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Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance SPRING 2017 VOLUME 80 | NUMBER 2


Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

2017 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Voting Officers President: Bonnie Richardson Past President: Emily Beasley President-Elect: Susan Gremillion Vice President, Dance Division: Kevin Brooks Vice President, General Division: Deborah Fournet Vice President, Health Division: Darrius Hughes Vice President, Physical Education Division: Teresa Guillot Vice President, Sport and Leisure Division: Summer Campbell Non-Voting Officers Executive Director: Lynn Williamson Secretary: Sr. Jean Marie Craig Parliamentarian: Lisa Johnson Vice President-Elect, Dance: Kris Cangelosi Vice President-Elect, General: Carrie Chandler Vice President-Elect, Health: Rachel Andrus Vice President-Elect, Physical Education: Kerri Lee Vice President-Elect, Sport and Leisure: JiJi Jonas Section Chairpersons Dance  Dance Education: Vacant  Performance Dance: Vacant General  Ethnic Minority: Vacant  Exercise Science: Angela Simonton  Future Professionals: Joshua Guillory  Higher Education: Vacant  Research: Vacant Health  Health Education: Rachael Gibson  Health Promotion & Wellness: Kyrin Minor Physical Education  Adapted: Debra Toney  Elementary: Scott Wooden  Middle/Secondary: Kristi Romero Sport and Leisure  Athletic Training: Smiley Reeves  Coaching Education: Mitzi Lalande  Community and Outdoor Recreation: Vacant  Fitness/Leisure/Aquatics: Brittany Richard  Sport Management: Dee Jacobsen Specialty Appointment Members Au Courant Editor: Dustin Hebert Journal Editor: Dan Denson; Journal Layout Designer: Dustin Hebert Jump Rope for Heart/Hoops for Heart Coordinator: Joanna Faerber Convention Manager: Susan Gremillion LAHPERD JOURNAL EDITORIAL BOARD Wynn Gillan, Southeastern Louisiana University; Bob Kelly, Southern University; Lisa Dardeau, McNeese State University; Ron Byrd, Louisiana State University at Shreveport; Susan Lyman, University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Connie LaBorde, Louisiana Tech University (Retired); Hans Leis, Louisiana College LAHPERD JOURNAL CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Millie Naquin, Southeastern Louisiana University; YuChun Chen, Louisiana Tech University; Brad Strand, North Dakota State University

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance SPRING 2017 VOLUME 80 | NUMBER 2 CONTENTS SPECIAL FEATURE Thank You, Bill Dickens ...................................................................................................................................1 REFEREED PAPERS Making a Difference as a Teacher, Coach, and Leader in the Lives of High School Athletes .........................2 Bradford Strand, North Dakota State University Adam Edwards, Mayville State University Brett Peterson, Le Berger Elementary Perception on the Effect of Music and Light after Indoor Cycling Classes ....................................................10 Victoria Arnold and YuChun Chen, Louisiana Tech University Rebecca Watts, Northcentral University Factors Affecting North Louisiana Women’s Decisions Related to Menopause Therapy Options ................16 Tommie Church, Willie Hey, and Matt Lovett, University of Louisiana at Monroe I Want Them to Play: Parental Motives for Youth Soccer Participation .........................................................21 Matt Lovett, Willie Hey, and Tommie Church, University of Louisiana at Monroe RESEARCH ABSTRACTS – SOUTHERN DISTRICT SHAPE AMERICA Running Gait and Foot Strike Pattern Changes in Recreational Runners Transitioning from Traditional to Minimalist Footwear ........................................................................................................................................28 Cedric Scotto, Edward Hebert, Ryan Green, and Millie Naquin, Southeastern Louisiana University The Effect of Title IX on Athletic Administrators...........................................................................................28 Lauren Holzberg, University of New Mexico Student Perception of Required Exercise in Online Wellness .........................................................................29 Lurelia A. Hardy, Augusta University Anti-Fat Bias in Health and Physical Education Majors .................................................................................29 Gina Blunt Gonzalez and Monica Magner, Morehead State University Amateurism in the NCAA: Perceptions of Former Student-Athletes ..............................................................30 YuChun Chen and Jelena Vucinic, Louisiana Tech University HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors in Freshmen at a Southeastern United States University .............31 Caitlyn Nicole Haynes Roux, Wynn Gillan, Mildred Naquin, and Lusine Nahapetyan, Southeastern Louisiana University

Real World Learning Through a Novel Bicycle Task .....................................................................................31 Charles A. Duncan, Jason Morgan, Katelyn Blanchard, Kelly Briggs, and Katrika Binston, University of Louisiana Lafayette Adventure Programs’ Effect of Self-Efficacy of Business Students ...............................................................32 Thomas N. Anderson, Jacksonville State University Sharon K. Stoll, University of Idaho Jennifer Beller, Washington State University Investigating the Characteristics of Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling Physical Educators ...................33 Nicholas Washburn, Kevin Richards, and Oleg Sinelnikov, University of Alabama Comparison of Perceived Exercise Intensity and Target Heart Rate during Aquatic Exercise Activities ......33 C. Smiley Reeves, Lacey Deal, and Dexter Cahoy, Louisiana Tech University Relationships between Health and Academic Success in College Students ....................................................34 Brian Henry, Corinne Cormier, Mildred Naquin, Edward Hebert, and Ralph Wood, Southeastern Louisiana University Academic-Based Movement Breaks and Aerobic-Based Movement Breaks: Is There a Differential Effect for Children’s Physical Activity, Achievement, and Behavior? ......................................................................34 Elizabeth Whitney, Alicia Fedewa, Heather Erwin, and Minnah Farook, University of Kentucky Ayn Soyeon, University of Miami ADS AWARDS’ CRITERIA JOURNAL SUBMISSION GUIDELINES MINI-GRANT APPLICATION

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

SPECIAL FEATURE THANK YOU, BILL DICKENS Dr. Bill Dickens recently retired as Executive Director of the LAHPERD after seven years of service. Dr. Dickens is a native of eastern North Carolina and completed baccalaureate and master’s degrees at East Carolina University where taught and coached from 1968 to 1971. His doctoral work was completed at Louisiana State University, where he served as graduate teaching assistant as well as a Bill Dickens member of the athletic department managing the athletic dormitory and field house. His Ed.D. was awarded in 1978 after continuing his teaching career at Northern Kentucky University (NKU). At NKU, Dr. Dickens served the university as Director of Graduate Studies in Education as well as Director of Health and Physical Education. While in Kentucky, Dickens served as president of the Kentucky AAHPERD. His professional involvements included both Southern District and national AAHPERD. He was president of the local chapter of Phi Delta Kappa, a professional education organization. He also served as a member of the Governor’s Task Force on Health and Fitness. Bill moved to Louisiana in 1988 and assumed the chair of the Health and Physical Education Department at Northwestern State University. After several years of service, he was elected president of the Louisiana AAHPERD. Following his service on the Southern District Board of Directors, he was elected president of the Southern District AAHPERD in 2006 and served three years and later became SDAAHPERD parliamentarian. In 2010 he assumed the position of Executive Director of LAHPERD while continuing to teach at Northwestern State University.

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Bill is quick to acknowledge others who have contributed to the success of LAHPERD. When asked to discuss accomplishments, he said “When I assumed duties in 2010 Kathy (Hill) had already begun to get us financially stable. Since then we put spending in dedicated areas where it’s needed. Now every person who has a role in LAHPERD has a line item in the budget. Going electronic with the journal and the newsletter saved us quite a bit of money.” Dickens commented on membership. “Membership has fluctuated in recent years. We continue to provide professional liability insurance to professionals and students. Going with another (liability) company has cut back on our cost. It also reduced our membership costs. Now students are covered in internships and practicums. Extending it to students is a big deal.” Dr. Dickens expressed some concerns about the future of SHAPE America, LAHPERD, and the profession. “We really don’t know yet which direction SHAPE America is going. I think it will continue to represent health and physical education teachers. They (SHAPE America) are trying to get members to represent fitness and recreation professionals. SHAPE America serves as a national provider of in-service credits. We (LAHPERD) should be the ‘go-to organization’ for information about physical education and physical activity. We want to be the organization that people can go to get information on physical education and health. We continue to be a state provider of in-service credits for our health and physical education teachers.” Bill is finishing 50 years of teaching as adjunct professor at Northwestern State University. He was named Professor Emeritus of Health and Human Performance upon his retirement in 2016. He continues to work as a certified track and field official. When asked about his plans, Bill replied, “I plan to teach long as I can. I can’t stay in the recliner. I am a candidate for SHAPE America Board of Directors. I will help with next year’s LAHPERD Convention.” Bill is married to Sandra Dickens who is retired from hospital administration. They have three daughters and are blessed with eight grandchildren. SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

REFEREED PAPERS MAKING A DIFFERENCE AS A TEACHER, COACH, AND LEADER IN THE LIVES OF HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES Bradford Strand North Dakota State University Adam Edwards Mayville State University Brett Peterson LE Berger Elementary Abstract Sport coaches have a wonderful opportunity to positively impact their athletes through the values they espouse. Values such as honesty, playing fairly, and refraining from intentional harm should be learned and practiced by all involved in athletic competitions. This paper presents eight themes that if implemented, will help athletes develop positive lifelong values. In addition, the paper presents suggestions for helping coaches implement the practices. Introduction Sport, in a broad sense, is a powerful tool and coaches can have a huge impact on their athletes (Smith, Smoll, & Cumming, 2009). Because sport, and athletic coaches, have the ability to teach individuals many important lessons, values, and processes, it is important that those in leadership positions understand the importance of these lessons, values, and processes (Strand & Strand, 2014). Coaches, educators, activities directors, and many others, have been given the opportunity to use sport as a valuable means of educating individuals. There are so many ways a leader can influence the people they are leading (Maxwell, 2007). These ways can be positive and extremely beneficial (Collins, 2001), but they can also be negative and have lasting consequences for an individual long after they are done being influenced by the leader VOL. 80, NO. 1


(Collins, 2009). Part of being a good leader is to continuously evolve and learn from experiences and interactions with others. Being a good leader is also about always trying to do what is morally right and teaching those you lead about the importance of moral values and principles (Thornell, 2013). Athletics is a perfect example of an area where we see positive and negative effects of different styles of leadership. When viewing coaches at all levels, it is easy to spot coaches whose number one goal is to make sure they are teaching life-long skills and values. Unfortunately, more often than not, it is the emphasis seen on winning first, with everything else being an afterthought (O’Sullivan, 2015). It can be argued that a coach may have more influence on a student or athletes’ life than anyone else. In fact, the Reverend Billy Graham once stated, “One coach will impact more young people in a year than the average person does in a lifetime…” (Burchette, 2016). What follows are thoughts that can help a coach be a positive influence and impact the lives of his or her athletes. Be a Good Sport: Playing the Game the Right Way In sport today, it is not uncommon to witness athletes going to extreme lengths and measures to obtain an advantage against one’s opponents. Practices such as the use of performance enhancing drugs (“Usain Bolt loses gold,” 2017) and the alteration of equipment (“Is it the athlete,” 2009) are not uncommon. But what about purposeful intimidation in sport? Does purposeful intimidation provide an athlete an advantage over another athlete? Stankovich (2012) suggests that yes it does. Whether it is professional, intercollegiate, or even at the grass roots level, purposeful intimidation is used at all levels. In these instances, intimidation may be psychological – trash talking, or physical – targeting an athlete to cause physical harm. These forms of intimidation have slowly, but surely, made their way in to all levels of sport, and are often deemed a part of the sport, or a norm (Lumpkin, Stoll, & Beller, 2003). Purposeful intimidation has no place in middle school or high school sport. For an athlete to SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

purposefully seek a psychological or physical advantage over an opponent is a weak and feeble act. Should sport not be played on a level playing field, with a key point to compete against the best? Due to its familiar place within sport, the removal of purposeful intimidation is not an easy act. There are however individuals who have the ability to assist with removing this kind of intimidation: coaches, educators, and any individuals linked to sport. In these instances, it is important for these individuals to assist with directing change and removing such forms of intimidation out of sport. As a team, we use the words “play the game the right way” every single day in practice and in games during our baseball season. We do not allow our athletes to intentionally intimidate by making comments, using gestures, or use social media to try and get in another team’s head. There are many teams that we play where the opposing coach allows chants from the dugout and various other acts that would fall into the intimidation category. The above examples of intimidation fall into the broader category of sportsmanship. It can be very discouraging to see so many examples of poor sportsmanship shown by young athletes today. Coaches must make it more of a priority to teach sportsmanship and everything that goes along with that broad category and if one plays the game the right way, everything else, including winning, will take care of itself (Miller & Strand, 2015). Refrain From Harm: Playing By the Rules of the Game As “winning at all costs” becomes a normal thought process for athletes, they seek ways in which they can gain an advantage. To gain an advantage, athletes may look to bend the rules, violate policies, and find ways in which rules and regulations can be exploited. When individuals take part in sport, they have signed a tacit agreement, stating that they are going to follow the rules. Sadly, not all athletes abide by the written and unwritten rules of sport and often look for ways in which they can gain an advantage i.e. starvation and dehydration to lower a wrestlers weigh in weight, and alterations to equipment and clothing. When athletes act in this VOL. 80, NO. 1


way, it shows that they have become morally callous, and are not aware of the basic ethical and moral principles they are violating. It is important for leaders in sport, to continuously remind athletes about principles such as responsibility, honesty, justice, and beneficence. Sport has the ability to teach individuals and athletes moral reasoning (Miller & Strand, 2015). When we provide an environment that adheres to rules and policies, the children and athletes that we interact with will follow suit and also grow in their ability to reason morally. It is important that the mantra of “winning at all costs” is removed from sport, and that the promotion of moral principles such as honesty, justice, responsibility, and beneficence take its place. Violence in sports is in many ways a part of the game. Tackling in football and checking in hockey are examples of violence that are perfectly legal per the rules of the game. The violence that is against the rules that can seriously injure or cause other problems is the area that coaches of young athletes should be discouraging at all times. From a baseball standpoint, a coach would not allow his players to participate in acts such as intentionally throwing at a hitter, sliding into a fielder, or any other act deemed malicious in nature. Most rules are designed to keep players safe, and if followed, there is a significantly decreased risk of injury to all participants. It is imperative that coaches stress following rules under all circumstances to their players. Over time, there has been a cultural shift towards, and fixation on, violence in sport. Violence has gained a great amount of traction as it is exhibited at all levels of competition (i.e. professional, intercollegiate, high school, and grassroots) while rarely being penalized. Due to failing to provide athletes with the appropriate repercussions for their behavior, other athletes look to model their behaviors after the more violent athlete so that they may gain an advantage in some way, shape, or form. Sadly, as policies and rules are not adhered to, the act of violence has the ability to devalue the important lessons and values that can be taught through sport (e.g. good sportsmanship). SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

Due to its importance in modern culture, athletes may look to use violence as a means to gain an advantage due to the pressure placed upon them to win. As leaders in a sporting environment, it is important for us to stress that the saying of “winning at all costs” is not actually the case. We need to expose athletes to the lessons and values that can be taught through sport, and away from the “winning at all costs” mentality. The “Winning At All Costs” Mantra: Do Not Put an Overemphasis on Winning Winning games is always going to be the primary goal of a team as it steps onto the field or the court. Making winning the only thing that matters can have very detrimental effects on young athletes for a number of reasons. Coaches who have a ‘winning is the only thing that matters’ viewpoint often are not teaching values and principles to their athletes. There is also not as much attention paid to skill development of each athlete. Many times only the star athletes are given the attention of the coaching staff who practice this philosophy. Perhaps the most overlooked aspect of a “winning is the only thing” that matters approach is that the game stops being fun for most kids. Not having fun is one of the primary reasons kids burn out and discontinue playing sports (Weinberg & Gould, 1999). Sport in our current society plays a very different role today when compared to sport back in the 19th and early 20th century. Back in the 19th and early 20th century, sport was viewed as a form of recreation where individuals could partake in a particular sport, with other individuals, for fun and pure enjoyment. If we forward to the 21st century, the position of playing sport for recreation and pure enjoyment is not always the case anymore. Individuals who take part in sport are now often susceptible to both internal (e.g. self-motivation and achieving certain goals) and external (e.g. parents, coaches, contracts and sponsors) pressures, which add an unnecessary, and unwanted aspect to sport. If we are to look in the news, it is not uncommon, nor unheard of to hear of professional, collegiate, or high school athletes who have taken it upon themselves to “win at all costs” – violence in sport, VOL. 80, NO. 1


performance enhancement, and financial incentives are just a few examples of how “winning at all costs” has taken priority in some instances. Due to this shift towards “winning at all costs”, it is safe to say that athletes, coaches, parents, administrators, and anyone who has a direct relationship with sport, have begun to accept the idea of “winning at all costs” and have become morally callous due to the acceptance of some questionable behavior on behalf of the athlete. A specific example of moral callousness, and the use of violence in sport to ultimately win is the case of Jentry Holt (Unruh, 2015). Holt was a standout basketball performer in the state of Oklahoma. Sadly, during a game between her school and a sectional rival, the opposing coach instructed his athletes to pass the ball into Holt’s face with the hope of breaking her nose. The athletes conformed, and the action took place. The opposing coach was so set in his ways to win the game that he ultimately put an opposing athlete’s health at risk. From this specific example, we can see that the mantra of “winning at all costs” is highly prevalent within the sporting culture within the United States and at all levels. Cheating: The Prevalence of Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport As winning is continually stressed, and a high level of performance is the only form that is accepted, athletes look to other alternatives rather than extra practice and additional workouts for success within their respective realms in sport. Over the last century, and specifically after World War II, the use of performance enhancing drugs has steadily risen within all levels of sport—professional, collegiate and high school. As Olympic success was highly sought after by all competing nations in the early to middle 20th century, eastern bloc countries (e.g. Germany, Russia and many others) exposed their athletes to the use of performance enhancing drugs (Woods, 2016). Germany was at the forefront of this issue as they insisted that their athletes take performance enhancing drugs to show the world that Germany was a country that breeds incredibly strong and fast SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

athletes—a regime proposed by Adolf Hitler before the start of WWII. In recent years, the use of performance enhancing drugs in sport has climbed steadily. Athletes from all levels, professional, collegiate, and even high school athletes have been known to take these drugs to enhance their performance. In some instances, and within specific sports, the use of the performance enhancing drugs is common and accepted. Wrestling is known to use diuretics so that wrestlers can reach weigh-in weights, power lifters have been known to use anabolic steroids to assist with increasing lifts, and athletes involved in shooting are known to use beta blockers to assist with controlling and steadying the heart and muscles. In some instances, particularly with collegiate and high school athletes, the use of such drugs are due to the athlete wishing to mirror their favorite athlete whether that be in image, or in performance. Equality within Sport: Sport Is for All As one gazes upon the world of sport as it stands, he or she could argue that sport at all levels is equal. But, if one were to actually delve deeper in to sport, the argument that everything is fair and equal is not the case. There are many instances where sport is not equal. Examples of inequality in sport in today’s society are: unequal compensation of female programs in the NCAA when compared to men’s programs, the stacking of individuals into specific positions solely based on societal perceptions of their athleticism (African American athletes being superior at reaction positions and not at positions that involve thinking), unequal compensation of female coaches at the collegiate level and the financial restrictions that certain ethnic cultures face (e.g. African American athletes not being able to participate in certain sports due to familial finances). With regards to gender and racial inequality, the introduction of the Title VI Act in 1972, which prevents discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in programs or activities, provided a great boost to the inequality that women and people of various ethnicities were facing in sport. Although VOL. 80, NO. 1


Title VI assisted with closing the inequality gap, we can see with specific examples that true levels of equality have not been reached in many aspects of sport. For this issue to be resolved, we must continue to strive to bridge the inequality gap that continues to exist; we need to provide the opportunity of sport to all—regardless of gender and ethnicities; we must look to compensate female athletic programs in the same way that male programs receive large sums of money for performances in end of season tournaments; we must remove the societal perceptions placed upon both female athletes, and athletes of various ethnic backgrounds; we must look to provide a method that provides equal payment to all collegiate/professional coaches; and we must look to provide grass root level opportunities to young and aspiring athletes who are unable to participate in a particular sport due to financial restrictions. A specific aspect that must be rectified is the societal perceptions of old. These perceptions still play a current role in sport even if we say they do not. Looking back, women were not originally given the opportunity to compete in sport—sport was deemed as a recreational activity. If we look at the current standing of women in sport, there have been huge and drastic changes from women competing at the Olympics, to female athletes having lucrative professional contracts, endorsements, and sponsorships. Although there have been women who have continued to defy the status quo that has been placed upon them, certain societal perceptions of old have restricted further development in this field. Therefore, it is a must that we look to shatter these perceptions and look to break any other restrictive boundaries that are currently holding back gender and racial equality in sport. As leaders in a sporting environment, coaches must first adhere to the rule that sport is for all and that there are many reasons for one to participate in sport. Coaches must provide opportunities for all to participate, enjoy and feel the benefits that are associated with sport. It is important for coaches to assist with skill development, stress the importance SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

of fun and implement it into the sport, reduce and subtract external pressures that are placed on all and allow individuals to participate in a wide variety of sports. By implementing all of the previously stated into sport, coaches will be able to retain the already present individuals in sport, but also attract new individuals to the sport as the previously listed examples are reasons as to why individuals do not wish to participate.


With the professional ranks being sought after so much, many athletes look to attend a college on an athletic scholarship to help grow their game both physically and mentally. Numerous athletes look to receive that college athletic scholarship so it is not uncommon to know of an athlete who spends all their time working out, conditioning, and lifting in a single sport so that they may take the next step towards their dream (Jayanthi, Pinkham, Dugas, Patrick, & LaBella, 2013).

Too Much: Burnout in Youth Sport Burnout in youth sports is not uncommon (Strand & Couser, 2016). When athletes are pushed too hard, too often, and at too young of an age, they begin to burnout. The construct of burnout assists with athletes removing themselves from sport simply due to (a) psychological, (b) physical, or (c) social reasons. It is important to stress that burnout is often attributed to overspecialization and pushing the body to its physical and psychological limits for too long, and too often. As coaches, parents, and educators, we all have an obligation to care for, instruct, and love the child. We must act ethically and morally, and assist in providing developmental opportunities for the child. We must provide an environment that provides opportunities that promote social, psychological, and physical wellbeing. It is important to understand that sport can provide athletes opportunities to advance their skill set, their values, and learn valuable life lessons. With this in mind, if an athlete is to burnout, they may lose the chance to learn and experience all of the positives that can come from participating in a sport. Sport Specialization: Importance of Encouraging Multi-Sport Athletes Besides a sport just not being fun anymore, one of the biggest factors in sport burnout and dropout is sport specialization (Wiersma, 2000). With sport having such an importance in society today, it is not uncommon to see, hear, or witness a young athlete, whose life revolves solely around a single sport. The sport industry in the U.S. is a highly lucrative business model with athletes continually striving to make it to the professional ranks in certain sports. VOL. 80, NO. 1

Parents start kids in a sport at often a very young age, and before long those kids are playing that sport year round. In high school, coaches are demanding their athletes to be playing and practicing their sport all year forcing them to quit other sports that they may want to play in fear of not pleasing their coach. Kids should be encouraged, especially at a young age, to try and be a part of as many different activities and sports as they want to (Warren & Strand, 2016). Unfortunately, it is usually parents and coaches that are taking those decisions away from kids. Although there are positives to being submersed within one sole sport, there are also many disadvantages that are directly associated with specialization in youth athletes. Such disadvantages include: greater chance of injury, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and a lack of a social life (Wiersma, 2000). Due to these disadvantages, it is not unfamiliar to witness a youth athlete who is highly talented, become so disgruntled and fatigued that they decide to step away from their chosen sport. Burnout is very common within these instances as athletes lose enjoyment of the sport, become fatigued across all areas, and notice that life away from the sport is something that they wish to be a part of. Having the Right Role Model Youth athletes always have an idol. Many of these athletes will have posters of their idols glued to their walls, will own specific items of clothing so that they can look identical to them, but, in some instances, some will believe that any behavior exhibited by their role model is something that is accepted and that should be mirrored. SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

We have seen in the media certain instances where athletes have been involved in violent altercations between members of the public, or with a girlfriend or boyfriend. We have seen other instances where professional athletes are caught on tape degrading individuals of the other sex, or even partaking in the use of recreational drugs. Within U.S. society, professional, and in some instances collegiate athletes, are placed on top of a pedestal that makes them believe certain behaviors are permissible due to their status. With sport being so huge in the U.S. (a multi-billion dollar industry), it is important for professional and collegiate athletes to understand how their actions can ultimately effect the youth of today. A specific example of this is the use of performance enhancing drugs at the professional levels and the mirroring that takes place at the collegiate and high school levels. A way to resolve this issue is to provide both professional and collegiate athletes educational courses on how influential they are, how their actions lead to mirroring, and how they can be the positive role models to young and aspiring athletes. By providing these opportunities (conduct and behavioral seminars/workshops), it is hoped that athletes at the professional and collegiate levels would understand that they always have eyes on them and that the way in which they act, talk, dress, and hold themselves, are things that the youth of today look to emulate. Athletes in the U.S. have a great amount of power that is attributed to their position, rank and status. It is important that athletes learn that at all times they must act, dress and behave in appropriate ways as many of the youth in America look up to these athletes in great awe. Implications In response to the aforementioned issues, we offer a few recommendations. In regards to the issue winning at all costs. It is necessary for there to be a cultural shift away from the philosophy of winning at all costs, and towards an ethically, and morally sound state where sport is competitive, but not to the extent of the pursuit of additional entities to achieve this desired success. We must promote VOL. 80, NO. 1


competition, within certain parameters: equal playing field, playing your best against the best and the removal of physical and emotional harm to gain an advantage. There are horror stories of athletes targeting other athletes so that they can end the opposing athlete’s career, the use of drugs which have huge and highly stated detrimental effects to one’s health and athletes self-harming or even committing suicide due to the abuse the athlete receives. Adherence to all written and unwritten rules must be followed. When an individual takes part in a sport, they have signed a tacit agreement stating that they are to comply with all rules that are associated with the game. We must draw specific attention to this tacit agreement and make sure that athletes look to follow these rules and regulations set forth so that the true beauty of the sport may be performed/witnessed. In regards to the using of performance enhancing drugs in sport. Leagues and individual schools need to implement harsher penalties for users. The use of monetary penalties seem to do little in regards to dissuading athletes from using such drugs within professional ranks simply due to the fact they have large sums of money. Two forms of penalization that may have a better effect within the professional sport realm would be the termination of a contract or sponsorship, or sitting the athlete without pay for an extended period of time. Within high school and collegiate sport penalties should be either (a) removal from teams and/or programs, (b) reduction or removal of scholarship, and (c) the use of workshops and educational experiences so that the athlete can see first-hand the effect both physically, but mentally and socially also. Sport leaders must promote sport to be clean so that individual’s results and performances are not jaded due to the use of drugs. The use of professional athletes would be of high importance in this issue as many athletes look to mirror their most favorite and cherished athletes. Campaigns within high schools and colleges would assist with moving students away from using performance-enhancing drugs. Specific examples of athletes who have used drugs to enhance their performances and the guilt and repercussions of those instances would be a great form of dissuading future athletes from using such SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

drugs (e.g. Marion Jones, Lance Armstrong, and Barry Bonds). Implement better educational materials in specific training sessions (e.g. classes, seminars, and workshops). Although briefly mentioned previously, the use of educational materials would have more of an impact at the lower levels of competition where enjoyment for the sport is fostered. It is not uncommon to hear of high school athletes using performance-enhancing drugs to gain opportunities to play at the collegiate level, or even to win a regional or state championship. By implementing programs that truly inform athletes of the issues associated with these drugs we can assist in deterring athletes from using such drugs. Opportunities that inform athletes of the health risks, the psychological risks, the social risks, and that they may lose the opportunity to play at a college or at the professional level. In regards to burnout and early sport specialization. The benefits associated with specialization are true—the athlete becomes better through more time submersed within the sport. However, over an extended period of time, the athlete may become disgruntled, mentally fatigued, and a longing for a life outside of the sport will come. By allowing the athlete to branch into other kinds of sport, the athlete will once again feel a sense of enjoyment due to the change. It is stated that athletes who participate in only one sport, have a higher chance of injury, than those who participate in a variety of sports. A benefit to spending time in varying sports is that the athletes overall makeup of the athlete improves. For instance, an athlete who spends all of his time playing football will develop quicker reaction times, and a sustained level of conditioning while participating in basketball. The skills learned by playing basketball are in fact transferable to football and will make the athlete a better one because of it. Specific examples of athletes who have played more than one sport and seen the benefits of being associated with more than one sport are: Bo Jackson, Jim Thorpe, and Deion Sanders. Another recommendation is to allow athletes time away from their given sports. We must not forget VOL. 80, NO. 1


that behind the athlete, is an individual, an individual with needs, wants, and desires. We must provide time for athletes to escape the world of sport and socialize with peers, experience new things and even foster deep and meaningful relationships with family members. By providing these times for the athlete to disconnect, we can expect to lower both mental and physical fatigue. During these instances away from the sport, we should also promote the athlete to socialize with their peers, or friend network, as many of these relationships may have been altered due to the time commitment given to the sport. Conclusion As sport continues to grow within the public eye, the key foundational components of sport will be forgotten. Sport will no longer be looked at as a means of socializing while playing a sport for recreational purposes, it will be looked at as a means of attaining glory, a lucrative collegiate scholarship, sponsorship, social status and many other sought after benefits. As leaders in sport, we have a moral and ethical obligation to shine a light upon what the benefits are to participating in sport and its key foundational elements (e.g. enjoyment, fitness, social interactions etc.). We must assist in change, increase participation, reduce burnout, and start an upsurge in enjoying sport for its key and basic properties. In simple terms, we as coaches must not follow the status quo, but in fact return back to older times where sport promoted social interaction and physical recreation, and not as a means of exploitation and financial reward. As coaches and leaders we have so much influence on the kids we coach. It is unfortunate that so many kids do not get the positive experience they deserve due to coaches not always putting the best interest of the kids above their own personal agendas. As leaders, it is necessary to also teach assistant coaches of this importance in hopes that they will carry the same values to teams they coach in the future. The great thing about teaching and coaching is that you continue to learn every day, and the most successful coaches are the ones that assess and SPRING 2017

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adapt their philosophy as they go to meet the needs of the athletes they coach. References Burchette, R. (2016, May 31). The impact of a coach. Odyssey. Retrieved from Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap … and others don’t. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. Collins, J. (2009). How the mighty fall: and why some companies never give in. New York: HarperColllins Publishers. Is it the athlete of the equipment? (2009, May 8). Retrieved from 05/08/is-it-the-athlete-or-the-equipment/?_r=0 Jayanthi, N., Pinkham, C., Dugas, L., Patrick, B., & LaBella, C. (2013). Sports specialization in young athletes: Evidence-based recommendations. Sports Health, 5, 251-257. Lumpkin, A., Stoll, S. K., & Beller, J. M. (2003) Sport Ethics: Applications for fair play. New York: McGraw Hill. Maxwell, J. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Miller, J., & Strand, B. (2015). The role of youth sport coaches in developing life skills. Ohio AAHPERD Future Focus, 36(1), 20-25. O’Sullivan, J. (2015, January 8). The enemy of excellence in youth sports. Changing the game project. Retrieved from Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2009). Motivational climate and changes in young athletes achievement goal orientations. Motivation and Emotion, (33), 173-183. DOI: 10.1007/s11031-009-9126-4 Stankovich, C. (2012, May 7). Examining the intimidation factor in sports. Advanced Human Performance Systems. Retrieved from Strand, B., & Couser, N. (2016). Opportunity vs. obligation: How to help prevent athlete burnout. Louisiana Association of Health, Physical VOL. 80, NO. 1


Education, Recreation, and Dance Journal, 80(1), 19-22. Strand, M., & Strand, B. (2014). The coach as a leader: Modeling professionalism in interactions with athletes. The Journal of Youth Sports, 7(2), 3-8. Thornell, J. (2013). A leader’s strength is built upon ethics, morals, and values. General Leadership Foundation. Retrieved from Unruh, J. (2015, October 14). High school basketball: Cache players say their coach tried to injure opponent. The Oklahoman. Retrieved from Usain Bolt loses gold as IOC strip Jamaica of 2008 4x100 relay win. (2017, Jan. 25). Retrieved from Warren, M., & Strand, B. (2016). Free play: A missing element in contemporary youth sports. Ohio AAHPERD Future Focus, 37(1), 16-21. Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (1999). Foundations of Sport Psychology and Exercise Psychology. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. Wiersma, L. D. (2000). Risks and benefits of youth sport specialization: Perspectives and recommendations. Exercise Science, 12, 13-22. Woods, R. B. (2016). Social Issues in Sport (3nd ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

PERCEPTION ON THE EFFECT OF MUSIC AND LIGHT AFTER INDOOR CYCLING CLASSES Victoria Arnold and YuChun Chen Louisiana Tech University Rebecca Watts Northcentral University Abstract Previous research has revealed inconsistent results on the psychological variables in response to the light conditions and that cycling with music was easier and more pleasure. Under the four combinations of music and light conditions, more pleasure was reported when cycling with music, no significant effect was found in the effect of light, and less tiredness was rated with music and dimmed light. The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of effort, energy, tiredness, pleasure and satisfaction on the effect of music and light after indoor cycling classes. The participants were 18 undergraduate students enrolled in a two-hour credit indoor cycling class (i.e., mandatory attendees) and 22 undergraduate students who attended the indoor cycling classes offered through the recreation center at the same university in their spare time (i.e., voluntary attendees). Data collected through the Assessment of Activity, Satisfaction, and Feelings questionnaire and analyzed using one-way and factorial ANOVAs indicated that the voluntary attendees reported making more effort, feeling more tiredness, and experiencing more pleasure and satisfaction than the mandatory ones. In addition, music alone made the participants perceive more effort and energy were spent and yet more pleasure and satisfaction were received. Lastly, the participants preferred cycling with music and no light over the other three music-and-light conditions. Details of other findings, limitations, and practical implication were discussed. Introduction Indoor cycling is an aerobic exercise that contains various intensities to ultimately improve attendants’ cardiovascular endurance, typically in a controlled environment by manipulating external factors such VOL. 80, NO. 1


as music and light. Indoor cycling has been one of the most popular alternatives to attain or maintain physical fitness. Professionals in the fitness industry offer cycling classes as recreational activities, rehabilitation services, and training programs. From the psychological perspective, previous research has explored the effect of music during exercise using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg, 1998). The presence of music appeared to be a passive distractor as cycling with music was easier and more pleasure than without it despite the insignificant findings in the physiological variables (Potteiger, Schroeder, & Goff, 2000; Schie, Stewart, Becker, & Rogers, 2008; Shaulov & Lufi, 2009). Different types of music also showed significant differences on the RPE scale. Examining the conditions of fast music, classical music, selfselected music, and no music every five minutes, Potteiger and colleagues (2000) found a mixture of significant comparisons during the 20-minute cycling session. Nakamura, Papini, Pereira, and Nakamura (2010) also found a significantly higher RPE score among cyclists listening to nonpreferred music than those listening to preferred music. More research has found that music, as a motivating factor, helped (a) shift attention away from exhaustion, (b) improve the mood, (c) increase psychomotor arousal, and (d) enhance synchronization during exercise (Gfeller, 1988; Karageorghis &Terry, 1997; Priest, Karageorghis, & Sharp, 2004). With regard to the effect of light, past research has indicated significantly improved cognitive performance and behavioral pattern while working under bright light as compared to dimmed light (French, Hannon, & Brainard, 1990; Hannon et al., 1991). Bright light appeared to induce circadian phase to shift in various biological and behavioral rhythms (Boivin, Duffy, Kronauer, & Czeisler, 1996; Czeisler et al., 1990). Combined with aerobic exercises, bright light exposure also showed significant effect on alleviating depressive symptoms, increasing mood states, and enhancing health-related quality of life (Leppamaki, Haukka, Lonnqvist & Partonen, 2004; Leppamaki, Partonen & Lonnqvist, 2002). Conversely, the light conditions had no significant effect on cyclists’ total SPRING 2017

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power output, leg muscle pain, perceived exertion, alertness, heart rate, or oxygen consumption (O’Brien & O’Connor, 2000; Shaulov & Lufi, 2009). In one particular study, Shaulov and Lufi (2009) analyzed cyclists’ physical performance and subjective feelings under the four combinations of music and light condition. They found (a) more pleasure was reported when cycling with music, (b) no significant effect was found under the light conditions, and (c) less tiredness was rated with music and dimmed light. Consistent with previous research, there was no significant change on the physiological measurements (O’Brien & O’Connor, 2000; Potteiger et al., 2000; Schie et al., 2008). To replicate Shaulov and Lufi’s (2009) study with different groups of participants, the purpose of this study was to examine the perception of effort, energy, tiredness, pleasure and satisfaction under the four music and light conditions after indoor cycling classes. Physiological measurements were not collected as they were found insignificant consistently in the literature. Methods Participants A total of 40 students (M age = 22.050, SD = 1.535) enrolled at a tier-one university in the southeastern United States participated in the study. Eighteen of the participants (M age = 22.278, SD = 1.406) were from a 100-level indoor cycling class (i.e., Group A). Regardless of their intentions to take the class, their attendance was considered mandatory because, whether they liked the exercise or not, it was part of the two-hour credit course requirements. The other 22 participants (M age = 21.864, SD = 1.642) were students who attended the indoor cycling classes offered through the recreation center at the university (i.e., Group B). Their attendance was considered voluntary because, with many other recreational activities accessible to them, they chose to attend the indoor cycling class in their spare time. All participants were classified as novice performers. Each read and signed the consent form in congruence with the university policies on human subjects. VOL. 80, NO. 1


Setting and Data Collection The indoor cycling environment was manipulated as music with no light (i.e., Condition 1), no music with no light (i.e., Condition 2), music with light (i.e., Condition 3), and no music with light (i.e., Condition 4). Under the “no light” conditions, the room was blacked out with an orange light in the back for safety purposes. The cycling classes were taught to both groups by the same instructor in the same room using the same music and cycling routine. Shaulov and Lufi’s (2009) Assessment of Activity, Satisfaction, and Feelings Questionnaire addressing effort made, energy expended, tiredness felt, pleasure experienced, and satisfaction received on a four-point Likert scale, where 4 represents “very much” and 1 represents “very little,” was completed by the participants at the end of each cycling condition. Each participant was assigned an identification number to ensure complete confidentiality. Theoretical Perspectives and Hypotheses Mandatory and voluntary groups. According to the self-determination theory (SDT), people’s inherent growth tendencies and innate psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy are the basis for their self-motivation and personality integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985). It is the human nature to learn, to explore, and to seek out challenges in order to fulfill one’s personal growth, social development, and overall well-being. Deci and Ryan (1985) further theorized the differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to a behavior that is driven by internal rewards. Intrinsically motivated individuals pursue an activity for enjoyment, satisfaction, and other self-fulfilling reasons. Extrinsic motivation refers to an action taken by external factors. Extrinsically motivated individuals go after an activity to attain material rewards, to avoid guilt or anxiety, to seek recognition of others, and/or to secure social status. Ryan and Deci (2000) claimed that intrinsic motivated individuals “have more interest, excitement, and confidence, which in turn is manifest both as enhanced performance, persistence, and creativity and as heightened SPRING 2017

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vitality, self-esteem, and general well-being” compared to those who are motivated by external sources (p. 69). It is based on the SDT that we hypothesized Group B (i.e., voluntary attendance hence intrinsically motivated) would report that they gave more effort, expended more energy, felt more tired, and obtained more pleasure and satisfaction than Group A (i.e., mandatory attendance hence extrinsically motivated). The effect of music. Much evidence has shown that cycling with music was easier and more pleasure than without it (Potteiger et al., 2000; Schie et al., 2008; Shaulov & Lufi, 2009) and that the present of music served to motivate individuals while participating in physical activities, particularly it helped shift their attention away from exhaustion and enhance their psychomotor performance (Gfeller, 1988; Karageorghis & Terry, 1997; Priest et al., 2004). We hypothesized that the participants would perceive to make more effort, expend more energy, feel less tired, and feel more pleasure and satisfied when cycling with music. The effect of light. Based on Zajonc’s (1965) theory of social facilitation, individuals who have mastered the task perform better in the presence of others than in isolation. However, “The presence of others can only be detrimental to performance” when the individuals are still learning the task, during which incorrect responses occur frequently (p. 272). Drawing from the theory, Shaulov and Lufi (2009) claimed that “dimmed light . . . may reduce the awareness of presence of others, while full light may heighten that” (p. 599). Consequently, the experienced cyclists in their study were expected to yield increased senses of effort, energy, pleasure, and satisfaction and reduced sense of tiredness in full light, but their findings defeated Zajonc’s (1965) theory. The unsupportive findings could be traced back to the term “experienced” cyclists, which was defined as individuals who “had exercised regularly in indoor cycling for 4 to 6 mo; however, they were considered amateur cyclists” (Shaulov & Lufi, 2009, p. 600). In the present study, all participants were considered amateurs who engaged in the indoor cycling classes for anything but professional competitions. As Zajonc (1965) suggested, when individuals were still in VOL. 80, NO. 1


early learning stages, test results were better when working in isolation. Therefore, we hypothesized that higher perceived scores would be found in all five psychological variables when cycling in the no light condition as compared to the full light condition. Music-and-light conditions. Compiling the significant findings from previous research, for the effect of music and light, we hypothesized that the participants in the present study would report greater levels in effort, energy, pleasure and satisfaction, yet lower sense of tiredness when cycling in Condition 1 than they would in the other three conditions. On the contrary, cycling in Condition 4 would have the opposite effect as compared to the other three conditions. Data Analysis All data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Due to the small sample size (N = 40) and the fact that there were absent students in Group A and repeated students in Group B during data collection, each questionnaire was treated as an independent observation; that was, as if they were collected from different individuals in the four different conditions. With this treatment of the data, the sample size became 86 participants total, 53 in Group A and 33 in Group B. It is important to note that although larger sample sizes made the analyses more robust, this created sample did violate the assumption of independence for the ANOVA. Five 4x2 factorial ANOVAs, one for each psychological variable, were used to determine statistical significance (a) between groups, (b) between and within the multiple conditions with LSD Post Hoc as needed, and (c) the interaction between groups and conditions. In order to explain the interaction effect, simple effects analyses were conducted. Moreover, two one-way ANOVA analyses were conducted to examine the perceived scores on the five psychological variables (a) between the presence and absence of music, and (b) between the presence and absence of light.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

Results and Discussion Mandatory and Voluntary Groups Data analyses yielded significant differences on the level of effort (F = 7.048, p < .05), tiredness (F = 6.837, p < .05), pleasure (F = 15.238, p < .05), and satisfaction (F = 10.253, p < .05). Group B reported significantly higher mean scores on all four of the above variables than Group A. That is, the participants who voluntarily attended the cycling classes felt they made more effort than those whose attendance was mandatory. Although perceiving to be more tiring, the voluntary group also reported to receive more pleasure and satisfaction than the mandatory group. All five psychological responses but one supported the hypothesis that the intrinsic motivated group demonstrated more enjoyment and more inclined to challenge themselves by working hard to receive the physical and psychological benefits than the extrinsic motivation group (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). The Effect of Music According to the one-way ANOVA analyses, statistical significances were found on effort (F = 4.346, p < .05), energy (F = 6.455, p < .05), pleasure (F = 18.285, p < .05), and satisfaction (F = 14.807, p < .05). The mean scores were significantly higher on all four of the above variables in the presence of music. Evidentially, the participants reported to make more effort, expend more energy, receive more pleasure, and feel more satisfied when cycling with music than without. The findings supported the hypothesis with the exception of the sense of tiredness. The findings echoed the previous research that the participants made more effort and expended more energy, and reported receiving more pleasure and satisfaction when cycling with music (Gfeller, 1988; Karageorghis & Terry, 1997; Potteiger et al., 2000; Priest et al., 2004; Schie et al., 2008; Shaulov & Lufi, 2009). The Effect of Light Data analysis indicated no significant finding on the effect of light. The hypothesis that higher perceived VOL. 80, NO. 1


scores would be found in all variables when cycling with no light was rejected; however, the findings were in line with what Shaulov and Lufi (2009) found. As a result, the presence or absence of light was not an effective factor to bring the awareness of presence of others, and consequently failed to support Zajoncâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1965) theory of social facilitation. Music-and-Light Conditions Statistical significances were found on the level of effort (F= 2.839, p < .05), energy (F= 3.764, p < .05), pleasure (F= 7.356, p < .05), and satisfaction (F= 4.615, p < .05). Post hoc analyses indicated a significantly higher level of effort made in Condition 1 (M = 3.722, SD = 0.461) than in Condition 4 (M = 3.200, SD = 0.707). As hypothesized, the participants perceived making more effort when cycling with music and no light as compared to the opposite effect of music and light. Moreover, the participants reported expending more energy when cycling in Condition 1 (M = 3.611, SD = 0.608) and Condition 3 (M = 3.526, SD = 0.513) than they were in Condition 4 (M = 3.000, SD = 0.817). As expected, the participants reported to expend more energy when cycling in Condition 1 than they did in Condition 4. The surprising finding of a higher mean score in Condition 3 than the score in Condition 4 further indicated that Condition 4 was the least preferable condition among the four in terms of energy expended and that music served as a motivating factor to exert energy regardless of the light conditions. As for the sense of pleasure, the mean score in Condition 1 (M = 3.500, SD = 0.515) was significantly higher than the mean scores in Condition 2 (M = 2.500, SD = 0.780) and Condition 4 (M = 2.640, SD = 0.860). Unexpectedly, the mean score in Condition 3 (M = 3.053, SD = 0.705) was also significantly higher than the score in Condition 2. The findings supported the hypothesis that the participants perceived more pleasure when cycling with music and no light than cycling in silence with the light on. The findings also indicated that Condition 1 was preferred over both of the no music conditions where the effect of light was manipulated and that, between music and light, the participants rather had music in the background than cycling in the dark. In congruence with the sense of pleasure, the same trend was identified on SPRING 2017

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the level of satisfaction experienced by the participants. Interaction between Groups and Conditions The 4 (music-and-light combinations) x 2 (mandatory and voluntary groups) between-subject factorial ANOVA analyses indicated significant interaction effects on the sense of pleasure (F(3, 78) = 2.812, p < .05) and satisfaction (F(3, 78) = 4.004, p < .05). Data analyses showed significant differences among Group A participants (F = 11.98, p < .05), but not among Group B participants (F = 0.08, p > .05) in the level of pleasure. Post hoc analyses showed that the mean scores among Group A participants differed for all pairwise comparisons of conditions except for the comparison between Condition 2 and Condition 4. Similar to the sense of pleasure, the conditions only had an impact on the level of satisfaction among Group A participants (F = 10.623, p < .05), not Group B (F = 0.238, p > .05). Post hoc analysis revealed that the mean scores of satisfaction among Group A participants differed for all pairwise comparisons of conditions with the exception of the comparisons between Condition 1 and Condition 3 as well as between Condition 2 and Condition 4. In sum, the effect of music and light significantly affected the level of pleasure and satisfaction among the mandatory group. Conclusions, Limitations, and Future Research The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of effort, energy, tiredness, pleasure and satisfaction on the effect of music and light after indoor cycling classes. The key finding was that the voluntary attendees reported making more effort, felt more tired, and yet, experiencing more pleasure and satisfaction than the mandatory ones. It is based on the SDT that these intrinsically motivated undergraduate students attended the cycling classes for enjoyment, satisfaction, and other self-fulfilling reasons (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000). Moreover, in line with previous research, music alone appeared to be a motivating factor as the participants perceived more effort made, energy expended, pleasure experienced and satisfaction received than cycling without it (Gfeller, 1988; Karageorghis & Terry, 1997; Potteiger et al., 2000; VOL. 80, NO. 1


Priest et al., 2004; Schie et al., 2008; Shaulov & Lufi, 2009). Also echoed with what Shaulov and Lufi found (2009), the light conditions made no significant difference on any of the physiological responses examined. As for the effect of music and light, the participants preferred to spin with music and no light than they were under the no music with light condition. Significant interaction effects were also indicated on the level of pleasure and satisfaction among the mandatory attendees and among various comparisons of music-and-light conditions. One limitation of the present study was the exercise motivation of the participants. Categorizing the students enrolled in the credit hour cycling class as mandatory attendees and those in the class offered through the recreation center as voluntary attendees was based on the researchers’ assumption. The “mandatory” attendees might not feel pressured to go to the class whereas the students in the “voluntary” group might have external motivation that drove them to the cycling class in their spare time. Future research that also collects data on motivational factors will be able to help better group participants into certain categories, and consequently more precisely explain the findings in response to the psychological variables. Another limitation was the variable used to test Zajonc’s (1965) social facilitation theory, which was solely through the effect of light. Additional information could include data collection on self-image in relation to the environmental conditions. How individuals view themselves may determine how they perform under different conditions. For instance, individuals who are insecure may rather have the lights off as opposed to someone who is confident about her/his body. The last but most important limitation was the small sample size. The researchers could not stress enough on the created “larger” sample sizes, which did violate the assumption of independence for the ANOVA. It was created by the statistician solely to make the analyses more robust. Expanding research by recruiting more participants, for example, of different experience levels, ages, and residential areas will ensure the interpretation to be more statistically correct.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

The practical implication of this study is for professionals in the fitness industry who offer not only cycling classes but also other physical activities for training, rehabilitation, or recreational purposes to determine proper environmental conditions to help attendees achieve their ultimate goals. Based on the findings, participants who are intrinsically motivated may be more likely to exercise with music in the background than without, and light may not be a crucial factor in terms of perceived responses. Apparently, conditional settings that played music produced higher mean scores on the psychological variables; the participants were still pleased and satisfied regardless of the light conditions. References Boivin, D. B., Duffy, J. F., Kronauer, R. E., & Czeisler, C. A. (1996). Dose-response relationships for resetting of human circadian clock by light. Nature, 379, 540-542. Borg, G. A. V. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign: Human Kinetics. Czeisler, C. A., Johnson, M. P., Duffy, J. F., Brown, E. N., Ronda, J. M., & Kronauer, R. E. (1990). Exposure to bright light and darkness to treat physiological maladaptation to night work. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322(18), 1253-1259. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum. French, J., Hannon, P., & Brainard, G. C. (1990). Effects of bright light illuminance on body temperature and human performance. Annual Review of Chronopharmacology, 7, 37-40. Gfeller, K. (1988). Musical components and styles preferred by young adults for aerobic fitness activities. Journal of Music Therapy, 25(1), 2843. doi:10.1093/jmt/25.1.28 Hannon, P. R., Brainard, G., Gibson, W., French, J., Arnall, D. A., Brugh, L., Littleman-Crank, C., Fleming, S., Hanifin, J., & Howell, B. (1991). Effects of bright illumination on sublingual temperature, cortisol and cognitive performance in humans during nighttime hours. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 53, 15S.

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Karageorghis, C. I., & Terry, P. C. (1997). The psychophysical effect of music in sport and exercise: A review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 54-68. Leppamaki, S., Haukka, J., Lonnqvist, J., & Partonen, T. (2004). Drop-out and mood improvement: A randomized controlled trial with light exposure and physical exercise. BMC Psychiatry (BioMed Central online publication). doi:10.1186/1471-244X-4-22 Leppamaki, S., Partonen, T., & Lonnqvist, J. (2002). Bright-light exposure combined with physical exercise elevates mood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72, 139-144. Nakamura, P. M., Papini, C. B., Pereira, G., & Nakamura, F. Y. (2010). Effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on continuous cycling exercise performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 110(1), 1-8. O’Brien, P. M., & O’Connor, P. J. (2000). Effect of bright light on cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32, 439447. Potteiger, J. A., Schroeder, J. M., & Goff, K. L. (2000). Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 848-854. Priest, D. L., Karageorghis, C. I., & Sharp, N. C. C. (2004). The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise setting: The possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 44, 7786. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Selfdetermination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78. Schie, N. A., Stewart, A., Becker, P., & Rogers, G. G. (2008). Effect of music on submaximal cycling. South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(1), 28-31. Shaulov, N., & Lufi, D. (2009). Music and light during indoor cycling. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 108, 597-607. Zajonc, R. B. (1965). Social facilitation. Science, 149(3681), 269-274.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

FACTORS AFFECTING NORTH LOUISIANA WOMEN’S DECISIONS RELATED TO MENOPAUSE THERAPY OPTIONS Tommie Church, Willie Hey, and Matt Lovett University of Louisiana at Monroe Introduction Menopause, the natural biological change occurring during the aging process, is the permanent cessation of menses and fertility, and is typically classified as such after cessation of menstruation for one or more years. Natural menopause generally occurs sometime between ages 45 and 55, with an average age of 51 (The National Women’s Health Information Center, 2009). Natural menopause is the result of the gradual decrease in the level of the female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, produced by the ovaries. During this gradual decrease in hormones, referred to as perimenopause, some women may experience symptoms that include hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, and vaginal drying (Richardson, 2005). Induced menopause as a result of surgical interventions, medical interventions, or medical conditions, also leads to the same symptoms as natural menopause, but the transition is more abrupt than with natural menopause (Mayo Clinic, 2009). Although many women may seek some type of intervention during their menopausal transition, others may avoid doing so for various reasons. Currently, there are numerous options available to women for the treatment of the symptoms during menopausal transition, and for health promotion during postmenopause. Hormone therapy, herbal supplements, alternative remedies, prescription drugs, oral contraceptives, and lifestyle behavior modification are some of the available options (The National Women’s Health Information Center, 2009). Historically, Hormone Therapy (HT) has been one of the most popular physician recommended therapy options. However, the Women’s Health Initiative Study (2005) raised concerns about the possible health risks related to HT (Schoenberg, Davis, & Wee, 2005). This study included two clinical trials, with one group on estrogen only VOL. 80, NO. 1


therapy, and one group on estrogen plus progestin. Results indicated that women on estrogen only had increased risks of stroke, blood clots, and uncertain risk for breast cancer compared to women on the placebo. Other results rendered from the estrogen only trial included no difference in risk for heart attack and colorectal cancer in the treatment and placebo groups, and reduced risk of fractures in the treatment group compared to the placebo group. Women who were on estrogen plus progestin were found to have increased risks of heart attack, stroke, blood clots, breast cancer, and increased risk of dementia compared to those in the placebo group. Other results from the estrogen plus progestin trials included reduced risk of colorectal cancer, fewer fractures, but no protection against mild cognitive impairment in the treatment group compared to the placebo group. Women from these two clinical trials participated in a follow-up study in 2010. Several of the health risks and benefits cited during the clinical trials of the estrogen only study, were not maintained post intervention (National Institutes of Health, 2011). While some experts support the findings of the Women’s Health Initiative Study, others question its external validity due to the confounding variable of age. As the average age of the participants was 63 years, the advanced age would carry the cited health risks regardless of treatment (Richardson, 2005). With the frequent shifts in treatment recommendations for women transitioning from perimenopause to postmenopause, it is a challenge for women to determine which, if any treatment(s) should be utilized to maintain and promote optimal health (Huston, Jackowski, & Kirking, 2009).Some of the factors reportedly affecting women’s decisions about whether or not to seek menopausal treatment included knowledge and attitudes about changes occurring during menopause, severity of symptoms accompanying menopause, knowledge about treatment options, physician recommendations, and friends’ or family members’ experiences with various treatment options (Lewin, Sinclair, & Bond, 2003).


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

Potential Factors Related to Therapy Options Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs While some women consider menopause a natural part of the aging process requiring no therapy, other women believe this midlife transition should be treated as a medical condition. Menopause is viewed by some women as positive and some as negative, with women differing in their perceptions about the cessation of menses and loss of fertility, as well as its effect on their health and attractiveness. In 2005, the second wave of the Midlife in the United States Study was conducted using a national survey investigating social factors influencing women’s attitudes related to menopause, including attitudes toward fertility and cessation of menstruation, and attitudes related to health and attractiveness. Women who had more positive views related to loss of fertility and cessation of menstruation were women who occupied multiple social roles (e.g., employee, spouse, mother, etc.). Also, women who were older and less educated, but financially secure tended to be more positive about loss of fertility. However, those with more positive attitudes related to health and attractiveness following menopause, also tended to report fewer menopausal symptoms (Strauss, 2011). Women seek information about menopause, its effect on health, and treatment options from a variety of sources including physicians, magazines, friends/family, internet, medical books, and word of mouth. According to findings from a national probability sample, women rely on their physicians (63%) more than other sources for information about menopause, treatment for symptoms, and health implications (Singh et al., 2007). Similarly, when asked with whom the women in the probability study had discussed menopause, the top three responses were physicians, friends, and family. Women in this study reported their top three concerns when deciding upon menopause treatment options were safety (54%), symptom relief (39%), and few or no side effects (29%). Women’s main concerns related to menopause health effects were symptoms, heart disease risk, increased osteoporosis risk, loss of sexual arousal/pain during VOL. 80, NO. 1


intercourse, making decisions about treatment options, breast cancer risk, and mental problems (Singh et al., 2007). Menopausal Symptoms In general, women who consider therapy options do so to relieve the various menopausal symptoms reducing their quality of life. About 85% of women in transition from perimenopause to postmenopause report one or more menopausal symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms experienced by women transitioning from perimenopause to postmenopause are vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes and night sweats), vulvo-vaginal atrophy (vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, urinary tract symptoms), hormonal headaches, psychological issues (mood changes, depression, cognitive issues), osteoporosis, and generalized symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, joint problems and skin changes. Of these symptoms, vasomotor symptoms are the most common, and most disruptive to quality of life (Carroll, 2010; North American Menopause Society, 2010). The focus of this study was on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of participants, and factors identified as having the most significant impact on the decision making process related to menopause and menopause therapy options. Methods The participants for this study were recruited via a purposeful convenience sample of women aged 40 to 60, from faculty and staff of the Louisiana Region VIII school systems, faculty and staff of the University of Louisiana at Monroe, and the Ouachita Women’s Tennis Association. Louisiana is divided into nine regions for the purpose of health planning and educational resourcing. Region VIII in North Louisiana includes the parishes of Caldwell, Catahoula, East Carroll, Franklin, Jackson, Lincoln, Madison, Morehouse, Ouachita, Richland, Tensas, Union, and West Carroll. Women participating in the Ouachita Women’s Tennis Association were predominantly from the Monroe and West Monroe, Louisiana areas.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

Participants who agreed to participate were provided a link to the online survey available on the Psych Data website, along with the researcher contact information, should questions arise. Completing the 27-item survey took no more than 30 minutes, and participation was voluntary and anonymous throughout the study. The online survey for this study included demographic items (age, race, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, household income, employment status, current health insurance, and current health status), and items related to the knowledge, attitudes, and decisions of the participants related to the transition through menopause. The items on the survey included both researcher composed items, and items modified from various menopause surveys and questionnaires including the North American Menopause Society Health Questionnaire.


Menopausal Symptoms When asked if participants had ever experienced menopausal symptoms, the responses included 82.5% for “yes” and 17.5% for “no.” For those who selected “yes” on experiencing menopausal symptoms, they were asked to indicate all the symptoms they had experienced. The frequency of each was as follows: 66.8% had experienced hot flashes, 63.1% had experienced night sweats, 59.5% had experienced mood changes, 56.6% had experienced insomnia or sleep disturbances, 44.9% had experienced a loss of interest in sex, 42% had experienced vaginal dryness, 33.2% had problems with concentration and 3.6% selected the “other” choice related to symptoms. Some of the specified symptoms described as “other” were changes in memory, migraines, weight gain, and inability to lose weight.

Results Attitudes toward Menopause Descriptive statistics were used to assess participant demographics, menopausal symptoms, knowledge related to menopause treatments, attitudes toward menopause, and menopausal treatment decisions. Independent chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used for data analysis. There were a total of 274 female participants in the convenience sample for this study. The participants were 40-60 years of age with 18.2% in the 40-44 years range, 29.9% in the 45-50 years range, 21.5% in the 51-54 years range, and 30.3% in the 55-60 years range. For analysis, participants were combined into two groups of 50 years and under compared to over 50 years. The majority (98.5%) of participants were Non-Hispanic, with 1.5% being Hispanic. The racial make-up of the participants included 88.3% White, 10.6% Black, 0.7% Asian and 0.4% of the participants selected the “other” category. Educational levels of participants included 6.9% with high school diploma or GED, 13.9% with some college, 28.5% college graduates (e.g., B.S., B.A., etc.), and 50.7% postgraduate (Masters or Doctorate).

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When asked about attitude toward menopause, participants responded as follows: 16.1% selected “menopause is a natural part of the aging process that does not require treatment/therapy,” 77.4% selected “menopause is a natural part of the aging process that may require treatment/therapy,” and 6.6% selected “it is a medical condition that requires treatment/therapy.” When asked how participants felt “in general” about menopause, the responses included 52.9% positive, 4.0% negative, and 43.1% had mixed feelings regarding menopause. When asked about their current view on HT as a treatment option, participants’ responses included 59.1% positive, 12.8% negative, and 28.1% unsure. When asked about current knowledge related to menopause and treatment options, 15.3% of participants reported being very knowledgeable, 63.1% reported average knowledge, and 21.5% reported little knowledge. Those with little knowledge were compared to those with average/above average knowledge. The participants’ responses about their sources of information about menopause were as follows: 5.5% books, 13.1% internet, 6.6% magazines, SPRING 2017

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22.6% friends or family members, 1.8% television, 49.3% physician/health care provider, 1.1% other. Participants who reported their physician or healthcare provider was their primary source of information were compared to those who reported another primary source of information for subsequent analysis. Treatment/Therapy Decisions When asked if participants were currently using a treatment option for menopause, 33.6% responded “yes,” and 66.4% responded “no.” For the participants who responded “yes,” the factors that reportedly influenced participants to seek treatment/therapy included: advice of physician/health care provider (16.1%), menopausal symptoms (14.6%), knowledge of benefits (2.2%), advice of family members or friends (0.4%), and “other” (1.1%). For participants who responded “no” to current use of treatment/therapy, the following were reported as factors influencing their decisions not to seek menopause treatment/therapy: concerns about the risk vs. benefits of treatment (17.5%), lack of menopause symptoms (16.8%), advice of physician/health care provider (6.9%), advice of friends and family (1.8%), and “other” (10.9%). Some of the “other” responses included “concern about use of synthetic hormones,” “only mild symptoms,” and “family history of breast cancer.” Multiple logistic regression was conducted to predict currently on menopause treatment/therapy from age, knowledge, attitudes toward menopause, general views of menopause, and views on hormone therapy. This analysis focused on post-menopausal women only, as when the model was run on perimenopausal and premenopausal women the model was not significant. Women holding the attitude towards menopause that it is a natural part of the aging process and does not require treatment were at significantly lesser odds of currently being on menopause treatment/therapy compared to women holding the attitude that it is a medical condition that requires treatment (Odds Ratio = .021, p = .004). VOL. 80, NO. 1


Furthermore, women holding the attitude towards menopause being a natural part of the aging process requiring treatment were at significantly lesser odds of currently being on menopause treatment/therapy compared to those who hold the attitude menopause is a medical condition requiring treatment (Odds Ratio = .188, p = .036). Also, women holding a positive attitude towards hormone therapy were at significantly greater odds of currently being on menopause treatment/therapy compared to women holding negative attitudes towards hormone therapy (Odds Ratio = 6.752, p = .009). There were no additional significant predictors of currently being on menopause treatment/therapy, all ps ns. Summary In summary, this study examined knowledge, attitudes and beliefs influencing decision making processes related to menopause and menopause therapy options. This study examined factors influencing participants’ therapy decisions. As anticipated, a greater proportion of women currently using menopause treatments were postmenopausal compared to premenopausal. Further examination of these factors also revealed women holding attitudes towards menopause being a natural part of the aging process not requiring/may require treatment were less likely to be currently engaged in treatment compared to women holding the attitude menopause is a medical condition requiring treatment. Results revealed significant relationships between knowledge and treatment/therapy use, source of knowledge and treatment/therapy use, attitudes toward menopause and treatment/therapy use, general views toward menopause and treatment/therapy use, and views toward hormone therapy and treatment/therapy use. Women who reported little knowledge were less likely to report current treatment/therapy use compared to those who reported average or above average knowledge. Women who considered menopause a natural part of the aging process requiring treatment and those who considered menopause a natural part of the aging process requiring no treatment, were at significantly lesser odds for treatment/therapy use than those who considered menopause a medical SPRING 2017

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condition requiring treatment. Additionally, those who had mixed general views toward menopause were more likely to report current treatment/therapy use than those who had positive or negative views toward menopause. Furthermore, women who had positive views toward hormone therapy were more likely to report current treatment/therapy use compared to women with negative or unsure views toward hormone therapy. A person’s attitudes and views toward a target behavior influence their intention to engage in the behavior. References


[Electronic version]. Women’s Health Issues, 15(4), 187-195. Simon, J., Moore, A., Murphy, D., Hess, H., & Ravnikar, V. (2007). Hysterectomy and surgical menopause. Contemporary OB/GYN, 52(9). Singh, B., Xiao-Dong, L., Dermartirosian, C., Hardy, M., Singh, V., Shepard, N., & Sievert, L., Obermeyer, C., & Price, K. (2007). Determinants of hot flashes and night sweats. Annals of Human Biology, 33(1), 4. Strauss, J. (2011). Contextual influences on women's health concerns and attitudes toward menopause. Health and Social Work, 36(2), 121-7.

Carroll, N. (2010). A review of transdermal nonpatch estrogen therapy for the management of menopausal symptoms. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(1), 47-55. Huston, S., Jackowski, R., & Kirking, D. (2009). Women's trust n and use of information sources in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Women’s Health Issues: Official Publication of Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health, 19(2), 144153. Lewin, K., Sinclair, H., & Bond, C. (2003). Women’s knowledge and attitudes toward hormone replacement therapy [Electronic version]. Family Practice, 20, 112-119. National Women's Health Information Center. (2009). Menopause and Menopause Treatments. Retrieved from National Institutes of Health. (2009). Findings from the women’s health initiative postmenopausal hormone therapy trials. Retrieved from North American Menopause Society. (2010). Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement. Retrieved from us.aspx Richardson, M. (2005). Why the women’s health initiative raises more questions than it answers. Postgraduate Medicine, 118(2), 21-26. Schonberg, M., Davis, R., & Wee, C. (2005). After the Women’s Health Initiative: Decision making and trust of women taking hormone therapy VOL. 80, NO. 1


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

I WANT THEM TO PLAY: PARENTAL MOTIVES FOR YOUTH SOCCER PARTICIPATION Matt Lovett, Willie Hey, and Tommie Church University of Louisiana at Monroe Introduction Parents have profound influence on countless areas of their child’s life, including their leisure pursuits (LaVoi & Stellino, 2008). Since they play such a key role in their child’s overall physical, emotional, and psychological development (Vygotsky, 1978), parental influence extends into the child’s involvement in multiple activities and endeavors, including participation in youth sports programs (Babkes & Weiss, 1999; Dorsch et al., 2009; Fredricks & Eccles, 2004; Keegan et al., 2010). In addition to involvement, parental perceptions about sport can affect their child’s feelings of competence, motivation, enjoyment, and stress (Ullrich-French & Smith, 2006; 2009). Anderson et al. (2003) reported the majority of children under age 13 cited their parents as a major influence on their sport participation, while Siegenthaler and Gonzalez (1997) found parent’s influence children’s continuance in youth sport leagues. Parents are not only the most critical sport socialization agents for children, but they are often the sport-initiating agents as well (Greendorfer, Lewko, & Rosengren, 1996). Parents may both select the sport or sports in which they want their children to play, and familiarize them with the sport. Parents’ own motivations toward sport can be communicated through their child’s participation in youth sport (Dempsey,, 1993). Thus, the types of sport, numbers of sports, kinds of league, durations of season, levels of competition, and even continuation in sport are all often the decisions of parents. Youth Sport Participation Motives Ewing and Seefeldt (1989) conducted a large-scale study of youth sport participation motives that included more than 8,000 youth non-school sponsored sport (recreational leagues) participants VOL. 80, NO. 1


from across the country The study assessed participation and attrition motives of those who participated in non-school sponsored sport. The results indicated boys and girls were very similar in their participation motives with 9 of the top 10 participation motives being identical for both boys and girls, though the rank order differed somewhat. The primary reasons for participation in youth sports can be grouped into five categories of motivation: social benefits (to play as part of a team/to make new friends), health benefits (to stay in shape/to get exercise), competitive benefits (for the excitement of competition/for the challenge of competition/to get to a higher level of competition), enjoyment benefits (to have fun/to do something I’m good at), and skill benefits (to learn new skills/to improve my skills). Social benefits. Sport involvement research has long shown to have a positive social impact on children. Siegenthaler and Gonzalez (1997) reported sport involvement contributed to healthy lifestyles among adolescents by can infusing confidence, promote positive values, and improve academic, social, and physical skills (Mahoney, Larson, & Eccles, 2005; Mahoney, Lord, & Carryl, 2005; Olushola, Jones, Dixon, & Green, 2013). Brodkin and Weiss (1990) found that student athletes identified social status as a strong motivator while Raymore (2002) identified the participation with and encouragement of friends as a sport participation motivator. Additionally, children who participate in structured sport programs experience greater psychological development and academic competence than non-participants (Fletcher, Nickerson, & Wright, 2003). Finally, Siegenthaler and Gonzalez, (1997) reported being part of a team stimulated and reinforced moral development through positive role models. Health benefits. Physical activity has a myriad of positive physical and mental benefits including lower anxiety, fewer social behavioral inhibitions, positive mood states, an increased sense of selfsufficiency and self-esteem (Kirkcaldy, Shephard, & Siefen, 2002), lower BMIs, and decreased overweightness (Ross et al., 2012). Sport participation specifically may carry over from SPRING 2017

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childhood to adulthood and provide long-term health benefits (Trost et al., 2006) through increased exercise and/or physical activity. Youth attitudes towards physical activity and sport seem to influence their future adherence rates and patterns in exercise and sport participation (Tomik et al., 2012). Competitive benefits/winning. Competition seems to be a strong motivator for youth athletes. Passer (1982) suggested the desire to experience action and challenge was a motivational factor for both male and female youth athletes. It has been shown that kids generally attribute relatively little importance to winning (e.g. Gould, Feltz, & Weiss, 1985; Wankel & Kreisel, 1985). In fact, “to win” was not one of the top answers given by the children in Ewing and Seefeldt’s (1988) study of recreational sport programs. Though often not a primary motive, winning has been identified as a reason to play sports for some young athletes. While Hyman’s (2010) survey of girls involved in recreational softball and basketball found winning to be a topten reason given. Thus winning continues to be—at least partly—a reason youth participate in sports, despite the fact many youth coaches believe an overemphasis on winning is the primary negative behavior parents exhibit in their interactions with their children (Gould et al., 2006). Enjoyment benefits. In Ewing and Seefeldt’s (1988) study, “to have fun” was the number one reason both boys and girls participated in recreational sports. Both enjoyment and having fun have been shown to be the primary motivating factors for kids to participate in sports (Gould et al., 1985; Fredricks & Eccless, 2001; White et al., 2004). Meisterjahn and Dieffenbach’s (2008) study of recreational softball and baseball players further revealed the importance of fun and enjoyment. Results indicated the players enjoyed playing regardless of if they won or lost, and strongly disagreed with the statement “I would rather win and sit on the bench for a winning team that play for a losing team” (Meisterjahn & Dieffenbach, 2008). Skill development. Youth sport research has consistently revealed skill attainment/development as top motives for young athletes. Ewing and VOL. 80, NO. 1


Seefeldt (1988) found skill attainment and skill improvement were both top-five motives for sport participation. Soares et al. (2013) also reported both male and female youth sport participants desired to improve their sport skills. Likewise, research by Weiss (1985) revealed skill improvement was an important motive, while Klint and Weiss (1987) discovered new skill acquisition was important to youth sport participants. Resilience. By definition, resilience is the process, capacity, or outcome by which individuals experience successful adaptation despite hardship by responding positively to stress (White & Bennie, 2015). Research has shown the connection between sport participation and resilience. Because many young people are not emotionally and/or physically equipped to deal with many of these challenges, resilience in sport—called mental and physical toughness by some—is beneficial. The more resilient a young athlete is, the more likely he/she is to exhibit adaptive behaviors in adverse athletic conditions. Hays et al. (2007) found successful performance developed athlete confidence and the ability to cope better with emotions when experiencing stress. Therefore young athletes and parents see youth sport participation as a means of developing resilience, or mental and physical toughness. Parental Decisions in Youth Sport Participation Parents tend to be the primary and initial socializers of sport in the lives of their children. That is, children are motivated to play sports because their parents want them to do so; several studies seem to substantiate this claim. First, Wheeler et al. (2011) concluded the sport background of the parent often influenced the goals they held for their children in relation to sport. He further suggested some parents wanted their children to play the same sports they played as a youth, while other parents wanted their child to have more and diverse sport opportunities. In both cases, however, parental desire impacted the sport participation of their child. Soares et al. (2013) found 58% of male and 47% of female youth sport participants agreed with the statement “My parents want me to practice sport.” Brunelle et al. (2007) asserted more controlling parents tended to manage SPRING 2017

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their child’s sport participation, including sport selection. Because some parents believe competition through sport is an important component of character building (Siegenthaler & Gonzalez, 1997), may insist their child participate in sport. Schwarzlose (2013) stated over-involved, or hovering parents, might be those who force their child to participate in a sport without ever discussing the child’s desire to play or not to play. Understanding youth sport participation behavior, especially long-term involvement, is of interest to coaches, parents, and educators due to the potential psychological and physical benefits associated with youth sport (Smoll & Smith, 2002). Since parents are key sport socializers, and their involvement strongly influences children’s sport participation, it seems important to understand parental motives for youth sport participation. Why do parents want their kids to play in recreational youth soccer league? Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the motives of parents using the Ewing and Seefeldt’s (1989) survey, which measures youth sport participation motives. Methods Data were collected from parents of children who participated in a recreational soccer league in Northeast Louisiana. The league commissioner granted the researchers permission to sample the parents who had provided email addresses when registering their child. The commissioner forwarded the researchers’ participation invitation to all parents in the database. Though the exact number of parents receiving the email could not be confirmed, the commissioner estimated that number to be roughly 800. The total number of returned and usable surveys (after data cleaning efforts) was 206 (males=87, females=119), for a response rate of approximately 25%. The questionnaire assessed pertinent demographics as well as items assessing parental motives. The latter section of the questionnaire was derived from the results of the ISYS youth sport participation questionnaire.

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Five questions considered the parent’s gender (males=42.2%, females=57.8%), age (2534=18.8%, 35-44=56.3%, 45-54=22.6%, 55+=2.3%), ethnicity (White=89.4%, Black=4.3%, Asian American=2.4%, other=3.9%), and their child(ren)’s soccer age group and sex. While U7 was the largest girl soccer age group (7.3%), U10 was the largest boy soccer age group (9.8%). Parental motives to have their children participate in recreational soccer were assessed with an instrument derived from the results of Ewing and Seefeldt’s (1988) study of youth sport participation motives. After simple modifications to wording and using a 4-point Likert scale, the instrument asked parents to rate statements about motives based on the top-10 motivational factors of Ewing and Seefeldt (1988). For instance, the top motivational factor of children from the original study was “to have fun.” Therefore, we asked parents how important it was for their child to “have fun” in the recreational soccer league. This was done for the 11 items appearing as top 10 motives for boys and girls. In addition, several other items were added to measure parental motives of other factors the researchers felt were important to explore, including mental and physical toughness, weight control, winning, and the parent’s personal desire for their child to play soccer. To address missing data an entire survey was excluded from analysis if any single value was missing. Data were then coded, descriptive statistics were analyzed, and ANOVAs were employed to test whether there were any significant differences in motives for participation based on categorical variables. Finally, comparisons were made between the rank order of parental motives (based on mean scores) and the rank order of the results from Ewing and Seefeldt’s (1988) results to observe the level of congruence existing between parent’s and children’s motives to play recreational sports. Results The means and standard deviations of the parental motives data are indicated in Table 1.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance


The parent’s sex, One motive Table 1 age, and ethnicity differed as well as the sex significantly Results of Parental Motives of the child based on parental served as the age: ‘to win’. independent Parents between Item Mean SD variables. The the ages of 45-54 Because they enjoy it 3.86 .391 dependent (M = 2.38) placed To have fun 3.83 .435 variables were the more importance To be part of a team 3.69 .584 nineteen on winning than To get exercise 3.60 .614 statements that younger parents To stay in shape 3.53 .637 assessed their between the ages To be part of a team 3.48 .681 motives. Separate 25-34 (M = 1.85), To improve skills 3.42 .738 factorial p = .048. To learn new skills 3.41 .703 ANOVAs were For the challenge of competition 3.15 .738 performed on Table 2 depicts To make new friends 3.12 .814 each of the the rank order For the excitement of competition 3.08 .781 parental motive comparison of To do something they're good at 3.07 .849 statements based motives from To help them toughen up mentally 2.96 .905 on the categorical boys and girls in To help them toughen up physically 2.90 .882 variables to reveal Ewing and To one day play at a higher level of competition 2.70 .965 potential Seefeldt’s (1988) To win 2.18 .856 differences. study with the Because it is important to me that they play 1.92 .924 Where significant motives of Because their friends play 1.85 .837 differences were parents in the Because I worry about his/her weight 1.46 .785 found, follow-up present study. pairwise comparisons were performed via the LSD method. Discussion No differences emerged based on the parent’s ethnicity or age; however, the gender and age of the The purpose of this study was to assess the motives parent did result in interesting motivational of parents using instrumentation based on Ewing differences. and Seefeldt’s (1989) survey measuring youth sport participation motives. Several participation motives differed based on parental gender. First, the parental motive ‘to win’ One of the primary results of this study was it was significantly different based on gender. Fathers seemed parents have very similar participation (M = 2.36) placed more importance on winning than motives as children. When parents were provided a did mothers (M = 2.06), p = .043. In addition, survey similar to the one used by Ewing and parents had significantly different resilience Seefeldt (1988), parent and youth motives were motives based on gender. Fathers (M = 3.22) had closely aligned. For instance, enjoyment benefits (to stronger motives for their children to ‘toughen up have fun) were the top reason for sport participation mentally’ through soccer participation than did their for boys and girls in the 1988 study, and it was the mothers (M = 2.76), p = .001. Finally, significant top reason for parents in the current study. Despite differences were found based on parent’s motive for the negative attention youth sport often receives, it their child ‘to learn new skills’. Mothers (M = 3.53) seems both parents and their children are most placed more importance on acquiring new skills concerned with having fun and enjoying sport. than did fathers (M = 3.26), p = .023. It is also important to note health benefits (to get exercise/to stay in shape) and social benefits (to be VOL. 80, NO. 1


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Table 2 Rank Order Comparisons of Motives

Boys (1988) 1. To have fun** 2. To do something I’m good at 3. To improve my skills** 4. For the excitement of competition 5. To stay in shape** 6. For the challenge of competition** 7. To get exercise**

Girls (1988) 1. To have fun** 2. To stay in shape** 3. To get exercise** 4. To improve my skills** 5. To do something I’m good at 6. To learn new skills**

Parents (2016) 1. They enjoy it 2. To have fun** 3. To be part of a team** 4. To get exercise** 5. To stay in shape** 6. For the team spirit 7. To improve their skills**

8. To learn new skills** 9. To play as part of a team**

7. For the excitement of competition 8. To play as part of a team** 9. To make new friends

10. To get to a higher level of competition

10. For the challenge of competition**

8. To learn new skills** 9. For the challenge of competition** 10. To make new friends

Note: **Motives that appear in the Top 10 of all three categories (boys, girls, and parents) part of a team/team spirit) were the other top parental motives for youth sport participation. Parents recognized the utility of sport participation to be a positive influence on their children via things like increasing exercise levels, lowering BMIs, and giving children healthy outlets to expend energy, make friends, and cooperate as part of a team. Another noteworthy result was how unimportant winning seemed to be to parents. As a general motive, it was not strong and parents seemed to deemphasize winning and place importance on more long-term attributes and benefits of sport participation. A final striking result surrounded the resilience benefits of sport participation. Significant differences were discovered between fathers and mothers based on their desire for soccer to “toughen up mentally” their child. It is not surprising fathers had higher scores than mothers. What is interesting, however, was this motive did not vary based on whether the father had a son or daughter playing. That is, fathers hoped soccer participation would VOL. 80, NO. 1

help make both their sons and daughters equally mentally resilient. The main limitation of this study was it assessed the motives of parents whose children played only recreational soccer in one league in one city. More replication with different parents of children in other sport leagues in various locations is needed to help validate the results of this paper. Youth soccer participation rates continue to increase, and have done so since the 1980s (Black & Hebdige, 1999). This means parents choose soccer to be at least one of the sports their children play, often beginning at very early ages. This study sought to better understand the why of soccer participation from the perspective of the parents. As parents choose recreational soccer leagues for their children, it is important for soccer recreational league administrators and coaches to have a sense of the motivational factors leading parents to choose this particular sport, often over others.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

References Anderson, J. C., Funk, J. B., Elliott, R., & Smith, P. H. (2003). Parental support and pressure and children's extracurricular activities: Relationships with amount of involvement and affective experience of participation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 241257. Babkes, M. L., & Weiss, M. R. (1999). Parental influence on children's cognitive and affective responses to competitive soccer participation. Pediatric Exercise Science, 11, 44-62. Black, M., & Hebdige, D. (1999). Women's soccer and the Irish Diaspora. Peace Review, 11(4), 531-537. Brodkin, P., & Weiss, M. R. (1990). Developmental differences in motivation for participating in competitive swimming. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(3), 248-263. Brunelle, J., Danish, S. J., & Forneris, T. (2007). The impact of a sport-based life skill program on adolescent prosocial values. Applied Developmental Science, 11(1), 43-55. Dempsey, J. M., Kimiecik, J. C., & Horn, T. S. (1993). Parental influence on children's moderate to vigorous physical activity participation: An Expectancy-value approach. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5, 151–167. Dorsch, T. E., Smith, A. L., McDonough, M. H. (2009). Parents’ perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31, 444-468. Ewing, M., & Seefeldt, V. (1988). Participation and attrition patterns in American agencysponsored and interscholastic sports: An executive summary. North Palm Beach, FL: Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association. Fletcher, A. C., Nickerson, P., & Wright, K. L. (2003). Structured leisure activities in middle childhood: Links to well-being. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(6), 641-659. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2004). Parental influences on youth involvement in sports. In M. R. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Lifespan Perspective (pp. 145–164). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. VOL. 80, NO. 1


Gould, D., D. Feltz, and M.R. Weiss. (1985). Motives for participating in competitive youth swimming. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 6,126-140. Gould, D., Lauer, L., Rolo, C., Jannes, C., & Pennisi, N. (2006). Understanding the role parents play in tennis success: a national survey of junior tennis coaches. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(7), 632-636. Greendorfer, S. L., Lewko, J. H., & Rosengren, K. S. (1996). Family and gender-based influences in sport socialization of children and adolescents. In F. L. Smoll & R. E. Smith (Eds.), Children and Youth in Sport: A Biopsychosocial Perspective (2nd ed., pp. 153186). Dubuque: Kendall-Hunt Publishing. Hyman, M. (2010, January 3). A survey of youth sports finds winning isn’t the only thing. New York Times, p. SP9. Hays, K., Maynard, I., Thomas, O., & Bawden, M. (2007). Sources and types of confidence identified by world class sport performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(4), 434-456. Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: Coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 87105. Kirkcaldy, B. D., Shephard, R. J., & Siefen, R. G. (2002). The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(11), 544-550. Klint, K. A., & Weiss, M. R. (1987). Perceived competence and motives for participating in youth sports: A test of Harter's competence motivation theory. Journal of Sport Psychology, 9(1), 55-65. LaVoi, N.M., & Babkes Stellino, M. (2008). The influence of perceived parent created sport climate on competitive youth male hockey players’ good and poor sport behaviors. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied, 142(5), 471-495. Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as


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developmental contexts for children and adolescents. New York: Prentice Hall. Mahoney, J. L., Lord, H., & Carryl, E. (2005). An ecological analysis of after-school program participation and the development of academic performance and motivational attributes for disadvantaged children. Child Development, 76(4), 811-825. Meisterjahn, R., & Dieffenbach, K. (2008). Winning vs. Participation in youth sports: kids’ values and their perception of their parents’ attitudes. Journal of Youth Sports, 4(1), 23-29. Olushola, J. O., Jones, D. F., Dixon, M. A., & Green, B. C. (2013). More than basketball: Determining the sport components that lead to long-term benefits for African-American girls. Sport Management Review, 16(2), 211225. Passer, M. W. (1981). Children in sport: Participation motives and psychological stress. Quest, 33, 231-244. Raymore, L. A. (2002). Facilitators to leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(1), 37. Ross, S. T., Dowda, M., Colabianchi, N., Saunders, R., & Pate, R. R. (2012). After-school setting, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in 5th grade boys and girls. Health & Place, 18(5), 951-955. Schwarzlose, T. N. (2013). Observing Task and Ego Involvement in a Club Volleyball Setting (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from OAKTrust Digital Repository. Siegenthaler, K. L., & Gonzalez, G. L. (1997). Youth sports as serious leisure a critique. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 21(3), 298-314. Smoll, F. L., & Smith, R. E. (2002). Children and Youth in Sport: A Biopsychosocial Perspective (2nd ed.). Dubuque: Kendall-Hunt Publishing. Soares, J., Antunnes, H., & van den Tillaar, R. (2013). A comparison between boys and girls about the motives for the participation in school sport. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(3), 303. Tomik, R., Olex-Zarychta, D., & Mynarski, W. (2012). Social values of sport participation and their significance for youth attitudes towards physical education and sport. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, 19(2), 99-104. VOL. 80, NO. 1


Trost, S. G., Sirard, J. R., Dowda, M., Pfeiffer, K. A., & Pate, R. R. (2003). Physical activity in overweight and nonoverweight preschool children. International Journal of Obesity, 27(7), 834-839. Ullrich-French, S., & Smith, A. L. (2006). Perceptions of relationships with parents and peers in youth sport: Independent and combined prediction of motivational outcomes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(2), 193214. Ullrich-French, S & Smith, AL (2009). Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation, Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 87–95. Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Wankel, L.M., and S.J. Kreisel. Factors underlying enjoyment of youth sports: Sport and age group comparisons. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(1), 51-64. Weiss, M. R. & Barber, H. (1995). Socialization influences of collegiate female athletes: A tale of two decades. Sex Roles, 33, 129-140. Wheeler, K. W., Wiseman, R., & Lyons, K. (2011). Tactical and technical factors associated with effective ball offloading strategies during the tackle in rugby league. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 11(2), 392-409. White, R. L., & Bennie, A. (2015). Resilience in youth sport: A qualitative investigation of gymnastics coach and athlete perceptions. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10(2-3), 379-393. White, S. A., Kavussanu, M., Tank, K. M., & Wingate, J. M. (2004). Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes' achievement goals and personal beliefs. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(1), 57-66.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

RESEARCH ABSTRACTS RUNNING GAIT AND FOOT STRIKE PATTERN CHANGES IN RECREATIONAL RUNNERS TRANSITIONING FROM TRADITIONAL TO MINIMALIST FOOTWEAR Cedric Scotto, Edward Hebert, Ryan Green, and Millie Naquin Southeastern Louisiana University The design of running shoes since the 1970s has used a model characterized by an elevated and cushioned sole intended to soften the impact of the foot striking the ground. A result of this design is that the majority of recreational runners adopt a “rear foot strike,” contacting the ground with the heel first. Many have suggested that the rear foot strike is counter to the natural running pattern and may lead to or has contributed to injuries. Proponents of this idea support barefoot running or running in “minimalist footwear.” Minimalist footwear are shoes designed to imitate barefoot running and are characterized by a thin, noncushioned flat sole, limited or no support for the foot, and a wide toe box that allows the toes to splay. Research comparing running mechanics in traditional vs. minimalist shoes has shown clear differences including foot strike pattern, stride length, range of motion in leg joints, and impact forces. However, the majority of research has compared acute differences, and has not examined how running gait may change over a longer period of adaptation as runners transition from traditional to minimalist footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in measures of running gait over a 4-week adaptation period. Fourteen recreational runners who ran regularly in traditional shoes were provided a minimalist running shoe (Merrell Vapor Glove) and followed an individualized training protocol for four weeks running in only the minimalist shoe. Data were collected during six sessions over two months. During each session, participants ran a standard 800-meter route wearing a GPS watch and heart rate monitor system that gathered data on running gait. Foot strike was captured using high-definition video VOL. 80, NO. 1


cameras. At the first and last sessions, participants ran in both traditional and minimalist shoes. Dependent measures were cadence, stride length, vertical oscillation, ground contact time, foot strike, and participant perceptions. Significant changes were found in stride length, vertical oscillation, and foot strike when moving between traditional and minimalist shoes. The foot strike pattern also continued to change over the 4-week period, from primarily rear-foot to mid-foot strike. Moderate foot and lower leg discomfort were commonly reported, and only one participant THE EFFECT OF TITLE IX ON ATHLETIC ADMINISTRATORS Lauren Holzberg University of New Mexico “The hiring authority in big-time Division I schools assumes that a woman cannot understand football and therefore would not make a good administrator”. Forty-eight years ago Title IX became a federal law. Its passage significantly helped women increase their participation in collegiate sports. In 1970 only 16,000 women were collegiate athletes. In 1981, there were 74,239 female student-athletes and in 2015 their participation increased to 212,474. The number of women competing in the NCAA has steadily increased since the enactment of Title IX and today participation levels for female student athletes is at an all-time high. Despite this dramatic increase in female athletic participation, female college athletic director roles have significantly declined. This inverse relationship is an unintended consequence of Title IX. When Title IX was enacted… over 90% of women’s intercollegiate athletic programs were administered by a female. After Title IX was passed, universities started to consolidate previously separate male and female athletic departments. Top administrator positions in these new joint departments went predominantly to males. Most of the remaining female administrators were forced out of their positions, dismissed, or demoted. In 2014 Divisions I, II, & III had 22.3% female athletic directors with Division III having at 30.3% and Division I FBS having 6.3%. Women are still SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

behind the eight ball when being considered for AD jobs. Sports are 20 years behind corporate America. It’s the last bastion of the male physical domination in terms of sport itself. Those administrators also need to open their minds and hire someone who might not look exactly like the traditional choice. Men students see male role models everywhere they look, whether that’s the college president, a professor, or a politician. Women do not have that opportunity as often to see female role models in positions of decision making and leadership. It’s important in an area as intense as athletics to be able to have those role models present. There is a critical need for universities to equalize gender opportunities for athletic directors. What makes a great athletic director? The reality is that there is no single correct answer to the question because the skill-sets of successful college athletic administrators are as varied as the role itself. STUDENT PERCEPTION OF REQUIRED EXERCISE IN ONLINE WELLNESS Lurelia A. Hardy Augusta University Wellness was the first online course offered at Augusta University Kinesiology Department. It is conceptual-based, required for graduation, and posts large enrollments. With an objective of increasing the level of physical activity of those enrolled through participation in exercise and sport activities, the challenge was how to have active engagement in the online version and how to monitor the activity of those enrolled. The percentage of institutions that agree online education is critical to their long-term strategy reached its highest level in 2012 (Allen). The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of students to the exercise requirement in the online wellness course. A questionnaire was developed to measure the student’s general knowledge of the benefits of physical activity/exercise, the extent of their participation in exercise, where they have exercised and the reason for that choice, and their perception of required exercise in the online class. Options indicated how they preferred to workout, how often they worked out at a campus versus VOL. 80, NO. 1


public facility, why they chose one over the other, and whether the requirement was beneficial to the participant and should be included in the online class. Demographics included classification, enrollment status, employment status, traditional/non-traditional college age, and gender. Results show that 88 percent of all respondents agreed the workout requirement was beneficial; 84 percent agreed it should part of the online course; 66 percent indicated that exercise/physical activity was very important to personal health; 33 percent felt it was important but there were other more important things. 172 of the 242 respondents participated in regular workouts prior to enrolling in the course; 82 percent previously worked out at a public facility. It should be noted campus facility use was the required. Reporting only 40 percent of college students were engaged in the minimum requirements for physical activity (Ferrara), we need to educate students on the benefits of being physically active and require participation in structured activities. The process to include and require active participation in online wellness classes will evolve. The option to work out at community facilities is more popular even though access to campus facilities is free. Completing the wellness course is beneficial and our goal is to continue to offer it online to promote healthful living. ANTI-FAT BIAS IN HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION MAJORS Gina Blunt Gonzalez and Monica Magner Morehead State University Weight bias in health disciplines is a growing concern in a country with the majority of the population overweight or obese. Research also reveals weight bias in wellness professionals and health and physical education teachers. Studies of public school teachers show perceptions that overweight students are untidy, overly emotional and exhibit lower educational success. Peterson et al (2012) surveyed physical educators and found that teachers expected overweight students to have inferior abilities, and overweight female students to have inferior reasoning, cooperation and social SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

skills. When designing college preparation programs, it will be essential to both understand candidates’ attitudes and potential weight bias, and plan lesson activities that target and address existing anti-fat perceptions. Subjects included volunteer undergraduate students in health, physical education and exercise science courses at a regional university in the southeast. Subjects were asked to complete an anonymous previously validated Anti Fat Attitudes Questionnaire (AFAQ), as well as additional demographic items created by the research team. The AFAQ consists of 13 items scored on a Likert scale from 1-5 and three subscales. Subscales included: dislike, aversion towards overweight people; fear, fear of one’s own body weight increasing; and willpower, level of personal control ascribed to body weight. Subjects rated bias statements from strongly disagree to strongly agree where a higher score represents more anti-fat bias and any score greater than one indicates weight stigma. SPSS 22.0 was used to run descriptive statistics on each of the demographic variables. Ttests and Analysis of Variance were used to determine if differences existed in subscale scores of sex, race, BMI, major, and history of overweight/obesity. A total of 151 subjects ages 1841 (age M=20.93 SD=2.09) completed the questionnaire. Overall subscale scores included dislike (M=1.82, SD=0.64), fear (M=3.05, SD=1.25), and willpower (M=3.27, SD=0.99). Females scored significantly higher on the fear subscale when compared to males (p=.000), normal weight scored significantly higher on the dislike subscale when compared to obese (p=.043), and whites scored significantly higher than African American on the willpower and fear subscales (p=.000). Results indicate that there was weight bias overall however it was highest in the fear and willpower subscales. This bias may be associated with discriminatory behavior when working with future clients, patients, and students. Future directions include incorporating anti-fat assignments into health and wellness courses and exploring how bias changes from freshman to senior year.

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AMATEURISM IN THE NCAA: PERCEPTIONS OF FORMER STUDENT-ATHLETES YuChun Chen and Jelena Vucinic, Louisiana Tech University Previous research has been done concerning amateurism and its related aspects. The most common one was whether student-athletes (SAs) should get paid (i.e., receive monetary compensation). With reasonable arguments, SAs believed they should, but college students and administrators thought otherwise. Another aspect came from the amateur status. Evidentially, SAs were not treated as the professionals, but collegiate sports had become less of an amateur enterprise, which made their status harder to define. The third aspect discussed how the NCAA could potentially exploit SAs. Some of the revenue-producing universities were subject to fraud, and the integrity of the education received at the universities was under threat. To date, limited research has directly attempted to obtain the insight of former SAs who might be more candid on this subject matter. Therefore, the purpose was to examine the perceptions of former SAs on the topics of getting paid, amateur status, and exploits from the NCAA. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve former SAs, two from each of the following teams: baseball, women’s and men’s basketball, football, women’s soccer, and women’s volleyball. Each interview started with asking pre-determined questions on the three topics, followed by watching a documentary entitled Schooled: The Price of College Sports, and finished with asking the same set of questions. The third phase was designed to examine how the documentary affected their initial responses. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the standard techniques of analytic induction and constant comparison. The SAs who believed they should get paid thought the school made too much money off them so they were entitled to “see a cut of it.” The others, however, believed “a free education is more than enough” on top of the gears they received and the places they visited for away games. The SAs who considered themselves amateurs felt they were not taken seriously and they were there for the free SPRING 2017

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education. The others, on the contrary, believed the time and effort they had put into their chosen sports were a lot more than participating in a club sport, so they were not amateurs. Lastly, the SAs thought the NCAA exploited them because it used their likeness in video games or their faces in promotions without rewarding them. However, the others felt it was an honor to represent their teams/universities so the NCAA did nothing wrong. The majority (10 out of 12) of the SAs did not change their points of view after reviewing the documentary. The ones that did see things in a different perspective believed that SAs have actually been provided with numerous resources that regular college students do not have access to. SAs should not complain so much about being exploited; they should simply appreciate more for what they have been receiving during their college career. HIV KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS IN FRESHMEN AT A SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES UNIVERSITY Caitlyn Nicole Haynes Roux, Wynn Gillan, Mildred Naquin, and Lusine Nahapetyan, Southeastern Louisiana University Though multiple high schools in the United States incorporate HIV prevention education in their curricula, in some states HIV prevention education is still not taught in high schools. Lack of HIV prevention education in high school can result in poor HIV knowledge, risky sexual behaviors and harmful attitudes among entering college students. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of incoming college freshmen about HIV/AIDS. This study also sought to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors. A questionnaire was developed using HIV knowledge questions from the validated International AIDS Questionnaire-English version (IAQ-E). The IAQ-E had a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81). Sexual risk behavior items were adapted from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Demographic questions included relationship status and sexual orientation. Participants in this study were from a convenience sample of students who VOL. 80, NO. 1


were enrolled in a required freshman orientation class at a southern Louisiana university. Students were invited to participate if they had graduated from high school no less than six months prior to participating. A total of 448 students qualified for inclusion. The sample consisted mostly of women (75.4%), Caucasian (67.4%) and single (79.7%) freshman students. Approximately equal proportions of participants lived on and off campus. Those who previously had HIV education scored higher on the International AIDS Questionnaire – Knowledge Scale. Additionally, women had higher HIV knowledge than men, approaching statistical significance. Only about 40% of sexually active college students always used condoms. Those with HIV education (79%) were more likely to use condoms than those without (21%), p=0.03. Participants who sometimes or never used condoms were less likely to have been tested for HIV and STDs. Incoming college freshmen may receive little knowledge regarding HIV before entering college. This may negatively influence their behaviors and increase their risk for HIV and other STDs. College students need access to information and free resources such as condoms to prevent HIV infection. Universities should provide a course for college freshmen that includes HIV/AIDS prevention education. REAL WORLD LEARNING THROUGH A NOVEL BICYCLE TASK Charles A. Duncan, Jason Morgan, Katelyn Blanchard, Kelly Briggs, and Katrika Binston, University of Louisiana Lafayette “Negative” social comparative feedback has been shown to undermine performance when compared to other types of feedback. However, additional studies have indicated that “negative” social comparative feedback can be used as a motivational tool. The purpose of this project was to examine the effects of Positive Specific Feedback and Social Comparative Feedback on the novel task of riding a reverse steering bicycle, in addition to other factors. b.) Twenty-eight (men = 3, women = 25) undergraduate kinesiology majors (M age = 21.03 years, SD ± 2.69) volunteered for the study. SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

Subjects completed a PAR-Q+, an Informed Consent, and a survey of previous bicycle riding experience. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Positive Specific Feedback Group or a Social Comparative Feedback Group. Subjects each practiced riding the reverse steering bike over a 30foot distance for 10 separate days for 15 minutes each session. A scoring ride was conducted at the end of each session followed by veridical feedback and treatment feedback A retention test was conducted, without practice, approximately 24 hours after their 10th practice session that required subjects to ride both reverse steering and regular steering bicycles. c.) A repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze data. All subjects showed a significant (F = 18.0099; p < .0001) improvement in their ability to ride the reverse steering bicycle. Results for the effects of Positive Specific or Social Comparative feedback were not significant (F = .3839 p = .2412). There was a significant (F = 1.5819; p < .0001) negative transfer effect that impacted the ability of subjects to ride a normal steering bicycle after training on the reverse steering bicycle. In this study, the type of feedback given to subjects did not have a significant effect on their ability to learn a novel bicycle riding task. Learning to ride a reverse steering bicycle was found to have a negative impact on the ability of subjects to ride a normal steering bicycle. In addition, some subjects reported disorientation while driving a car immediately after practicing the reverse steering. To address that concern, the researchers added a requirement that subjects remain in the practice area for approximately 5 minutes and were encouraged to hydrate to reorient themselves and; in addition, report any negative feelings of disorientation. Regarding the feedback statement protocol, additional study will have to be conducted to determine why there was no significant feedback effect.

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ADVENTURE PROGRAMS’ EFFECT OF SELFEFFICACY OF BUSINESS STUDENTS Thomas N. Anderson, Jacksonville State University Sharon K. Stoll, University of Idaho Jennifer Beller, Washington State University The following study addresses the effect of adventure programs on the self-efficacy of their participants. Self-efficacy and adventure programs have been the focus of numerous studies. However, one area lacking in research is the study of adventure programs’ effect on self-efficacy within the university setting with regards to business students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to assess the effect of a selected adventure program on self-efficacy in adult learners to meet the challenge of the integrated business core at a private institution located in the Northwest. A general self-efficacy Scale, developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem was used to measure general selfefficacy. Four Likert-type question were also asked to assess the business students and their judgement of personal ability regarding different aspects of running a student run business. Results showed a significant difference was found by time on business students’ general self-efficacy scores who participated in an adventure program. This is relevant because higher general self-efficacy translates into a number of behavior characteristics important for the success of the business student. Business students should be able to approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered, rather than threats to be avoided. They should have the ability to set challenging goals and at the same time, maintain a strong commitment to them. Results also showed a significant difference was found with the interaction of time on business students’ scores regarding their personal ability to set-up a company organization who participated in an adventure program. However, results did not show increase in one’s ability in selecting a business product, overcoming failure, or having a successful business.


Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

INVESTIGATING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTONOMY-SUPPORTIVE AND CONTROLLING PHYSICAL EDUCATORS Nicholas Washburn, Kevin Richards, and Oleg Sinelnikov University of Alabama According to self-determination theory, psychological need satisfaction yields self-regulated forms of motivation. In physical education (PE), teachers can satisfy students’ psychological needs via need-supportive instruction. Need-supportive instruction is predicated on teachers’ motivational orientations (MOs). Teachers with autonomysupportive MOs tend to be more need-supportive than teachers with controlling MOs. Despite the benefits of teachers’ autonomy orientations, many teachers utilize controlling pedagogies. Considering the extant literature, interventions seeking to foster autonomy-supportive MOs among controlling teachers seem warranted. Toward this end, identifying controlling PE teachers’ characteristics is a logical first step. Three factors potentially influencing teachers’ MOs are experience, level, and gender. The institutional press, preserving what is often a custodial status, suggests that experience yields controlling MOs. Furthermore, it seems plausible that value orientations (VO) are connected to MOs. Specifically, alignment may exist between the discipline mastery VO and more controlling MOs and between the social responsibility VO and more autonomy-supportive MOs. From this perspective, it stands to reason that, since elementary teachers tend to possess more of discipline mastery VOs and secondary teachers possess more social responsibility VOs, elementary teachers tend to hold more controlling MOs than their secondary counterparts. Using the same logic, Liu and Silverman’s (2006) findings suggest that male PE teachers hold more controlling MOs than female PE teachers.This study aimed to discern how teachers’ MOs vary by gender and teaching level while controlling for teaching experience. Physical education teachers (N = 203; 92 males, 111 females) currently employed at the elementary (n = 123) or secondary (n = 80) levels completed an electronic survey containing the Problems in Schools questionnaire. Analysis consisted of a 2x2 VOL. 80, NO. 1


(Gender x Teaching Level) Factorial ANCOVA with teaching experience as the covariate. There was a significant gender x level effect on PE teachers’ MOs after controlling for experience, F(1, 198) = 5.49, p = .020. While males held more controlling MOs than females at both levels, female elementary teachers possessed more autonomysupportive MOs than female secondary teachers. Teaching experience was significantly related to MO, F(1,198) = 14.47, p < .001, indicating veteran teachers to be more controlling than younger teachers. COMPARISON OF PERCEIVED EXERCISE INTENSITY AND TARGET HEART RATE DURING AQUATIC EXERCISE ACTIVITIES C. Smiley Reeves, Lacey Deal, and Dexter Cahoy Louisiana Tech University Current evidence indicates that participation in a regular exercise program is an effective way to reduce and prevent functional declines associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if perceived exercise intensity (RPE) and training heart rate (HR) were comparable during water exercise classes. Members enrolled in an adult fitness water exercise program used Polar Heart Rate Monitors and Ratings of Perceived Exertion to measure exercise intensity during structured exercise in aquatics classes Primary participants were 16 adults aged 55 to 96 years who regularly attend a 10-week adult fitness program. Data were collected through resting assessments for heart rate and blood pressure, determination of a Training Heart Rate Range, use of a wellness questionnaire, utilization of Polar Heart Rate Monitors and a Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale during exercise sessions. Participants wore heart rate monitors for four aquatic exercise sessions. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion were measured twice during each exercise session. Standard interpretive methods of analytic induction and constant comparison and SPSS software were used to analyze the data. A two-way ANOVA with interaction model was used to test hypotheses. Results indicated that there is evidence that RPE and HR are significantly different (at 5% SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance

significance level) during exercise sessions. The interaction between exertion and session factors were insignificant, signifying that average hear rate for both exertion types were steady across sessions. The model used was also tested using Roy’s largest root test, and the test affirms a reasonably good fit (p-value = 1.0). This adult fitness program was designed to help senior adults improve and maintain their ability to perform functional activities of daily living. Just as important as the physical benefits, the social aspect of participation is important. Some participants in the study perceived they were working harder (RPE) than their actual exertion levels (HR). While some participants increased exercise intensity during the study to achieve their training heart rate range, others made no change in effort to increase exertion. The researchers feel this is due to individual identity with the social aspect of participation and not fitness benefits. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEALTH AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Brian Henry, Corinne Cormier, Mildred Naquin, Edward Hebert, and Ralph Wood Southeastern Louisiana University According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), healthy students are more successful academically. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among academic success, access to health care, illnesses, and health behaviors. A random convenience sample of 397 students classified as juniors or seniors completed a survey, providing demographic information and responses to questions about health behaviors and access to health care. A total of 141 juniors (35.5%) and 256 seniors (64.5%) participated. Student mean age was 22.9, with 14.6 credit hours taken on average. Student ratings indicated health factors which had the largest negative impact on academics including: anxiety and stress, communicable diseases, concern for a troubled friend, finances, internet use, and sleep difficulties. Semester GPA was negatively correlated with students’ perceptions of issues that impacted health, number of days of impaired mental health, total health care visits, and VOL. 80, NO. 1


number of school days missed because of an acute illness. Students who spent five hours or more on social media daily had a significantly lower mean GPA and stayed on academic probation longer than those who spent less than one hour on social media. On the other hand, significant positive correlations were found between GPA with sleep and mental health scores. Semester GPA was significantly lower among students without health insurance and no prescription access, and among students who reported poor health. Gender, race, age, and living arrangements were associated with several healthrelated variables that impacted academic success as well. The groups with the most difficulty in achieving academic success were black and nontraditional students; they spent more time on academic probation and had significantly lower GPAs than white/other and traditional students. Oncampus students had higher mean GPA (3.26) than students who resided with their parents or on their own (2.91 and 2.78, respectively). Findings indicate that healthy students are more likely to attend class and succeed academically. To help students, it is recommended that universities develop a comprehensive program with strategies to keep students well, including wellness checks and health education classes. Implementation of policies to prevent unhealthy behaviors, such as a ban on smoking or alcohol use on campus, may improve student health. Data support the conclusion that health promotion should focus on providing support groups for minorities and non-traditional students. ACADEMIC-BASED MOVEMENT BREAKS AND AEROBIC-BASED MOVEMENT BREAKS: IS THERE A DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT FOR CHILDREN’S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND BEHAVIOR? Elizabeth Whitney, Alicia Fedewa, Heather Erwin, and Minnah Farook, University of Kentucky Ayn Soyeon, University of Miami The evidence for positive health outcomes related to physical activity among children is abundant. As such, physical activity among children can lead to increased physical fitness, decreased body fat, and decreased risk for cardiovascular problems. SPRING 2017

Journal of the Louisiana Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance


Research indicates physical activity has been linked with better cognitive control and memory in children. The above-mentioned findings suggest that physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes and positive changes in the brain that can improve attention, learning, and memoryâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; all important correlates with academic achievement in school, however, no research to date has examined how the type of physical activity in which youth are affects these variables. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in purely aerobic- based classroom physical activity breaks and academic-based classroom physical activity breaks on childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s achievement outcomes. 647 elementary school (Grades 3-5) children from four schools (two in each condition) participated in the sample. Activity (Walk4Life LS 2500 pedometers), achievement (standardized test scores), and behavioral (teacher prompts/student compliance) data were collected on 10 days for each classroom in the sample during each wave of the study, with a total of three waves. The mixed-effects (growth) model, in which the repeated measures of individuals nested within classroom are analyzed, was used to answer all posited research questions using Mplus 7.31 software. Children in purely aerobic-based breaks had significantly greater increase in steps over time (b = 00.33, SE 0.05, t = -6.24, p<.01) than those in core-content based movement breaks. Results also indicated that children who were engaged in in purely aerobic movement breaks showed significant increase in reading scores over time, compared to their counterparts who received academic based movement breaks (t = 2.47, p < .01), but this relationship was not significant for mathematics scores (t = 2.80, p = .005). Results were not significant for the predictors of student behavior between treatment and control classrooms. Interestingly, there was no statistically significant difference in the type of movement break and student behavior, which could be partially explained by the criteria chosen to measure this variable. The current study provides some evidence that the type of physical activity break matters in terms of a childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cognitive abilities, but more research is needed to elucidate the effects of extraneous variables on this relationship. VOL. 80, NO. 1




Mission. The Department of KSLS embraces the Mission of the College of Educational, Professional and Graduate Studies and Grambling State University. The Department’s mission entails a commitment to academic excellence, quality assurance and accreditation of degree programs, as well as preparation of competent, skilled professionals in kinesiology and leisure studies at the undergraduate level, and sports administration at the graduate level. Philosophy. The Department of KSLS provides an environment that encourages, supports and nurtures student learning in the classroom, external settings and entry to professional arenas. The faculty are effective facilitators of learning who serve as role models, advisors and mentors; challenging majors to be the best that they can be.

Undergraduate Programs B.S., Kinesiology degree with Concentrations in:  Pedagogy  Health Promotion  Sport Management B. S., Leisure Studies degree with Concentrations in:  General Recreation  Therapeutic Recreation Graduate Program M.S., Sports Administration (SPA) For More Information Contact: Department of Kinesiology, Sport & Leisure Studies GSU Box 4244, Fredrick C. Hobdy Assembly Center – Ste 148 Grambling, LA 71245 Tel: (318) 274-2294 - Fax: (318) 274-3346 – A Constituent Member of the University of Louisiana System, Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools An Equal Opportunity Employer and Educator, Facilities Accessible to the Disabled

Come to Southeastern for graduate school!

Department of Kinesiology and Health Studies Master’s Degree in Health and Kinesiology    

Hammond campus within driving distance of New Orleans and Baton Rouge Several concentrations from which to choose; tailor graduate study to your interests and goals All coursework is offered in the evenings Graduate assistantships are available

Concentrations Exercise Science: Advanced study in exercise science focusing on exercise physiology, motor behavior, and sport & exercise psychology. Health Studies: Develop skills and competencies in both theory and practice as a health educator, and for the Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) Exam. Health Promotion & Exercise Science: Combines health education skills and competencies with graduate study of exercise physiology and fitness testing. Kinesiology: Involves focused study in selected disciplines. Students choose emphasis areas from adapted physical education, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management, and sport & exercise psychology.

Phone: 985-549-2129


Department of Health and Human Performance Burton College of Education Featuring Programs Designed to Prepare:

Undergraduate Programs (Bachelor of Science)


Education Professions Courtney Hebert

Athletic Trainers


Exercise Science

Exercise Physiologists

Dr. Robert Voight, Coordinator

Exercise Specialists

Sport Managers

Sports Medicine Chad Chaisson, Program Director

Wellness Practitioners

Program Directors Health Educators

Sport and Wellness Management Dr. Mike VanGossen

Physical Therapists

Graduate Programs (Master of Science) Exercise Physiology

Dr. Robert Voight, Director

Health Promotion

Nutrition and Wellness

For More Information: Contact Dr. Mike Soileau, Department Head, Health and Human Performance McNeese State University, Box 91855, Lake Charles, LA 70609 337-475-5375 McNeese is a member of the University of Louisiana System


School of Kinesiology

Offering degrees in:

Bachelor of Science: Health and Physical Education -Teaching Certification in:  Health and Physical Education  Adapted Physical Education

Bachelor of Science: Kinesiology -Non-teaching Concentrations available:  Exercise Science  Health Promotion & Wellness (online program)  Sports Management

Bachelor of Science: Athletic Training Master of Science in Kinesiology -Concentrations in:  Exercise and Sport Science  Health Promotion, Recreation and Sport Management

For more information contact: University of Louisiana at Lafayette School of Kinesiology 225 Cajundome Blvd. Lafayette, LA 70506 (337) 482-6615




B.S. in Science with concentrations in: Fitness and Sports Industry The Fitness and Sports Industry (FASI) concentration prepares students to enter the fields of fitness and sport industry or pursue advanced studies in athletic administration, sports administration, or fitness management. A successful recipient in this concentration may further their career by earning a minor in business administration. The sport and fitness industry is rapidly expanding. As it continues to grow, the need for qualified employees continues to increase. Exercise Science/Pre-Physical Therapy While the Exercise Science/Pre-Physical Therapy concentration prepares students for the application process to professional physical therapy programs, it will also prepare students for careers in the applied and clinical preventive settings, including, but not limited to cardiac rehabilitation, hospital-based wellness programs, community fitness centers, or university and corporate wellness programs. Students intending to pursue entry into a physical therapy program will be required to take additional hours and make substitutions as recommended by their academic advisor. Exercise Science The Exercise Science concentration prepares students for careers in the applied and clinical preventive settings, including, but not limited to cardiac rehabilitation, hospital-based wellness programs, community fitness centers, or university and corporate wellness programs, as well as entry into graduate exercise science programs. A successful recipient in this concentration may further their career by earning professional certifications from individual vendors and associations, such as Personal Training or Strength Conditioning.

M.S. in Exercise Science with concentrations in: Clinical Exercise Physiology Students will gain the professional skills to design, implement and supervise exercise programming for those with chronic diseases and/or physical conditions. Learn how to assess the results of outcomes related to exercise services. Professionals in this field work in a variety of settings: hospitals, outpatient clinics, physician offices, university laboratories or hospital-based research facilities. A CAAHEP certified program. Applied Exercise Science This concentration has a significant science focus on anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and biomechanics of human movement, and applications to exercise and therapeutic rehabilitation. Students learn to specialize in performance research, rehabilitative therapies, and related analytical methods and procedures in applied exercise and therapeutic rehabilitation. Sport, Fitness, and Recreation Management (Courses Available Online) This concentration is designed to appeal to those who wish to work in the business of sport, fitness and recreation, but not as an instructor or coach. The careers available in the field of sport, fitness and recreation management are diverse and growing. Opportunities include program or facility directors, marketing and promotions, corporate sales, sporting goods, community programs, athletic directors and business managers, and sport or recreation management. Combined with the worldwide growth and influence of sports on society, new opportunities continue to be created in a variety of settings.


Teacher Certification (K-12) The Health and Physical Education Certification (HPEC) concentration prepares students to teach K-12 health and physical education by providing coursework and experiences in the area of health and physical education. Students must earn a "C" or better in all coursework applied toward teacher certification. (photo - participants in the ULM Mile, coordinated by the Dept. of Kinesiology)


Graduates who work in the Kinesiology field find careers in: Personal or Athletic Training Sport, Fitness or Recreation Management Cardiac Rehabilitation Health and Physical Education (P.E. Teaching and Coaching) Physical Therapy (after completing Physical Therapy school) Many health and fitness specialists are researching complex issues such as: Childhood Obesity Cardiovascular Disease Adult Onset Diabetes, and more.

LAHPERD AWARDS’ CRITERIA For more information, contact the Executive Director, Awards Committee Chairperson, or specific award chairpersons identified. Honor Award 1. The candidate’s contribution should have been made within the field of health education, physical education, recreation and dance. 2. The candidate should have rendered at least five years of meritorious service to the health education, physical education, recreation, or dance education professions in the state. 3. The candidate shall be one of high moral character whose contributions have most fully expressed the spirit of service which this award represents. 4. The candidate should have made a contribution to LAHPERD. 5. Any LAHPERD member who resides within the state may nominate a candidate by submitting the name and vita to the nomination chairperson. 6. To be considered for the current year, all nominations must be in the hands of the chairperson by August 1. 7. The committee member who sponsors a candidate shall be responsible for forwarding five copies of a complete, accurate biographical sketch to the chairperson. 8. The biographical sketch shall be topically organized, legible, and current. 9. To be considered for the current year, all biographical sketches must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 10. Insofar as possible, candidates shall not be advised that they are being considered for the award. 11. Submit nominations to Kathy Hill at Outstanding University/College Senior Major Award 1. The candidate shall be a full-time student of the university/college from which the nomination is made. 2. The candidate shall have attended the nominating university a minimum of two years. 3. The candidate shall be a member of LAHPERD at the time of the nomination. 4. The candidate shall have an overall grade point average of 3.0 or greater. 5. Any university/college faculty member in health, physical education, recreation, or dance, or a supervising teacher may nominate a candidate by sending the name and a biographical sketch to the chairperson. The supporting information should include date, grade point average, honors and awards, membership(s) in professional organization(s), and a statement from the nominator as to why the student is worthy of the award. 6. All nominations must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 7. The person sponsoring the candidate shall be responsible for submitting a copy of a complete, accurate biographical sketch to the chairperson. 8. The biographical sketch shall be topically organized, legible, and current. 9. To be considered for the current year, all biographical sketches must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 10. Submit nominations to Yvonne Calvin at Service Award 1. Any LAHPERD member who resides in the state may nominate a candidate who is worthy of consideration. Supporting information should include name, address, specific contribution/service to LAHPERD, and a statement from the nominator giving other information considered pertinent to the selection of a recipient for the Service Award. 2. Any individual who meets the criteria outlined for each of the awards may apply personally for the award or be nominated by a colleague. 3. A state winner is not eligible for the same award again until after four years. 4. Former district and national winners of the award are not eligible to participate in the same category for an award. 5. Submit nominations by May 20 to the Executive Director or Awards Committee Chair. 6. Submit nominees and information for special awards to: Sonia Tinsley at Secondary Physical Education Teacher of the Year Award 1. For the purposes of this award, a secondary physical education teacher is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching physical education in grades 7-12. 2. The candidate must be a current secondary physical education teacher with a minimum of three years’ experience. 3. The candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Conducts a balanced and sequential curriculum. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences professional commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national physical education organizations.

Elementary School Physical Education Teacher of the Year Award 1. For the purposes of this award, an elementary physical education teacher is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching physical education in grades K-6. 2. The candidate must be a current elementary physical education teacher with a minimum of six yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience. 3. The candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Conducts a balanced and sequential curriculum that reflects and understanding of child growth and development. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment to the education profession by having served on state/regional/national committees and/or having presented workshops of programs at these levels. 4. Current members of the COPEC Executive Committee are not eligible. Health Educator of the Year Award 1. For the purposes of this award, a school health educator is an individual who has major responsibility for teaching health education in grades K-12 or in a college/university setting. 2. The candidate must have a minimum of three years teaching experience. 3. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Presents a balanced and sequential curriculum based on the developmental, social, and psychological needs of the students. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national health organizations. Dance Educator of the Year Award 1. For the purposes of this award, a dance educator is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching dance at any level including grades K-12 and/or in a college/university setting. 2. The candidate must have a minimum of three years teaching experience. 3. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Teaches creatively and produces creative work by utilizing various methodologies causing innovative problem-solving learning experiences. c. Presents a balanced and sequential curriculum based on the developmental, social, and psychological needs of the students. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national dance organizations. Recreation Professional of the Year Award 1. For the purposes of this award, a recreation professional is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching recreation pre-professionals/professionals or conducting recreation programming and/or administration in an educational, public, or private recreation setting. 2. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing the values and desired outcomes of recreation. b. Demonstrates enthusiasm for the recreation professional and his/her role in it. c. Shows interest in and sensitivity to the needs of students, clients, and fellow professionals. d. Utilizes various methodologies and implements creative, innovative, safe, and effective courses/recreations programs based on: i.the developmental, social, and psychological needs of students and clients; and ii.the philosophies, purposes, needs, and resources of the sponsoring institution. e. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth and evidences professional commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national recreation organizations. Taylor Dodson Young Professional Award 1. Candidates should be less than 40 years of age. 2. Candidatesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; contributions should have been made within the fields of physical education, health education, recreation, research, and dance, or to the profession through such allied field as science, education, or community service. 3. Candidates should have rendered at least five years of meritorious service to the physical education, health education, recreation, or dance professions in the Southern District. 4. Candidates should have been members in good standing of AAHPERD for at least the five consecutive years prior to receiving the award.

5. Candidates for the award should have gained prominence in some of the following: a. Excellence in teaching b. Outstanding administrative achievement c. Leadership in professional associations, including state and national d. Contributions to professional literature e. Outstanding community service 6. Deceased members or those who have moved out of the district should not receive the award nor should the award be given because a person holds a particular job.

1. a. b. c. d.

Scholar Award Criteria for selection of the Scholar shall include, but not be limited to the following: The individual selected should have scholarly presentations. The individual should be an active scholar in his/her discipline. The individual selected must be a LAHPERD member. The individual selected should be capable of communication to groups in the various disciplines.

Gillentine Award 1. Candidates must be adapted physical education teachers, where the majority of their teaching duties are in adapted physical education, in Louisiana and current LAHPERD members. 2. The following criteria are considered: a. Teaching performance b. Innovative abilities c. Involvement with local and state organizations d. Volunteer community work e. Research and scholarly activities specific to adapted physical education

GUIDELINES FOR SUBMITTING ARTICLES TO THE JOURNAL Electronic Submissions Only (Fall 2016) The Journal is published electronically twice a year, usually the fall and spring, by the Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Articles should be emailed to the editor, Dr. Dan Denson Articles should be submitted by January 15 to be considered for the April issue and by August 15 for the October issue. Current LAHPERD members have priority for publication space. 1. The Manuscript Manuscripts should follow the form and style of the current edition of Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association and must be double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font with standard margins. All of the authors’ names, titles, and institutions should be listed on the cover sheet. Prepare the manuscript in Microsoft Word format and attach author’s statement (see Author’s Statement below). All correspondence should be addressed to the lead author unless otherwise specified. Limit manuscripts to 12 pages or about 4,800 words. 2. Tables and Illustrations All tables and figures must be titled. Tables may be embedded in the text at the appropriate place or on separate pages. Use tables for reporting extensive statistical information. Data in tables should not be duplicated or extensively discussed in the text. Artwork (graphics, photos, etc.) should be of high resolution to ensure that pixilation or blur is avoided. Please attach artwork as a separate file. 3. Author’s Statement The author(s) must provide a statement certifying that the article has not been published or concurrently submitted for publication elsewhere. 4. Refereed Papers Only position papers and research manuscripts that meet submission criteria will be considered for blind external review. Each paper will be submitted to three members of the LAHPERD Journal editorial board. Papers are reviewed for content and clarity. Specifically, each paper will be gleaned for 1) identification of the problem and purpose of the study, 2) description of methodology including statistical procedures used, 3) reporting of findings, 4) consistency of conclusions and findings, and 5) quality and appropriateness of references. Lead authors will be notified of the status of the manuscript. Papers may be accepted as is, accepted with minor revisions, conditionally accepted pending revisions, or rejected. Only papers that make a contribution to the profession will be accepted for publication. 5. Documentation References should be listed at the end of the article and should be arranged in alphabetical order. Each reference cited in the article must be listed and only those cited should be included in the reference page. Follow the form and style for citing and listing references in the current edition of the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association 6. Announcements Any announcements and last minute news items must be submitted electronically prior to layout of the journal. Contributors are advised to use Microsoft Word, 12-point Times New Roman font format for all attachments. Avoid first person sentence structure. Be sure to title attachment for inclusion in the LAHPERD Journal. 7. Non-Refereed Papers Program development essays, teaching methods, and related papers are welcome. Authors are encouraged to submit photographs, diagrams and tables as necessary with these papers. These papers will be reviewed by the in-house editorial staff, which consists of the managing editor and the copy editor. Some revisions may be necessary. The editorial staff reserves the right to edit these papers when necessary to maximize available space.

8. Abstracts All completed abstracts accepted for presentation at the fall LAHPERD conference will be published in the spring issue of the LAHPERD Journal. Incomplete abstracts will be returned to the author(s) to be completed. Complete abstracts should contain: 1) problem statement, 2) purpose of the study, 3) methods, 4) major findings, and 5) conclusions. Limit abstract to 500 words. 9. Advertisements The LAHPERD Journal has free available space for advertising of select university programs*. All advertisements should be submitted as high resolution files (see 2. Tables and Illustrations above). Professional product and service vendors are invited to advertise. Rates for vendors are: $100 per issue for full page; $60 per issue for 1/2 page; and $30 per issue for 1/ 4 page. All ads are subject to review and rejection by the editors and/or the Executive Board of LAHPERD. *Free ad space is available to departments that are represented by membership in LAHPERD.

LAHPERD MINI-GRANT APPLICATION FORM 1. Print these directions. 2. Type your Application. 3. Be sure to answer all the questions. 4. Mail completed form by May 1st each year to: Christina Courtney, Mini-Grant Coordinator University Laboratory School 45 Dalrymple Dr. Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Page One Project Title: Signature of Applicant: Signature of Principal and/or Supervisor Applicant’s Name: Applicant’s Position/Title School Name: School Address: School System/Parish: Work Phone: Work FAX: Work email: Home Phone: Home email: Page Two General Project Summary (1 or 2 paragraphs) Specifics: 1. What is the main idea of this project? 2. Why do you think there is a special need for this project? 3. Give a time schedule of events 4. Approximately how many students will be affected by this project? 5. How will you describe whether your objectives have been achieved and whether your project is successful? 6. Attach 1-3 lesson plans you could use within this project. 7. Detail your budget request. Include specific information such as kinds of materials and equipment needed, sources of supply and costs, or travel/lodging information. Budget example: ITEM Alpha Fit Conference Registration Fee Total


AMOUNT BUDGETED $375.00 $150.00 $525.00

LAHPERD Journal | Spring 2017  

Vol. 80, No. 2