This Issue’s Highlights INVITED PAPER REFEREED PAPERS CONVENTION ANNOUNCEMENTS
LAHPERD Journal FALL 2015 VOLUME 79 | NUMBER 1
Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance www.lahperd.org
2015 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Voting Officers President: Emily Beasley firstname.lastname@example.org Past President: Wanda Hargroder email@example.com President-Elect: Bonnie Richardson firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President, Dance Division: Pam Burzynski email@example.com Vice President, General Division: Christina Courtney firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President, Health Division: Wynn Gillan email@example.com Vice President, Physical Education Division: Karen Simpson firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President, Sport and Leisure Division: Eliska Joseph Non-Voting Officers Executive Director: Bill Dickens email@example.com Secretary: Sr. Jean Marie Craig firstname.lastname@example.org Parliamentarian: Lisa Johnson email@example.com Vice President-Elect, Dance: Kevin Brooks firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President-Elect, General: Deborah Fournet email@example.com Vice President-Elect, Health: Darrius Hughes firstname.lastname@example.org Vice President-Elect, Physical Education: Teresa Guillot email@example.com Vice President-Elect, Sport and Leisure: Summer Campbell Section Chairpersons Dance • Dance Education: Cissy Whipp firstname.lastname@example.org • Performance Dance: Shamanda Sanders email@example.com General • Ethnic Minority: Vacant • Exercise Science: Tyler Farney • Future Professionals: Kara Deutch firstname.lastname@example.org • Higher Education: Randy Albert • Research: Vacant Health • Health Education: Brittany Prejean email@example.com • Health Promotion & Wellness: Kentrel Smith firstname.lastname@example.org Physical Education • Adapted: Kristi Long email@example.com • Elementary: Cammie Maturin firstname.lastname@example.org • Middle/Secondary: Carrie Landry email@example.com Sport and Leisure • Athletic Training: Vacant • Coaching Education: Bing Athey firstname.lastname@example.org • Community and Outdoor Recreation: Doug Athey email@example.com • Fitness/Leisure/Aquatics: Valeria Altazin firstname.lastname@example.org • Sport Management: Michael Moulton email@example.com Specialty Appointment Members Au Courant Editor: Dustin Hebert firstname.lastname@example.org Journal Editor: Dan Denson email@example.com; Journal Layout Designer: Dustin Hebert firstname.lastname@example.org Jump Rope for Heart/Hoops for Heart Coordinator: Joanna Faerber email@example.com Convention Manager: Susan Gremillion firstname.lastname@example.org LAHPERD JOURNAL EDITORIAL BOARD Wynn Gillan, Southeastern Louisiana University; Bob Kelly, Southern University; Lisa Dardeau, McNeese State University; Ron Byrd, Louisiana State University at Shreveport; Susan Lyman, University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Connie LaBorde, Louisiana Tech University (Retired); Hans Leis, Louisiana College LAHPERD JOURNAL CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Kathy Hill, Tour de Fitness; Rudy Macklin, Governor’s Council on Physical Fitness; Joan Landry, Picard Center for Child Development and Lifelong Learning; David Bellar, Research
LAHPERD Journal FALL 2015 VOLUME 79 | NUMBER 1
INVITED PAPER It’s More Than a Sportsman’s Paradise: Beach Clean-Ups, Environmental Stewardship, and Community-Based Learning ...................................................................................................................................................................1 Jason W. Lee and Allison D. Shirley, University of North Florida REFEREED PAPERS Relationships between Parental Characteristics and Extracurricular Activity Participation ...................................5 YuChun Chen and Joanne Hood, Louisiana Tech University Rebecca Watts, Northcentral University Recycling Household Hazardous Wastes: Determinants and Attitudes That Promote Community Involvement at the Local Level ......................................................................................................................................................10 Laura Harris Aymond, Lorenda Johnson, Millie Naquin, Ephraim Massawe, and Wynn Gillan, Southeastern Louisiana University CONVENTION ANNOUNCEMENTS Preliminary Program ..............................................................................................................................................15 FAQs ......................................................................................................................................................................15 ADS AWARDS’ CRITERIA JOURNAL SUBMISSION GUIDELINES MINI-GRANT APPLICATION
Help us name the LAHPERD Journal! To make the Journal more recognizable in the HPERD disciplines, we are seeking suggestions to rename it. The new title should be concise and include keywords that are inclusive of the HPERD disciplines. Do you have any suggestions? Please email them to email@example.com. We value your input!
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INVITED PAPER IT’S MORE THAN A SPORTSMAN’S PARADISE: BEACH CLEAN-UPS, ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP, AND COMMUNITY-BASED LEARNING Jason W. Lee and Allison D. Shirley University of North Florida Introduction This article will examine the application of beach cleanups as a form of project-based learning that engages with the community while fostering a sense of environmental stewardship as applied by various Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (LAHPERD) divisions. Coming off of the five year anniversary of one of the most catastrophic environmental disasters in history, it is timely to educate others about the importance of taking care of our precious natural resources. While the focus of this article comes particularly addresses beach cleanups, application of this information can be transferable to other environmental stewardship endeavors (i.e., other waterway cleanups, park cleanups). Louisiana is a state whose geographic characteristics are defined in large part by its wealth of natural resources. Louisiana is home a bountiful eco-tourism that features the state’s natural beauty and boasting the state nickname of being the “Sportsman’s Paradise.” The aspiration to sustain the Bayou State’s natural resources through educating others and promoting environmental stewardship activities is a virtuous undertaking that can have a positive impact on students, teachers, and others stakeholders in a variety of LAHPERD fields. Accordingly, this article addressed a range of pedagogical and environmental stewardship deliberations, which postulate application for LAHPERD stakeholders. Education and Community Engagement Educators are tasked with seeking engaging ways to impart knowledge to their students while meeting learning objectives. Subsequently, it is
important to make associations with theory to practice for students through tapping into connection points such as relevance of engagement, application of knowledge, and purpose of academic exercises. The implementation of project-based learning and community-based learning provides students the opportunity to relate to the “big picture” constructs while “buying in” to instructional goals. It is important to not only take care of one’s environment but also promote the virtues of this to others. This is especially applicable for those who have been entrusted to be educators. This is true for teachers of all levels K-12 and higher education. Fostering appreciation for taking care of our environment can provide various community related benefits, but also various pedagogical benefits as well. “Thanks to long-standing and ongoing scientific research and community engagement, we widely appreciate the health benefits of a clean environment” (Svendsen, 2011, p. 2008). One approach for helping foster and appreciation for the importance of environmental stewardship is to better educate people regarding the dangers of not taking care of our environment is to harken back to Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (also known as the “BP Oil Spill”) makes for a timely connection to a wide assortment of significant issues. This article aims to provide examples and support for conducting project-based, communitybased learning projects in the form of planning and promoting beach cleanups. The application of this initiative, while tied to sport-based curriculum, can provide relevant transference to analogous community-based learning projects in other LAHPERD disciplines. As such, this article address ways to incorporate beach cleanups into program initiatives, while identifying successful practices aimed at providing advice for other environmental stewardship initiatives. Why Beach Clean-Ups Are Important Beach cleanups are organized events where community members join together to pick up trash off their beaches. Beach cleanups events are to have the pertinent supplies including gloves, receptacles to hold the collected trash (i.e., reusable 5 gallon
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buckets), hand sanitizer, snacks, and water. Beyond that, all event volunteers need to do is show up ready to clean up the beach and they are ready to take part in these meaningful community projects. Promoting beach cleanups is significant because such events are able to bring communities together, spreading awareness, inspiring others to live an environmentally responsible lifestyle, and setting the standard of how people take care of their beaches by being “environmental stewards.” Environmental stewards are defined by Browne, Garst, and Bialeschki (2011) as being “environmentally conscious leaders who promote environmental sustainability in others” (p. 70). It is important for individuals to feel a sense of responsibility in regards to taking care of their environments by throwing away one’s trash and picking up others because everything eventually ends up in the waterways. While “beach cleanups” require reasonable proximity to the ocean, there are opportunities to be engaged in waterway cleanups and other environmental initiatives regardless of where people live. For those who live close to the ocean, it is important to help promote a sense of responsibility for taking care of such natural resources. Trash on the beach looks dirty and threatens tourism and recreation, which can harm the local economy. Environmental stewardship can have other economic benefits in the form of what Williams (2008) identifies as "environomics" which references “a synergistic blend of environmental stewardship and economics” (p. 78). The benefits of keeping beaches and other waterways clean are abundant. One main reason is that trash in the ocean compromises the health of wildlife. Annually, 1 million sea birds and 100,000 marine mammals are killed from plastic in our oceans worldwide (Hasselberger, 2014). When people pick up trash off the beach, they are setting an example to those around them that it is unacceptable to litter and individuals can all make contributions big or small towards bettering the environment. While it is important to set a good example for all individuals, there is great value in setting a tone of environmental responsibility for our youth (Browne, Garst, & Bialeschki, 2011). Plastic and cigarette butts are the most common trash forms found on the beach. Cigarette butts take 1-5 years to biodegrade while plastic
never fully breaks down. Americans throw away approximately 35 billion water bottles each year (Hasselberger, 2014) and more than 1 billion single use plastic bags are given out each day (Bean, 2013). It can be very impactful to impart such knowledge to others and make them aware of longterm ramifications of leaving such trash behind. The development of community partners is also paramount in the promotion of beach cleanups events. Such partnerships provide benefits such as recognition, support, and needed resources that enhance the event. For example, at the beach cleanups reusable 5 gallon buckets donated from a local home improvement store (see Image 1) are utilized to collect trash rather than using plastic trash bags. Furthermore, participants are given reusable everyday items such as reusable grocery bags from a local market and reusable bottles provided from a local university to encourage “multi-use products,” rather than promoting onetime use plastic products. The Evolution of a Beach Clean-Up Initiative The first installment of this particular beach cleanup initiative occurred in 2012 at a beach in North Florida. The initial beach cleanups primarily consisted of participants from an intercollegiate sand volleyball team at the University of North Florida. This event was a scaled-down version of what these initiatives would become. The inaugural event did not have any sponsors or fun giveaways— it was an event simply focused on the promotion of environmental stewardship. This event was a natural fit as the importance of keeping beaches clean resonated with the local university’s sand (“beach”) volleyball players. The athletes who were familiar with playing in a beach environment were a great target audience as they had a great appreciation for the need to keep beaches clean for aesthetic, health, and sustainability motives. This first beach cleanups event had about 30 volunteers. Even though this event had a relatively small number of participants, the group still managed to pick up a vast amount of trash. The success of this first event was the inspiration to put on more cleanups and grow the events in magnitude and impact.
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Since 2012, 8 additional beach cleanups have been provided in a geographic area that spans nearly 40 miles. As these events have grown in scope, more participants and partner organizations have become involved. To date, 40 sponsors from local and national businesses have been engaged with these events and things continue to grow—and with each subsequent event getting bigger. Corporate and other community partners are an essential part of making these events as beneficial as they can be. To encourage people to volunteer to pick trash, especially cigarette butts, sponsors and donors are solicited to provide resources including product or gift cards to use as prizes. A key feature of each beach cleanups is having a “cigarette butt competition” where whoever picks up the most butts wins prizes, such as high quality sunglasses to gift cards for local restaurants to a beach cruiser. Furthermore, volunteers are rewarded for their hard work through receiving items such as free food and beverages, hats, stickers, and shirts. The beach cleanups initiative has proven to be a great success. The early achievement has been built upon and things continue to progress in the preceding years. In 2014, 3 beach cleanups were organized and more than 37,000 cigarette butts have been cleaned from the local beaches. The largest of these events was comprised of 200 volunteers, who picked up over 19,000 cigarette butts in three hours. This is an astounding number and helps illustrate the need and impact for such events. Such beach cleanups are also valuable as they can help inspire and motivate others to help better our beaches.
building relationships with sponsors and donors, and professional development can also be attained through organizing and promoting these events. Beyond that the altruistic good that is done is very rewarding. For example, it is inspiring to see children come to an event such as this and be excited about cleaning up the beach and making their environment better. Conducting these initiatives provides a platform for spreading awareness of the impact of trash on the beach and why we need to take care of our environment. Through these events many opportunities have presented themselves to make people aware of this issue. Participants who come to the beach cleanups also benefit by feeling good about their part in bettering our natural environment. The atmosphere of the events has proven to be positive and inspiring and each person leaves with a sense of satisfaction. Beyond the aforementioned benefits, incorporating these activities into class initiatives also benefits the students and teachers who are involved in the process by applying classroom material to real life situations. The versatility of events that promote environmental stewardship is applicable to various academic areas. LAHPERDrelated fields such as sport management (the field from this initiative), physical education (e.g., Bisson, 2005), (environmental) health (e.g., Svendsen, 2011), and recreation and leisure (e.g., Baur, Tynon, Ries, & Rosenberger, 2014; Tulipane, 2009) can all benefit from incorporating these impactful events and relating to pedagogical goals.
Coming Full Circle
Implementing a Clean-Up
Conducting beach cleanups is an activity that serves a great purpose. Beach cleanups provide a great sense of accomplishment for those participating in it as well as those who organize and plan out such activities. It also provides health benefits for people and other creatures living in our ecosystem. The benefits include the fact that people are truly able to make a difference in their communities and serve as good role models. Other additional benefits, both personally and professionally, can be achieved through participating in these impactful community initiatives. Networking opportunities, including
In regards to implementation in class, various facets can be used to implement within curricular efforts. This can include class projects, such as ones aimed at raising funds/awareness to projects focused on putting on beach cleanups. Projects involving the establishment of beach cleanups can be implemented as either “stand alone” events or applied as supplemental events in conjunction with other corresponding events (i.e., surf/paddleboard demo days, beach volleyball tournaments). Beach cleanups can be incorporated into class curriculum in a variety of ways including: major projects,
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minor projects, extra credit, or even just the promotion of volunteer activities. To organize a beach cleanups one must pick a location, date, and time that will be a convenient central location that needs to be highlighted for a cleanups. It is important to then brainstorm about what businesses and other community partners that would complement your event and ways you could use them whether for sponsorship, donations, and helping to promote the event. Next, it is helpful to create a request letter for sponsors/donors stating why you want their business to be a part of the event, why it is important, and what you are asking for. For the initiatives, students have attained through “hand delivering” (if possible) letters to the managers or other key gatekeepers of the organizations and confidently stating a persuasive “pitch” on why they should support the event. Creating a catchy flyer for print and social media is also helpful for drawing people’s attention and making the community aware of the event. It is also important to do what is needed to see that you have sufficient participants. Depending on how events are organized, there can be a ready audience by incorporating classes, sport organizations, other schools, or community personnel. As such, there are many means available to recruit students and volunteers to help with promotion and day of set up/break down. For example, having a relationship with a school or university athletic department can be beneficial. For these initiatives, relationships with a university’s athletic program have proven to be beneficial in various ways including helping to gain more volunteers by teams coming out representing the university, giving them positive publicity and community service. As time for the event approaches, it is important to have 1-3 tents (depending on the event size), tables, chairs, snacks, water, trash buckets, gloves, hand sanitizer, and giveaways/prizes. Tying in promotional effects such as creating a cigarette butt competition, displaying infographics or informational posters with facts about trash on the beach (see Image 2), and taking lots of pictures (see Images 3-6). After the event, recap the success of the event by totaling the amount of trash, cigarette butts, and volunteers that participated at the event. It is important to send follow up emails or deliver
hand written thank you cards to the sponsors and express to them how much you value their contribution to the event and how it helped make the cleanups a success. Creating these relationships in the community will not only help you put on engaging beach cleanups it will also create a network for outside opportunities. Additionally, being engaged in social media efforts and other publicity forms prior to the event, during the event, and after the event are helpful as well. It makes more people aware of the initiative and can draw positive attention to partnering organizations that are involved. As initiatives continue to maturate, opportunities to “brand” these initiatives by incorporating visual components such as catchy names and eye-catching logos can be developed. Conclusions Beach cleanups and other environmental stewardship initiatives make a great impact in local communities and in the lives of others, besides making our environment better, and allows participants to be involved in engaging service activities. Such involvement produces various benefits for participants and the community at large. Once individuals decide to take part in beach cleanups, opportunities seem almost endless. As more people are involved, it helps create greater awareness and produces more devoted individuals who will spread the word to their communities. Appreciation and application of environmental stewardship goes beyond just the beach and it goes beyond the event as students can go on to be involved in other events or just be more active in our environmental stewardship efforts associated with other outdoor pursuits (e.g., picking up litter on a disc golf course or waste found floating in a body of water while kayaking). By making connections to the tragedy of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (“BP Oil Spill”) and the tremendous efforts that were implemented to restore the health of the state’s coastline (and those of the surrounding Gulf states) one can begin to appreciate the value of environmental stewardship.
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References Baur, J. R., Tynon, J. F., Ries, P., & Rosenberger, R. S. (2014). Urban parks and attitudes about ecosystem services: Does park use matter? Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 32(4), 19-34. Beans, L. (2013). Silent killers: the dangers of plastic bags to marine life. EcoWatch. Retrieved from http://ecowatch.com/2013/08/06/thedanger-of-plastic-bags-to-marine-life/ Bisson, V. (2005). The Environmental Stewardship Program: Physical education and environmental studies, an inspiring formula that's getting kids back to class. Physical & Health Education Journal, 71(1), 32-33. Browne, L. P., Garst, B. A., & Bialeschki, M. D. (2011). Engaging youth in environmental sustainability: Impact of the Camp 2 Grow program. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 29(3), 70-85. Hasselberger, L. (2014). 22 facts about plastic pollution (and 10 things we can do about it). Eco Watch. Retrieved from http://ecowatch.com/2014/04/07/22-factsplastic-pollution-10-things-can-do-about-it/ Svendsen, E. (2011). Cultivating health and wellbeing through environmental stewardship. American Journal of Public Health, 101(11), 2008. Tulipane, B. (2009). Environmental stewardship and sustainability. Parks & Recreation, 44(6), 2. Williams, A. L. (2008). Environmental stewardship produces economic advantages. Golfdom, 64(5), 77-79.
REFEREED PAPERS RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTAL CHARACTERISTICS AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION YuChun Chen and Joanne Hood Louisiana Tech University Rebecca Watts Northcentral University Abstract Previous research has indicated that participation in extracurricular activities (EAs) resulted in higher grades in school and better academic performance later in life along with other benefits such as physical and social development, character building, creativity, and life skills. However, not every child has the opportunity to explore their interests with like-minded peers because of parental perceptions and/or financial concerns. The present study, therefore, examined five parental characteristics (i.e., education and working status of the parents and total household income) and the relationships with participation and type of EAs children were involved in. The sample represented 201 sixth graders from five public schools in a single area of a southeastern state. Multiple chi-square analyses were calculated and significant relationships were found between each of the five parental characteristics and EA participation. Moreover, all parental characteristics except for the working status of the mothers produced insignificant results when comparing with the type of EAs students participated in. Findings, future research suggestions, and practical implications are discussed. Keywords: parent, characteristics, extracurricular, activity, participation Introduction Extracurricular activities (EAs) are those offered outside the normal school curriculum for students to explore their interests with like-minded peers. According to Barnett (2008) and Barnett and
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Weber (2008), EAs can be broadly labeled in the academic, community, performing, religious, and sports categories. Previous research has found that participation in EAs is highly associated with students who performed better academically (Broh, 2002; Fredricks & Eccles, 2005, 2006; Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer, 2003). For instance, the 10th and 12th graders who played sports had demonstrated improvement on their math and English scores over the course of the study (Broh, 2002). In the eightyear longitudinal study, Mahoney and his colleagues (2003) also concluded that EA participation had positive contribution to the longterm academic success. Other benefits from participating in EAs included physical and social development, character building, creativity, and life skills (Barnett & Weber, 2008; Blomfield & Barber, 2011; Kort-Butler, 2012). The perceptions of parents1 on the benefits and outcomes could determine the type of EAs their children participated in (Barnett, 2008; Barnett & Weber, 2008; Shaw & Dawson, 2001). In addition to the benefits mentioned above, Shaw and Dawson (2001) claimed that EAs could also improve family relationships, especially those facilitating parents and their children to spend time together. Moreover, parents’ beliefs on the gender role, ability and talents of their children were other reasons to structure their EAs (Barnett, 2008; Fredricks & Eccles, 2004; Jacobs, Vernon, & Eccles, 2005). Although the connection remained unknown, several researchers have found that children whose parents were college-educated and employed outside of the home tended to be more active in EAs (Anderson, Funk, Elliott, & Smith, 2003; Miller, O’Connor, & Sirignano, 1995). Furthermore, children form economically disadvantaged families participated in fewer EAs as most EAs cost money and parents who are financially struggled could not provide other than the basic necessities (Miller et al., 1995; Patterson, Vaden, Griealer, & Kupersmidt, 1991; Quinn, 1999; Theokas & Bloch, 2006). Previous studies have identified the benefits of participating in EAs as well as the relationships between parental characteristics and EA participation, but not the type of EAs children participated in. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between parental
characteristics (i.e., education level and working status of the parents, household income) and EA participation (i.e., involvement and type). Methods Data Collection and Analysis Revised from Barnett’s (2008) earlier work, the Extracurricular Participation Survey (EPS) was used to collect demographic information, parental characteristics, and children’s participation in any type of EAs. The EPS along with the consent form and a direction letter enclosed in a large clasp envelope were delivered to the schools and distributed to the sixth grade homeroom teachers. The students were instructed to bring the envelopes home and returned them upon completion. Two distributions were made with three weeks in between to target those who did not respond to the first one. Multiple chi-square analyses and the cross tabulation were used to analyze the data. Subjects Two hundred and one (N = 201) surveys were collected from the sixth graders at five public schools located in the southeastern United States. The sample represented 122 female (60.7%) and 71 male (35.3%) students. There were 108 Caucasian (53.7%), 45 African American (22.4%), four Asian (2.0%), four biracial (2.0%), and two Hispanic students (1.0%). Forty eight mothers had four years of college education (23.9%), followed by 41 with some college education (20.4%), 31 with a master’s degree (15.4%), 30 with a high school diploma (14.9%), 24 with an associate’s degree (11.9%), nine with less than a high school diploma (4.5%), and two with a doctorate degree (1.0%). Fifty three fathers held a high school diploma (26.4%), followed by 38 with a bachelor’s degree (18.9%), 34 with some college education (16.9%), 15 with a master’s degree (7.5%), 11 with less than a high school education (5.5%), 10 with an associate’s degree (5.0%), nine with a doctorate (4.5%), and one with a professional degree (0.5%). There were 148 students whose mothers worked (73.6%) and 48 students whose mothers did not
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work (23.9%). There were 154 students whose fathers worked (76.6%) and there were 19 students whose fathers did not work (9.5%). Ninety three respondents (46.3%) reported a total household income greater than $50,000. Fifty nine families (29.4%) made less than $20,000. Eighteen (9.0%), eleven (5.5%) and nine respondents (4.5%) reported an income level of $40,000-$50,000, $20,000$30,000 and $30,000-$40,000, respectively. One hundred and fifty nine parents reported that their children participated in at least one EA (79.1%) and 42 parents had children who did not participate in any EAs at all (20.9%). Among those who participated in at least one EA, 107 children were involved in some type of sports program (53.2%), 28 participated in performing arts (13.9%), and 21 took part in community-related programs (10.4%). Results and Discussion Relationships between Parents’ Education Level and Children’s Participation in EAs The chi-square analysis showed significant associations between parents’ education level and children’ participation in EAs, χ2(4) = 18.634, p < 0.01 for mothers, and χ2(3) = 9.454, p = 0.024 for fathers. The observed frequencies for children participating in at least one EA were greater than the expected frequencies for all of the education levels in which the mothers held a two-year college degree or higher and the fathers obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher. The largest residual for the children who participated in at least one EA was found with the parents who earned a bachelor’s degree, Of = 45.0, Ef = 39.5 for mothers, and Of = 34.0, Ef = 31.6 for fathers. According to the findings, children’ participation in EAs was significantly associated with parents who held a higher education degree. It was logic to conclude that the children whose parents obtained at least a bachelor’s degree tended to be more involved in EAs than those whose parents had some college education or less.
Relationships between Parents’ Working Status and Children’s Participation in EAs According to the chi-square analyses, significant relationships were also found between parents’ working status and children’ participation in EAs, χ2(1) = 6.538, p = 0.011 for mothers, and χ2(1) = 14.701, p < 0.01 for fathers. The cross tabulation between the two variables showed that when the parents worked, there were more children who participated in EAs than expected, Of = 124.0, Ef = 117.8 for mothers, and Of = 130.0, Ef = 123.7 for fathers. There were more children who did not participate in EAs than expected when the parents did not work, Of = 16.0, Ef = 9.8 for mothers, and Of = 10.0, Ef = 3.7 for fathers. The consistent results suggested that children whose parents worked were more likely to participate in at least one EA, if not more, than those whose parents did not work. The significant findings of these two parental characteristics make meaningful additions to the existing literature that college-educated and working parents were associated with children who were actively involved in EAs (Anderson et al., 2003; Miller et al., 1995). Relationships between Total Household Income and Children’s Participation in EAs There was a significant relationship between total household income and participation in EAs, χ2(2) = 12.952, p = 0.002. Among those who did not participate in any EAs, there were more children than expected from households in which the total income was less than $20,000 (Of = 20.0, Ef = 12.7), and there were less children than expected from households in which the total income was greater than $50,000 (Of = 10.0, Ef = 20.1). On the other hand, there were more children than expected from families that made greater than $50,000 (Of = 83.0, Ef = 79.2). In congruence with previous research, the findings confirmed that children from higher income families, a total household income of greater than $50,000 to be specific, had more opportunities to participate in EAs than those from lower income families (Miller et al., 1995; Patterson et al., 1991; Quinn, 1999; Theokas & Bloch, 2006).
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Relationships between Parents’ Education Level and Type Child Participation in EAs
Relationships between Total Household Income and Type of EAs Children Participated in
A chi-square analysis was calculated comparing between mothers’ education level and the type of EAs children participated in, and no significant relationship was found, χ2(4) = 3.388, p = 0.495. However, it was noticeable that the mothers who had a bachelor’s degree were associated with the largest amount of children who participated in some type of sports program (Of = 31.0, Ef = 29.8). When comparing fathers’ education level and the type of EAs, no significance was found between the two variables, χ2(3)= 0.502, p = 0.918. Based on the observed frequencies, sport-related EAs were popular choices among children whose fathers had a high school diploma (Of = 26.0, Ef = 25.4). The results concluded that parents’ education level had insignificant relationships with the type of EAs their children participated in.
The chi-square results showed no significant association between the two variables, χ2(2) = 2.779, p = 0.249. However, the cross tabulation indicated more children participating in arts and community EAs than expected when the total household income was greater than $50,000 (Of = 30.0, Ef = 25.4), and more children in sports than expected when their parents made less than $20,000. According to the results, funding was a significant factor for children to participate in EAs but, when they had the opportunities to be involved, the type did not matter significantly.
Relationships between Parents’ Working Status and Type of Child Participation in EAs The statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant association between mothers’ working status and the type of EAs children participated in, χ2(1) = 4.044, p = 0.044. When the mothers worked, there were more children who participated in art and community-related programs than expected (Of = 44.0, Ef = 39.4). When the mothers did not work, there were more children participating in sportsrelated programs than expected (Of = 25.0, Ef = 20.4). Follow-up studies are warrant in response to the unexpected findings, where qualitative research method could be used to investigate the reasons beyond what the numbers indicated. Fathers’ working status, on the other hand, was found insignificant with the type of EAs children participated in, χ2(1) = 0.007, p = 0.936. It was quite obvious that the observed frequencies were very close to the expected in all cells of this particular cross tabulation. Future research might be in demand investigate the inconsistent results in regard to parents’ working status.
Conclusions The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between parental characteristics and EA participation. Survey data from 201 parents of sixth graders at five public schools indicated that all parental characteristics had significant relationships with the children’s EA participation. In particular, college-educated and working parents were associated with children participating in at least one EA. In line with previous research, children from higher income families, those that reported making greater than $50,000 to be specific, did participate in more EAs than those from lower income households. When analyzing the parental characteristics with type of EAs children participated in, none of the variables showed significant results except for mothers’ working status. This unexpected finding indicated that employed mothers tended to have children involving in performing arts or community-based activities, and that those who did not work were more likely to have their children in sport-related programs. It is important to note that the data were collected from a single area in the southeastern United States, so the results do not represent the general population. Future research on children of different grade in the same region could help provide a better trend of study in this specific area. Investigation on children of different regions might generate interesting results due to the racial, cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. In addition,
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qualitative research methods can help further explain the reasons behind the numbers. There are many benefits from participating in EAs (Barnett & Weber, 2008; Blomfield & Barber, 2011; Broh, 2002; Fredricks & Eccles, 2005, 2006; Kort-Butler, 2012; Mahoney et al., 2003). Unfortunately, not every child has the opportunity to participate in EAs. To help our next generation develop as a productive citizen, school principals, teachers, and physical educators can provide afterschool programs and/or summer camps that cater to all children regardless of their backgrounds. According to the findings, the type of EAs was not a significant factor, which led to the assumption that as long as there is a positive learning environment, children will be benefit from it. Public and private agency, on the other hand, can use information to design programs for recruitment and/or retention purposes, depending on the goals of making profit or producing non-profit community services. References Anderson, J. C., Funk, J. B., Elliott, R., & Smith, P. H. (2003). Parental support and pressure and children’s extracurricular activities: Relationships with amount of involvement and affective experience of participation. Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 241-257. Barnett, L. A. (2008). Predicting youth participation in extracurricular recreational activities: Relationships with individual, parent, and family characteristics. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(2), 28-60. Barnett, L. A., & Weber, J. J. (2008). Perceived benefits to children from participating in different types of recreational activities. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(3), 1-20. Blomfield, C. J., & Barber, B. L. (2011). Developmental experiences during extracurricular activities and Australian adolescents’ self-concept: Particularly important for youth from disadvantaged schools. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 582-594. Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75(1), 69-95.
Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2004). Parental influences on youth involvement in sports. In M. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective (pp. 145-164). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Developmental benefits of extracurricular involvement: Do peer characteristics mediate the link between activities and youth outcomes? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 6, 507-520. Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes: Concurrent and longitudinal relations? Developmental Psychology, 42, 698-713. Jacobs, J. E., Vernon, M. K., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Activity choices in middle childhood: The roles of gender, self-beliefs, and parents’ influence. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development (pp. 235-254). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kort-Butler, L. A. (2012). Extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem. The Prevention Researcher, 19(2), 13-16. Mahoney, J. L., Cairns, B. D., & Farmer, T. W. (2003). Promoting interpersonal competence and educational success through extracurricular activity participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 409-418. Miller, B. M., O’Connor, S., & Sirignano, S. W. (1995). Out-of-school time: A study of children in three low-income neighborhoods. Child Welfare, 74, 1249-1280. Patterson, C. J., Vaden, N. A., Griealer, P. C., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1991). Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household composition as predictors of children’s peer companionship outside of school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 447-465. Quinn, J. (1999). Where need meets opportunity: Youth development programs for early teens. In R. Behrman (Ed.), The future of children: When school is out (pp. 96-116). Washington, D.C.: The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Shaw, S. M., & Dawson, D. (2001). Purposive leisure: Examining parental discourse of family activities. Leisure Sciences, 23, 217-231.
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Theokas, C., & Bloch, M. (2006). Out-of-school time is critical for children: Who participates in programs? Child Trends publication #2006-20. Footnote 1
The term “parent” in this paper refers to a child’s biological father, biological mother, stepfather, stepmother, legal guardian and/or primary caretaker.
RECYCLING HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTES: DETERMINANTS AND ATTITUDES THAT PROMOTE COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL Laura Harris Aymond, Lorenda Johnson, Millie Naquin, Ephraim Massawe, and Wynn Gillan Southeastern Louisiana University Abstract Hazardous wastes have the potential to cause harmful effects on the environment and on those living in it, if not disposed of properly. Once hazardous waste is mixed with garbage, it is almost impossible to separate it. In order to protect the environment and the people living in it, individuals should be responsible in disposing of hazardous waste properly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate determinants and attitudes that drive Louisiana residents to engage in an annual recycling program and to assess different types of household hazardous waste that are recycled at the local level. Residents of a small community in southeastern Louisiana who attended a Household Hazardous Waste Recycling Day were asked to complete a survey consisting of various questions on attitudes about hazardous waste and socioeconomic status. Most participants learned about the event by advertisement in the newspaper, and the majority of them were over the age of 50 and Caucasian. Participants and the researchers suggest better ways of advertising the event to also target younger adults. Participants also expressed that the event should be held more often than once per year. Only a small percentage of participants brought
unaccepted recyclables to local recycling facilities while others threw them away or burned them. With the exception of two participants, all were Caucasian. It is important to find ways to increase participation among minority groups through targeted advertisement and specialized education programs. By providing more education about what household hazardous waste is and why it is important to dispose of it properly, the end result will be a healthier and safer environment for those living in it. Introduction Human health is based upon environmental resources including water, soil, and air. It is up to the public to prevent contaminating these essential elements of human health. In order to promote a healthy environment, it is important that the public understands how to protect it (DeLongpre Johnston, Largo-Wight, & Wight, 2013). Hazardous wastes may potentially cause damage to homes and businesses, and may also cause harm to those being exposed in the population (Massawe, Legleu, Vasut, Brandon, & Sheldon, 2015). Wastes from oils, construction and demolition, and also from organic chemical processes tend to be categorized as containing the most hazardous materials. Waste may be considered hazardous if it can ignite, corrode, react, or is toxic. Hazardous substances such as lead, chlorine, and benzene are ingredients of several different types of household items including paint, detergents, and cleaners (Malandrakis, 2008). Changing the way these items are recycled or disposed of can help to reduce their environmental impact. There are several ways in which waste can be managed, all with both advantages and disadvantages. The most common form of waste management is through recycling, when materials from products are recovered after consumer use and then reused (Rushton, 2003). Another popular method is the deposition into a landfill or a specifically designated area controlled to minimize harmful emissions. Incineration is also a waste management method used to reduce the volume of hazardous waste. However, residents living near landfill sites are at greater risk for reproductive disorders and birth defects such as low birth weight
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and spontaneous abortion. There has also been an increased frequency of cancer incidence rates of residents living near sites containing hazardous waste (Rushton, 2003). Because waste management is contained at a local or regional level, it plays only a portion of the whole management system of waste disposal. It is nearly impossible to separate hazardous compounds found in products, especially household products, so most of these products are incinerated when they are collected. When contaminants in products cannot be separated, it can lead to serious contamination of other raw materials, or natural resources and have negative health effects on humans (Friege, 2012). A healthy community strives to achieve healthrelated goals which promote the environment. Protecting the environment includes establishing and maintaining the health of the environment and those living in it (Largo-Wight, Johnston, & Wight, 2013). Consumer recycling is based upon their recycling behaviors and motivation. For example, consumers who see recycled materials in wellestablished brands are more influenced and motivated to recycle (Bekin, Carrigan, & Szmigin, 2007). Adopting specific recycling goals may increase the amount of consumer recycling. One goal of recycling household hazardous wastes is to protect the human health, creating a healthy community for its residents. Another goal is to protect the environment in order to promote the health of all life (DeLongpre Johnston, LargoWight, & Wight, 2013). Waste disposal can be costly. Having on-site recycling programs, while also reducing and reusing, can be beneficial for small towns especially where recycling resources may be missing. Another advantage of recycling is to reduce waste disposal, creating less need for landfill sites (Massawe, Legleu, Vasut, Brandon, & Sheldon, 2015). Recycling can save consumers time, money and energy while also conserving the environmentâ€™s natural resources and eliminating pollution and hazardous emissions (Morgan & Hughes, 2006). The purpose of this study was to evaluate determinants and attitudes that motivate residents to engage in a recycling program and to assess different types of household hazardous waste that were recycled.
Methods A survey on household hazardous waste was designed by researchers from a university in southeastern Louisiana. Upon completion, the survey went through a series of reviews by other professionals for content and face validity. After reviews, the survey was then submitted and approved by the Universityâ€™s Institutional Review Board. Questions on the survey consisted of open and close-ended questions, some stating specifically to select one answer or all that apply. The survey questions asked participants how they heard about the event, what they recycle, what happened to their recyclables that were not accepted, and what they consider to be hazardous waste. Demographic questions dealing with age, race, gender, income, highest level of education and zip code were also included in the survey. Survey participation was both voluntary and anonymous. The survey was conducted on May 2, 2014. The data was collected at one of the cityâ€™s household hazardous waste recycling events at Zemurray Park in Hammond, Louisiana. At this event, people entered the park in their vehicles to dispose of household hazardous waste products. Upon entering, a survey and a letter describing the purpose of the study were given to each person in the vehicle. The surveys were collected as participants exited the park. Results Participants Although many people attended the event, only 151 valid surveys were used in the study. Some participants only answered one or two pages out of the four pages of the survey. Respondents may have left questions blank because they were unsure of their answer or uncomfortable about answering demographic items. Gender of the participants was almost equal, with 62 male participants and 59 females. The mean age of participants was 60 years old with ages ranging from 16-92. More participants were married (n=93) compared to 32 participants who were either single or in a committed relationship. With the
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exception of two respondents, all were Caucasian. The participants who were not Caucasian were American Indian or Asian. The most common level of education among participants was a bachelorâ€™s degree (30.5%), followed by some college (17.2%), Masterâ€™s Degree (14.6%), and high school diploma (12%). Most respondents lived in Tangipahoa Parish, specifically from the Hammond and Ponchatoula area, and had an annual income over $50,000. Almost half of the participants were unemployed.
event. Choosing from a list of potential household hazardous wastes, the majority of participants agreed that paint (82%), insecticides and pesticides (82%), batteries (82%), fluorescent light bulbs (79%), and automotive care products (79%), such as motor oil, were household hazardous waste. Items such as household cleaning products (68%) and cooking oil (41%) were the least likely to be considered as hazardous waste.
How Participants Learned About the Event
Although the household hazardous waste recycling event takes a variety of waste, some hazardous waste is not accepted such as pesticides. Almost half of the participants (42%) put in their garbage waste that is rejected from the event. However, there were some (30%) of the participants who were willing to find another recycling facility in the area to take their wastes there. Others stated that they keep it around the house (26%) or burn it (7%).
The event was advertised thorough various sources such as newspaper advertisements, the internet and flyers. However, the newspaper was the main source from which most of the participants learned of the event. When considering the age of participants, the majority were over the age of 50 and retired or unemployed. This could explain why most participants found out about the event by reading the newspaper. See Figure 1. Other ways that participants found out about this event were through clubs or neighborhood communities, students working the event, and emails from the city or professors from the local university.
Waste Not Accepted
Suggestions Made to Improve the Event
A question from the survey allowed participants to make suggestions for the improvement of the household hazardous waste recycling program. Over 70 one-third of respondents 60.9% suggested that the event 60 should take place several 50 times throughout the year. However, most participants 40 agreed that the event is just 25.2% 30 fine as is. Some suggested 20 that improving marketing 9.3% strategies and accepting all 7.3% 5.3% 10 wastes could decrease the 0 number of participants Internet Flyer Word of Mouth Radio Newspaper returning home and throwing hazardous wastes in the Figure 1. How Participants Learned About the Event garbage. Others suggested having the event on Election Day, serving food, and offering more education to the public to increase the What Participants Consider as Household number of participants. Hazardous Waste Household hazardous waste can hold different meanings to individuals participating in such an
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more likely to hear of the event via the internet (χ2 =7.949 (1), p=.003) than those whose education was 2 less than a bachelor’s degree. There were no Chi-square analysis showed (χ = 3.447 (1), p= .047) that significant batteries differences Table 1 were in education disposed of level and the Relationship between Education and Type of HHW Disposed of more by other forms those of Batteries Television respondents advertising Yes No Yes No with a methods: Education n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) bachelor’s newspaper, Under Bachelor’s degree 27 (21) 28 (22) 23 (18) 32 (25) degree or radio, word Bachelor’s degree and above 49 (38) 26 (20) 17 (13) 58 (45) higher than of mouth, Note. All values are significant at the p<0.05 level. those with and flyers. less than a Discussion bachelor’s degree. However, those with a bachelor’s degree or higher were less likely (χ2 =5.464 (1), Considering the findings from this study, p=.016) to dispose of televisions than those whose several points are apparent. The age range of the education was less than a bachelor’s degree. No participants was one of these. Age ranges were wide significant spread differences Table 2 with the by youngest education Relationship between Gender and Type of HHW Disposed of respondent level were being 16 shown for Fluorescent Light years of the disposal Television Motor Oil Bulbs age and of other Yes No Yes No Yes No the oldest household Gender n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) 92. hazardous Male 15 (12) 47 (39) 33 (27) 29 (24) 21 (17) 41 (34) However, wastes Female 24 (20) 35 (29) 15 (12) 44 (36) 11 (9) 48 (40) the mean (HHW). Note. All values are significant at the p<0.05 level. age of See Table participants was 60 years. Most participants found 1. out about this event in the newspaper. This might Table 2 depicts gender differences in three types explain why there were not as many younger of HHW which were recycled. Women were more 2 participants. Today, people including young adults likely to dispose of TVs (χ =3.761 (1), p=.040) are reading news electronically, whether on their than men. However, men were more likely to smart phones, tablets, dispose of motor oil 2 iPads, or computers. If (χ =9.764 (1) p=.002) Table 3 the event was mainly and compact published in the fluorescent light bulbs Relationship between Education and How They 2 newspaper, this could (χ =3.603 (1), p=.045) Heard of Event explain why participants than women. were mostly older adults. Table 3 describes Internet The use of social media marketing differences Yes No would be an excellent by education. Those Education n (%) n (%) way to connect to the with a bachelor’s Less than bachelor’s degree 1 (1) 54 (42) public about upcoming degree and above were Bachelor’s degree or above 13 (10) 62 (48) Note. All values are significant at the p<0.05 level. Differences by Gender and Educational Level
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HHW recycling event information. According to Jayanti (2010), social media has changed communication and information distribution. Coordinators of the event could post on social media websites such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter to help advertise the event. These social media websites allow others to “share” and “like” an event, add “friends” to groups, and join groups allowing “friends” to see upcoming events or plans. Individuals who use social media often believe what other users are posting and therefore are more likely to investigate communications among others, including advertisements that are shared (Bush & Marthur, 2011). The event should continue to be advertised as it is but it should also be advertised on social media in order to reach a younger population. From the study’s results, interconnection among age, area code, and employment status were found. The event was mainly advertised or learned about from the newspaper. With most participants over the age of 50, many indicated that they were unemployed. However, it was unclear if participants were retired, retired but still working, or truly unemployed since this was not included as a survey questions. Also, if all participants were reading the same newspaper, the likelihood of participants being from the same area was high. There were three area codes that were most common among the respondents, all in the Hammond/Ponchatoula area. With the use of social media, the potential areas from which people come from could be expanded. There is a need for more minority participation of such events that promote environmental health issues. Racial demographics from this survey indicated that all but two of the respondents were Caucasian. While recycling household hazardous waste is important for the health of all people, perhaps only a certain portion of the population may be aware of the dangers. Currently, there are many environmental groups that promote the interests of low-income and minority groups. African American and Latino groups show great concern in environmental matters via national polls but are often left out of target population efforts (Navarro, 2009). It is essential to provide education to all racial/ethnic groups by informing them of the potential hazards of keeping household products and the benefits of recycling. At the same time they could be given the skills necessary to be active in
recycling. These are crucial in maintaining environmental racial diversity. According to Navarro (2009), the “greenest Americans” are over the age of 45, white, and highly educated, and are most commonly targeted. However outreach and education, specifically in racial/ethnic communities, can be provided through churches and at recreational events. Black and other minority community leaders can give further insight on how to reach local residents. In addition to demographics, the survey asked if participants should have to pay to recycle their hazardous waste. Most agreed that participants should not have to pay to recycle. One point that could be argued is that if a company is creating hazardous waste, the burden should be on that company to recycle or dispose of these wastes properly. Consumers feel companies should be environmental stewards as they are. Many are finding that collecting recycled wasted can be beneficial to their company. For example, packaging companies are becoming more aware of costs and limitations of resources for packaging their products. Companies can save money by collecting recycled goods rather than purchasing materials to manufacture new products (Strom, 2012). Conclusion In evaluating the determinants and attitudes that drive Louisiana residents to participate in recycling programs, we can conclude that proximity and a keen interest to participate in such recycling events play an important role. Participants not only aimed to keep the environment healthy and clean by recycling, but they all agreed that this event is beneficial to their community and should be held several times throughout the year. Common household items, such as paint and batteries that are known to be hazardous, are disposed of more often than other household items, such as cooking oil that may not be thought of as hazardous. With better advertisement and racially diversifying this environmental movement, more people will be willing to participant in future HHW recycling events. This will promote both a healthier environment and a healthier state of mind.
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References Bekin, C., Carrigan, M., & Szmigin, I. (2007). Beyond recycling: ‘Commons-friendly’ waste reduction at new consumption communities. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, (6), 271-286. Bush, D., & Mathur, M. (2011). Increasing advertising receptivity through social media engagement. Society for Marketing Advances Proceedings, 25(1), 119-120. Friege, H. (2012). The role of waste management in the control of hazardous substances: Lessons learned. Environmental Science Europe, 24(35). doi: 10.1186/2190-4715-24-35 Jayanti, R. M. (2010). A netnographic exploration: Listening to online consumer conversations. Journal of Advertising Research, 181-196. Largo-Wight, E., DeLongpre Johnston, D., & Wight, J. (2013). The efficacy of a theory based, participatory recycling intervention on a college campus. Journal of Environmental Health, 76(4), 26-31. Malandrakis, G. N. (2008). Children’s understandings related to hazardous household items and waste. Environmental Education Research, 14(5), 579-601. Massawe, E., Legleu, T., Vasut, L., Brandon, K., & Sheldon, G. (2014). Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: A case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling. Journal of Environmental Health, 76(10), 26-33. Morgan, F., & Hughes, M. (2006). Understanding recycling behavior in Kentucky: Who recycles and why. The Journal of The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 58(8), 32-35. Navarro, M. (2009, March 9). In environmental push, looking to add diversity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/10/science/ear th/10move.html?_r=0 Rushton, L. (2003). Health Hazards and Waste Management. British Medical Bulletin, 68(1), 183-197. doi: 10.1093/bmb/ldg034
Strom, S. (2012, March 23). Companies Pick Up Used Packaging, and Recycling’s Cost. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/24/business/c ompanies-pick-up-used-packaging-andrecyclings-cost.html?_r=0
CONVENTION ANNOUNCEMENTS Prepare for this year’s Convention by reviewing the preliminary program and FAQs. These documents are updated regularly, so you can use them to stay “in the know” at all times. Preliminary Program FAQs
LAHPERD.ORG Your hub for all things LAHPERD! Visit us online today.
COLLEGE OF EDUCATIONAL, PROFESSIONAL AND GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF KINESIOLOGY, SPORT & LEISURE STUDIES (KSLS)
CELEBRATING 65 YEARS AS A DEPARTMENT 1950-51 TO 2015-16
Mission. The Department of KSLS embraces the Mission of the College of Educational, Professional and Graduate Studies and Grambling State University. The Department’s mission entails a commitment to academic excellence, quality assurance and accreditation of degree programs, as well as preparation of competent, skilled professionals in kinesiology and leisure studies at the undergraduate level, and sports administration at the graduate level. Philosophy. The Department of KSLS provides an environment that encourages, supports and nurtures student learning in the classroom, external settings and entry to professional arenas. The faculty are effective facilitators of learning who serve as role models, advisors and mentors; challenging majors to be the best that they can be.
Undergraduate Programs B.S., Kinesiology degree with Concentrations in: Pedagogy Health Promotion Sport Management B. S., Leisure Studies degree with Concentrations in: General Recreation Therapeutic Recreation Graduate Program M.S., Sports Administration (SPA) For More Information Contact: Department of Kinesiology, Sport & Leisure Studies GSU Box 4244, Fredrick C. Hobdy Assembly Center – Ste 148 Grambling, LA 71245 Tel: (318) 274-2294 - Fax: (318) 274-3346 – www.gram.edu A Constituent Member of the University of Louisiana System, Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools An Equal Opportunity Employer and Educator, Facilities Accessible to the Disabled
Come to Southeastern for graduate school!
Department of Kinesiology and Health Studies Master’s Degree in Health and Kinesiology
Hammond campus within driving distance of New Orleans and Baton Rouge Several concentrations from which to choose; tailor graduate study to your interests and goals All coursework is offered in the evenings Graduate assistantships are available
Concentrations Exercise Science: Advanced study in exercise science focusing on exercise physiology, motor behavior, and sport & exercise psychology. Health Studies: Develop skills and competencies in both theory and practice as a health educator, and for the Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) Exam. Health Promotion & Exercise Science: Combines health education skills and competencies with graduate study of exercise physiology and fitness testing. Kinesiology: Involves focused study in selected disciplines. Students choose emphasis areas from adapted physical education, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management, and sport & exercise psychology.
School of Kinesiology
Offering degrees in:
Bachelor of Science: Health and Physical Education -Teaching Certification in: Health and Physical Education Adapted Physical Education
Bachelor of Science: Kinesiology -Non-teaching Concentrations available: Exercise Science Health Promotion & Wellness (online program) Sports Management
Bachelor of Science: Athletic Training Master of Science in Kinesiology -Concentrations in: Exercise and Sport Science Health Promotion, Recreation and Sport Management
For more information contact: University of Louisiana at Lafayette School of Kinesiology 225 Cajundome Blvd. Lafayette, LA 70506 (337) 482-6615 http://kinesiology.louisiana.edu/
UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT MONROE
B.S. in Science with concentrations in: Fitness and Sports Industry The Fitness and Sports Industry (FASI) concentration prepares students to enter the fields of fitness and sport industry or pursue advanced studies in athletic administration, sports administration, or fitness management. A successful recipient in this concentration may further their career by earning a minor in business administration. The sport and fitness industry is rapidly expanding. As it continues to grow, the need for qualified employees continues to increase. Exercise Science/Pre-Physical Therapy While the Exercise Science/Pre-Physical Therapy concentration prepares students for the application process to professional physical therapy programs, it will also prepare students for careers in the applied and clinical preventive settings, including, but not limited to cardiac rehabilitation, hospital-based wellness programs, community fitness centers, or university and corporate wellness programs. Students intending to pursue entry into a physical therapy program will be required to take additional hours and make substitutions as recommended by their academic advisor. Exercise Science The Exercise Science concentration prepares students for careers in the applied and clinical preventive settings, including, but not limited to cardiac rehabilitation, hospital-based wellness programs, community fitness centers, or university and corporate wellness programs, as well as entry into graduate exercise science programs. A successful recipient in this concentration may further their career by earning professional certifications from individual vendors and associations, such as Personal Training or Strength Conditioning.
M.S. in Exercise Science with concentrations in: Clinical Exercise Physiology Students will gain the professional skills to design, implement and supervise exercise programming for those with chronic diseases and/or physical conditions. Learn how to assess the results of outcomes related to exercise services. Professionals in this field work in a variety of settings: hospitals, outpatient clinics, physician offices, university laboratories or hospital-based research facilities. A CAAHEP certified program. Applied Exercise Science This concentration has a significant science focus on anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and biomechanics of human movement, and applications to exercise and therapeutic rehabilitation. Students learn to specialize in performance research, rehabilitative therapies, and related analytical methods and procedures in applied exercise and therapeutic rehabilitation. Sport, Fitness, and Recreation Management (Courses Available Online) This concentration is designed to appeal to those who wish to work in the business of sport, fitness and recreation, but not as an instructor or coach. The careers available in the field of sport, fitness and recreation management are diverse and growing. Opportunities include program or facility directors, marketing and promotions, corporate sales, sporting goods, community programs, athletic directors and business managers, and sport or recreation management. Combined with the worldwide growth and influence of sports on society, new opportunities continue to be created in a variety of settings.
Teacher Certification (K-12) The Health and Physical Education Certification (HPEC) concentration prepares students to teach K-12 health and physical education by providing coursework and experiences in the area of health and physical education. Students must earn a "C" or better in all coursework applied toward teacher certification. (photo - participants in the ULM Mile, coordinated by the Dept. of Kinesiology)
Graduates who work in the Kinesiology field find careers in: Personal or Athletic Training Sport, Fitness or Recreation Management Cardiac Rehabilitation Health and Physical Education (P.E. Teaching and Coaching) Physical Therapy (after completing Physical Therapy school) Many health and fitness specialists are researching complex issues such as: Childhood Obesity Cardiovascular Disease Adult Onset Diabetes, and more.
LAHPERD AWARDS’ CRITERIA For more information, contact the Executive Director, Awards Committee Chairperson, or specific award chairpersons identified. Honor Award The candidate’s contribution should have been made within the field of health education, physical education, recreation and dance. 2. The candidate should have rendered at least five years of meritorious service to the health education, physical education, recreation, or dance education professions in the state. 3. The candidate shall be one of high moral character whose contributions have most fully expressed the spirit of service which this award represents. 4. The candidate should have made a contribution to LAHPERD. 5. Any LAHPERD member who resides within the state may nominate a candidate by submitting the name and vita to the nomination chairperson. 6. To be considered for the current year, all nominations must be in the hands of the chairperson by August 1. 7. The committee member who sponsors a candidate shall be responsible for forwarding five copies of a complete, accurate biographical sketch to the chairperson. 8. The biographical sketch shall be topically organized, legible, and current. 9. To be considered for the current year, all biographical sketches must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 10. Insofar as possible, candidates shall not be advised that they are being considered for the award. 11. Submit nominations to Yvonne Calvin at firstname.lastname@example.org. 1.
Outstanding University/College Senior Major Award The candidate shall be a full-time student of the university/college from which the nomination is made. The candidate shall have attended the nominating university a minimum of two years. The candidate shall be a member of LAHPERD at the time of the nomination. The candidate shall have an overall grade point average of 3.0 or greater. Any university/college faculty member in health, physical education, recreation, or dance, or a supervising teacher may nominate a candidate by sending the name and a biographical sketch to the chairperson. The supporting information should include date, grade point average, honors and awards, membership(s) in professional organization(s), and a statement from the nominator as to why the student is worthy of the award. 6. All nominations must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 7. The person sponsoring the candidate shall be responsible for submitting a copy of a complete, accurate biographical sketch to the chairperson. 8. The biographical sketch shall be topically organized, legible, and current. 9. To be considered for the current year, all biographical sketches must be submitted to the chairperson by August 1. 10. Submit nominations to Yvonne Calvin at email@example.com.
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Service Award Any LAHPERD member who resides in the state may nominate a candidate who is worthy of consideration. Supporting information should include name, address, specific contribution/service to LAHPERD, and a statement from the nominator giving other information considered pertinent to the selection of a recipient for the Service Award. Any individual who meets the criteria outlined for each of the awards may apply personally for the award or be nominated by a colleague. A state winner is not eligible for the same award again until after four years. Former district and national winners of the award are not eligible to participate in the same category for an award. Submit nominations by May 20 to the Executive Director or Awards Committee Chair. Submit nominees and information for special awards to: Sonia Tinsley at firstname.lastname@example.org. Secondary Physical Education Teacher of the Year Award For the purposes of this award, a secondary physical education teacher is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching physical education in grades 7-12. The candidate must be a current secondary physical education teacher with a minimum of three years’ experience. The candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Conducts a balanced and sequential curriculum. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences professional commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national physical education organizations.
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Elementary School Physical Education Teacher of the Year Award For the purposes of this award, an elementary physical education teacher is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching physical education in grades K-6. The candidate must be a current elementary physical education teacher with a minimum of six yearsâ€™ experience. The candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Conducts a balanced and sequential curriculum that reflects and understanding of child growth and development. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment to the education profession by having served on state/regional/national committees and/or having presented workshops of programs at these levels. Current members of the COPEC Executive Committee are not eligible. Health Educator of the Year Award For the purposes of this award, a school health educator is an individual who has major responsibility for teaching health education in grades K-12 or in a college/university setting. The candidate must have a minimum of three years teaching experience. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Utilizes various teaching methodologies and plans innovative learning experiences. c. Presents a balanced and sequential curriculum based on the developmental, social, and psychological needs of the students. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national health organizations. Dance Educator of the Year Award For the purposes of this award, a dance educator is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching dance at any level including grades K-12 and/or in a college/university setting. The candidate must have a minimum of three years teaching experience. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing personal health and fitness, enjoyment of activity, sportsmanship, and sensitivity to the needs of students. b. Teaches creatively and produces creative work by utilizing various methodologies causing innovative problem-solving learning experiences. c. Presents a balanced and sequential curriculum based on the developmental, social, and psychological needs of the students. d. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth. e. Evidences commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national dance organizations. Recreation Professional of the Year Award For the purposes of this award, a recreation professional is defined as an individual who has major responsibility for teaching recreation pre-professionals/professionals or conducting recreation programming and/or administration in an educational, public, or private recreation setting. In addition, the candidate must be a person who: a. Serves as a positive role model, epitomizing the values and desired outcomes of recreation. b. Demonstrates enthusiasm for the recreation professional and his/her role in it. c. Shows interest in and sensitivity to the needs of students, clients, and fellow professionals. d. Utilizes various methodologies and implements creative, innovative, safe, and effective courses/recreations programs based on: i. the developmental, social, and psychological needs of students and clients; and ii. the philosophies, purposes, needs, and resources of the sponsoring institution. e. Assumes responsibility for his/her professional growth and evidences professional commitment through membership and involvement in local, state, and national recreation organizations. Taylor Dodson Young Professional Award Candidates should be less than 40 years of age. Candidatesâ€™ contributions should have been made within the fields of physical education, health education, recreation, research, and dance, or to the profession through such allied field as science, education, or community service. Candidates should have rendered at least five years of meritorious service to the physical education, health education, recreation, or dance professions in the Southern District. Candidates should have been members in good standing of AAHPERD for at least the five consecutive years prior to receiving the award.
Candidates for the award should have gained prominence in some of the following: a. Excellence in teaching b. Outstanding administrative achievement c. Leadership in professional associations, including state and national d. Contributions to professional literature e. Outstanding community service Deceased members or those who have moved out of the district should not receive the award nor should the award be given because a person holds a particular job. Scholar Award Criteria for selection of the Scholar shall include, but not be limited to the following: a. The individual selected should have scholarly presentations. b. The individual should be an active scholar in his/her discipline. c. The individual selected must be a LAHPERD member. d. The individual selected should be capable of communication to groups in the various disciplines.
Gillentine Award 1. Candidates must be adapted physical education teachers, where the majority of their teaching duties are in adapted physical education, in Louisiana and current LAHPERD members. 2. The following criteria are considered: a. Teaching performance b. Innovative abilities c. Involvement with local and state organizations d. Volunteer community work e. Research and scholarly activities specific to adapted physical education
GUIDELINES FOR SUBMITTING ARTICLES TO THE LAHPERD JOURNAL Electronic Submissions Only (Revised Spring 2014) The LAHPERD Journal is published twice a year, usually the fall and spring, by the Louisiana Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Articles should be emailed to the editor, Dr. Dan Denson email@example.com. Articles should be submitted by January 15 to be considered for the April issue and by August 15 for the October issue. Current LAHPERD members have priority for publication space. 1. The Manuscript Manuscripts should follow the form and style of the current edition of Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association and must be double-spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font with standard margins. All of the authors’ names, titles, and institutions should be listed on the cover sheet. Prepare the manuscript in Microsoft Word format and attach author’s statement (see Author’s Statement below). All correspondence should be addressed to the lead author unless otherwise specified. Limit manuscripts to eight pages or about 2,500 words. 2. Tables and Illustrations All tables and figures must be titled. Tables may be embedded in the text at the appropriate place or on separate pages. Use tables for reporting extensive statistical information. Data in tables should not be duplicated or extensively discussed in the text. Artwork (graphics, photos, etc.) should be of high resolution to ensure that pixilation or blur is avoided. Please attach artwork as a separate file. 3. Author’s Statement The author(s) must provide a statement certifying that the article has not been published or concurrently submitted for publication elsewhere. 4. Refereed Papers Only position papers and research manuscripts that meet submission criteria will be considered for blind external review. Each paper will be submitted to three members of the LAHPERD Journal editorial board. Papers are reviewed for content and clarity. Specifically, each paper will be gleaned for 1) identification of the problem and purpose of the study, 2) description of methodology including statistical procedures used, 3) reporting of findings, 4) consistency of conclusions and findings, and 5) quality and appropriateness of references. Lead authors will be notified of the status of the manuscript. Papers may be accepted as is, accepted with minor revisions, conditionally accepted pending revisions, or rejected. Only papers that make a contribution to the profession will be accepted for publication. 5. Documentation References should be listed at the end of the article and should be arranged in alphabetical order. Each reference cited in the article must be listed and only those cited should be included in the reference page. Follow the form and style for citing and listing references in the current edition of the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association 6. Announcements Any announcements and last minute news items must be submitted electronically prior to layout of the journal. Contributors are advised to use Microsoft Word, 12-point Times New Roman font format for all attachments. Avoid first person sentence structure. Be sure to title attachment for inclusion in the LAHPERD Journal. 7. Non-Refereed Papers Program development essays, teaching methods, and related papers are welcome. Authors are encouraged to submit photographs, diagrams and tables as necessary with these papers. These papers will be reviewed by the in-house editorial staff, which consists of the managing editor and the copy editor. Some revisions may be necessary. The editorial staff reserves the right to edit these papers when necessary to maximize available space.
8. Abstracts All completed abstracts accepted for presentation at the fall LAHPERD conference will be published in the spring issue of the LAHPERD Journal. Incomplete abstracts will be returned to the author(s) to be completed. Complete abstracts should contain: 1) problem statement, 2) purpose of the study, 3) methods, 4) major findings, and 5) conclusions. Limit abstract to 500 words. 9. Advertisements The LAHPERD Journal has free available space for advertising of select university programs*. All advertisements should be submitted as high resolution files (see #2. Tables and Illustrations above). Professional product and service vendors are invited to advertise. Rates for vendors are: $100 per issue for full page; $50 per issue for 1/2 page; and $25 per issue for 1/ 4 page. *Free ad space is available to departments that are represented by membership.
1. Print these directions.
LAHPERD MINI-GRANT APPLICATION FORM
2. Type your Application. 3. Be sure to answer all the questions. 4. Mail completed form by May 1st each year to: Christina Courtney, Mini-Grant Coordinator University Laboratory School 45 Dalrymple Dr. Baton Rouge, LA 70803
Page One Project Title: Signature of Applicant: Signature of Principal and/or Supervisor Applicant’s Name: Applicant’s Position/Title School Name: School Address: School System/Parish: Work Phone: Work FAX: Work email: Home Phone: Home email:
Page Two General Project Summary (1 or 2 paragraphs) Specifics: 1. What is the main idea of this project? 2. Why do you think there is a special need for this project? 3. Give a time schedule of events 4. Approximately how many students will be affected by this project? 5. How will you describe whether your objectives have been achieved and whether your project is successful? 6. Attach 1-3 lesson plans you could use within this project. 7. Detail your budget request. Include specific information such as kinds of materials and equipment needed, sources of supply and costs, or travel/lodging information. Budget example: ITEM Alpha Fit Conference Registration Fee Total
SUPPLIER/SOURCE U.S. Games SDAHPERD
AMOUNT BUDGETED $375.00 $150.00 $525.00