into Otara lake: • Stormwater draining pastures would normally contain faecal coliforms of animals -bacterial pollution of the otara creek. • Sewer and drain over flows - bacterial pollution • Stormwater runoff from streets and industrial sites - contains faecal matter of animal origin and heavy metals from cars exhausts and tyres.
Fish and their distributions: Nineteen sites were visited around the Otara Creek catchment of which three where not fished as the streambed contained no water. Six species of fish; shortfin eel, longfin eel, banded kokopu, Crans bully, mosquito fish and koi carp; were confirmed as being present with the Otara Creek catchment. A seventh species, goldfish, was possibly present as a single individual at one site. The most widespread fish was the shortfin eel (Anguilla australis), which was found at fourteen sites
WATER contaminants non built-up upper catchment Water Chemistry/ Contamination: Otara Lake sediments were examined for heavy metal and persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination (Kingett Mitchell & Associates, 1996). Sediments appeared to be quite anoxic (olive black) and had elevated levels of Copper, (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). The levels suggest that the lake is enriched with organic matter. Heavy metal levels were consistent with the lake acting as an effective trap for urban-derived contaminants as would be expected. The concentration of zinc appears to have increased in most lake sediments between 1995 and 2010). The overall increase in zinc concentrations is likely related to the development of the surrounding catchment, which has resulted in increased impervious surface area (particularly roof surfaces) and increases in the vehicle km travelled within the catchment (zinc from vehicle tyre wear). Stream/Riparian character: The stream banks appeared to be poorly consolidated, generally gentle in slope, or a composite of gentle to moderately steep. Vegetation nevertheless appeared to prevent excessive slumping or scour (bank erosion 10-20% of reach at most sites). No additional stabilisation of the stream banks was noted. Riparian vegetation was highly mixed and included native (average 30% of the sites visited), exotic vegetation (30%), and grass (22%).
WATER low impact catchment management A catchment-based approach to managing the water environment looks at activities and issues in the catchment as a whole, rather than considering different aspects separately in different locations. Crucially, this approach involves bringing people together from different sectors to identify issues and agree priorities for action – and ultimately building local partnerships to put these actions in place. Looking at the catchment through this approach is important for balancing the ways in which different people use the catchment in the long-term, delivering multiple benefits for catchment users and creating a healthy water environment. The receiving environment is depositional and the development should be designed to achieve the best practicable reduction in sediment and contaminant discharge. Stormwater management objectives: • Manage the volume and peak flow rate and the passage of stormwater runoff to limit stream erosion • Manage the peak flow rate of stormwater runoff to avoid increased flood risk within the catchment • Manage the discharge of contaminants as far as practicable to avoid those contaminants reaching high value receiving environments • Maintain stormwater in the catchment to assist in retaining dry season stream flows • Provide for ongoing operation and maintenance of stormwater management assets • Maintain fish passage • Protect high value waterways
WATER low impact catchment management Create strong vision for future of catchment • Maintain or enhance ecological diversity and function • Recognise people as integral part of environment • Minimise environmental impact through a diverse range of management techniques • Recognise that change is inevitable • Local partnerships and commitment to vision crucial • Catchment specific solutions required • Investigate a range of options to address issues • Trade-offs may need to be made, optimise benefits from trade-offs
WATER low impact catchment management case study Village of Greenwood Lake Stormwater Management Plan
The goal was to reduce runoff, thereby reduceing localized flooding, and reducing the pollutant loading to nearby Greenwood Lake, which is a priority waterbody with a total
Project Description: The Village of Greenwood Lake upgraded it current Village Complex
maimum daily load requirement for phosphorus. An added benefit was creating green space
by reducing impervious surfaces, incorporating pervious pavers, constructing a rain garden,
that is now a pocket park where there once was a generator, dumpster, and an asphalt
a vegetated swale, and a green screen to reduce localized flooding and to reduce the
impact of stormwater on the water quality of Greenwood Lake. By taking leadership role in responsible site design, and demonstrating green, innovative strategies that can be used
by commercial property owners and homeowners alike, the Village Trustees believe that
Stormwater reduction performance analysis:
residents would be encouraged to follow suit and implement small scale projects on their own
Overall impervious surface area removed = 30% Site perviousness increased from 10% to 58%.
properties. This project was a demonstration that stormwater management can be effective as well as attractive.
Community & economic benefits that have resulted from the project: This project addresses a seasonal flooding problem in the center for the Village. It also serves as a means to reduce
the excessive amount of impervious area surrounding the Village Hall and police station which
was contributing to the flooding problem. By slowing the flow and redirecting the runoff into
A retrofit of an existing property
the ground via the pervious pavers, the rain garden and the vegetated swale, the Village is demonstrating an alternative method of capturing and filtering stormwater runoff. An added
Design Features: Rain garden, bioswale, downspout removal, porous pavers, and curb cuts.
benefit was the creation on green space between Village Hall and the Police Station, with
Native plantings and trees were used throughout the sites redevelopment, not just for the
abundant native landscaping that enhances the Villageâ€™s property. The project also serves
as a green infrastructure demonstration project for Orange County, NY, and is a teaching tool for the local elementary school, Village residents, and vistors.
Impervious area managed: 5,000 sq/ft to 1 acre
WATER low impact catchment management case study 12000 Rain Gardens in Puget Sound
Washington State University and Stewardship Partners are leading a new groundbreaking
The majority of Puget Sound region pollution is caused by rainwater runoff from our streets,
campaign to install 12,000 rain gardens in the Seattle/Puget Sound Region by 2016.
driveways, lawns and rooftops! In fact, 14 million pounds of toxins enter Puget Sound each
You can actively participate in this exciting campaign by installing one or more rain gardens
year. Having clean air and water and beautiful natural areas is a major part of what makes
in your community. Rain gardens will help your immediate surroundings because they:
Washington a great place to live. Waterways like Puget Sound, Commencement Bay and the
Reduce water pollution
Skagit River give us places to enjoy nature, fish and hike. Our waterways are central to our
food source, and our local economies. But toxic runoff, the number one source of pollution
Increase home values
to Puget Sound, is threatening the health of our water. Every time it rains, millions of gallons of
Make for beautiful, low-maintenance landscapes
toxic runoff wash into Puget Sound and our lakes and rivers, spreading poisons that threaten
Help your community save millions of dollars in pollution clean-up and expensive
our health, environment and economy.
stormwater projects. Rain gardens work like a native forest by capturing and infiltrating polluted runoff from rooftops, driveways, and other hard surfaces. Meeting our campaign goal of 12,000 rain gardens in Seattle/Puget Sound by 2016 would soak up 160 million gallons of polluted runoff to protect our waterways, significantly helping stop the stormwater crisis that is threatening our waterways.
WATER small scale prevention techniques case study Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD)
Rain garden: A Rain Garden is a stormwater device that uses the concept of bio-retention,
The term ‘Low impact’ introduces the idea of reducing the effects of human activities on
a water quality practice in which plant and soils are used to remove contaminants in runoff.
natural processes which link land, water, air, animal and plant life so that these resources
Rain Gardens consist of a soil filter medium, made of specially selected soil and sand mixed
are still available for future use and enjoyment. LIUDD also considers the catchment context
with mulch, where collected runoff is allowed to infiltrate through it. After infiltrating through
and LIUDD processes with reference to wider scales. ‘Design and development’ refers to the
the medium, water is discharged either through the underlying soils or is collected by a
ideas, methods and practices used to ensure human activities do not damage or destroy
subdrain pipe to a reticulation system. Vegetation is planted to protect the medium and to
provide aesthetic benefit.
Detention tank: A detention tank is intended to collect and temporarily store run-off from
Pond: A pond is a depression on land that contains water and is formed either by damming
roofs and other impervious areas for release at a slower or controlled rate to receiving stormwater system or environment. The reduction of peak flows in the receiving stormwater system will contribute significantly to protecting streams from erosion and mitigating flooding in downstream areas. Swale: A swale is a formed depression used for the conveyance of stormwater runoff from impervious areas.This process also improves run-off water quality by means of filtration, absorption and biological uptake processes before going to streams and drains. They are often used as an alternative to kerb and channel along roadways. Filter strip: Filter strips are broad, gently sloped open vegetated areas that accept slow and shallow depth of flow to achieve treatment of stormwater through a distributed or sheet flow of run-off.
Permeable and Porous Pavement: Permeable and porous pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious types of hardscape paving materials. Runoff is allowed to percolate to an underlying granular sub-base until the water infiltrates into the ground or discharges to a stormwater outlet, thereby reducing runoff volumes (by infiltration to the sub-soils). 126
watercourses or by excavation of land, specifically in providing storage for flood management and providing ornamental landscape water features, water for plants and livestock, habitat for native fish and wildlife, or storage for fire control. Wetland: A wetland is a constructed stormwater device in the form of a marsh, swamp or other area of land to which runoff is drained. The surface soil is saturated or covered with water and forms habitat for wildlife. Treatment Trench/ Rock Filter: The device is an excavated trench backfilled with gravel, stone, or scoria media to provide treatment and disposal of stormwater from hardstand areas. The runoff is held on the filter media bed and the treated runoff either infiltrates into the ground or is collected by a subdrain for disposal to a reticulation system.
Urban streams like Otara Creek are perceived by residents as an important community asset especially where reserves with recreation and aesthetic values have been created. The upper and lower catchment would require a different set of solutions due to the current nature of land-use Lower catchment: Solutions for the lower catchment are mostly retrofitting/remediation strategies Remediation strategies need to be applied in order to control the deterioration of the water for eg. Rain gardens, swales, wetlands. Retrofitting building structures- environment friendly building materials, paint, etc. Upper Catchment: Solutions for the upper catchment are mostly prevention techniques as the land is still rural Integrated farm management techniques water management and small scale pollution prevention techniques
WATER references Investigation into the management of the Otara Creek. (1991). Parliamentary commissioner for the environment. Retrieved from: http://www.pce.parliament.nz Comprehensive Catchment Management plan. Beca Carter Hollings and ferner ltd. 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz Otara-Papatoetoe Local Board (2013)Otara-Papatoetoe Local Board OPEN AGENDA, Retrieved from: http:// www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz Wenzlick.S (2008),Call to save â€œtoxicâ€? lake, Retrieved from: http://www.stuff.co.nz Otara lake bathymetry and sediment survey, (2010), Manukau City Council. Retrieved from: http://www. aucklandcity.govt.nz/council
CASE STUDY Village of Greenwood Lake Stormwater Management Plan, Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org 12000 Rain Gardens in Puget Sound, Retrieved from: http://www.12000raingardens.org/ (2009)Low Impact Urban Design and Development- the big picture, Retrieved from: http://www.mwpress.co.nz Low impact urban design and development(LIUDD) stormwater guideline, Retrieved from: http://www.kapiticoast.govt.nz/ www.asla.org/2012awards www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/SiteCollectionDocuments/aboutcouncil/localboards/ otarapapatoetoelocalboard/meetings/otarapapatoeotelbag20130723.pdf www.manukau-libraries.govt.nz/EN/ManukauOurHistory/ManukauTopics/Pages
ŌTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS LAND USE
INTRODUCTION Land Use Ōtara
The Ōtara community is of blue collared working class people. The area is primarily compiled of state housing projects, heavy and light industry. The following maps show a range of land use of the Ōtara region and peripheral sites. The makeup of the Ōtara community is one that can be found around the world, a working class community that is pressed to the edges of the city, where the wealth of the community is in the employer not the employees. The value of vegetation in the area is far less than the value of industry as it only occupies residential and coastal zones as a minimum. The combination of uses within the direct area and surrounding land has depleted the land and waterways severely.
CONTENTS 01. ROAD NETWORK GROWTH .................................................... xx
11. RESIDENTIAL AREA IN 1959...................................................... xx
02. POLITICAL AND CATCHMENT BOUNDARIES........................... xx
12. RESIDENTIAL AREA IN 1996..................................................... xx
03. MAJOR TRANSPORT ROUTES 2015.......................................... xx
13. RESIDENTIAL AREA IN 2010..................................................... xx
04. 1959 INDUSTRIAL LAND USE..................................................... xx
14. RESIDENTIAL AREA- GROWTH MAP........................................ xx
05. 1996 INDUSTRIAL LAND USE..................................................... xx
15. CASE STUDY............................................................................. xx
06. CURRENT INDUSTRIAL LAND USE............................................. xx
16. CASE STUDY............................................................................ xx
07. FUTURE INDUSTRIAL LAND USE................................................ xx 08. 1959 VEGETATION COVER..................................................... xx 09. CURRENT VEGETATION COVER............................................. xx 10. FUTURE VEGETATION COVER.................................................. xx
N Bucklands Beach
LAND USE Road Network Growth 1959-2014 lLEGEND ROAD NETWORK - 1959
Mt Wellington North
WHITE SQUARE MARKS THE END OF 1959 DATA
ROAD NETWORK - 2014
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE
INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL
Mt Wellington South
East Tamaki Otahuhu
FIGURE ONE: Scale 1:50000
LAND USE Political And Catchment Boundaries lLEGEND CATCHMENT BOUNDARIES
LAND USE Major Transport Routes for 2015 lLEGEND ROUTE 325 - MANGERE TOWN CENTER TO MANUKAU ROUTE 361 - MANUREWA TO OTARA MIT NORTH CAMPUS ROUTE 31 - MANGERE TOWN CENTER TO BOTANY ROUTE 353 - MANUKAU TO BOTANY TOWN CENTER ROUTE 33 - PAPAKURA TO OTAHUHU STATION INTERCHANGE RAILWAY
LAND USE 1959 - Industrial Land Use
lLEGEND INDUSTRIAL AREAS TAMAKI RIVER
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY FIGURE ONE:
Kms Scale 1:15000
LAND USE 1996 - Industrial Land Use
N lLEGEND INDUSTRIAL AREAS TAMAKI RIVER
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY FIGURE TWO:
Kms Scale 1:15000
LAND USE Current- Industrial Land Use
N lLEGEND INDUSTRIAL AREAS TAMAKI RIVER
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY
FIGURE ONE: 1Km
Kms Scale 1:15000
LAND USE Future Industrial Land Use
N lLEGEND INDUSTRIAL AREAS TAMAKI RIVER
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY
0 FIGURE TWO:
Kms Scale 1:15000
1959 Vegetation Coverute 2
N lLEGEND FARM LAND BUSH COVER DEVELOPMENT MANGROVES
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY
LAND USE Current Vegetation Cover
N lLEGEND OPEN SPACE BUSH COVER MANGROVES
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY
Major Transport Routes for 2015 Future Vegetation Cover
N lLEGEND OPEN SPACE BUSH COVER MANGROVES
NOTE: WHITE DOTTED LINE INDICATES OTARA POLITICAL BOUNDARY
LAND USE Residential area in1959
LAND USE Residential Area in 1996
LAND USE Residential area in 2010
LAND USE Residential Area - Growth Map
lLEGEND 1959 1996 2010
PARRAMATTA WAS AUSTRALIA’S FIRST INLAND EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT, AND IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS SYDNEY’S SECOND CBD. WHILE YOU COULD ALSO MAKE THIS CLAIM FOR A FEW OTHER AREAS IN SYDNEY, THE DATA SHOWS THAT THE CITY OF PARRAMATTA DOES HAVE THE LARGEST EMPLOYMENT OF ANY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA (LGA) IN GREATER SYDNEY, OUTSIDE THE CITY OF SYDNEY ITSELF. IN 2006 IT HAD THE 8TH LARGEST WORKING POPULATION OF ANY LGA IN AUSTRALIA. PARRAMATTA IS THE LARGEST EMPLOYMENT CENTER OUTSIDE SYDNEY CBD. PARRAMATTA IS WELL LOCATED TO HOUSE CONTINUED GROWTH TO THE BENEFIT OF BROADER METROPOLITAN SYDNEY.
LAND USE Case Study - Parramatta, Sydney
LAND USE PARRAMATTA IS IDENTIFIED AS THE PREMIER REGIONAL CITY IN THE NSW METROPOLITAN PLAN FOR SYDNEY 2036. PARRAMATTA IS THE CENTER OF SYDNEY AND ALREADY THE SECOND LARGEST EMPLOYMENT CENTER OUTSIDE THE SYDNEY CBD, WITH A BROAD ECONOMIC BASE AND HIGH VALUEADDING INDUSTRIES. IN ORDER TO FURTHER DEVELOP TO ITS POTENTIAL, IT WILL NEED TO STRENGTHEN ITS ROLE BY: •
BEING A COMPETITIVE OFFICE AND
• RETAIL MARKET WHICH FUNCTIONS AS THE ADMINISTRATION CAPITAL OF WESTERN SYDNEY, WITH STRONG LINKS TO GLOBAL SYDNEY. • BEING THE PROMINENT LOCATION FOR NEW JOBS (MINIMUM 27,000 BY 2036). • HOME TO TALL, DISTINCTIVE AND ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS. • A CENTER OFFERING A BROAD RANGE OF CULTURAL, MEDICAL, TOURIST AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES. • A VIBRANT PLACE TO LIVE WITH ENTERTAINMENT, EMPLOYMENT, TOURIST AND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES. educational opportunities.
Case Study - Parramatta, Sydney
OTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS CHINESE CASE STUDIES
OTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS 国内湿地治理案例分析--以唐山南湖湿地公园为例 CASE ANALYSIS--TAKING SouTh LAKE WETLANd pArK of TANGShAN AS AN EXAMpLE
cOnTEnTS 01. 场地分析site analysis ............................................................................. 01 1. 区位介绍the location ........................................................................................... 01 2. 改造前情况before the transform .................................................................... 01 3. 对于城市的意义significance for town .................................................................. 01
02. 规划理念planing analysis ...........................................................................02 03.建设重点 ..........................................................................................03 04.塌陷区的改造Subsidence transformation.................................................... 04 1.塌陷区的生态治理ecological management .......................................................04 2.塌陷区的绿化建设green building ...................................................................04
05.湿地区的植物配置 wetland landscape plant configuration.................................... 05 06.湿地的生态服务wetland ecosystem services..............................................................06 07.思考与启示thinking and enlightenment...................................................... 07
场地分析 site analysis
南湖公园 1.区位分析：南湖公园位于唐山中心市区南部，距市中心仅670米，面积有28平方公里。 1.location analysis :It located in the south of Tangshan center with only 670 meters away from it and the area is 28 sq.
2.改造前的南湖公园：唐山是以采煤为主的重工业城市，由于近百年的开采，在市区周边形成了采煤 下沉区，南部采沉区就是其中之一，使采沉区内杂草丛生、污水满沟，成了人 迹罕至的废弃地。 2.Before the transform :Tangshan is a heavy industry city with coal-based,as mined for hundred years, mining subsidence area has formed Around the city inculding the east mining subsidence area ,where has weeds, Sewage and inaccessible .
3.对于城市的意义：1）作为城市生态绿地系统的重要部分，它起到提升整体城市生态质量的作用 2）为市民提供高品质的休闲场所，推动周边景观地产开发、带动区域旅游服务、 更新城市结构。 3.significance for town: 1)As the important part of urban ecological green space system.It plays a role of improving the quality of the overall urban ecological 2)providing the high quality for the citizens of leisure places promoting Estate development of the surrounding landscape driving the regional tourism services , update the structure of urban .
规划理念 planing analysis
规划理念：“变废为宝、变劣势为优势、化腐朽为神奇、由’深黑’到’蔚蓝’”，建 设目标是改善环境、恢复生态，提高城市品位，实现可持续发展。 planning concept :Trash to treasure，transform
inferiority into superiority，turn the
hard into the possible ,turn “deep black” to“ blue ”. The construction objective is to improve the
restoration , upgrade urbanquality and realize the sustainable development . 南湖公园以“绿”为主，以环境森林为依托，充分利用现有土地资源和水面。 一城——交通娱乐城； 三场——高尔夫球运动场、骑马运动场、军体射击场； 四园——水上游乐园、湿地生态园、水禽园、水上垂钓园； 六区——综合游憩区、青少年活动区、地震纪念区、农桑区、植物景观区、管理区 The main color is greenand the park is Based on the forest environment , take full advantage of Land resources and water. one town——A town with traffic and entertainment Three sites ——Golf stadium ，riding
playground ， shooting gallery
four Garden ——waterosmosis,wetland ecology garden,waterfowl park,water asserts Six Area ——recreation area , Activity area of adolescents , Earthquake memorial area , farming area , plant landscape area ,
建设重点 building stresses 建设重点：1、生物多样性的保护 (1) 自然的保护及再生：湿地内划定西南片区300公顷范围作为湿地动植物保护区，按照生态学 规律，不人为干扰，进行植物的自然恢复。其他区域采 取人工恢复的手段，模拟自然群落，进行 植被恢复。 (2) 人工增加植被数量，改善生态环境：按照湿地公园总体规划，种植区域划分为若干片区， 通过植物品种的配合创造出与空间适 应的景观。对原有树木加以利用，为鸟类提供丰富的食物及 栖息地。 (3) 湿地公园水质的提升与保护：南湖国家城市湿地公园的水源来自地下水、采煤舒干水、中 水和补 给水。为改善水质，主要采取了以下措施：切断周边污水的排入；用机械疏浚清除湖底污 泥，喷洒净化剂、种植水生植物净化水体；在充分利用地下水的同时，将采煤疏矸水及中水引入湿 地，并同环城水系贯通，对湿地进行补水和换水，又起到调蓄的作用。 Building stresses :1. conservation of biodiversity (1) Conservation and regeneration of natural The south west covers an area of 300 hectares and it is designed as the natural reserve and internalization of wetlands . As for the protection area of wetland, we prefer its natural recovery rather than artificial methods while in other areas, it is better to imitate the natural community function of recovery to protect the wetland with artificial methods. (2)Artificial vegetation quantity, improve the ecological environment To increase the artificial vegetation quantity and improve the ecological environment。 In accordance with the overall planning of the Wetland park, planting area is divided into several areas, through the plantvarieties with creating and spatial adaptation of the landscape. To make use of the original trees and birds to provides abundant food and habitat. (3) promotion and protection wetland water quality City National City Wetland park water comes from groundwater, mining, water and fill the Shu dry water Water supply. In order to improve the water quality, mainly take the following measures: cut into the surrounding water; Clear lake bottom sludge by mechanical dredging, spraying cleaning agent, planting aquatic plants purify water; In the full use of groundwater at the same time, the coal mining waste water drainage and water into the wetland, and the same The city water supply and water exchange through, the wetland, but also plays the role of regulation.
2、生态系统连续性的保护 (1) 保持与周边环境的连续性 (2) 确保生物通道以“斑块—廊道—基底”为基本模式形成自然优先的景观格局。植被 斑块-廊道网络体系由主体网络、区域网络和局部网络共同构成。 (3) 确保透水性，避免人工构造物的覆盖所有驳岸采取木桩护岸，并利用绿化废弃物， 采取枝桠沉床法，对驳岸水土进行保持，杜绝了混凝土的使用。 (4) 寻求有机物的良性循环，公园采用了生活废物处理及资源化利用系统，将由人活动 产生的液体及固体垃圾经过源分离、生物处理等环节，达到资源化利用。同时对公 园内的植物废弃物进行堆肥处理。 (1)Maintain the continuity and the surrounding environment (2) Ensure that the biological corridor To “patch - corridor - base” as the basic pattern of the formation of landscape pattern of natural priority. Vegetation patch corridor network system consisting of the main network, regional network and local network. (3) To ensure that the water permeability, avoid artificial structures covering All the bank take stakes revetment, and using green waste, taken branches mattress, on the embankment soil were maintained, put an end to the use of concrete. (4) Benign cycle for organic compounds park the life waste treatment and resource utilization system, liquid and solid waste generated by human activities after source separation, biological treatment and other sectors, to achieve resource utilization. At the same time, the park plant waste compost.
塌陷区改造 Subsidence transformation
采煤塌陷区生态治理 1.对采煤塌陷区生态功能恢复的治理：保留塌陷区原有的下沉式地貌，最大限 度保护原植被或者特殊物种。通过这样的途径可以对其进行有效的保护，加速促进 了对生态功能的自我恢复。 2.对生态园林的治理:以合理利用和系统保护为原则。高尔夫球场绿茵的建设 和南湖生态景观相结合，既对塌陷区生物的多样性进行了保护，又没有破坏原有生 态系统的连贯性；保护了塌陷区环境以及地貌的完整性，促进了塌陷区资源的稳 定.
Ecological management of mining subsidence area： 1.To restore the ecological functions of mining subsidence area governance: keep the original sunken subsidence area topography, the maximum protection of the original vegetation or special species. Can be effectively protected by such a way to accelerate the promotion of the ecological function of self-recovery. 2.of the ecological garden governance: the rational use and protection of the system as the principle. Golf course green building and ecological landscape Southlake combining both on biodiversity collapse area is protected, and no damage to the coherence of the original ecosystem; protecting the environment and the integrity of the topography subsidence area, promoting the collapse area stable resources. 3.Ways to conserve land resources management
4.草被区域选用适宜本地的，据抗性的草种 Green building coal mining subsidence area 1.reserved the original species of the collapse area 2. to increase the intensity of planting native trees 3. use the conservation costs perennial flowers 4 . Select
suitable local plant as grass area, Specifically resistant grasses
湿地区植物配置 wetland landscape plant configuration
水循环系统 (Water circulation system)
水质净化构想 (purification of water)
水循环 枯水期水系循环分析：枯水期时，从环城水系通过青龙河及陡河补水，经湿地处理后，通过泵站提升至 北部湖区及小南湖进行补给。 丰水期水系循环分析：丰水期时，北部湖区湖水经明渠导入青龙河，再流经南部湖区湿地，排出该域。
湿地景观区植物配置 1.水面植物配置：南湖的湖面辽阔、配置丰富多彩的水生植物。根据不同的水质、水深配置挺 水、浮水和沉水植物。同时采取积极措施避免某些水生植物带来的不利影响。例如：凤凰台东侧水质 较差，为净化水体栽植了大量水葫芦，从污水中除去镉、铅、汞等重金属元素。但水葫芦过多会覆盖 水面，降低光线对水体的穿透能力，影响水底生物的生长，所以在栽植区域设置围栏，使其在一定范 围内生长，利用其优点，避免其危害。 2.岛屿植物配置：湖中岛屿配置丰富的植物后，加强了水面景观、丰富了水面色彩，更能将大的 水面划分成不同情趣的小的水面空间。 3.堤岸植物配置：堤岸植物配置以自然手法为主，力求使陆地和水波融为一体，交相辉映，又对 水面空间的景观起着主导的作用。南湖的堤岸主要分为两种： 1、自然缓坡； 2、景观石驳岸。植物 配置考虑不同的湖岸，做不同的处理，但总的原则是靠近水体栽植高低不同的耐水湿植物，远观时形 成自然起伏的曲线，产生层次变化。 Wetland landscape plant configuration 1.water plant configuration: Nanhu Lake is vast, rich and colorful aquatic plant configuration. According to water quality, water depth of different emergent, floating and submerged plants. At the same time, take active measures to avoid the adverse effects caused by some aquatic plants. for example: the eastern side of the phoenix palace water quality is poor, planting a lot of water hyacinth for water purification, cadmium, lead, mercury and other heavy elements are removed from the wastewater. But the water hyacinth too much will cover the surface, reduce the penetration ability of light on the water, affect the benthos growth, so the fencing planting areas, the growth in a certain range, the use of its advantages, avoid the harm. 2. islands lake island plant configuration: configuration of rich plant, strengthen the water landscape, rich surface color, can be a large water surface is divided into different taste of the water space. 3.Bank of plant configuration of plant configuration to the natural manipulations, and strive to make com., land and water, add radiance and beauty to each other, and played a leading role on the surface in the space of landscape. South bank is mainly divided into two kinds: 1, the natural slope; 2, landscape stone revetment. plant configuration considering different lakeshore, different treatment, but the general principle is close to the water planting different water wet plants, natural undulating form far view when the curve changes, the hierarchical.
South Lake wetland ecosystem services
南湖湿地的生态服务 1.气候调节功能：大面积的绿化，绿地覆盖率高达65%，形成天然氧吧，可有效改 善唐山的区域气候和生态环境。水体与绿地的共同作用，能增加空气湿度，有效调 节温度。 2.气体调节功能：湿地环境通过水生植物，譬如芦苇等挺水植物、水草等沉水植物 的光合作用实现大气调节的正效应，固定空气中的二氧化碳，释放出氧气。水体、 树木还有吸附粉尘的作用。
South Lake wetland ecosystem services 1.Climate control functions: a large area of green , green coverage rate up to 65% , the formation of natural oxygen , which can effectively improve the regional climate and
3. 水源涵养功能。南湖湿地水源有原始天然降水、地下渗水、西郊污水处理厂的 中水和青龙河、陡河引来的水。湿地可以有效收集雨水，青龙河、陡河的水进入湿 地，对湿地进行补换水的同时又能起到调蓄作用。
ecological environment of Tangshan . Interaction of water with green space , increase air humidity , effectively regulate temperature. 2.Gas regulation function: wetland environment by aquatic plants, such as photosynthesis,
4.土壤形成与保护功能：南湖湿地大面积的绿化，使得南湖湿地具有防止土壤因 风、径流等外力作用而流失、发挥土壤保护功能。 5.废物处理功能。南湖湿地所生存的大量微生物和挺水、浮水、沉水植物可以对低 浓度重金属废水进行修复，且对流经的污水、污染物有吸附和降解作用。南湖具有 较强的净化水质、蓄留营养物质的能力，对城市废水起着净化作用。
reeds and other emergent plants , submerged plants and other plants to achieve positive effects of atmospheric adjustable fixed atmospheric carbon dioxide , releasing oxygen. , And the dust absorption effect of water trees . 3.Water conservation function . South Lake wetlands have the original natural rainfall water , underground water seepage, sewage treatment plant in the western suburbs of water and Qinglong river , douhe drew water. Wetlands can effectively collect rainwater , Qinglong river , douhe water into the wetlands, wetland fill for changing the water at the same time can play a role in regulation and storage . 4.Soil formation and protection functions : Green Lake wetland large area , making South Lake Wetlands prevent soil due to wind , runoff and loss of external force to play the soil protection.
5.of waste processing. South Lake wetlands to survive and quite a large number of microorganisms in water, floating , submerged plants can be repaired low concentrations of heavy metals in waste water and sewage flowing through pollutants adsorption and degradation. Southlake has a strong water purification, nutrient accumulation capacity of municipal wastewater purification plays a role . 6.of biodiversity protection.
thinking and enlightenment 对于本次设计的思考与启示 1.对于湿地保护区域，不人为干扰，进行植物的自然恢复。其他区域采取人工恢复的手段，模拟自然 群落，进行植被恢复。 2.对场地原有资源合理利用，增加植被数量，扩大绿色空间，调节生态平衡。 3.在湿地人们可以利用本土水生植物，在污水流经处设置植物净化区，在流经处设置“过滤沉降池” ，制造高差逐级沉降，并增加水中的含氧量。 4.场地可以设计成一个有机循环的水系。 5.对湿地景观的其他区域，种植乡土树种，具有良好抗性的植被类。
for the design thinking and enlightenment 1.As for the protection area of wetland, we prefer its natural recovery rather than artificial methods while in other areas, it is better to imitate the natural community function of recovery to protect the wetland with artificial methods. 2.We are highly advised to make good use of the original resources with the aim to increase the number of plant, extend the green spaces and to regulate ecological balance . 3.people are able to construct water purification area and filtration and settlement pool, taking advantage of the local aquatic plants in which polluted water flows, to produce different levels of settlement and increase the percent of oxygen in water. 4.The space can be designed into a organic circle of water. 5.As for the other areas of the wetland, we refer to plant agrestic trees and vegetation which has good resistance.
OTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS 颐和园排水分析
The Drainage System of the Summer Palace
风景赏析 Landscape appreciation in the
01. 颐和园介绍 Brief introduction of the
summer paLace ................................................................................................. 03
02. 颐和园的历史变迁 historicaL changes of the summer paLace.................................................................................... 04 2.1.明代时期的颐和园旧址 the summer paLace of the ming dynasty site............................................................. 04 2.2.清代时期的颐和园（解决方案分析）summer paLace of the Qing dynasty (soLution anaLysis)..................05 2.2.1.古人眼中的相地选址 Location reLative to the eyes of the ancients..........................................................05 2.2.2.西湖具体改造措施 West Lake specific reform measures......................................................................................06
03. 颐和园的排水系统 the drainage system of the summer paLace.................................................................................. 07 3.1.颐和园北端入水口the north Water inLet of summer paLace............................................................................................... 07 3.2.颐和园内部排水系统介绍the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace.............................................................. 08 3.2.1.二龙闸和月牙河 Er Long Break and Yue Ya River................................................................................................. 08 3.2.2.内庭院的排水口 the internaL outfaLL of courtyard....................................................................................................09 3.2.3.直立湖岸与岸边建筑的排水 The drainage of lakeside...........................................................................................10 3.2.4.葫芦河
hu Lu river...............................................................................................................................................11
3.2.5.截水沟 the intercepting ditch.......................................................................................................................................12 3.2.6.排水沟 the gutter.......................................................................................................................................................13 3.2.7.护土筋和大散点 retaining riBs and Large scatter........................................................................................................14
04. 总结 summary.........................................................................................................................................................................15 4.1山前山后排水特点总结 drainage patterns summary on the Both sides of the mountain.........................................................15 4.2具体做法与应用 specific practices and appLications.............................................................................................................15
the Location of the summer paLace
颐和园介绍 Brief introduction of the summer paLace
颐和园位于中国北京市海淀区西北，占地290公顷，是一座巨大的皇家园林和清朝的行宫。修建于清 朝乾隆年间、重建于光绪年间，曾属于清朝北京西郊三山五园之一。颐和园素以人工建筑与自然山水巧妙 结合的造园手法著称于世，是中国园林艺术顶峰时期的代表，1998年被评为世界文化遗产。
颐和园是清朝三山五园中保存状况最好的一座，也是清朝，乃至中国帝制社会史上最后修建的一座 超大型皇家园囿。此外，颐和园还是自汉武帝建章宫首创“一池三山”模式以来，最后一座、以及仅存 的一座保留着这个模式的宫苑。此外，由于规划于清朝的鼎盛时期，这段时期也是中国古典园林发展史上 最辉煌的时期，因此颐和园（清漪园）积淀了深厚的中国园林文化传统，成为中国古典园林艺术的集大成 者。凡举中国造园艺术中的山水规划、借景、蓦拟、对景等手段，都在颐和园中得到体现，其气魄之壮丽 甚至超过了平地起造的圆明园和山地构筑的宜园，成为中国古典园林的登峰造极之作。
The Summer Palace is located in Haidian District, northwest China, covers an area of290 hectares, which is a huge Qing Dynasty imperial garden palace. The Summer Palace was built in the Qing dynasty, and rebuilt in Guangxu years, belonged to one of three mountains and five gardens west of Beijing in Qing Dynasty. The Summer Palace is known to the world for their unique combination of architecture and natural landscape artificial, represents the peak of Chinese art of gardens , and was named a World Heritage Site in 1998 .
The Summer Palace not only is in the beat condition of preservation of the three mountains and five gardens of Qing Dynasty, but also the last and the only palace that has the spirit of the Emperor Wu of Han’s theory of “One lake and three mountains”. other than that, as planned in the heyday of the Qing Dynasty, this period is the most glorious period in the history of the development of Chinese classical gardens, so the Summer Palace (Qing Yi Park) its profound traditional Chinese garden culture, becoming a master of Chinese classical art of gardens. Whenever mention the Chinese garden art of landscape planning, make use of the scenery, simulation, sceneries contradistinction and other means, have been reflected in the Summer Palace, the magnificent spirit of its even more than made from the ground to build the Summer Palace and mountain Providence Park, has become the China apex of classical gardens.
the summer paLace dynasty site
1、 明代西湖附近区域受人们欢迎程度 呈现东西两极分化的态势，人群密集程 度不均匀分布。
Problems of West Lake of Ming Dynasty：
trend, andthe uneven distribution of population-intensive. The relative position between the West Lake and the Urn Mountains is rather awkward, but this appears to have some contact weak link between the two.
明代时期的颐和园旧址 the summer paLace of the ming dynasty site
北京自建立为封建帝王的统治中心以后，对于水源的要求也就大大增加。为了点缀风景，辟治苑林固然要 用水，为了开凿运河以便输送华北以及江南的漕粮到北京，就更需要用水。但是北京城内缺乏水源，金元两朝 都企图从永定河引水到京。只是由于永定河流量不稳定、携带泥沙又多，屡次尝试均未能成功，于是只好从西 北郊的泉水打算盘。西北郊泉水最盛的，首推玉泉山的玉泉。
然而当时的瓮山，由于山体本身形状较为呆板，常年无人管理是一座寸草不生的秃山。而且瓮山与西湖的 位置虽然具有北山南水的态势，但是两者的连署依靠关系并不十分理想，甚至处于一个较为尴尬的境地。所以 并不受当时人们的欢迎。
Beijing since the establishment of the feudal imperial center, demands for water will increase greatly. To embellish the scenery, of course, to the provision of water treatment Yuan Lin, canals for delivery to North and South of Grain to Beijing, the need of water. But Beijing city lacks water, Jin and Yuan dynasties have attempted diversion water from the Yongding River to Beijing. Only because of the Yongding River flow instability, carrying sediment addition, repeated attempts were not successful, so the attempt could only focus on the springs from the northwest. Northwestern suburbs was the greatest palace of springs, and Yuquan of the Yuquan Hill was the best Recommendation of all.
West lake was close to the Five Springs Mountain,the Five Springs Mountain silhouette beautiful elegant shape, most of the people back then will be saying the Five Springs Mountain and West as a whole, and build a lake house over the south slope of the Five Springs Mountain for viewing pavilion.It was very popular as a tourist attraction.
The popularity of area near West Lake of Ming Dynasty is showing a huge polarization
historicaL changes of the summer paLace
But the Urn Mountain back then, for the shape of the mountain itself is more rigid, the perennial lack of management result in a barren Bald Mountain. And the location of Urn Mountain and West Lakewas having the situation of “North mountain and west lake”, but the petition relies on the relationship between the two is not very satisfactory, even was in a rather awkwardsituation. So by the time it wasn’t fonded by people.
historicaL changes of the summer paLace
the summer paLace dynasty site
清代时期的颐和园（解决方案分析） summer paLace of the Qing dynasty (soLution anaLysis) 2.2.1.古人眼中的相地选址
Location reLative to the eyes of the ancients 乾隆看中西湖并加以改造修建园林的原因： 1、在已经建成的园林中圆明园、寄畅园均为平地建造，静怡园为纯山地，静明园则缺少开阔水面。而西 湖是面积较大的天然湖，与瓮山形成北山南湖局势，朝向良好，气度非凡。 2、从元、明以来已经成为京郊一处风景名胜区。 3、格局限制较少可以充分自由发挥。 4、建园为母后祝寿。 Reasons of the Qianlong Emperor lay eye on the West Lake and transformation : 1.In all the gardens that have been built,Yuanming garden and Jichang Garden are flat constructed, Jingyi
Garden is on pure mountain, Jingming Garden is lack of open water, while The West Lake is a large area of natural lakes, and in the formationwith the Urn Mountain of “North mountain Southlake”situation , the towards is good, extraordinary. 2.From the Yuan, Ming Dynasty ,the summer palace has become a scenic area of the Beijing suburbs. 3.Less restrictive pattern can be fully free to plan. 4.Palace was built for the king’s mother's birthday.
the summer paLace dynasty site
昆明湖西北角另开河道往北延伸，经万寿山麓，通过青龙 成山嵌水抱的形式。完全改变了原来西湖与瓮山之间尴尬的山 水联属关系。 Kunming Lake in the northwest corner of another open river runs northward through Longevity foothills connected by
the landscape of the embarrassment affiliation between West Lake and the original Urn Mountain.
mountains hold water in the form of inlay. Completely changed
historicaL changes of the summer paLace 清代时期的颐和园（解决方案分析） summer paLace of the Qing dynasty (soLution anaLysis) 乾隆时期，将力量集中来整顿西北郊的水源，措施就是开拓瓮山。瓮山泊原来面积只有昆明湖的三 分之一，这次开拓，主要是沿着东岸大为拓展。这次扩大湖面，主要是为了储存从玉泉山以及西山因地 势下注的流泉，拦起水霸的作用，冰提高了湖中的水位，这样就使得从湖的南端导入北京城的流水更加通 畅，经过这一次整顿，北京的水源一时得到解决。
在昆明湖中建造贯穿南北的西堤，西堤以东的水域广而深，是昆明湖的主体。西堤以西的水域比较 小一些，是其附属水域。原有的龙王庙保留为湖中的一个岛——南湖岛。并在附属水域中堆筑两个岛—— 治镜阁、藻鉴堂。与南湖岛形成三足鼎立之势，构成“一池三山”的皇家园林理水的典型传统模式。
In Qianlong period, people were focus on therectify of water of the northwest with the measuresof open up the Urn Mountain. The original UrnMountain was only 1/3 of Kunming Lake , thisdevelopment, greatly expanding mainly along the east coast. The expansion of the lake, mainly in order to save the springs polling from the Yuquan Mountain, played the role of dams in the bar, ice increased the water level in the lake, in result ofmaking the water imported from the southern end of the lake to Beijing is more patency, after this rectification, water source of Beijing momentary been resolved.
Built a West Embankment in the water ofKunming Lake through the north-south, the water on the east side of the West Embankment was wide and deep, is the subject of Kunming Lake. Open water of the west side of the West Embankment is smaller, it is a subsidiary waters. Retention of the original Dragon King Temple, an island
Qinglongqiao Qinghe along the northern white floating weir. After opening the lake expansion transformation, constitute
in the lake-- Lake Island. And subsidiaries waters piled two islands - Governance Mirror Court, algae Kam Tong. And form the three pillars of South LakeIsland, constitute the Royal Garden typical traditional model of water management"a lake andthree mountains" .
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the north Water inLet of summer paLace
颐和园北端入水口 the north Water inLet of summer paLace 昆明湖东堤在原有旧堤基础上加固改造，北端建水闸一座（二龙闸），控制昆明湖向东的泄水 量，也使得东堤以东、畅春园以西的一大片低洼地得以灌溉而开辟为水田。昆明湖西北角开河道，经 青龙桥向北连接清河，作为昆明湖水库的溢洪干渠，青龙桥下设置的水闸是水库至关重要的溢洪枢 纽。干渠绕万寿山北麓向东流出园外的支渠即是著名的后溪河，串联起了原有的零星小水面。
Kunming Lake East Embankment was build bast on the original one’s and reinforced, the northernmost build a sluice (Second Dragon Gate),not only controlled the amount of water thatreleased from Kunming Lake to the east, but also makes east of the East Embankment, west of theChangchun garden, a large lowlying land to be irrigated as a open paddy field. Open a river in the northwest corner of the Kunming Lake, from theQinglong Bridge to the north connecting the Qing river, as the trunk of Kunming Lake Reservoir spillway, sluice Qinglong Bridge next set is crucial reservoir spillway hub. Longevity Mountains eastward flowing around the trunk outside the park after the branch canal that is famous river, the original series from the sporadic little water.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
er Long Break and yue ya river
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.1.二龙闸和月牙河
er Long Break and yue ya river 二龙闸位于颐和园的东北侧,是东堤的重要出水口,控制昆明湖的水位,汇入万泉河水系之中,后面所 倚靠的高墙是一道水坝,外围有宽阔水面,是蓄水和泄水之用。
Second Dragon Gate is located in the northeastern part of the Summer Palace, is an important outlet of the East Embankment, Kunming Lake water level control, imported into the Wanquan River, which rely on the back wall is a dam, surrounded by a broad surface is water and draining purposes.
颐和园外围广场为单向坡向颐和园内水一部分向外排出，经由大广场,排向月牙河, 月牙河基本为 南北走向,地形向中间逐渐低陷,雨水等向此处汇集,汇入河水之中。月牙河担负着颐和园内外排水的连贯 和水系的贯通。
Palace Square is a one-way slope peripheral part of the Summer Palace, the water is discharged outside through the main square, behind the crescent moon, Yueya River essentially north to south, the terrain gradually sunken to the middle, where rainwater pooled to import water by the. Yueya River bears inside and outside the Summer Palace and the river's drainage continuity through.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the internaL outfaLL of courtyard
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.2.内庭院的排水口
the internaL outfaLL of courtyard 在颐和园的外墙不甚起眼的地方可看到有排水口，向内连接的是墙内角落的排水井，内庭院的小 庭院中在排水井周边有2%左右的坡度，水向排水井处汇集，排水井内放置烧制的陶管向外连接，将雨 水等排向园外，园外的水又经过广场的单向坡汇聚向月牙河，这是颐和 园外围庭院的排水途径。
In the Summer Palace exterior less conspicuous places can be seen from the drain outlet, connect the walls inward corner of drainage wells, in the courtyard of a small courtyard surrounded slope drainage wells in about 2% of water to the drainage wells Office collection, drainage wells placed outside fired clay pipes connected to the drain rainwater to park outside, park plaza outside the water and after a one-way slope to Yueya Riverconvergence, which is the Summer Palace courtyard perimeter drainage pathways.
Such specifications drainage wells and drains in the park is almost uniform, suggesting that the former should be made uniform.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the internaL outfaLL of courtyard
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.3.直立湖岸与岸边建筑的排水
the drainage of Lakeside 昆明湖之侧的建筑多将庭院内雨水等通过地下排水管排到昆明湖内，在驳岸出水口的处理上，一 般将出水口设置在沼岸之下，而不是直接开洞处理，避免对景观的不利影响，并且石砌的驳岸石块之 间有一定的缝隙，部分水通过缝隙排向昆明湖，所以在岸边围栏之下，经常可以看到黑色的竖向条带 均匀分布。
The building in the side of Kunming Lake most likely be discharged within the inner courtyard rainwater through underground pipes Kunming Lake at the outlet of the revetment treatment, generally disposed below the outlet marsh shore, rather than directly open hole treatment, avoid adversely affect the landscape, and there is a certain gap between the stone revetment stones, some of the water to drain through the gap Kunming Lake, the shore under the fence, one can often see a black vertical stripe uniform.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the hu Lu river
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.4.葫芦河 the
hu Lu river 葫芦河位于万寿山的南面坡下，与昆明湖之间的位置，一侧是乐寿堂,，一侧是颐和园的长廊。万
寿山前山较为陡峭，山体之上的枯枝落叶经常同大量的雨水一同席卷向昆明湖，葫芦河像是昆明湖之 前的一道屏障一般，水流之中的携带物先进入葫芦河，流速骤然减缓，大量的污泥杂体等在葫芦河内 沉淀，流入到昆明湖的雨水澄澈许多。葫芦河的体量较小，易进行污泥等的清理工作，昆明湖内水体 澄澈，降低了出水口阻塞的危险。
葫芦河大体呈葫芦形，具有一定的景观观赏价值，当由宫殿群落进入到长廊之时，葫芦河的存在 保证了长廊入口处两面景观皆有水面的出现，对称的水面使得长廊入口骤显宽阔，是典型的工程结合 景观的做法。
Hulu River located in the southern slope of Longevity Mountain, Kunming Lake and the position between the side of the Leshou tang, one side is the Summer Palace corridor. LongevityMountain before the relatively steep hill above the litter often with a lot of rain swept along the Kunming Lake, Hulu River like a barrier before the Kunming Lake in general, among the first to bring things into the water hyacinth river, flow rate suddenly slowed , a lot of precipitation in the sludge and other miscellaneous body gourd Hanoi, Kunming Lake rainwater flowing into many clarity. Smaller body mass Hulu River, easy clean-up work, such as sludge, the Kunming Lake water clarity, reducing the risk of outlet obstruction.
Takes the shape of a gourd-shaped gourd River, has a landscape ornamental value, when the community into the corridor of the palace, the presence of hyacinth river landscape on both sides of the entrance corridor to ensure the emergence of Individually water, making the water symmetrical entrance corridor sudden significant wide,which is a typical combination of landscape engineering practice.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the intercepting ditch
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.5.截水沟
the intercepting ditch 从葫芦河之侧上山，在山脚下即可看到截水沟，截水沟是现代人的排水措施,在雨水向下冲向昆 明湖的必经之路上挖沟截水，上面覆盖铁质的篦子，雨水从山顶而下，遇截水沟则下渗，有效地减少 了排向昆明湖的排水量，并且大量的淤泥被截水沟拦下，水质变得清澈， 水的径流速度很大程度上减 少。
葫芦河和截水沟都是为了阻止过多的淤泥和杂质进入昆明湖的措施，一旦大量的淤泥进入昆明 湖，清淤工作将浩大无比，但是葫芦河和截水沟的清淤工作都非常简便，是有效地排水措施。两项工 作一为古人所作，与景观结合，非专业人士甚至不能够看出葫芦河的作用，一为现代人所作，在有限 的面积内最大限度的保证了排水的有效性，没有考虑过多的景观效果，但是方便简洁，两项措施各有 所长。
From the side of the mountain Hulu River, at the foot of the mountain to see the drainage ditches, drainage ditches is a modern drainage measures on Kunming Lake in the rain rushed down the only way to cut trenching water, iron top cover the grate, rain down from the top, the case is infiltration drainage ditches, effectively reducing the discharge to the displacement of Kunming Lake, and a large amount of silt was stopped by drainage ditches, water becomes clear, a lot of water runoff rate reduced extent.
Hulu River and drainage ditches are measuresdesigned to prevent excessive silt and impurities into the Kunming Lake, once a large amount of silt entering the Kunming Lake, dredging work will be very huge, but Hulu River drainage ditches and dredging work are very simple, is an effective drainage measure. Both work by one of the ancients, combined with the landscape, and even non-professionals are not able to see the role of the gourd River, one made for the modern man, in a limited area to ensure maximum effectiveness of the drainage, without considering too much landscape effect, but to facilitate simple, two measures have their own strengths.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.6.排水沟 the
山坡之上的道路两侧可见明显的排水沟，山体之上冲刷下来的水分在到达道路之前便被排水沟所 拦截，不会冲刷到道路之上，道路上的水分也会顺地形流到排水沟之内，排水沟内水分沿排水沟向山 下而去，在道路的拐角处设置挡水石(置石)，减少对道路拐角处山体和道路的侵蚀，而挡水石本身就是 一种很好的小景点，与周边植物一起形成了小景观。
Drains clearers are visible on both sides of the road on the hillside, mountain water washed down drains would be intercepted before reaching the road, won’t be washed onto roads, water will flow along the terrain road drainage the ditch, the water drains away down the hill along the gutter, retaining stone setting (set stone) at the corner of the road, around the corner to reduce the mountain road and road erosion, while retaining the stone itself is a nice little attractions, and form a small landscape with surrounding plants.
the drainage system of the summer paLace
retaining riBs and Large scatter
the introduction of drainage system in summer paLace 3.2.7.护土筋和大散点
retaining riBs and Large scatter 上山的过程中看到山上坡度较为陡峭的地方布置一块一块的大石头，即为散点，又叫做散置， 即“攒三聚五”的做法，此种做法常用于布置内庭或散点于山坡上作为护坡，此处即为护坡之用，既 减缓了快速下流的水分对地面的冲刷，防止了水土的流失，又使山体增添奇特嶙峋之势。
While going uphill, we could see large stones placed in where the slope is steeper,which is scattered points, also called loose, or "save trimer five" approach, such practices commonly used in the arrangement of the tribunal or the scatter in as slope, slope purpose here is not only slow down the hill fast dirty water on the ground erosion, prevent soil erosion, but also make the rugged mountain adds peculiar trend.
总结 山前山后的排水特点总结 drainage patterns summary on the Both sides of the mountain
specific practices and appLications
【排】水流最终还是要排放到排水管道中，或通过地面的坡度有组织的流到排水口进入到排水道,或 In terms of surface soil erosion prevention, and on the first hill along the mountain road, common
retaining ribs, large scatter, retaining muscle can effectively prevent rainwater washed down
stream erosion on the ground, only to slow down the large scatter water runoff velocity can also be divided into a large number of small water flow, effective organization drainage;
[Block] Big valley side scatter and place are effectively reduces the rate of water runoff, making the rain on the ground to reduce erosion, improve soil erosion situation, making the water flow smoothly into the
Mountain terrain drainage rely more and more big drains, gutters can form such a large effect of
gutter or drain, while the large scatter also some fun to be able to increase the mountain.
certain landscapes, steep mountain sides, rain homeopathy, gathered in such a large body into
[Ban] The most typical example is the Yang Ren wind outside, lying in a ditch beside a long building, water
the ditch, set in a valley side ditch to slow the speed of water runoff, water enters through a hole
is flowing over this long interceptor trench outside the building, and with the flow of the ditch, the inflow of
beneath the bridge opening or platform River, discharged a large place in the rain, the river widens
the mountain Kunming Lake.
the water, which is the main characteristic of the mountain drainage .
[divide] A large stone will divide most of the waterin several small water which drainage in different directions, effectively improve the drainage rate.
[Build] The flow rate of the water will reducedwhen water is relatively large open water, sediment and other impurities in the water will be carried in the open water sedimentation in the lake, one can purify water, the second is to make the water can more easily through the gate or drain.
[Row] Water eventually will be discharged into the sewer or drainage channel through the ground into the slope of the organized flow to the outlet, or through underground drain underground pipe, eventually discharged into the Kunming Lake. Throughout Longevity drainage system, drainage or Yueyahe final point, or Kunming Lake, to complete the entire drainage system.
以上几种排水方式可以应用在这次的设计中。 Those drainage patterns mentioned up can be applied in the design. 16
OTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS chEngdu Living WATER pARK
cOnTEnTS 01. Regional location
02. Landscape characteristics
03. Structural characteristics ........................................................................07 04. Water purification system
05. Purification steps and principle ..............................................................09 06. conclusion ...............................................................................................16 07. inspiration .................................................................................................17
REgiOnAL LOcATiOn Living water park is located in Chengdu City Fu River, by USA landscape architect Maggie. Ruddick (Margie Ruddick) design, covering more than 24000 square meters. Is a comprehensive environmental education park, the world’s first city. 活水公园位于成都市内的府河边，由美国景观设计师玛吉.鲁迪克(Margie.Ruddick)设计，占地 24000多平方米。是世界上第一座城市的综合性环境教育公园
figuRE OnE: plan of Living water park
入口 Entrance figuRE TWO: transportation
LAndScApE chARAcTERiSTicS The whole park become a “fish” shape, symbol of vitality and health, meaning thewater close, illustrates the relationship between human beings and nature are interdependent, is one of the bright spots in the design. Visitors from the mouth of the fish into, to fish, enjoying the panoramic 公园整体成为“鱼”形，象征活力和健康，也寓意鱼水难分，说明了人类与自然相互依存的关系，是 该设计的亮点之一。游人从鱼嘴而入，走向鱼尾，游赏全景。
Landscape Herbaceous forest under the flowers landscape tree
figuRE TWO: Landscape partition
LAndScApE chARAcTERiSTicS The whole park become a "fish" shape, symbol of vitality and health, meaning thewater close, illustrates the relationship between human beings and nature are interdependent, is one of the bright spots in the design. Visitors from the mouth of the fish into, to fish, enjoying the panoramic Into the park, you can see the round square, including water, tea. One of theChina four Buddhist resort of Mount Emei, the origin of the rare native plantnaturalized in the hillside, a sacred mountain of reproduction In the garden terrace embankment, like layers of spreading to the house Water lake, a plume from the “green fields” stone Between the head, woven into a stream overflow Cui Qing Circular square and teahouse
“Well” word carpet. A wild profusion of vegetation on the hillside with trees Safflower, more a dense cold fern seedlings, also A leisurely rotating waterwheel, as if all of a sudden people Back to the primitive times. The
pool” and other natural landscapes and dozens of aquatic plants, ornamental fish skillfully fuses in together, educational, ornamental, the game as a whole, so that people in the close to nature, in the process, to fully experience the beauty of nature and magic. Living water park reproduce the natural forest landscape Chengdu SichuanMount Emei scenic area. The mountain forest landscape moved to the city, andto the ecological protection of the surrounding environment Terraces embankment
and ecologicalsystem, the micro adjustment function, can be said to be seen and used. 公园整体成为“鱼”形，象征活力和健康，也寓意鱼水难分，说明了人类与自然相互依存的关系，是该设计的亮点之 一。游人从鱼嘴而入，走向鱼尾，游赏全景。进入园中，就可看见圆形广场，包括水池、茶室。中国四大佛教胜地之一 的峨眉山，原产的珍稀本土植物引种在山坡上，有再现神圣山岭之意。园中的河堤，像梯田一层层铺展到府水之滨，一 缕缕碧草从“田”里的石缝 间探出头来，织成一幅幅流青溢翠的“井”字地毯。山坡上郁郁葱葱有绿树有红花，更有一片密麻麻冷蕨苗，还有悠然 转动的水车，仿佛一下子把人带到那原始古朴的年代。园内的中心花园雕塑喷泉、自然生态河堤、“黄龙五彩池”等自 然风景和几十种水生植物、观赏鱼类巧妙融合在一起，集教育、观赏、游戏为一体，使人们在走近自然、融入自然的过 程中，充分体验到大自然的美妙与神奇,活水公园再现了四川成都峨眉山风景区自然地森林景观。将山地的林带景观搬 移到城市之中，并对与周边的环境起到了一定的生态保护，生态系统的微观调节的作用，可以说是中看又中用。
STRucTuRAL chARAcTERiSTicS ：Living water park is a water protection as the theme of the city ecologicallandscape park. In the garden Water from the Fu River, and to the community and the public space of rainwater and sewage are Effect of collection, through the biological self purification function, so that the water flowed through the anaerobic pool, water carving Plastic, an oxygen tank, plant pond, plant bed, fish ponds, water purification and circulation system, To show people the polluted water in nature by the "muddy" to "clear", "dead" to"live"
活水公园是一座以水保护为主题的城市生态景观公园。园中的水取自府河水，并对社区和公共空间的雨水和污水进行有 效收集，通过生物自净功能，使水依次流经厌氧池、流水雕塑、兼氧池、植物塘、 植物床、养鱼塘等水净化循环系统， 向人们展示被污染的水体在自然界由“浊”变“清”、由“死”变“活”的过程，诠释活水文化，启迪人们珍惜水资 源。
pump room direction of flow
direction of flow
fish ponds Open-air theatre
street Environmental education center
WATER puRificATiOn SYSTEm Water purification system consists of a series of streams, ponds, runs through the entire park. The In the constructed wetland ecological system as the core of living water parkwater treatment project. The Shaped like a piece of fish, consisting of 6 plant pond, 12 plant bed, Sewage here precipitation, adsorption, oxidation and reduction, as well asmicrobial decomposition Use, the harmless, a plant growth promoting nutrient and water. The planting of dozens of aquatic plants and natural growth of a variety of fish,insects and amphibians animal form wetland ecological system and the wild animal habitat. Both decomposition of pollutants in water and water purificationeffect, and have a good knowledge and ornamental.
水净化系统由一系列溪流、池塘组成，贯穿全园。其中人工湿地塘床生态系统为活水园水处理工程的核心。其外形酷似一片片鱼鳞，由6个植物塘、12个植物床组成，污水在这里经沉淀、吸附、氧化 还原、微生物分解等作用，达到无害化，成为促进植物生长的养分和水源。其间种植的几十种水生植物与自然生长的多种鱼、昆虫和两栖动物等构成了良好的湿地生态系统和野生动物栖息地。既有分 解水中污染物和净化水体的作用，又有很好的知识性和观赏性。
Water purification facilities
natural forest Artificial wetland purification Environmental education center 8
Purification stePs and PrinciPle 【第一步：厌氧沉淀】
厌氧沉淀池 用水泵经把河水抽入厌氧沉淀池， 在厌氧沉淀池使水中大部分悬浮物沉入 池底或浮于池面而与水分离，部分可溶 性的有机污染物分解为较简单的有机物 和无机物。
【Step one: anaerobic precipitation】 The anaerobic tank Pumps through the river and into the anaerobic tank, most of the suspended solids in anaerobic tank make water sink to the bottom or floating in the pool surface and separated from water, partially soluble organic pollutant is decomposed into simpler organic and inorganic substances.
Purification stePs and PrinciPle 【第二步：曝气充氧】
水流雕塑 从厌氧沉淀池出来的水经水流雕 塑，曝气后流入兼氧池，水中的污染 物在兼氧池中经兼氧微生物进一步降 解。
【The second step: aeration oxygenation】 The water sculpture From the anaerobic tank of water flow sculpture, into the pool and oxygen after aeration, the pollutants in the water in the pool and oxygen condition and oxygen microbes further degradation.
Purification stePs and PrinciPle 【第三步：微生物降解】
微生物池 水通过水流雕塑后，进入微生物池，也 叫兼氧池。它的深度为1.6米、容积为 48立方米。污水在池中被微生物部分净 化后，从微生物池泵入植物池。
【Step three: microbial degradation】 Microbial pool Sculpture after water through the water, into the microbial pool, also known as the pool and oxygen. Its depth is 1.6 meters, the volume of 48 cubic meters. Waste water in the pool is after the purification of microbes from microbial pool pumping plants pool..
Purification stePs and PrinciPle 【第四步：植物吸收】 植物池 植物池是一个人工湿地生态系 统，它是活水公园水处理工程 的核心部分，由6个植物塘、 12个植物床组成，其中养殖的 植物达数十种，还有多种鱼类、 昆虫和两栖动物。
【Step four: plants absorb】
Plants pool Plants pool is an artificial wetland ecological system, it is the core part of the living water park, water treatment engineering, by six plants pond, 12 beds, including breeding of dozens of species, there are a variety of fish, insects and amphibians.
Purification stePs and PrinciPle Plant breeding pool of dozens of kinds of plants, including: floating plants (duckweed, purple ping, crassipes), a water plant (reed, candle of water, water bamboo, umbrella grass, calamus, callas, rush), floating leaf plants (such as lotus, water lily), submerged plant (hornwort, black algae), etc., there are a variety of fish, insects and amphibians. Water into the artificial wet area, flow between the stones, pollutants has been the growth of reed and the stone on the microbial adsorption. They will be useful to plant nutrition the contaminants. Here depend on the pollutants in the water for plants to grow, plants wilt were removed, pollutants will then be cleared. 植物池中养殖的植物达数十种，包括：漂浮植物（浮萍、紫萍、凤眼莲）、挺水植物（芦苇、水烛、茭白、伞 草、菖蒲、马蹄莲、灯心草）、浮叶植物（莲、睡莲）、沉水植物（金鱼藻、黑藻）等，还有多种鱼类、昆虫 和两栖动物。 水流入人造湿地区，从石头之间流过，污染物就被上面生长的芦苇及石头上的微生物吸附住。它们将污染物分 解成为对植物有用的营养。这里的植物依靠水中的污染物生长，植物枯萎时被清除掉，污染物也就随之被清 除。
Purification stePs and PrinciPle 【第五步：净水流出】 鱼塘 流出的水流入鱼塘，再经渗滤 池后流入自然水沟和戏水池， 最终经出水口流入锦江。
【Step 5: clean water flow out】
Fish ponds Flow of water into the pond, and then after infiltration filter into natural ditch and play pool, finally by the outlet flow into jinjiang
Purification stePs and PrinciPle LAKE
Plants filter Processing system
pool fish ponds
System flow diagram
conclusion Living water park design, further reveals the topography and hydrology of city structure and city form some kind of relationship between structure and in the establishment of urban open space network and landscape on the base of urban water system, provide a rich variety of recreational place, create a variety of experience space, increase the biodiversity of the ecosystem, thus further realize the landscape urbanism. 活水公园的设计，深入的揭示了城市的地形及水文结构与城市结构形式之间存在的某种关系，在城市开放空间 网络的建立与城市水体系统的景观基底上，提供丰富多样的休闲游憩场所，创造多种体验空间，增加生态体系 的生物多样性，从而进一步实现景观都市化。
inSpiRTiOn After this to chengdu living water garden water use and wastewater treatment of case analysis, let our team to use ecological technique for wastewater treatment have further understanding. The harmonious relation between man and water should be social common sense, is also one of the basic principles of landscape planning and design. Let every living water park YouYuanZhe understanding and set up the idea of protecting water environment, the creative education with scene, fun. This idea should be worthy of our study, and is widely promoted. 经过这次对成都活水园水资源利用及污水处理的案例分析，让我们团队对于利用生态手法进行污水处理有了进 一步的了解。 人与水的和谐关系应是社会常识，也是景观规划设计中的基本原则之一。活水公园让每一位游园者理解和树立 保护水环境的观念，有创意的“寓教于景，寓教于乐”。这一观念应该值得我们学习，并得到广泛推广。
上海后滩公园 2010 Shanghai Expo The Hotan Park
目录 Contents 1.工程概况 Project summary …………………………03 2.SWORT分析 Swort
3.处理问题 Problem Processing ………………………15 4.结语 Conclusion ………………………………………28
1.0 工程概况 Project summary 项目简介 Project introduction 基地概况 Base Description 问题与挑战 Challenge
项目简介 Project introduction
类别：城市公园与绿地 设计公司：土人景观 规模：18公顷 地点：上海浦东，2010世博会园区 所获奖项：2010年ASLA专业奖之杰出设计奖 世博后滩公园为上海世博园的核心绿地景观之一， 位于“2010上海世博园”区之西端，位于黄浦江 之东岸与浦明路之间，南临园区新建浦明路，西 至倪家浜，北望卢浦大桥，占地18公顷。场地原 为钢铁厂（浦东钢铁集团）和后滩船舶修理厂所 在地。 Type：City parks and green spaces Design Company：Turenscape Scale：18ha Location：Shanghai Pudong，2010Expo Park Awards：ASLA Professional Design Award of Outstanding After the Expo Beach Park as the core of one of the green landscape of Shanghai World Expo, located in the "2010 Shanghai World Expo," the westernmost area, the Yellow River is located between the east coast of the Pu Ming Road, south park New Pu Ming Road, west Ni Hamamatsu, north Lupu Bridge, covering 18 hectares. The original venue for the steel plant (Pudong Iron and Steel Group), and the beach ship repair plant is located.
设计构思中，由防洪堤和交通网络引发创作灵感， 进一步联想到山水自然线条的构图形式，最终确立中 国扇的上层植物结构形式配以流畅的地被网络，形成 一轮黄埔江边亮丽的植物虹。横向上强调布局的弧线 分区与直线守边相结合，竖向上通过对风向、遮荫及 视线等因素的综合考虑，穿插形成整齐的南北向条状 林地。抬升的扇形基地比拟为折扇的扇面，按风向走 势而特意设置的乔木引风林比拟为扇骨，这样整个滩 的景观构成了一幅生动而赋有韵味的中国水墨山水画。
Design conceived by levees and transport networks triggered inspiration, think of the composition in the form of further natural lines of the landscape, eventually established the structure of the upper layer in the form of plants with fluent Chinese fan network being formed round the bright side of the Huangpu River plant rainbow. Emphasizes the partition layout on the lateral arc and a straight Shoubian combined through the wind, shade and line of sight and other factors into account, interspersed with neat formation on a vertical north-south strip of woodland. Uplift folding fan base compared to the fan, the wind forest trees by the wind and deliberately set the trend compared to Shan Gu, so that the entire beach landscape constitute a vivid and endowed with charm of Chinese ink painting.
总平面图 General Plan
基地概况 Project introduction
自然环境特征 长江入海口的冲积平原，随着海岸线的东扩，陆 地逐渐成形。水网密布，河流反复摆动，东西向 河渠通海。
场地自然景观变化与黄浦江的变迁紧密联系，随 农业经济占主导地位，渔业、盐业和 着吴淞江的衰落，黄浦江的兴起，地位日益重要。 手工纺织业也很发达。隶属上海县， 生态环境良好，水患较少。 典型的水乡村落景观。
因港口码头运输以及工业生产的需要，浦江两岸 岸线大量被固化，河流自然沉积和侵蚀过程逐渐 衰落，“填浜筑路”自此开始。
近代工业积聚的中心之一，内河航运 业发达，码头密布，铁路、公路交通 发达。
场地内浦江岸线完全被固化，浦江水文动力过程 受阻。塘浦基本上都填平成道路，支流仅存白莲 泾。海平面上升与地面沉降共同作用加剧了沿江 风暴潮的破坏作用。多年工业生产造成的环境污 染问题有待解决。
制造工业走过了黄金时代，老工厂面 临搬迁或倒闭的问题。浦东开发要求 浦江两岸联系更加紧密。
Landscape evolution stage
before Historical records
During the agricultural community
Modern industrial era
Modern industrial era
Natural environmental features
Before the Tang Dynasty
Yangtze River estuary alluvial plain, with the eastward expansion of the coastline, the land gradually forming. The water network, the river repeatedly swing of things canals to the sea.
Prior to 1843 Opening of the Tang Dynasty
Venue change and natural landscape changes of the Huangpu River in close contact with the decline of the Suzhou Creek, the rise of the Huangpu River, an increasingly important position. Good ecological environment, less flooding.
Agriculture dominates the economy, fisheries, salt and handmade textile industry is very developed. Under the Shanghai County, a typical fishing village village landscape.
Transportation and ports due to the need of industrial production, a lot of the Huangpu River shoreline is cured, river sedimentation and erosion processes natural gradual decline, "filling Bang road" since the beginning.
One of the centers of modern industry accumulation, the inland shipping industry developed, densely covered dock, railway, highway transportation.
1949 - so far
River shoreline venue was completely cured, River hydrological dynamic processes blocked. Tangpu basically filled into the road, a tributary of the only remaining Bailianjing. Sea-level rise and land subsidence joint action exacerbated the destructive effects of storm surges along. Environmental pollution caused by industrial production for many years to be resolved.
Manufacturing industries have gone through a golden age, old factories facing relocation or closure problems. Huangpu River, Pudong development requires closer together.
Table 1: Site Landscape Evolution
No agricultural production, and no administrative system.
基地范围内现状主要为工业和仓储用地 东部：隧道工程股份有限公司、上海浦东钢铁集团有限公司和南干线1号污水泵站 。 中部：上海市环境污水处理厂 西南部：上海长江轮驳公司航修站、上海后滩船舶修理厂和后滩天然湿地。 Status within the scope of the main bases for industrial and warehouse land East: Tunnel Engineering Co., Ltd., Shanghai Pudong Iron and Steel Group Co., the 1st South Route sewage pumping station. Central: Shanghai Environmental sewage treatment plant Southwestern: Shanghai Yangtze River Barge Company aircraft repair stations, ship repair factory Shanghai after beach after beach and natural wetlands.
基地概况 Project introduction
地形：基地地势相对平坦，大部分场地标高在4米到7米之间。场地西南部的湿地区是天然形成的缓坡，是黄浦江的长滩， 平均标高约2米。 驳岸：驳岸分为东段的桩基防洪墙和西段湿地无桩基防洪墙两种。 构筑物：以工业厂房为主，有型钢三车间和厚板酸洗厂房两个大型构筑物，部分工业设备 植物：场地内的植物主要可分为厂区间植物和湿地类植物两大块。厂区间的植物布局零星，整体绿化覆盖率较低，以香樟、 广玉兰、女贞、水杉、雪松等为主。湿地类植物主要分为标高较高的、以狗尾草为主的滩涂植物和标高较低的、以镳草、 芦苇、河柳、构树、女贞构成的滨水植物群落，生态景观良好。
Terrain: the terrain is relatively flat base, most venues elevation between 4 meters to 7 meters. Southwestern venue gentle natural wetland area is formed, is the Huangpu River in Long Beach, the average elevation of about 2 meters. Revetment: pile flood wall revetment into eastern and western sectors of Two wetlands pile flood wall. Structures: industrial plant-based, there are three workshops and thick steel pickling plant two large structures, some industrial equipment Plants: Plants venues can be divided between the main plant wetland plants and plants two blocks. Plant layout of the plant between sporadic and low overall green coverage to camphor, magnolia, privet, fir, cedar, etc. mainly. Wetland plants are divided into a higher elevation to foxtail plants and shoals dominated lower elevation to darts grass, reed, willow, mulberry, Waterfront privet plant community composition, ecological landscape well.
问题与挑战 Project introduction
第一大问题：后滩地区保有上海市区、黄浦江边仅有的一块 天然湿地、如何遵从生态设计原则、秉承场地文脉、满足多 重体 验需求来进行改建。
第四大问题：环境整治，该场地是一块紧邻上海黄浦江呈狭长形的工业棕地现已全然 成为了一片建筑垃圾遍地的填埋场。特别是黄浦江水污染严重，根据国家水质标准场 地内的水质为劣V类水 The first big problem: the beach area to maintain the Shanghai area, Huangpu River, only a natural wetland, how to comply with the eco-design principles, adhering to the site context, to meet the needs of multiple experiences alterations. The second big problem: to solve the problem space QianNianYiYu Flood elevation between standard and wetlands. The third big problem: to solve the serious water and soil pollution site. The fourth major problem: the environment, the site is adjacent to Shanghai Huangpu River was a long, narrow shape of industrial brownfields has totally become a construction waste landfill everywhere. Especially the Huangpu River water pollution, according to state water quality standards of water quality venues for inferior class V water.
2.0 SWOT分析 机遇 Opportunity 挑战 Challenge 外部因素 External factors 内部因素 Internal factors
水资源丰富 平坦地形 广阔原生湿地 芦苇、柳树等优势植被
Rich in water resources Flat terrain Vast native wetland Dominant vegetation reed, willow, etc.
2 locational advantages
Land in the Huangpu River, next to the Expo area, water transport and external transport accessibility is good.
3. Cultural superiority
Industrial history and cultural inheritance
1 industrial pollution
Serious water, land contamination
2 narrow space
Contradictions narrow space and feature-rich space
3 dual requirements.
Changes around the Expo site requirements
External factors Oppo rtunit y
1 high concern
Shanghai obvious advantages Expo tourists broad, big reputation
2 in the golden tourist line
Nanjing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, in the same area travel online
1. Reduce the tourists after the Expo
Less than the inevitable tourists during the World Expo World Expo
2 Expo Park, lotus park, south park also started
Introduction of competition
3.0 问题处理 Problem Processing
公园保留了场地内的原有一块面积16公顷的江滩湿地，茂盛的柳树和芦苇群落，供多种鸟类栖息并发 挥河水净化和防止洪水侵蚀等功能；改造原有水泥硬化防洪堤而成为生态型的江滨潮间带湿地，供乡土 水岸植被繁衍生长；同时，根据现状绿化及湿地分析现状用地及工业遗存分析湿地净化系统示意狭长的 场地条件，设计了一个人工内河湿地系统，绵延1.7km，宽窄不一。 Park preserves the sites within an area of 16 hectares of original Jiang Tan wetland, the lush willow and reed community, habitat for a variety of birds and the water purification and prevent flood erosion, and other functions; Modification of cement hardening levee as original ecological waterfront intertidal wetland, for local bank vegetation reproduction growth; At the same time, according to the present situation of greening and the status quo of land use and industrial heritage analysis wetland purification system schematic narrow site conditions, artificial river wetland system, designed a stretch 1.7 km, or width. 该内河湿地具有多种功能。包括： The inland wetlands with a variety of functions. Including:
1.水质净化系统 1：water purification system
将黄浦江劣质V类水，经过沉淀、曝气加氧，土壤和植物及微生物的净化，在缓慢流经湿地的过 程中，得以净化至III 类净水，供世博会场的景观、浇灌和冲洗用水。初步试运行证明，后滩公 园的水净化能力每天2400t。这既是一个实际的水净化系统，也是一个展示和科普教育系统。 Will be inferior V class water of huangpu river, after precipitation, aeration and oxygen, purification of the soil and plants and microbes, in the process of slowly through the wetlands, to purify to class III water purification, for the landscaping of the expo site, water and rinse with water. After preliminary trial proves that the beach park, water purification capacity of 2400 t every day. This is both a practical water purification system, is also a popular science education and display system.
湿地净化系统示意 Wetland purification system
净化流程：从西到东，湿地水流经过病原体净化区、重金属净化区和营养物净化区后，进入水质稳定调节区； 期间，水流又不断通过地下管道在梯田进出，迂回净化。 Purification process: from west to east, the wetland water purification, purification of heavy metals and nutrients through pathogens after purification area, enter the water quality stabilization area; During the flow and continuously through underground pipes in the terraced fields in and out, circuitous purification. 系统设计：净化系统考虑了黄浦江与内河湿地的水位、纵向流速，湖底生态化设计为水生物多样性提供条件； 同时考虑了水体的沉淀、加氧、过滤和生物吸收。 System design: purification system considering the huangpu river and inland river wetland water level, the longitudinal velocity, lake ecological design provide the conditions for the biological diversity; At the same time, considering the water precipitation, add oxygen, filtration and biological absorption. 水位西高东低；江水位高、湿地水位低，在净化循环系统内部水自然流动 Water level on the west and low in; The river is high, the wetland water level is low, the natural water flow in internal purification cycle system
1、净化系统设计系统 1、the purification system design system
公园的中心地带为一块1.7千米长、5～30米宽的带状人工内河湿地，它像一台不停转动的水污染处理器一样净化着 黄浦江水，并努力打造一片重塑生机的江滨地带。小瀑布和梯田的形式不仅创造了优美的水景，也增加了水中的氧 含量，同时过滤了水体营养，减少了水中沉积杂质；并选取了各种湿地植物来吸收不同的污染物质。实地测验表明， 后滩公园每天可以将2400立方米水从劣V类水净化为III类净水，可供世博会非饮用水使用，与传统的水治理手法相 比可节省50万美元。 The centre of the park for a 1.7 km long, 5 ~ 30 meters wide strip of the artificial river wetland, it is like a spinning processor as to purify the huangpu river water, water pollution and the riverside area to create a restore vitality. Small waterfalls and terraced fields in the form of not only created a beautiful water landscape, also increased the oxygen content in the water, filtered water nutrition at the same time, reduce the water deposited impurities; And all kinds of wetland plants to absorb different pollutants. Field test shows that after the beach park can be 2400 cubic meters of water a day from bad V kind of water purification water purification for class III, for the world expo is not drinking water use, compared with the traditional water treatment technique can save $500000.
人工湿地水体净化设计图 Artificial wetland water purification design
2.生态防洪体系 2. Ecological flood control system
A、两年一遇的土坡式防洪堤和千年一遇的台地式防洪堤之间，形成了一个黄浦江和陆地之间的过渡带和缓冲区， 可以在遇到突发洪水时作为城市的滞洪地。 A,：once every two years the levee slope type and millennial platform type levee, formed A huangpu river and the transition zone between the land and the buffer, can meet the flooding as the city's flood detention. B、分层建堤大大降低了对防洪堤的要求高度和强度，使原有水泥防洪堤可以改为低强度的泥土和天然材料制作 的生态化的护堤，改善 了滨江生态系统。 B、Layered JianDi greatly reduces the requirement for levee height and strength, make the existing levees can be changed to low intensity of cement soil and natural ecology of the dike dam materials, improved the riverside ecological system. C、梯地禾田梳理场地高差。方案利用场地农耕文明景观层的梯地禾田来消解场地千年一遇防洪标准与内河净化 湿地之间的高差。 C、terrace land hetian comb ground elevation difference. Layer scheme using the farming civilization landscape terrace land hetian to eliminate site coming flood control standard and elevation difference between river wetland purification.
3.重塑文化意义 3. Reshape the cultural significance
内河人工湿地净化 Inland artificial wetland purification 在生态重塑的景观基质上，农业和工业的历史记忆与 后工业生态文明相互交织重叠。我们从千百年来中国 的梯田中获得智慧的设计启迪，一方面用梯田来解决 水边与路面3～5米的高差，同时也减缓了汇入内河湿 地的雨水径流。
On the ecological reshape the landscape matrix, the historical memory in the agricultural and industrial industrial ecological civilization after intertwined overlap. We gain wisdom from a terrace of coming to China in one thousand, the design of the enlightenment on the one hand, with terraced fields to solve the water and road 3 ~ 5 meters height difference, but also slow down the import inland wetlands of rainwater runoff.
梯地禾田农耕文明 Terrace land hetian agricultural civilization 这些梯田唤起了人们对于20世纪中期上海的记忆，那 时周边场地是一派生机勃勃的农业景象。在这片稻谷 作物繁茂、湿地植物丛生的城市农田中，人们享受着 季节更替的美景：油菜花在春风中遍野绽放，向日葵 迎着夏日艳阳灿烂盛开，稻花和着秋风徐徐飘香，三 叶草在冬日里平添点点青翠。后滩公园是人们在城市 中体验农耕农产的绝好去处。
These terraces evoked memories of people in the middle of the 20th century in Shanghai, then surrounding area is a vibrant agricultural spectacle. Crops in the rice fields of lush, wetland plants of city, people enjoy the beauty of the seasons: rape everywhere blossoms in the spring breeze, sunflower against the summer sun is shining in full bloom, paddy fields and the autumn wind slowly fragrance, clover smooth add a little green in winter. After the beach park is people in the city a great place to experience farming.
梯地台田景观 Tin landscape ladder platform 通过在梯田中创造出各种空间的方式提升了湿地两侧 的景观品质，使游人走入这个生命系统之中，能最直 接地感受农田、湿地景观。步道网络像“毛细管状” 一样，吸引着游客在园内徜徉。
The terrace to create various spatial form to improve the quality of wetland landscape on both sides, so that visitors enter into the life system, the most direct feeling of farmland, wetland landscape. Trail networks like "capillary", attracting the visitors in the park garden.
湿地生态景观 Wetland Ecological Landscape
场地以工业构筑物和原料的再利用 来突显其工业渊 源。上海是中国现代工业的发源地，那些带有工业历 史痕迹的残部断片在景观设计师的手中变为了悬空花 园，或是俯瞰平台。 在那些被重新注入生命活力的废旧钢铁板材的身上， 依旧可以嗅到场地往日的工业气息。贯穿整个湿地的 围合钢板框衬出上海的天际线，诉说着其久远的工业 传奇。这些重新组配的钢板被赋予了各种精巧构想， 有些变为了步行道，有些改作了遮阴廊。 Site structures and re-use of industrial materials to highlight its industrial roots. Shanghai is the birthplace of China's modern industry, those remnants of the broken piece with traces of industrial history in the hands of the designer into a vacant landscape garden, or overlooking the platform. In those who were re-injected vitality of scrap steel plate, the venue of the past can still smell the industrial atmosphere. Wetlands throughout enclosed steel frame show off the Shanghai skyline, telling its long industrial legend. These re-group with the plate was given a variety of ingenious idea, and some changes to the walking trails, and some converted to a shade Gallery.
4.创造了丰富的溪谷景观 Creating a rich valley landscape
在狭窄的场地上，营造丰富的空间。内河谷地的 地形与两岸的乡土乔木相结合，创造了一个相对 幽静的溪谷景观，在喧闹的环境中，营造了一片 僻静的场所。溪谷纵向由上游而下，蜿蜒曲折， 空间开合多变；横向自陆而江，一波三折，在狭 窄的断面上，创造了丰富的空间层次。
In the narrow space, creating a wealth of space. Both sides of the river valley's topography and native trees combine to create a relatively secluded valley landscape, in a noisy environment, creating a secluded place. Longitudinal valley upstream down, twists and turns, changing the space to open and close; laterally from the land and the river twists and turns in the narrow section, creating a rich space level.
5.生态多样性 Ecological diversity
两道堤岸、溪谷、梯田 以及林地，多样的地形 为多样的生物提供栖居 地和食物。
Two banks, valleys, terraced fields and woodlands,diverse terrain offers a variety of biological habitats and food.
The main scenic spots
Representation of the structure of plant communities
Ecological Wetland Landscape Area
Show zonal plant
In the heart of Shanghai, deciduous plant-based communities
Clean air, resistance to external intrusion
Feeding chicken + Family feelings bamboo - Guanzhong + Hosta - in medicinal
Wetland landscape display area
Purification of the community
Clean air, water, absorb heavy metals
Willows + camphor - wild rice + Germany Iris+Lythrum
Wetland landscape display area
Nitrogenas e oxygen Communiti es
Clean air and release oxygen
Zhang Luan tree + big leaf - Hongye Li - Lavender + Carnation Lythrum + wild rice
Forest landscape display area being
Watch Chunhua, savor seasonal changes
With hydrangea, Hydrangea macrophylla Chom-based communities
Forest landscape display area being
Wind resistance Communiti es
Resistance, reduce the typhoon disaster
Mexico privet Taxodium + - + sage leaves Phnom Penh straw Aurea Carex + Egeria miscanthus - Iris + Lycoris
Forest landscape display area being
Sterilization of health community
Absorption of harmful gases, sterilization, care
Ginkgo - Osmanthus - honeysuckle + Spring - in medicinal + Duchesnea
garden landscape area
Humidificat ion cooling Communiti es
Ease gathered Square "heat island"
Camphor + + Luan Sapindus tree - Lotus + smile + Hydrangea Rhododendron + Verbena
Plantation landscape area
Ornamental gold leaf, savor seasonal changes
To Luan tree, Ginkgo community-based Chunlin
Plantation landscape area
Ornamental leaves, savor seasonal changes
In beech trees, Ailanthus community-based Chunlin
Ecological Wetland Landscape Area
Shanghai Expo Park plant community classification
4.0 结语 Conclusion
农耕文明传承 Farming civilization heritage
后滩地区古时录属上海县，唐代至183年开埠经历了近千年的农业社会时期，目睹着黄浦江畔农耕经济的兴衰起落。因此，作 为文化传承，农耕文明是不可忽视的重要部分。因此，我们看到。 1. 世博后滩公园中的地形变化基本上都是利用耕地的田字形来营造的，这些田块大大小小，高高低低，参差错落的叠放着，形成了 丰富而富有韵律的竖向空间 2.这些田块按地形高低分成几类，各自种上与其功能及坏境相适应的植物，如芦苇，向日葵，油菜，小灌木等。 3利用梯田高度和植物高低的落差逐级下渗，江水经过层层过滤，得到净化；更为重要的是梯地禾田消解场地千年一遇防洪标准与内 河净化湿地之间的高差。 The Hotan Park area is recorded in the ancient county Shanghai Tang to 183 years of its inception has experienced during the past thousand years of agricultural society, witnessing the rise and fall of the Huangpu River farming economy ups and downs. Therefore, as a cultural heritage, is an important part of farming civilization can not be ignored. Thus we see. 1. Terrain changes after the Expo beach parks are basically the use of cultivated fields to create the shape of these plots, large and small, jagged, irregular scattered stacked with, forming a rich and rhythmic vertical space 2 These plots divided into several categories according to the level of the terrain, planted their respective functions and adapt to bad environment plants, such as reeds, sunflower, canola, small shrubs. 3 Use the level terraces and plant height gap progressively infiltration, river through layers of filtration, purification; more important is the ladder to Hetian digestion site QianNianYiYu purify river flood control standards and the height difference between wetlands.
结语 Epilogue 后滩公园以一种生命系统的姿态证明了生态基础设施可为社会和自然提供一种新型的生态水治理和雨洪 调控方式。这一独特的、生产性的、承载着过去的记忆并展现未来生态文明的后工业景观设计是以低管 理成本、高收效景观为基础的新美学的一曲赞歌。 Shanghai Expo- The Hotan Park in a gesture of living systems proved ecological infrastructure can provide a novel of social and ecological water management and rainwater regulation and control. This unique, productive, carrying the memories of the past and show the postindustrial landscape design of future ecological civilization is a song hymn low management costs, high effective landscape-based new aesthetics.
OTARA LAKE + EcOLOgicAL TRAnsfORmATiOn A cAsE sTudy in BEijing gARdEn ExpO
cOnTEnTs 01. Background venue ........................................................................................03 02. Transformation method .................................................................................04 03. jinxiu valley of Beijing garden Expo ........................................................... 05 04. park Bo functions of wetlands ......................................................................07 05. The impact of Beijingâ€™s Beijing garden Expo ..............................................09
Beijing garden Expo is located in southwestern fengtai district, Beijing yongding River green belt development line, with a total area of 267 hectares, the site of the landfill, accounting for about 60% of the total area of the Garden Expo, which need to fill more than 10 meters in depth 80% -90%, the deepest over 30 meters. The 1970s and eighties, the old Yongding river due to the formation of a dredge pit, into a construction waste landfill, an area of 140 hectares, harsh environments. With the Yongding River drying up dry years, ecological degradation, Yongding river became dry landfills and beijing largest “sandstorm source.” 北京园博园位于北京西南部丰台区境内永定河畔绿色生态发展带一线，总面积267公顷，原址为垃 圾场，占整个园博园总面积的60%左右，其中填土深度需超过10米的占80%—90%，最深的超过30米。 上世纪七、八十年代，永定河老河道由于挖砂形成了一个大坑，变成了建筑垃圾填埋场，面积有140公 顷，环境恶劣。随着永定河多年断流干涸、生态退化，干涸的永定河河道一度成为垃圾填埋场和北京 最大的“风沙源”。
figuRE OnE:The plan of Beijing garden Expo
planting first of soil analysis, depending on the soil voluntary tree planting species that can be planted, after three years of treatment, the harsh environment of a building originally landfill transform the building for the garden boutique. Eventually more than 1000 million trees, flowers, consisting of a variety of whimsy styling; a park Bo-axis, 800 ginkgo, sketched out 3000 meters long ginkgo landscape Avenue. 先对土壤进行分析，根据不同土壤所能种植的树种进行义务植树，经过三年治理，将一块原本环境 恶劣的建筑垃圾填埋场改造建设为园林精品。最终1000多万株树木、花卉，组成各种奇思妙想的造型； 一条园博轴，800株银杏，勾勒出3000米长的银杏景观大道。 Water management Water in the Garden Expo, the use of recycled water and stormwater flooding became the main force. For this purpose, specially designed wetland purification method to make the water fair park in Lake park Bo can reach three categories above criteria. The main pollutants are ammonia, nitrogen, artificial wetlands can play a similar body ‘kidneys’ function, purification through wetlands, excessive ammonia, nitrogen and other substances will be absorbed by aquatic plants and lake filler. Meanwhile in Jinxiu Gu design through artificial gap, allowing water to progressively fall approaches, you can increase the oxygen content of the water body. 在园博园的水景中，再生水和雨洪水利用成为主力。为此，专门设计了人工湿地净化方法，使园博 会中园博湖的水质可以达到三类以上标准。污染物主要是氨、氮，人工湿地可以起到类似人体‘肾’ 的功能，通过湿地的净化，超标的氨、氮等物质会被水生植物和湖底填料所吸收。同时在锦绣谷通过 人工设计落差，让水逐级跌落的办法，可以增加水体的含氧量。 FIGURE TWO: The Landscape Avenue of ginkgo Wetlands
jinxiu vALLEy Of WETLAnDsJInG GARDEn ExPO
Jinxiu Gu was originally part of the Yongding river, and served as a quarry, landfill construction became something 450 meters long, 160 meters wide from north to south, is an area of 10 hectares and a depth of 30 meters large bunker, which landfill construction depth of about 20 meters. Design utilizes the existing topography, the transformation of the status quo landfill sunken landscaped gardens, take the essence of the traditional “Yanjing Eight”, equipped with yan Taiwan grand, listen to the wind huang Qing, head of pinnacle, cloud feixia from green Island flower Island, Lin Tianxia shadow, mining Fangyun scenic trails and large rocks cascading flowers waterfall landscape, ecological restoration of Fair Park to become Beijing’s new bright spot, the perfect interpretation of “miraculous” ecological philosophy. 锦绣谷原为永定河河床的一部分，曾作为采砂场，后成为建筑垃圾填埋场，东西长450米，南北宽 160米，是一个面积为10公顷，深达30米的大沙坑，其建筑垃圾填埋深度约有20米。设计利用既有地 形，将现状垃圾填埋场改造为下沉式景观花园，取传统的“燕京八景”之精髓，内设有燕台大观、风 篁清听、云台叠翠、云飞霞起、绿屿花洲、林天霞影、采芳云径等景区和大型山石叠水、花卉瀑布等 景观，成为北京园博会生态修复的新亮点，完美诠释“化腐朽为神奇”的生态理念。 First, scattered throughout the garbage piled into the bunker filled and leveled with a forklift some garbage hill, according to the original topography, soil filled transport visitors to form a patchwork of hilly topography. After the formation of the core area over the past few messy scene, initially with the start condition. Can be used to build roads, buildings and green; final design requirements, land carrying capacity can reach 15 tons per square meter. In the process, land use 500-ton mechanical compaction. After leveling the ground, then covered with an average of 1.7 meters thick, containing fertilizer planting soil, so Garden Expo to begin construction. 首先，将各处散乱堆放的垃圾填进沙坑中，并用铲车推平了一些垃圾小山包，依据原有地形，运来 客土填平，形成错落有致的丘陵地貌。平整后的核心区一改往日的杂乱景象，初步具备动工条件。可 figuRE ThREE:
aerial view of jinxiu valley
Transformation of the former garbage dump photos
以用来修路、建筑和绿化；最终设计要求，土地的承载力可以达到每平方米15吨。在处理中，要用500 吨级机械将土地夯实。在地面平整后，再覆上平均达1.7米厚、含有肥料的种植土，这样园博园才能开 始建设。
jinxiu vALLEy Of WETLAnDsJInG GARDEn ExPO Bottom conduct compaction, while near the river in order to prevent penetration will improve the bottom 10 meters. next, according to the conventional, will be in place in the middle of the muck and back cover of planting soil join geotextiles, otherwise there will be soil erosion, leading to nutritional planting soil infiltration, plants can not survive. But this geotextile smooth surface, very easily lead to landslides. “20 meters gap, similar to the slope and down the straight, but also covering the 1.7 to 2 meters of planting soil; necessary to retain nutrients, but also to ensure the two territories together.” Finally after many arguments, use a metal mesh instead of the usual pull geotextile, either “grab” planting soil, but also to ensure that the combination of soil quality. 对坑底进行强夯，同时为了防止附近的河水渗透，还将谷底提高了10米。接下来，按照常规，会在 在原地渣土和后覆盖的种植土中间加入土工布，否则就会出现水土流失，导致种植土的营养下渗，植 物无法成活。但是这种土工布表面平滑，非常容易导致滑坡。“20米落差，近似于直上直下的坡度， 还要覆盖上1.7~2米的种植土；既要留住营养，又要保证两种土结合在一起。”最终经过多次论证，使 用金属拉网替代了常用的土工布，既可以“抓住”种植土，又保证了土质的结合。 Jinxiu Gu “precision irrigation” technology is a new paradigm landscape water conservation. Precision irrigation is the Valley every tree has entered a system, the system will be based on species, age and other data to determine the per tree “drinking water.” And computer monitoring system is also able to measure every time it rains, around each tree drop much rain, the tree had been “drink” how much water, then the amount of irrigation for each tree adjusted according to this data. This intelligent control system can save more than 50% of irrigation water. Jinxiu Gu also set up a comprehensive urban rainwater utilization system, the park will form the invisible reservoir 44,000 cubic meters, the flood storage purify 22,000 cubic meters of rain, precipitation if under a five-year return, not Jinxiu Gu discharge a little rain, the whole park rainfall recycling rate of 100%. 锦绣谷“精准灌溉”技术也是园林节水的新典范。精准灌溉就是把谷内每一棵树木都录入一套系 统，系统会根据树种、树龄等数据，判断出每棵树的“饮水量”。并且电脑监测系统还能够测算每次 下雨时，每棵树周围降了多大的雨，树已经“喝掉”多少水，再根据这一数据调整对每棵树的灌溉 figuRE fOuR: The photos of jinxiu valley
量。这套智能控制系统能节约50%以上的灌溉水。锦绣谷还设置了一套完备的城市雨洪利用系统，园区 将形成隐形水库4.4万立方米，可调蓄净化雨水2.2万立方米，如果下一场5年一遇的降水，锦绣谷不会排 放出一点雨水，全园降雨回用率达100%。
pARK BO funcTiOns OF WETLAnDs
Wetland Park is located in the southwest of China International Garden Expo.Wetland park is rectangular, which constructed on the basis of the sand pit.As the project of water purification,Wetland Park purify water from Qing River.The area of Wetland Park is about 40 hectares,which dispose resurgent water about 8,0000 cubic meters every day. 湿地位于园区东南端，北起国际展园，西至京石高铁，东到永定河右岸，南接规划梅市口路，地块 呈长方形，是在砂石坑回填基础上建设的。湿地公园作为园博园水源净化工程项目，承担着园博湖水 源净化功能。清河污水处理厂生产的再生水，经过这里净化后，由近类再生水净化为类地表水，再输 入园博湖。湿地生态公园面积40公顷，每天处理再生水8万立方米。 Garden Expo in reclaimed water purification water purification project as the core function, the composite vertical flow as the main process of compound type artificial wetland ecological park.There are more than 30 kinds of trees,shrubs and ground cover plants,30 kinds of aquatic plants;2 species of benthic animal and over 10 kinds of fishes.In addition to,Wetland Park set up science education area,landscape wooden road, bridge and the viewing tower. 园博园水源净化工程以再生水净化为核心功能、采用复合垂直流为主要工艺的复合型人工湿地生态 公园，净化后的水注入永定河园博湖、晓月湖、宛平湖和园博园，并通过循环管线进入湿地再净化以 维护水质。人工湿地计划内种植特色乔灌木及地被30余种、水生植物30余种；放养底栖动物2种，放养 鱼类10余种。另设置有科普教育展区，还有景观木栈道，观景桥及观景塔等。整个湿地俯瞰如船帆， 远观似梯田，近看是花海，清水在水草中流淌，路桥在百花中盘亘，动静结合、曲直相容。
FIGURE FIVE: the renderings of Wetlands specific location
pARK BO funcTiOns OF WETLAnDs
floating island in aquatic plants as the main principle of the use of soilless cultivation techniques to polymer materials, such as inter-carrier and matrix application and take full advantage of the symbiotic relationship between species principles of water and nutrients spatial niche niche and establish an efficient artificial ecosystem to reduction of pollution load of water. 以水生植物为主体，运用无土栽培技术原理，以高分子材料等为载体和基质，应用物种间共生关系 和充分利用水体空间生态位和营养生态位的原则，建立高效的人工生态系统，以削减水体中的污染负 荷。 Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland subsurface flow wetland system, sewage flowing inside the wetland bed, one can take advantage of the filler surface biofilm growth, the role of roots and rich topsoil and fill closure, etc., in order to improve its treatment effect and processing capabilities. This process utilizes the oxygen effect of plant roots, to have good things and heavy metals removal. 潜流湿地系统中, 污水在湿地床的内部流动, 一方面可以充分利用填料表面生长的生物膜、丰富的根 系及表层土和填料截流等的作用, 以提高其处理效果和处理能力。这种工艺利用了植物根系的输氧作用, 对有物和重金属等去除效果好。
figuRE six: floating island subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland
ThE impAcT Of BEijing’s BEijing gARdEn ExpO
Beijing garden fair will be held, one offers a garden trade show and exchange platform, multi-angle, multi-faceted show green, low-carbon environmental philosophy, display of traditional and modern gardening techniques, demonstrate new technologies, new materials Applications in the field of landscaping, gardens will promote the development of Beijing cultural undertakings. The second is to increase green space, changing urban landscape, the garden Expo building originally harsh natural environment of construction garbage dump into a beautiful garden Grand View Garden, the formation of 147 hectares contiguous green landscape, which greatly improved the ecological environment and urban landscape, meanwhile the rest of the people to explore new sights. 北京园博会的举办，一是提供了一个园林行业展示、交流的平台，将多角度、多方面展示绿色、低 碳的环保理念，展示传统和现代的造园技艺，展示新技术、新材料在园林绿化领域的应用，将带动北 京园林文化事业的发展。二是增加绿地面积，改变城市面貌，园博园的建设将原本自然环境恶劣的建 筑垃圾场变为美丽的园林大观园，形成147 公顷连片的绿地景观，极大地改善了生态环境和城市面貌， 同时为百姓休息游览提供新的景点。
figuRE sEvEn: A variety of wetland surface Flow Wetland
OTARA LAKE + WATERWAYS 海淀公园-水体设计简析 HaiDian Park -Analysis of waterscape design
01.The introduction of the park ...............................................01
02.Park Location ......................................................................02 03.Source of water....................................................................03 04.The direction of water flow..................................................04 05.Water purification method..................................................05
06.Paddy Wetland Appreciation.............................................08 07.Summary................................................................................09
The introduction of the park
公园占地面积40ha，其中园林绿化30ha，水面1.9ha， 停车位420个。园内选种了体现园址历史特色的景观 植物，如合欢、银杏等28种苗木，共计40余万株。音 乐喷泉广场、常绿型草坪、贯珠泉、下沉庭园、稻田 景区等10余处特色景观，充分展示了人与自然的和谐 相处。
The park covers an area of 40ha, including landscaping 30ha, water 1.9ha,420 parking spaces. The selection of plants reflected the historical characteristics of this garden, such as Albizia julibrissin Durazz, Ginkgo biloba and other 28 kinds of plants, more than a total of 40 million. There are music light fountain plaza, evergreen lawn, Guan Zhu Quan, sinking garden, paddy field area more than 10 landscape features, fully demonstrated the harmonious coexistence of man and nature.
Park Location 东侧芙蓉里，居住区、商业，有小学； 西侧紧邻六郎庄，居住区，有小学和幼儿园； 南侧是万柳高尔夫俱乐部； 北侧西苑小区，有小学、学院。 因此，主要面向居民、学生。 The east direction has residential, commercial, a primary school; Adjacent to the west side of Zhuang, residential area, a primary school and kindergarten; The south is Wanliu golf club; The south direction has Xiyuan area, a primary school, school. Therefore, mainly for the residents and students.
Source of water 公园里，雨水、湖里下渗的水和喷泉用下来的水都可以利用这些 回灌中收集起来，几乎80％的雨水通过管道和过滤设施，收集到 一个约500立方米的地下水库，整个公园600多亩地的浇灌都从这 个水库里抽水，还可以用于湖面的补水，为公园节省了一笔可观 的灌溉费用。 In the park, the rainfall, the water from the lake and water fall down from the fountain could all be collected, almost 80% of the rainfall through the pipe and filter facilities will be collected into a groundwater reservoir about 500 cubic meters, more than 600 acres of crops will be irrigated by the water pumped from the reservoir, and it could also be used for resupply the lake, that’s will save a considerable cost of irrigation for the park.
公园水源：再生水补水。其出水水质大部分指标优于Ⅳ类水体标 准要求, 水量亦能满足海淀公园用水要求。再生水先进人湿地, 以改善水质。中心区景观水面以经过反渗透处理的高品质中水为 补水水源, 以自来水作为备用水源。
The source: recycled water. The water quality is better than the IV water, and the quantity of it can meet the water requirement of Haidian park. The recycled water will go through the wetland, in order to improve it’s quality. The water after the reverse osmosis treatment will be used in the central water area, while the tap water will be a backup water source.
The direction of water flow
公园水体是整体一脉相承，自排水管经过稻田景区的灌溉，先由东向西, 经主路后再由北向南,贯穿整个景区。流经南侧稻田区时,利用简易水闸 蓄水,达到浇灌的目的,同时保证整个水体的自循环过程。 整个景区地势较其它区低洼平坦,既使其相对独立,又为种植水稻提供了 的丰富的蓄水条件。水系走向与山环抱,流经稻田区为最低点,可蓄水灌 溉,又符合传统的造园手法。
The whole park water is come down in one continuous line, since the drainage pipe after paddy area of irrigation, from east to west, the main road from north to south, throughout the area. Through the south rice area, using simple sluice water, to water, while ensuring that the entire water self circulation process. The whole area terrain than other regions lying flat, even the relatively independent, but also provide a rich storage conditions for rice cultivation. Stream direction and mountains, flows through the paddy field area is the most low spot, and then watering irrigation.Also it consistent with the traditional gardening practices.
Water purification method
整个水系采用了两套净化系统:物理净化和生物净化。前者采用定点加装水 体净化器, 自动排泄功能— 排出截留面上被拦截杂质，原水穿过滤层，水中杂质被拦截，滤层阻力增大， 造成水位上升，当水位上升到一定高时，按流体力学原理自动排泄、自动冲 洗、自动恢复过滤，滤料自行排列复位。 铁栅栏将淤泥、植物落叶等杂物拦截，篦子里会积满淤泥，大大减轻了下游 的泥沙淤积量。通过这一层层的“减负”，使园内主湖的碧水清波成为了可 能。
he whole system adopts two sets of purification system: physical purification and biological purification.The former put many water purifiers in proper position. Automatic drain functionThe raw water through the filter, the impurities in the water will be intercepted, filtration resistance increased, then the water level will raise, when the water level raises to a certain height, according to the principle of fluid mechanics, it will achieve automatic drain, automatic flushing, automatic recovery filter, automatic arrange and resetting.
Water purification method
后者则是通过栽植水生植物,达到其净化的目的。 池底采用软池底做法:即级配砂石加土工布,面层压砂卵石。这样处理既保 持了稻田的自然风貌,也有利于水生植物的生长。池壁采用多种材料的表现 手法,如卵石滩的斜驳岸,原木桩的垂直驳岸,增强了池岸与水生植物的亲和 性，同时也能够使泥沙沉淀下来，达到净化水体的功能
The latter is rely on aquatic plants to reach the purpose of purifying. The bottom of the pool was designed to soft: namely gradation gravel and geotextile, surface laminated sand and gravel. This method not only keeps the paddy area’s natural style, but also conducive to the growth of aquatic plants. The wall of the pool used a variety of materials, such as: the gradient revetment near by the pebbled beach, the vertical revetment made of timber pile, that’s enhance the affinity of the shore and the aquatic plant, also make the sediment settling down, aim to purify the water.
Water purification method
以山石堆叠形成横云式,石中安置数组泉眼,同时安置了雾喷泉,主景面北与 大湖形成朝向关系,水流一方面流向大湖,一面汇人稻田,保持浅水位,水深 30厘米,可以起到水体净化的作用。同时也可以利用瀑布、跌水的形式曝气 融氧——排出水中氨氮、二氧化碳、氮等带气字头的有害气体，同时将空 气中的氧溶解到水中，使水中有足够的溶解氧，保持水的鲜化、活化。
Rocks stacked array cross cloud, spring placed the stone, and placed the mist fountain, North and the Great Lakes main surface forming a relationship betweenwater flow, a lake, a Hui people keep paddy, shallow water, water depth of 30 cm,can play the role of water purification。The waterfall and the falling water can vent the harmful gas out of the water, such as: ammonia and nitrogen compounds, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and so on. At the same time, it can the make oxygen in the air dissolve in the water, so that the water contain enough oxygen, that’s help the water keeping fresh and alive.
Paddy Wetland Appreciation
丰富的历史文脉,独特的地理位置,造就了海淀公园里的湿地 稻田景观。设计中运用5种设计手段,提炼稻田景观特色,运用 毛石、原木、田埂、卵石等自然铺装材料,栽植京味水生植物, 局部点景处安置水车、草亭、水井等特色小品,突出水乡氛围, 营建一种“稻花香里说丰年,听取蛙声一片”的幽远意境,带 给游人不同于一般城市公园的全新体验。 The rich history and culture, unique geographical position, created wetland paddy fields landscape in Haidian park. 5 kinds of design methods in the design ofrefined rice, landscape features, use of rubble, logs, Tian Geng, pebbles and other natural paving materials, planting Jingwei aquatic plants, local scenic placecharacteristic waterwheel, grass Pavilion, wells and other essays, highlight the atmosphere water, build a kind of "rice fragrance said harvest, listen to the frogs"the deep artistic conception, new experience to the visitors are different from the general city park.
Summary 海淀公园水景尤为出色；公园巧妙地运用物理及生物这两种方法将水质进行处理，并形成了良好的园林景观；园中人工湿地也用荷 花、睡莲、水竹芋等植物，围堰种植，不但形成了优美的园林景观也达到风景区污水处理的效果。高差较大时，运用跌水等手法增 大水与空气接触面积，利用氧气进行净水。运用稻田农业做成的湿地景观,既符合生态园林的理念,也是节约型园林的最佳诊释。另 外,冬季泄水后,植物与池底卵石相映成趣,又可成为似旱溪般的景观效果。所以在我们的设计中也可以借鉴这种方法，处理湖水地 形，层层过滤；种植能够净化水质的水生植物来处理污水。
Haidian Park waterscape particularly well.The park used two kinds of deft methods: physical and biological to improve water quality and form an exceptional landscape. Artificial wetland with lotus, water lily, Thalia dealbata plant, cofferdam plantation, not only to form a beautiful landscape to sewage treatment scenic effect. High difference is large, using drop technique to increase the contact area of water and air, water purification using oxygen. Use of wetland landscape made of rice agriculture, in line with ecological garden concept, but also the best diagnosis of economical garden release. In addition, the winter water, plants and the pool bottom pebble gain by contrast, can also become like Japanese dry landscape effect. So we can also use this method in our design to process the terrain, layers of filtration; plant can purify water aquatic plant wastewater treatment.
OTARA LAKE + wATERwAys THE OLyMPIC FOREsT PARK—THE gREEn Lung OF BEIjIng
COnTEnTs 01. InTRODuCTIOn .................................................................................................. 01 02. wETLAnD ............................................................................................................ 02 03. RAIn HARVEsTIng ............................................................................................. 03 04. wETLAnD wATER TREATMEnT syATEM ............................................................ 04 05. THE wATER CyCLE ............................................................................................. 05 06. ECOLOgICAL REVETMEnT ................................................................................ 06 07. FITnEss TRAIL ...................................................................................................... 07 08. suMMARy .......................................................................................................... 08
奥林匹克森林公园位于北京中轴延长线的最北端，是亚洲最大的城市绿化景观，占地约680公顷。北 五环路横穿公园中部，将公园分为南北两园，中间有一座横跨五环路、种满植物的生态桥连接。南园 以大型自然山水景观为主，北园则以小型溪涧景观及自然野趣密林为主，是北京城区当之无愧的“绿 肺”。 Beijing Olympic Forest Park is located in the most northern tip of axial extension, is Asia’s largest urban greening landscape, covering about 680 hectares. Central Park, across the North Fifth Ring Road, the park is divided into North and South Park, across the middle of a Fifth Ring Road, full of plant eco-bridge connection. South Park has a large natural landscapes landscapebased, North Park has small streams and natural wilderness forests in Beijing city deserved a “green lung.”
FIguRE OnE: Ichnpgraphy Plan & Airview Map
湿地被誉为“地球之肾”可沉淀吸收和降解有毒物质。园区人工湿地模拟自然生态系统，每天可处理 再生水2600m³，处理湖内循环水20000m³，确保水质达到景观水标准。土壤含量偏大的潜流湿地系统 主要用来进行再生水的第一次净化。经过几次过滤，富有大量微生物与氮、磷、氨等化学元素的再生 水是奥林匹克森林公园水系统的主要补水水源。潜流湿地的作用就是过滤再生水中无法通过土壤的有 害物质，并利用土壤中的某些物质与水中的部分化学元素结合，将那些有害元素从水中分离出来。湿 地区域另一组成部分表面流湿地的作用主要为通过曝气，将再生水中的氮、氨等元素与空气中的氧气 等气体化合，成为大气中对人体无害的气体，从水中释放出来。在这一区域大量种植有净化水体功能 的水生植物与湿地植物，通过植物的根系或植物分泌的液体对水体进行净化，同时还可以美化水体环 境，营造特殊的湿地景观。 Known as the“kidney of the earth” , wetlands can precipitate , absorb and degrade hazardous substances .Simulating natural ecosystem ,man-made wetlands in the park can treat 2600m³ of reclaimed water and 20000m³ of circulating lake water every day ,which are up to the standard for landscape water. Subsurface flow constructed wetland system soil content too large for the first purification of reclaimed water. After several times of filtering, reclaimed water rich in microorganisms and nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonia and other chemical elements is the main replenishment of water system in Olympic Forest Park water. Subsurface flow constructed wetland is the role of filtering in reclaimed water can not harmful substances in soil, some chemical elements and the use of certain substances in soil and water binding, the harmful elements separated from water.The wetland area in another part of the surface flow wetland was the main effect of the aeration, nitrogen, ammonia and other elements will be recycled water and oxygen in the air and gas combination, become harmless gases in the atmosphere, released from the water. In this area grow aquatic plants and water purification function of wetland plants, by the roots of plants or plant secretion to purify water, but also beautify the FIguRE TwO: The Photographs of The wetlands
environment of water, wetland landscape special.
本系统利用园区市政河道及湖泊水系收集雨水，以蓄水为主、排蓄结合，用于灌溉，实现雨水在公园 内的循环。年雨水回收量约134万m³，相当于节约4.47万人年生活用水量。园内道路多选用多孔的沥青 混凝土透水路面与沙石路，雨水通过透水地面流进渗蓄排水沟，用以绿化灌溉和道路喷洒。建筑群屋 顶及运动场地均设有雨水收集系统，洪利用率高达95%。雨水收集系统与地形、地貌、湖泊水系及周边 市政雨水条件紧密结合，采用以蓄为主、排蓄结合的方式进行雨水的回收利用，实现水在公园内部的 微循环。 Based on the idea of biodiversity and close-to-nature forestry,the designers focus on local biotic community to plan the forest lands,green spaces,wetlands and water areas.The park provides various spacies with a fridendly habitat,restores the bio community,and protects biodiversity. Park Road with asphalt concrete porous permeable pavements and gravel, water through the permeable ground into the infiltration ditch, used for greening irrigation and spraying roads. Buildings and sports venues are equipped with roof rainwater collection system, flood utilization rate as high as 95%. The rainwater collection system combined with the terrain, landform, lake water and the surrounding municipal storm water conditions, the recovery in storage,drainage and storage on rainwater utilization, realize the microcirculation in internal water park.
FIguRE THREE: Rainwater-collection unit
wETLAnD wATER TREATMEnT sysTEM 森林公园4.7公顷的人造湿地模拟自然生态系统，由基质和水生生物组成，是一种独特的“土壤—植 物—微生物”生态系统，基质表面吸附许多微生物，形成大量生物膜，分布于植物根系，通过一系列 的物理、化学、生化作用实现污水净化。人造湿地内的用水全部来源于清河污水处理厂的再生水和公 园主湖的循环水，通过地下这套先进的高效水处理设施，将再生水和循环水进行处理，以到达景观与 植物用水的标准。森林公园每天可以处理清河污水厂的再生水2600立方米，处理主湖内的循环水20000 立方米，是国内第一个全面采用中水作为水系和主要景观用水补水水源的大型城市公园。 Artificial wetland of 4.7 hectares of Forest Park simulated natural ecological system, consisting of a matrix and aquatic organisms, is a unique “soil plant microbe” ecological system, adsorption of many microbial substrate surface, forming a large number of biological membrane, distributed in the plant root, through physical, chemical, and biochemical effects of a series of sewage purification. Artificial wetland in water based on the Qinghe sewage treatment plantreclaimed water and the park lake water circulation, through the underground this set of advanced and efficient watertreatment facilities, reclaimed water and circulating water treatment, in order to reach the landscape and plant waterstandard. Forest Park every day can handle Qinghe sewage treatment plant reclaimed water 2600 cubic meters,processing main lakes within the circulating water 20000 cubic meters, is the first comprehensive use of water as theriver and the main landscape water replenishment of water large city park.
FIguRE FOuR: Flow Chart of water Treatment system of wetland
THE wATER CyCLE
考虑到北京水资源本身比较匮乏，奥林匹克森林公园内部的水系统将采取全园循环方案。在水系循环 设计中根据不同时期设计了不同的循环方式。 Because of lack of water resources in Beijing , the Olympic Forest Park water system will have to take the whole park recycling scheme. According to different periods of the water cycle design in different ways. （1） 在非汛期，清河导流渠和仰山大沟上游没有来水，将采取大循环方案：北区通过市政管道提供 的中水进行补水；南区利用本身水系统通过泵站实现自身水系统内部循环。利用市政提供中水以及 北区通过暗涵补充过来的水量补充蒸发水量。在此循环中，湿地区域可以净化循环水和市政提供的中 水。 In the non flood season, river diversion channel and the upstream channel Yangshan without water, in order to build the park’s water environment, will take a large cycle: water district by municipal pipelines provide replenishment; southwater system by itself internal circulating water system by pumping station. Use of the municipal water and provideNorth through culvert in rushing water supplement water evaporation. During this cycle, the wetland area can purify the water circulating water and municipal provided. （2） 在汛期（每年6月1日－9月15日），河道用水量基本可以得到保障。但由于城市非点源的影响， 水质波动较大，为了公园水系的水质安全，采用小循环方案运行，形成南北两个独立的小循环系统。 In the flood season (June 1st - September 15th), the river water consumption can be guaranteed. Because of the influence of city non point source and water quality fluctuation.Therefore, in order to make sure the quality of the water,the park will taking small cycle and formating two independent small circulation system in North and South park. （3） 远期清河水质达到景观水质要求时，采用南北园大循环方式。 Long term when Qinghe’s water reach the quality requirements of landscape water, the North FIguRE FIVE: water Analysis Chart
and South Park will taking whole cycling.
ECOLOgICAL REVETMEnT 作为水系系统的一部分，驳岸也或多或少地影响着水体的清洁度。在奥林匹克森林公园中主要采取生 态驳岸形式。以生态防护为目的，以植物为主要材料，采取自然形态的水岸处理方式。只在少部分为 大量人群游憩活动提供服务的区域内采取硬质材料砌筑驳岸。
出，在整个奥林匹克森林公园水系驳岸的设计中，以自然生态驳岸为主，大量加强水生植物、亲水植 物以及喜水植物的应用。这一做法主要是为了利用植物自身的生物净化功能，以达到全面净化水体的 作用。这种做法不但可以提高水系统的水体质量，同时也可以保证水体的景观效果达到最优。在人群 比较集中的区域，设有部分亲水驳岸，这可以使游人更加贴近自然，同时，也可以利用水中释放的负 氧离子净化场地的空气，为游人提供更加舒适的环境。 As a part of water system, revetment affects water cleanliness more or less. Mainly take the form of ecological revetment in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The ecological protection for the purpose, to plant as the main material,water treated by natural form. Only take the hard material masonry revetment in small part to provide services for a large number of people recreation area. Making through various ecological revetment design intention can be seen in the design of the Olympic Forest Park, river revetment, natural ecological revetment, a substantial strengthening of aquatic plants, and the application of hydrophilic plant water loving plant. This approach is mainly to purification function using of plant biology, comprehensive purifying water body in order to achieve the effect of. This approach can not only improve the water system, water quality, but also can ensure the water landscape effect to achieve. The population is relatively concentrated area, with some hydrophilic revetment, which allows visitors to get closer to nature, at the same time, the negative oxygen ions can also use water to release air purification field, providing a more comfortable environment for visitors.
FIguRE sIX: Ecological Revetment
奥林匹克森林公园设有全程塑胶跑道，是中国最美的跑步路线。南园一圈5公里，北园一圈5.7公里， 与南园通过一条生态走廊跨越北五环相接。地上和路旁有公里指示牌，为爱健身的人提供了健身的乐 园。 The Olympic Forest Park has whole plastic runway that is the most beautiful running route in China. A circle of 5 km in south of the park, another circle of 5.7 kilometers in north of the park. The two parts are linked by a ecological corridor which across the North Ring. There are KM signs on the ground and roadside , provides a place for people who are love exercises.
FIguRE sEVEn: The Photographs of Fitness Trail
可以借鉴的地方: We can learn from it: 1.全园进行水循环 The water circulation in whole garden. 2.利用地势的高差对水进行净化、过滤等处理 Using terrain elevation to deal with the water. 3.充分利用周围的河流 Making full use of the surrounding rivers. 4.自然的驳岸与人工驳岸的结合 Combined with natural revetment and artificial revetment. 5.健身步道的设计 The design of fitness trails.
01. 规划区地理位置分析 The location .................................................…….01 02.滇池水污染原因分析 The reason..............................................…………. 02
03.湿地的类型 Wetland types......................................................................03 04. 处理系统 wastewater-treatment system............................................... 04 05.滇池北岸治理案例Scheme..................................................…………………05 06.整体治理规划方案The solution............................................................. 06 07.对比comparison...................................................................................... 07
本规划区大部分处于滇池北岸湖滨带内， 为昆明市主城区边缘，地理位置优越，交通 便捷。规划区处于昆明市排水的下游，也是 滇池流域众多河流和排污沟的最终汇水区域， 和滇池水体有直接的物质交换和水体联通， 对于滇池的水质有着直接的影响。 •As one of the most important water resource of Kunming city，Dianchi pool has a lot of functions such as city water supply，industrial and agricultural water using，tour，ship， aquiculture，climate control and SO on． Unfortunately，Dianchi pool also is the receiving waterbody due to it is located at the lowest altitude of Kunming city． 规划区平面图planning area location
Map of Dianchi Pool in Kunming
Map of Yunnan
Map Of China
造成滇池水污染的主要原因 the main reason for water pollution in Dianchi pool
1、滇池地处昆明市下游，是滇池盆地最低凹地带 Dianchi pool is the receiving waterbody due to it is located at the lowest altitude of Kunming city．
2、生活污水未经处理进入滇池 Untreated sewage into Dianchi pool
3、不合格工业废水排放 Substandard industrial waste
4、周围农业污染 Agricultural pollution
5、滇池流域城镇化的迅速发展 The rapid increase in the population
自由表面流系统：废水从湿地表面流过。 优点：投资少、操作简单、运行费用低。 缺点：占地面积大，水力负荷低，去污能 力有限，受气候影响较大。 水平潜流湿地系统：优点：重金属等 污染指标的去除效果好。 缺点：是控制相对复杂，脱氮、除磷 的效果不如垂直流人工湿地。
垂直潜流湿地系统：。 优点：用于处理氨氮含量较高的污水。 缺点：对有机物的去除能力不如水平 潜流人工湿地系统，控制较为复杂。
案例一 优点：污水处理效果好、占地面积小。 缺点：建设成本较高、管理起来比较复杂。 Scheme1 Advantages: good sewage treatment effect, small occupation area. Shortcomings: high cost, construction management more complex.
1.5.2、滇池北岸治理案例二Scheme2 案例二 优点：易于建设且投资成本不 大，运行管理起 来也比较方便。 缺点：占地面积较大，处理污水效果不如方案 一。 Scheme2 Advantages: Easy construction and the cost is not high, it is also more convenient operation and management. Shortcomings: The larger area, sewage treatment effect is not as good as scheme1.
The complete scheme
两种治理方案各自有其优缺点， 整体规划时采用两种方案互补、 交叉并行的方法。在一些污染较 为严重的区域使用方案一，在其 他地区使用更为廉价的方案二。 从而达到效果较好的滇池治理方 案。 Two kinds of schemes have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the serious polluted areas we use Scheme2,others Scheme1 is a good idea. In order to achieve better results in Dianchi pool
云南滇池水污染治理案例与我们这次otara lake的设计有一定的 相似之处 ，滇池的水污染治理方法在一定程度上可以在otara lake的设计中得以借鉴应用。 The case of Yunnan Dianchi water pollution control and the otara lake have some similarities. The Water pollution control system using in Dianchi pool can be used in the design of otara Lake in the future.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS we would like to thank Sam Noon and the Otara Papatoetoe Local Board. Jim Sinclair, Mary Gush and Matua Gray from the Otara community. Contact Energy representatives Sarah Williams and Tom Renhart And finally students from Unitec, New Zealand and NCUT in China.