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table of contents INTRODUCTION MANIFESTO design principles LOCATION SCALE INTIAL STUDIES PRECEDENT STUDIES ISLAND vs expansion

1 2-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-29 30-31 32-33

DESIGN STRATEGIES INCEPTION CANAL

37 39

DISTRICTS ZONING

41 43

DENSITY district design concept GRID TRANSPORTation system

45 46-47 49 51

ROAD network SYSTEM

53

WALKING NEIGHBORHOOD COAST STUDIES canal network CANAL STUDIES

55 56-57 59 60-65

DESIGN GUIDANCE

66-69

DISTRICT DESIGNS MIXED USE INDUSTRIAL AGRICULTURE CENTRAL BUSINESS KEY AREAS conlusion

73 75 77 79 80-85 86-87

Contents page


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

INTRODUCTION The most vibrant, social and delightful cities have not been master-planned. They have grown over time. Good planning is important but master-plans should remain flexible to embrace social and economic change. In China, urban development is progressing at a remarkable pace. The last twenty years have seen extraordinary changes to the country’s physical and social landscape, as well as its infrastructure. The project further develops proposals for a new settlement in Suzhou, China. Suzhou is a canal city and the proposed settlement contains an extensive network of canals. The settlement will accommodate a population of one million and the aim is to create dense, mixed-use districts at a human scale. A unique characteristic of the project is an emphasis on the importance of hand-drawing in the design process. Four key aims have been identified: 1. Designing at a Human Scale 2. The Loss of Agricultural Land 3. Designing Out Pollution 4. Integrating Transport

INTRODUCTION | 1


SUZHOU NEW CITY MANIFESTO This is a manifesto for urban development in China, using Suzhou as a laboratory to test ideas about how architects can help to address the question raised by rapid urbanization. Development is something that cannot happen without rigorous fore-thought. China must develop its ability to plan, shape and control development. this manifesto is intended for use by all those involved in the organization, design and construction of china’s new cities and towns.


SUZHOU NEW CITY 源 INCEPTION

MANIFESTO OSS OF INTEGRATING HUMAN LAGRICULTURAL SCALE L A N D TRANSPORTATION

DESIGNING

HOUSING THE NEW V E R T I C A L F A R M I N G C O N N E C TE D I N F R A S T R U C T U R E U R B A N C HI N E S E

FUTURE ENERGY PRODUCTION

NEW PUBLIC SPACE

W A S T E MANAGEMENT

O

U

T

POLLUTION

MANIFESTO | 3


HUMAN SCALE The Satellite city is broken down into walking districts, and these districts are broken down into local neighbourhoods. In each district, all local amenities are within walking distance. The overwhelming scale of the city is broken down into an understandable human scale. In the wider context, oversized public spaces exist which remain unused due to their intimidating size and lack of activity. These spaces are designed to encourage human interaction, but they fail to manufacture the spontaneous. Instead, we believe in allowing interaction to occur naturally by providing public spaces of varying size and type. These include plazas, boulevards, parks, pocket gardens and public gardens. Interaction with the water’s edge has a romantic quality to it, so, where possible, we have formed paths which follow the canal edge. We celebrate the canals in this way, encouraging regular interaction with them.


SUZHOU NEW CITY 源 INCEPTION

MANIFESTO | 5


LOSS

OF

AGRICULTURAL

L

A

N

D

China aims to feed its population without having to rely on imports, however, rapid urbanization has contributed to the loss of agricultural land and many farmers now live in unfamiliar urban conditions. In place of urban sprawl and transitional spaces, we propose areas of defined agricultural activity in which productivity is improved, and distinct areas for urban development. We will create opportunities for small-scale gardening/allotments within urban housing blocks.


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MANIFESTO | 7


INTEGRATING

TRANSPORTATION Urban expansion has caused traffic congestion and increased travel times. The existing local infrastructure is inadequate. Existing major transport links will be kept and utilised. A car-free zone is proposed throughout the settlement and a transport hub will link the different modes of transport: metro, train, monorail and boat. This creates an easily accessable transport system which allows access to the centre via all modes of transport.


SUZHOU NEW CITY 源 INCEPTION

MANIFESTO | 9


DESIGNING

O

U

T

POLLUTION Lake Taihu and the surrounding waterways are polluted and the air quality of the city is poor. Urbanisation has increased the volume of industrial waste. We will clean up and make better use of the existing waterways and lake. Throughout the design process, care will be taken to minimise further pollution. The Chinese government is attempting to address air pollution but we will look for opportunities to improve air and surface quality in our development proposals.


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MANIFESTO | 11


We aim to create dense street and canal networks that enhance walking, cycling and By trading traditional housing for modern apartments, the Chinese people are losing their communities’ unique sensepublic of place and the efficiency of compact neighborhoods. We need travel. to combine the benefits of modern housing with the best qualities of traditional urban neighborhoods. We must create an optimal balance of housing and services and the housing should accommodate a mix of income levels and age groups. Shops and local services should line the ground floor of most streets fronts and be within easy walking distance of housing and jobs. Clusters of schools, accessible parks and civic destinations should form neighborhood centers within 500 meters of residential buildings. w

design principles

interesting places to walk should be the first

priorityneighbourhoods for establishing livable, car-free cities. zone for mixed use

zone for mixed use neighbourhoods By trading traditional housing for modern apartments, the chinese people are losing their communties’ unique sense of place and the efficiency of compact neighbourhoods. We need to combine the benefits of modern housing with the best qualities of traditional urban neighbourhoods. We must create an optimal balance of housing and services and the housing should accomodate a mix of income levels and age groups. Shops and local services should line the ground floor of most streets fronts and be within easy walking distance of housing and jobs. clusters of schools, accessible parks and civic destinations should form neighbourhood centers within 500 meters of residential buildings.

compact with short commutes compact regions regions with short commutes

By creating smaller regions within the city, we are encouraging the development of communities and hopefully eleminate the risk of urban By creating smaller regions within the city we are encourgaing the development of sprawling. Decentralizing employment throughout these regions will encourage reverse commutes and will reduce peak-hour congestion on communities and hopefully eliminate the risk of urban sparwling. Decentralizing employment the transit systems. the smaller regions also allow amenities to be within 10commutes minutes walking of each other. As we are promoting throughout these regions willallencourage reverse anddistance will reduce peak-hour a ‘car free’ city all regions are within asystems. 10 minuteThe walksmaller to a transportaion connects all regionstotogether and 10 links back to the congestion on again the transit regionshub alsowhich allow all amenities be within downtown area. minutes walking distance of each other. As we are promoting a ‘car-free’ city all regions are again within a 10 minute walk to a transportation hub which connects all regions together and links back to the downtown area.

design principles

Walkable streets and neighbourhoods are the foundation of every Walkable streets and neighborhoods are the great city.foundation Walking reduces public transit, of auto-dependence, every great supports city. Walking improvesreduces health, andauto-dependence, promotes community. simple measures supports public such as limiting width, block health, lengths andand setbacks between transit,roadimproves promotes buildingscommunity. and sidewalks -encourage walking. Providing comfortable, Simple measures - such as limiting width, lengths and interesting places toroad walk should be theblock first priority for establishing setbacks livable, car-free cities.between We aim to buildings create denseand streetsidewalks and canal encourage walking.cycling Providing comfortable, networksencou that enhance walking, and public travel.

design principles

walkable neighbourhoods walkable neighbourhoods


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promote bicycle networks promote bicycle networks

In the 1980s, millions of chinese people depended on bicycling as their primary In plan the to1980s, millions of anChinese people mode of transportation. We reintroduce bicycles as integral part of city life depended onand bicycling as way their mode because they are a simple, inexpensive, low carbon forprimary city residents to travel. of transportation. plan safe to conditions, reintroduce To ease congestion, we must encourage cyclists byWe providing including bicycles as an integral part of city life because bike, roads and secure bicycle parking.

design out pollution The creation of additional agriculture land to provide the city with local produce, along with energy produced from natural resources will aide in our mission to create a 'car-free' city that is not only completely self-sufficient but also has a low environmental impact and promotes a healthier lifestyle for its residents.

design principles

they are a simple, inexpensive, and low-carbon way for city residents to travel. To ease congestion, we must encourage cyclists by providing safe conditions, including bike roads and secure bicycle parking.

design out pollution

the creation of additional agriculture land to provide the city with local produce, along with energy produced from natural resources will aide in our mission to create a ‘car-free’ city that is not only completely self sufficient but also has a low environmental impact and promotes a healthier lifestyle for its residents.

design principles

INCEPTION

design principles | 13


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china

site

suzhou industrial park (SIP)

Shanghai

Site

LOCATION | 15


scale Suzhou has a population which is double that of Scotland, despite having only a fraction of the land area. The existing city is densely populated. The new settlement has a population which is nearly five times that of Aberdeen, with nearly a third of the land area. It is more densely populated than the rest of Suzhou.


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map sketch

SCALE | 17


china information People Republic of China, a sovereign state located in east asia. Formal Name : People’s Republic of China

(PRC) The World’s most populous country, over 1.35 billion.

general information


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

suzhou information population

10,549,100 density

2,000 people/km2 total area

8,488.42 km2 land area

6,093.92 km2 water area

2,394.50 km2

(20%) INTIAL STUDIES | 19


suzhou economy Suzhou’s economy represents the highest growth and the fastest expansion in the past 5-10 years in the region and in China. The city’s gdp has surpassed all neighborhouring cities except Shanghai.

suzhou is currently the world leader

in the production of laptops and digital cameras.

Average anual income

117,200 CN¥


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social issues one child policy Created in 1979 by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping to temporarily limit communist China’s population

ageing population One of the greatest issues currently facing China is the ageing population, with 200 million over the age of 60. A new law requires adults to provide mental and financial support to their ageing parents. If adults fail to honour this responsibility, they face fines and other punishments. 90% of elderly people live off their family’s support. however, as the number of children shrinks because of family planning policies, there are fewer supporting resources for the elderly. by 2050 more than a quarter of the population will be over 65 years old.

INTIAL STUDIES | 21


educational facilities Public education in China is a state-run system run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least nine years. The government provides primary education for six to nine years, starting at age six or seven, followed by six years of secondary education for ages 12 to 18.

Average 35 students per class. In Suzhou Industrial Park (SIP) & gusu district, there are 7 universities/ colleges,8 middle schools and 8 primary schools are scattered around this area.

sip & gusu district

the site

In Xiangcheng district, where the site is, there are only 5 primary schools, 7 middle schools and 1 university. there are 2 existing schools on the site, which are, Wangting Central Elementary School and Wangting Middle School.

xiangcheng district

infrastructure


SUZHOU NEW CITY 源 INCEPTION

healthcare facilities aberdeen city

gusu district & suzhou industrial park

the site xiangcheng district

city population: 220,420 (2011 mid year) area: 72 sq m (182 km2)

city population: 954,455 (2010) area: 143 sq mi (372 km2)

Healthcare Facilities: 8 major hospitals/clinics

Healthcare Facilities: 8 major hospitals/clinics

Healthcare Facilities: 12 major hospitals/clinics

1. Aberdeen Royal Infirmary 2. Royal Aberdeen Children’s Hospital 3. Woodend Hospital 4. Royal Cornhill Hospital 5. Woolmanhill Hospital 6. City Hospital 7. Roxburhe House 8. The Matther Hay Building

1. The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University 2. The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University 3. Suzhou Kowloon Hospital 4. Suzhou Dongwu Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine & Western Medicine 5. Suzhou Guangji Hospital 6. Suzhou Medical College Hospital 7. Suzhou Gentle Medical Clinic 8. Singhealth Medical Clinic

1. Xiangcheng Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2. Xiangcheng No. 2 People’s Hospital 3. Suzhou Xiangcheng People’s Hospital 4. Health Service Center of Wangtinzhen Community of Xiangcheng District 5. Xiangcheng Dongqiaozhen Jinlong Community Health Service Station 6. Dongqiaozhen Health Center 7. Suzhou Xiangcheng Community Health Service Station 8. Xiangcheng Beiqiaozhen Beiyu Health Service Station 9. Xiangcheng Huangdaizhen Community Health Service Station 10. Xiangcheng Likou Community Health Service 11. Sudengshi Xiangcheng Medical Treatment Medical Clinic 12. Suzhou Xiangcheng Maternity and Child Healthcare Center

city population: 1,000,000 area: 190 sq m (492 km2) site area: approx. 25.5 sq mi (66 km2)

INTIAL STUDIES | 23


site connections d

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

site to suzhou

15 miles

suzhou to shanghai

65 miles

site suzhou

shanghai

15 minutes

45 minutes

site - suzhou - shanghai v i a

bullet train route to shanghai past site grand canal route to suzhou past site

b u l l e t

15 minutes

city boundaries

t r a i n

45 minutes

site - suzhou - shanghai v

i

a

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u

b

w

a

y

canals Canals are cultural, beautiful and tranquil. However where transport is concerned congestion can cause issues.

pros

cons

Good method of transport for heavy material items.

Speed restrictions, 3-5mph for powered vessels. Congestion.

Smaller, man powered vessels are environmental friendly.

Closure during drought (2011)

Create a pleasant environment.

Pollution issues.

Provides jobs.

No opportunity for emergency vehicles.

Provides links between communities.

transport

Hazardous if not maintained. Opportunity for slum environment.


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

monorail

possible configurations of monorail

pros

cons

Makes city more legible for passengers.

Route not integrated into existing masterplan.

Cheaper to construct than metro (monorail: $40 million per mile, metro: $100 million per mile)

Track may clash with raised bullet train track. Uncommon in chinese cities (5 monorail, 18 metro) May be unnecessary in addition to metro. Visual impact on city. Noisy.

INTIAL STUDIES | 25


suzhou traditional dwellings old town house

courtyard house

vernacular


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

suzhou ancient city Character: Traditional Chinese Density: Very condense Green Space: Small gardens Height: 1-2 storey mainly Quality: Deteorating and run down

suzhou downtown Character: Traditional Chinese Density: Very Condense Green Space: Courtyards and Gardens Height: Restricted to 6 storey Quality: Deteorating/Redeveloped/New Build

wuzhong district Character: Chinese/Modern Density: Dwellings more evenly spaced Green Space: Private and public gardens Height: Mix of low and high rise Quality: District still in development, good standards

xiangcheng district Character: Modern blocks/European Density: Dwellings more evenly spaced Green Space: Large public garden and roof terraces Height: High rise apartment (approx 20 storey) Quality: District still in development, good standards

suzhou international park Character: Modern blocks Density: Only in height Green Space: Large gardens, balconies and terraces Height: High rise apartment (approx 20 storey) Quality: Up to building regs, good standards

suzhou new district Character: Modern (with hint of traditional chinese) density: dwellings more evenly spaced Green Space: Private and public gardens, balconies Height: Mix of low and high rise Quality: Up to building regs, good standards

INTIAL STUDIES | 27


agriculture Suzhou’s agriculture revenue has been in shrinking over the years and now it only occupies about 3.5% of the GDP of the city.

57% of the total consumption of water resources is used for agriculture. There are 38 cities and 34.2 million people living around the lake. The Chinese government tried to solve the problems of euthrophication and resource degradation in lake taihu, with an investment of 20.43 billion rmb over the period from 1997 to 2010.

rice consumption / area 90kg / person per year 0.25kg per day

0.25kg x 1,000,000 = 250,000 kg / day super rice breed [chujing no 28]14..3 metric tons a hectare (12.970 kg of rice in 10,000 m2)

1,000,000 people = 192,725.5 m2 / day

agriculture


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION precedent study

n e w eco-distict

client

suzhou new district government

location

suzhou

New-eco district of mixed use development. A masterplan informed by the concept of agro-urbanism that establishes a functional inter-relationship between the production, distribution and consumption of food by connecting urban areas to agricultural land between the eco town and taihu lake.

A natural wetland as cleansing landscape in the buffer zone between the eco-town and taihu lake.

total land 600 hectaces 1483 acres area 6km2 Population 55,000 (5.5 of 1 million)

INTIAL STUDIES | 29


1st class residential 2nd class residential

industrial healthcare schools


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

tianjin eco-city

location

40 km from Tianjin city centre 150 km from Beijing city centre

total land 30 sq. km area Population 350,000 residents architect

Surbana Urban Planning Group (SUPG) Surbana Architecture, Singapore

precedent studies | 31


Proposed new island

mixed use zone Offers new site with new opportunities of design to relate or respond to existing canal network site.

vs Border to Wuxi cannot extend Difficult to expand to the east over the canal. It would also glorify the grand canal Taihu Lake fishing & tourists destination

Proposed new expansion

Following the coast of lake taihu, allows us to optimise site resources through available land and coast line. hills to the south create a barrier to more southern expansion.


SUZHOU NEW CITY ćş? INCEPTION

Island The construction of an island would reduce the impact on the existing site, particularly through the addition of agricultural land. An island would also create a new edge which provides beautiful views out onto Lake Taihu, and the existing canal network can be developed by forming new canals. An island would be relatively easy to construct thanks to the shallow depth of Lake Taihu.

Expansion The alternative to constructing an island is expanding the existing site. There is sufficient area on the existing site to provide enough agricultural land, so constructing an island for this reason is unnecessary. A building located on a newly constructed island is a status symbol, and this may turn the island into an exclusive area, creating a divide in the settlement. The construction of an island would also damage the ecology of the site and require a lot of time and resources. Buildings on the island may obstruct views to the lake and the locals may feel that the settlement is being expanded unnecessarily.

island vs expansion | 33


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design

strategies

design strategies | 35


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inception | 37


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canal | 39


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districts | 41


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zoning | 43


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density | 45


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DISTRICT    5   “Cultural  District”  

-­‐  Vehicle  Roads   -­‐  Pedestrian  Routes  

district design concept | 47


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DEFINING THE grid | 49


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transportation system | 51


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road network system | 53


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walking neighborhood | 55


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coast studies | 57


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canal network | 59


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canal studies | 61


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canal studies | 63


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canal studies | 65


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design guideline | 67


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design guideline | 69


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district

designs

district designs | 71


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mixed use distrct | 73


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agriculture distrct | 75


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industrial distrct | 77


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central business distrct | 79


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cbd key areas | 81


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cbd key areas | 83


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cbd key areas | 85


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1:1000 model photographs | 87


Group Members

Top left to right: Robyn Lim, Faiz Hanapiah, Duncan Henderson, Robert McCaughan, Ahmed Mahjoub & Zizan Duniya Bottom left to right: Ehsan Ghavimi, Robert Harkin, Laura Jean Christie, Finlay Conner, Ewan Cowie & Rory Dickens

references 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scotland 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suzhou 5. http://www.suzhou.gov.cn/zgszeng/suzhougl-e/index.html 6. http;//www.nhsgrampian.co.uk/ 7. http://suzhou.jiangsu.net/health/hospital/ 8. http;//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/changshu_high_school_of_ jiangshu_province 9. http://suzhou.jiangsu.net/education/ 10. http://chinavista.com/suzhou/education/education.html 11. en.0430.c0m/cn/web98251/ 12. http://maps.google.co.uk 13. http;//r0.unctad.org/infocomm/anglais/rice/market.htm 14. http;//www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2012-09/10/content_15748353.htm 15. http;//www.asla.org/2012awards/276.html 16. http;//www.jtp.co.uk/public/uploads/pdfs/suzhou_profile.pdf 17. http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/6/1709.full 18. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0165783608003226


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conclusion The local development strategy aims to build upon the history of Suzhou. It encourages advances in manufacturing and modern services, promoting continual innovation in a technologically advanced green city. The site benefits from convenient transport connections as it is serviced by the Grand Canal to the east, a highway to the south and Lake Taihu to the west. The site is situated to the north-west of Suzhou at the border with Xian District. The site conditions have been carefully considered by researching canals and densities. This has informed the orientation and connections in the master-plan. The master-plan aims to create dense, mixed-use districts at a human scale, while connecting to the existing heritage of the site. The lakeside is a vibrant, self-sustaining area of Suzhou which makes use of natural resources. One of the most important elements of the landscape design is the water’s edge. The aim is to create a settlement with the traditional features of a canal city, linked by a network of routes to allow full integration into the urban fabric. This encourages movement through all spaces. Suzhou Lakeside is a master-plan which celebrates the relationship between the city and its waterfront and canals. The master-plan creates dense, walkable neighbourhoods and incorporates an extensive network of open spaces. These spaces help to improve the quality of life in a rapidly developing urban area. With the Central Business District adjacent to the culture garden, the master-plan makes Suzhou Lakeside one of China’s most liveable business districts. The redeveloped waterfront and Chinese gardens create connections between neighbourhoods. The master-plan enhances Suzhou’s canal network through canal-front public spaces which provide opportunities to interact with the water. The restored coast and development of wetlands help to re-establish the natural ecology of the site, ensuring that the new waterfront landscape will be vibrant for years to come.

conclusion | 89


Suzhou new city book (final)