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New Sanford Dean

Kelly Brownell

Also Inside } Faculty Voices in Gun Control Debate

The public event, “Big Money vs. Grassroots Democracy: Empowering Citizens to Take Back Their Government,” was part of a symposium at the school that gathered politicians, academics and advocates for discussion of policy options. Gunther Peck, the Fred W. Shaffer Associate Professor of History and Public Policy, moderated the panel. Watch a video of the event on the school’s YouTube channel:

DUKE PhotograPhy

Congressmen David Price (D-N.C.) and John Sarbanes (D-Md.) discussed bills they’ve introduced to improve grassroots participation and curb the influence of large donors in political campaigns during a Jan. 31 panel discussion at the Sanford School. They were joined by N.C. Rep. Larry Hall, the House minority leader, and Anita Earls, executive director of the Southern Coalition for Social Justice.




Spring 2013

2 News Briefs: Gov. Perdue

a New Visiting Fellow; Duke in DC Program Launched

Out with the old and in with the new. Duke’s international search team, chaired by Elizabeth Frankenberg, did a terrific job in helping Duke recruit the best possible dean we can imagine for the Sanford School. You can read a lot more about him on pages 4 and 5 of this magazine, but let me, by way of introduction, summarize a few outstanding features of his resumé:

• He is committed to undergraduates, having served as a Master of Silliman College at Yale, a position that required total immersion in the lives of undergraduates.

• He is an extraordinary leader, named in 2006 by Time magazine in a list of the world’s 100 most influential people who are transforming the world.

• His engagement epitomizes how research in the social psychology of attitudes and attributes can be brought to bear on important public policy problems.

• He was elected to the Institute of Medicine.

• He believes in the importance of bridging the divide between academia and the policy world, and has advised the mayor of New York, members of Congress, governors, the White House, world health organizations and media on issues of nutrition, obesity and public policy.

• He holds a distinguished chair and comes from Yale’s psychology department, which he has chaired, and which is ranked second in the nation by the National Research Council. He also holds secondary appointments in the School of Public Health and the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. • Within the discipline of psychology his expertise has been recognized by his election as fellow to five different divisions of the American Psychology Association and by his election as president of a number of national organizations.

• He is a superb scholar, having published 15 books and over 350 articles and chapters that have been cited over 23,000 times in the leading journals in medicine, public health and psychology. • His research and mentoring have won many awards, some of which are noted in this magazine.

• He is the embodiment of Sanford’s ideals: its dedication to transforming student lives, its embrace of interdisciplinarity and its commitment to putting knowledge at the service of society.

• He is a great teacher, and at Yale has taught interdisciplinary classes of 400 students (that include undergraduates and PhD students) to rave reviews.

Equally important, he is a good listener; and a warm, outgoing and truly wonderful human being. I step down as dean with absolute confidence that Kelly will not only build on what we at Sanford have helped to create, but also raise our aspirations and extend our successes to new heights.

• He founded and managed the highly interdisciplinary Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale that has received millions of dollars in grants and that has nothing less than social change as its goal.

Bruce Kuniholm Professor of Public Policy and History

Sanford School Dean Published twice a year by the Bruce Kuniholm Sanford School of Public Policy Insights Editor Karen Kemp Duke University Box 90239 Associate Editor Jackie Ogburn Durham, NC 27708-0239 Design CCGD

Issues are available online For subscription or other inquiries email

4 Cover: Brownell to Become

Sanford School’s Second Dean

6 PhD Grads Land First Positions 8 Teaching with Technology, Peer Learning

10 Sanford Experts Join National Debate on Gun Policy

14 Q&A: Dr. Robert Cook-Deegan 16 Senior Profile: Melissa Yeo 18 Books and Publications 19 MPP Alums at GAO & OMB 20 Women’s Voices in U.S. Politics



toP + FaCINg PagE: DUKE PhotograPhy; BottoM: EUgEl yEo


sanford news


Former North Carolina Gov. Bev Perdue will be a distinguished visiting fellow at Sanford for the fall semester and will serve in an advisory capacity with the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy. From 2009 to 2012, Perdue was the state’s first female governor. She holds a PhD in education and a master’s degree in community college administration, both from the University of Florida. “We envision her speaking with classes, interacting one-on-one with students and helping our professors better understand how their public policy research can influence policymaking,” said Dean Bruce Kuniholm.

MIDP ALUM TO DELIVER GRAD SPEECH Mwila Chigaga MIDP ’06 will deliver the alumnus address at the Sanford School’s graduation ceremony on May 11 for the MPP, MIDP and PhD programs. Chigaga is senior gender specialist in the International Labor Organization’s regional office for Africa located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Chigaga, of Zambia, is also a graduate of the Duke-UNC Rotary Peace Fellows program. She

founded Widows with Strength International to assist women who have been made widows by wars, HIV/AIDS and other causes.

YOUNG TRUSTEE Sanford PhD candidate Katherine Duch has been elected Graduate Young Trustee and will serve on the Duke Board of Trustees. She is a graduate student representative on the board’s Institutional Advancement Committee, and also brings her scholarship to the role — her dissertation topic examines legislative support for colleges and universities.


INDONESIAN FINANCE DCID Professor of the Practice Roy Kelly and Research Associate Rubi Sugana worked with the Indonesian Ministry of Finance to design a finance reform effort to assist five local governments in Sumatra, Java and West Nusa Tenggara. Along with a small team of Indonesian experts, they will continue to provide strategic policy and administrative support to implement a local-level property tax system in Indonesia. The Asian Development Bank funded the project.

2 SANFORD InsIghts

Front row, left to right: Michael Harris PPS ’14, Danielle Mayall T ’15, Nika Duan T ’15, Giuliana De Mendiola PPS ’14, Jenny Shim T ’14. Back row: Bryce Knutzen PPS ’15, guest speaker Eric Sapp M.Div/MPP ’02, Annie Helbling PPS ’14, Andreea Rodinciuc PPS ’14, Breno Maciel T ’15.

KrIstIN goss

Professor of the Practice Ed Skloot, director of the Center for Strategic Philanthropy and Civil Society, was a co-sponsor of the conference, “Money and Power in Post-Election America” held Feb. 11-12 at New York University. The goal was to examine the relationship of philanthropy, public policy and government in the highly polarized political culture. Speakers included philanthropists David Rubenstein, Abigail Disney and Jonathan Soros, U.S. Rep. Donna Edwards (D-Md.) and David Blumenthal, CEO of the Commonwealth Fund.

Nine Begin Duke in DC-Public Policy Program Nine students are enrolled in the inaugural Duke in D.C.Public Policy program under way this spring. They are working 28-hour-per-week internships and taking four courses, taught at Duke’s suite of offices on New York Avenue. Students also take field trips to government agencies, such as the Pentagon and the Capitol. The seminar classes taught by Sanford professors Philip Bennett, Robert CookDeegan and Program Director Kristin Goss frequently feature

guest speakers, including Duke alumni. Eric Sapp MDiv/ MPP ’02, founding partner of the Eleison Group, and Nick Johnson MPP ’94 of the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities spoke in Goss’s class, “Theory in Practice: People, Places, and Policy Cases.” “In this class, they get to look at D.C. as a real city, with real problems, and through their internships, they get to study policymaking in real time,” said Goss. Cook-Deegan noted that

for their project on genetic testing, Nika Duan and Annie Helbling have direct access to the people in Congress who wrote relevant statutory law and are watching the Myriad Supreme Court case closely. “We had our first class as a field trip to the patent office in Alexandria. That’s legislative branch, judicial branch and executive branch. We cannot do that in Durham, and it adds a lot to the experience,” said Cook-Deegan.


America and the Caribbean.” The conference, organized for the ninth year by the UNC-Duke Consortium in Latin American and Caribbean Studies, took place

CoUrtEsy oF FErNaNDo FErNholz

Six MIDP fellows and Duke Law School students participated in panels for the Feb. 15-16 conference “Revising Visions of Latin

at Duke’s John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute and at UNC’s FedEx Global Education Center. Associate Professor Fernando Fernholz and Senior Research Scholar Rosemary Fernholz moderated two sessions. MIDP students who gave presentations were Janina Cuevas, Susana Garcia, Zoila Navarro, Luisa Fernanda Cardozo Romero, Matias Arrua and Carlos Guiza.

ALUM WINS RESEARCH GRANT Jenny Orgill MPP ’12 has been selected as a Global Health Doctoral Scholar. The program

contributes a stipend and up to 50 percent of nine months of expenses for research on a global health issue. She is a PhD candidate in environmental economics at the Nicholas School. As an MPP, she worked with Assistant Professor Marc Jeuland on a household survey on drinking water quality and handling in rural Cambodia. She will continue to work with Jeuland and Assistant Professor Subhrendru Pattanayak on water and global health.

Sanford MIDP Team Competes in Regional Round for Hult Prize Net Impact Conference in Baltimore and the team was born. “We are a team of five international students, from Armenia, India, Italy, Mexico and Myanmar. Our backgrounds are as diverse as our nationalities: medicine, environment, business manage-

ment and nonprofits. We call ourselves ‘Food Rangers’ and our brand is synonymous to healthy, hygienic and nutritious food which is culturally acceptable,” their proposal said. Although the Food Rangers did not make it to the next round, they

agreed it was worth trying. “The Hult competition showed us the power of a team working towards a goal. We developed a sustainable social business idea in just three weeks, talking with people all around the world,” said Fontana.

CoUrtEsy oF PaNKhUrI DUtt

For the first time, a team of Sanford students competed for the $1 million dollar Hult Prize for student social entrepreneurs. Five MIDP students traveled to Boston on March 2 for the regional round of competition. In partnership with the Clinton Global Initiative, the Hult Prize is a start-up accelerator. Each year, more than 10,000 college students submit proposals and 200 teams are selected for the six regional competitions. The six winning teams pitch their start-up ideas at the annual Clinton Global Initiative meeting. This year’s challenge, creating food security for urban slum dwellers, was selected personally by former President Bill Clinton. The five were working on a presentation on food insecurity for their Policy Analysis in Development class, taught by Senior Research Scholar Natalia Mirovitskaya, and wondering if the international community was even interested in the problem. Team leader Silvia Fontana pulled out a flyer about the Hult Prize she had picked up at the

Team members from left to right: Hrachya Topalyan, Ana Lucia Garcia Bones, Pankhuri Dutt, Aung Thant and team leader Silvia Fontana.

Spring 2013 3

sanford news

Brownell to Become New Sanford Dean

4 SANFORD InsIghts

Brownell was one of the first to think about the epidemic as a public health problem rather than a medical one. Tracy Orleans, senior scientist at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a Rudd Center funder, said, “I couldn’t pick a better leader for our movement than Kelly Brownell. If there were a Nobel Prize for this kind of leadership, Kelly would get it.” Brownell’s laurels include election to the Institute of Medicine, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Psychological Association, Yale’s Graduate Mentor Award, the James McKeen Cattell Award from the New York Academy of Sciences and the Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology from the American Psychological Association. He has published 15 books and more than 350 scientific articles and chapters. His most recent book, co-edited with Mark Gold, is Food and Addiction: A Comprehensive Handbook (2012), which brings together work from experts in nutrition, addiction, psychology, epidemiology and public health.

A Leading Voice on Obesity Epidemic Brownell, who was born in Indiana, earned his PhD in clinical psychology at Rutgers in 1977 and joined the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine faculty that year. He has been at Yale since 1991, during which time he has served as master of Silliman College and chair of

the psychology department. He said he first began thinking about obesity as a societal problem when he saw how unsuccessful many weight-loss interventions were. “I began my career doing pretty traditional work in clinical psychology, namely randomized studies for treatment of obesity, and it was frustration with the poor results that led me to believe that prevention had to be the priority,” Brownell said. Clinical studies also spurred his interest in what was then known in the literature as “weight cycling” but which he dubbed yo-yo dieting — a subject he pursued for several years. “Gradually I moved more toward public policy, public health and prevention... and a key inflection point occurred in 2005 when we founded the Rudd Center at Yale.

©sIlVEr IMagE® Photo agENCy


elly Brownell, a public health expert who helped revolutionize thinking about the complex causes of obesity and coined the phrase “toxic food environment,” will become the second dean of the Sanford School of Public Policy, and the first from outside Duke. Brownell, the James Rowland Angell Professor of Psychology at Yale University, was appointed after an international search led by Professor Elizabeth Frankenberg, Sanford’s associate dean for academic programs. He will begin his new position on July 1. He succeeds Bruce Kuniholm, the Sanford School’s founding dean, who will return to the faculty after serving first as director (2005-2009) and then as dean. “Kelly Brownell will make a perfect leader for a school dedicated to using knowledge to make a difference in the world,” Duke President Richard H. Brodhead said when announcing the selection on Jan. 30. “A world-class researcher, he has established himself as the major public voice on obesity — one of the world’s most rapidly emerging issues — and has been an influential policy advisor at city, state and national levels. A devoted graduate mentor and undergraduate teacher, he will keep the Sanford School strong on campus while building bridges to the larger society.” At Yale, Brownell, 61, is also director of the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity and professor of epidemiology and public health. In 2006, Time magazine named him one of “the world’s 100 most influential people … whose power, talent or moral example is transforming the world.” The magazine cited Brownell’s role in raising public awareness about the relationship between unhealthy foods and childhood obesity. Colleagues praised Brownell’s leadership, noting he was one of the first researchers to consider systemic social and economic factors when investigating causes of and treatments for obesity. Rudd Center Deputy Director Marlene Schwartz told the Yale Daily News that

“We then had the resources to recruit the broad array of people needed to address these policy issues — people with backgrounds in law, economics, public policy, public health and other fields.” Under Brownell’s direction, among the topics the Rudd Center has tackled are the heavy marketing of calorie-dense food and drinks to children, junk food in public schools, the application of law to food policy, the economics of food prices, the effects of weight bias and discrimination, food package labeling and the addictive potential of food.

dren, and have worked with legislators and officials such as the state attorneys general to develop solutions. “The issue of food marketing is challenging because it is clearly having a negative influence, but many officials are reluctant to suggest change because of the broad protection of ‘commercial speech’ afforded the companies from court rulings on the First Amendment,” Brownell said.

Policy Engagement at Sanford

Brownell is starting to think about how strategies the Rudd Center has used successfully to bring policy-related Public Advocacy “It is common for uni- research to the fore might be applied to topics studied by Conducting strategic research versities to emphasize Sanford School faculty. is one piece of the Rudd the value of being “The Sanford faculty do Center’s mission — the rest interdisciplinary but world-class research on many involves developing policy of the pressing issues of our recommendations and I have not seen any mobilizing academic and university do it to the day and it would be wonderful if the world of policypolicy partners to bring extent Duke does. making could connect more about change. To that end, It is one of the things strongly with the work of the Brownell has used every tool that appealed to me faculty,” Brownell said. “There at his disposal: writing both are many creative ways of scholarly publications and most about Duke.” approaching this. There are books for the lay public such experts at Sanford who can comment on as 2004’s Food Fight; testifying to congresbreaking news on many important topics, sional committees; writing opinion pieces for leading publications such as The Atlantic; and if the school can become even more of a go-to place for legislators and for officials and appearing in documentaries, including around the world, Sanford’s positive impact the 2012 HBO mini-series “The Weight of might rise to even higher levels.” the Nation” and the 2004 documentary “SuAfter focusing his career so far primarily per-Size Me.” He also fits engagement with policymaking into his undergraduate course on domestic policy concerns, the Sanford School’s faculty expertise in climate change, on “The Psychology, Biology and Politics global health, international development, of Food.” He requires students to write and foreign policy and other transnational issues place op-eds on topics covered in class. offers new opportunities. In recent months, Brownell has been “Many policy issues are best addressed regularly quoted by media on the topic of globally, some nationally and others more soda taxation, a policy choice he has advolocally. It is important to work at the level cated for at least 15 years. Once considered that will have the greatest impact,” Brownell a radical idea, such taxes now exist in a said. “Food systems issues such as the imhandful of countries and are or have been pact of food production on climate change considered in more than 20 U.S. cities and have global, national and local drivers, and states. Brownell and his colleagues at Yale all must be considered. With respect to have also been instrumental in establishing obesity, the most important changes thus far a research base documenting the extent and have begun locally and then spread to state impact of food marketing directed to chiland national levels. Many exciting changes Kelly Brownell makes a presentation begin as grassroots movements.” during the American Psychological Association

Being ‘An Excellent Dean’ Although he is eager to connect with likeminded scholars at Duke, conducting his own research will not be his initial priority at Sanford. He did not choose, for example, to move his Rudd Center to Duke, but he does intend to remain an active public voice in food policy debates. “My first order of business is to be an excellent dean and, hoping to reach that goal, there might then be the opportunity to build some things in my own area,” Brownell said. He sees great potential to bring together faculty in the Global Health Institute, medical school and elsewhere who share his interests in food and obesity policies. “It is common for universities to emphasize the value of being interdisciplinary but I have not seen any university do it to the extent Duke does. It is woven into the mindset of people at the university and has become part of both the culture and the structure of the university,” he said. “It is one of the things that appealed to me most about Duke. And if one is interested in being interdisciplinary then what better place than a policy school to do that?” After 22 years at Yale, Brownell naturally is sad to leave respected colleagues and longtime friends. He will also miss playing guitar in The Road Brothers, a bluegrass band that includes two psychology colleagues and his son Kevin, who plays bass. Brownell’s son Matt, an artist, lives in Brooklyn, and his daughter Kristy lives in Little Rock, Ark., and is doing food systems work as a member of AmeriCorps. Brownell said his family is supportive of his decision, and he is enthusiastically looking forward to moving into his new role and to Durham. “The challenges and opportunities are very exciting. There are so many good people at Duke. I love the morale at Sanford, and the positive spirit in which people talk about their work. The commitment to social good is very inspiring.” Editor’s note: Insights is indebted to Duke’s Office of News and Communications, The Chronicle and the Yale Daily News for portions of the reporting in this article.

annual meeting last year.

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sanford news


Two Duke faculty members have received secondary appointments at Sanford. Nancy MacLean is the Arts and Science Professor of History and associate chair of the department. She is working on the history of efforts to privatize public services and decision-making, with a focus on school vouchers. Matthew D. Adler, Richard A. Horvitz Professor of Law and professor of philosophy, studies risk regulation, policy analysis and constitutional theory. Three associate professors have earned promotions to full professor. They are Judith Kelley, Kevin D. Gorter Professor and Bass Fellow, Subhrendu K. Pattanayak and Alexander Pfaff. The PBS program FRONTLINE earned the George Polk Award for Documentary Television Reporting for “Money, Power and Wall Street,” a four-part investigation into the global financial crisis that

aired in 2012, Long Island University announced. Phil Bennett, the Eugene C. Patterson Professor of the Practice of Journalism and Public Policy, is managing editor of FRONTLINE.

Sanford PhD Candidates Land First Positions

Dania Francis will defend her dissertation, “Essays on Education Policy” in April. She will be an assistant professor of economics and Afro-American studies at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Five PhD candidates in Sanford’s second class of doctoral students are preparing to graduate in May. Four of them have accepted positions for the next academic year. Ashley Brown Burns has been a fellow at Gettysburg College in public policy and Africana studies this year. Her dissertation is “New Communities in Old Spaces: Evidence from HOPE VI.” She has accepted a position as an assistant professor of political science at Amherst College.

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Sarah Fuller will defend her dissertation, “Natural Disasters and the Effect on Birth and School Outcomes” this spring and is seeking a post-doc position in the Triangle. Maeve Gearing will be a research associate in the Labor, Human Services and Population Center at the Urban Institute. Her dissertation is “Childhood Obesity, Development, and SelfRegulation: Three Essays.”

William A. “Sandy” Darity, Jr. gave the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Lecture at Vanderbilt University’s Law School on Jan. 14 on “Achieving Racial Equality in ‘Post-Racial’ America.” He was also invited by the Barbados’ Central Bank to give the Sir Winston Smith Memorial Lecture in Bridgetown on Nov. 26, 2012. He spoke on “High Unemployment: Global and Local.” Kenneth A. Dodge, director of the Duke Center for Child & Family Policy, has received a $697,070 National Science Foundation award for the project, “Collaborative Research: Leveraging Matched Administrative Datasets to Improve Educational Practice and Long Run Life Outcomes: Toward Building a National Interdisciplinary Network.”He also received a $148,518 National Institutes of Health grant for the project “Strengthening BenefitCost Analyses of Substance-Abuse Prevention.”

Wei He has accepted a position as a compliance officer at JP Morgan Chase. Her dissertation is “Increasing Socioeconomic Gap in Child Overweight/Obesity and the Impact of Two Important Family Structural Elements on Child Malnutrition in China.” In addition, PhD candidate Sarah Pilzer is a research scholar at the Friday Institute in Raleigh and plans to defend her dissertation, titled “School District Student Assignment and Reassignment Policies: Affected Students and their Behavioral Responses” later this year. “Our students’ success on the job market affirms the strength of Sanford’s interdisciplinary

Bruce Jentleson has been named to the board of directors of the National Security Network, founded in 2006 to bring cohesion and strategic focus to the progressive national security community. He has also been awarded a visiting research fellowship at the Australian National University for May and June 2013. Clay Johnson won an Emmy for a documentary, “6,149 Days,” he produced for WRAL-TV. The documentary tells the story of Greg Taylor, who was wrongly convicted of murder in 1993 and spent 17 years in prison before being exonerated by the N.C. Innocence Inquiry Commission. The documentary was presented at the Midsouth Regional Emmy Awards on Jan. 26. Helen F. Ladd has received an award for $291,896 from the American Institutes for Research for support for CALDER, the Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research.

approach to doctoral education,” said Jacob Vigdor, professor of public policy and economics. “They are trained well enough to beat candidates from traditional disciplinary programs at their own game, but also have an intellectual versatility one would normally associate with scholars many years their senior.” Vigdor, director of the PhD program for the last four years, will step down this summer. William McDougall Professor of Public Policy Ken Dodge will direct the program beginning in the 201314 academic year.

‘We Call to the Stand...’


By Blair Trame “You are, in fact, getting what you paid for,” Professor Jacob Vigdor testified in December on behalf of groups representing more than 600 Texas school districts. The groups had sued the state, claiming it is not spending enough money to meet academic standards and the funding it does provide is not equitably distributed among schools. The plaintiffs’ lawyer contacted Vigdor because of research on the effectiveness of teacher merit pay he had conducted with Sanford colleagues Helen Ladd, Charles Clotfelter and former Center for Child and Family Policy research scientist Elizabeth Glennie. Their work showed that higher salaries improved teacher retention. Over the last three years, the Texas student population has increased by 270,000 students,

Average Income, 2010 Dollars







0 1950





Primary/Secondary Teachers



Registered Nurses

In 1950, Texas school teachers earned 50 percent more than Texas registered nurses. By 2010, the opposite was true. (U.S. Census; analysis by Jacob Vigdor.)

while the state’s corps of teachers has declined by 3,400. The average salary in Texas was $47,311 in 2009-10, below the national average of $54,965 and lower than 32 other states. Vigdor argued that higher salaries would be required to recruit enough highly

qualified teachers to eliminate the shortfall. “This is a very worrisome situation,” Vigdor said. “It behooves the state to think carefully about whether they are investing in the teacher labor market at a level that is consistent with the goals that they have espoused.” He took the stand on the 22nd day of the proceedings, and served as “the closer” for the plaintiffs’ argument. His testimony accounted for four hours of 2010 240 total hours of testimony that ended when a judge ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, which included the Texas School Coalition. The state has indicated it will appeal the ruling to the Texas Supreme Court. Vigdor said he has been retained or prepared expert reports in suits a couple of times before, including for a major housing discrimination case brought by the U.S. Department of Justice. This was the first proceeding that actually went to trial.

Johnson Invited to Join Global Energy Governance Project


MatthaIs ErFUrt

ssistant Professor Tana Johnson is working with academics and practitioners from around the world to address the need for new global governance organizations related to energy. She was one of eight U.S. fellows selected to participate in Global Governance 2022, along with an equal number from Germany and China. The 24 fellows are divided among three working groups — energy, cybersecurity and development. The Global Public Policy Institute in Berlin initiated the project. “There is a lack of global governance structures for energy, in contrast to development, which is almost over-saturated with institutions,” said Johnson. The most prominent existing institution is the International Energy Agency, but China, crucial to any global approach to energy, is not a member. Johnson’s group met in Berlin in August and Beijing in January, and will meet a final time in Washington, D.C., in May. Their task is to create scenarios for 10 years in the future for international institutions for energy. This type of scenario-building has been popular in the private sector, but it’s a new approach to bring into public sector problems, Johnson said. Each group will produce a final report for the meeting in May, and publish articles and op-eds based on their work. Johnson is excited to bring the insights gained through the fellowship back to her classrooms and to her work with Sanford’s Geneva program. “During our meeting in Beijing, we met with officials at the German embassy about their outreach to China on energy. I realized that other countries will be working together on these issues, with or without the U.S.” she said. GG2022 Fellows include, from left, Johannes Gabriel, Germany, the Global Public Policy Institute; Fabian Wigand, Germany, the Desert Energy Industrial Initiative; Tana Johnson, U.S.A., Sanford School; and Ting Guan, China, Zhejiang University.

Spring 2013 7


Flipping the Classroom Duke Emphasizes Teaching with Technology, Peer Learning

lEs toDD/DUKE PhotograPhy

By Karen Kemp

What happens when the professor lectures after students have read the material and taken a quiz, rather than before? Or doesn’t lecture at all? Or when student-led study groups are an integral part of the daily classroom experience? According to several Sanford School professors, deeper learning happens. A few who are trying the “flipped classroom” approach say it’s also noisier, more dynamic and more fun. Student reviews range from enthusiastic and engaged to challenged and sometimes frustrated, but are mostly upbeat, too.

“If I do my job right, my students don’t have to force themselves to memorize lists of facts, they just learn.” —Nick Carnes

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On a recent Thursday in Sanford Assistant Professor Nick Carnes’ “Politics of Public Policy” class, small groups of three or four students are working together on a five-question quiz dealing with topics in agenda setting. Five minutes earlier they completed the quiz individually; now they’re hearing what their classmates think. When group members disagree on answers, they debate until they come to consensus. Scratch-off answer cards provide instant feedback and allow the professor to see when questions took multiple tries, revealing which concepts weren’t well understood. Both sets of weekly quizzes, or “readiness assessments,” count toward each student’s grade. So does group

work. Several times during the semester, peers will rate each other on their group participation skills. Among Sanford’s faculty, Professor Kathryn Whetten pioneered the flipped classroom approach in the fall of 2011. It was her 11th year of teaching “Introduction to Global Health,” and Dean of Undergraduate Education Steve Nowicki encouraged her to give it a try. There is some evidence that it leads to better retention and higher rates of mastery. “Because the class is so large, I had always had Monday-morning quizzes as a way to ensure they were doing the work,” Whetten said. “But if you were doing the reading, you would get the answers right. My quizzes have changed to be more profound.” Now, rather than simply defining concepts, students must apply them and defend their reasoning. After individual and group assessments are complete, an application exercise might come next. Whetten will give a set of facts: “In Botswana the maternal mortality rate is this, infant mortality rate is this, there is this amount of money — where do you intervene first? Why?” In addition to peer-to-peer learning, a key characteristic of the approach is that students are acquiring new concepts outside the classroom, Whetten said. They read, watch online videos recorded by the professor and engage in online experiences. They come to class not to take notes on a professor’s lecture, but to ask questions, solidify their understanding and apply what they’re learning. Whetten is glad the approach is getting support at Duke. “My biggest training in teaching was in the Peace Corps, where I was taught how to train people of different educational backgrounds and to use different modalities. It’s the first time at Duke where someone said, ‘Let’s help you do this in a different way.’ It has been really helpful.” Preparing to teach this way took more advance work, Whetten acknowledged. She recorded 5- to 15-minute video lectures totaling about four hours.

At first, seeing herself on video was painful, she said. “My sense is that for people like me it is like redoing an old house. You have to think about what walls to take down, and so on, but for people just starting to teach it would be easier – like building a house from scratch.” Carnes is a “new-house” guy, having begun his first faculty job here in 2011. He’s adopted the flipped classroom wholesale and loves it. “If you ever learned to ride a bike, drive a car, play a sport, cook — the way you’ve done it is probably 10 percent listening and 90 percent practice. That’s how people learn. If I do my job right, my students don’t have to force themselves to memorize lists of facts, they just learn.” Three MPP students who took Carnes’ graduatelevel politics course have become advocates of the teaching style. All are now seeing the flipped course not as students, but as Carnes’ teaching assistants. They also are former middleschool math teachers. As a flipped classroom student, Alyssa Chudnofsky MPP ’14 found learning more engaging. “It’s so much more interesting than sitting and being spoken to and taking notes. I’m not here at Duke for a book report.” Danny Heller MPP ’14 agreed. “I truly enjoyed it and wish I had thought of it when I was a teacher,” he said. “Being accountable to my group made me do the reading more carefully,” he noted, adding that he found other benefits of group work that he’ll carry over to future jobs. “Before this, I didn’t know I hogged conversations. You get a lot of opportunities to practice group skills, and I improved how I conduct myself. One of the things I’ve learned at Sanford is how to show up with your best stuff every day on a short timeline.” Lucas Westmaas MPP ’14 said undergraduates haven’t been completely wowed with the approach. “We’re grading them all the time and they freak out when the grades are low,” he said. Duke undergrads are used to competing for grades, Chudnofsky said, and want to excel. It’s quickly noticed when a group member isn’t prepared, and hard to succeed with typical college ploys like skating by for a few weeks and cramming to catch up. Defending their analyses — and sometimes being publicly wrong — can be uncomfortable. Carnes believes that’s a good thing. “In professional life everyone experiences a time when they

are not prepared for a meeting and it does not go well. It’s good to get experience with that in a safe environment.” Professor Charles Clotfelter, a 30-year teaching veteran, decided to borrow parts of the inverted teaching style this semester. In his undergraduate course, “Economics of the Public Sector,” students are assigned to groups and complete weekly individual and group quizzes before he lectures on the reading material. He’s also trying “cold calling” rather than asking students to volunteer to answer questions. “It’s kind of friendly. They can tell my TA in advance if they are not ready that day. After all, I want them to come to class — it’s better for them to come even if they are not prepared. The thing I want to avoid the most is passivity on the part of students.” So far,

“I truly enjoyed it and wish I had thought of it when I was a teacher.”

the new techniques seem to be working well and the teams are developing camaraderie, Clotfelter said. Whetten hasn’t observed a huge difference in test results. She believes the strategies may be most beneficial in subjects that require memorization, such as statistics or anatomy. Regardless of subject matter, “I do think it provides a deeper grounding in the material, rather than just studying for midterms and finals. It is a neat model and students like it because it is different.”

“It’s the first time at Duke where someone said, ‘Let’s help you do this in a different way.’ It has been really helpful.”—Kathryn

—Danny Heller, MPP ’14


Spring 2013 9

Could This Tim School Shooting Thrusts Sanford Experts into National Gun Policy Debate

“Since the debate over gun control is being waged partly in bumper-sticker slogans, it might be appropriate to summarize the evidenced-based conclusion like this: Guns don’t kill people, they just make it real easy.” —Philip J. Cook, op-ed, “How We Can Reduce Gun Violence,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 8, 2013.

gINa JaCoBs/shUttErstoCK.CoM


By Jackie Ogburn

me Be Different? Columbine, Virginia Tech, Aurora, Tucson — these place names have become shorthand for the worst mass shootings in the United States. On Dec. 14, 2012, when 20 first-graders and six adults were killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn., was added to that miserable list. In the intense media coverage that followed, two Sanford professors, Philip Cook, ITT/Terry Sanford Professor of Public Policy and professor of economics, and Kristin Goss, associate professor of public policy and political science, became important voices in the renewed national debate over gun policy. Having studied mass shootings since the 1990s, Goss knew that even before the police had pieced together what had happened, reporters would want to know about the political and policy implications. Goss’ book, Disarmed: The Missing Movement for Gun Control in America, examines the organizational, historical and policy factors that have shaped the gun control movement. The Columbine High School shooting in 1999 fueled the study. She had attended a high school just a few miles away, and she wondered why a nation with so much gun violence seemed to have had such trouble mobilizing around a policy response. Initially, Goss wondered whether the Sandy Hook shooting and its aftermath would follow the typical pattern. “Usually, the media call the day after the shooting, and by the third day, it quiets down,” said Goss. After each tragedy, the questions from reporters are the same, Goss said. The international reporters ask her to explain American gun culture and wonder if things will change. American reporters want to know what will happen next. That was the pattern after the shootings at Virginia Tech in 2007, where 32 people were killed; in Tucson in 2011, where six died and Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords was seriously wounded; and in Aurora, Colo., where 12 died and 58 were wounded in a movie theater. Moral outrage, sorrow, but little or no new policy. At the same time, reporters sought out Cook for his expertise in gun and crime policy. Cook has researched the costs and consequences of widespread gun ownership for much of his career. He is the co-author with Jens Ludwig of the book Gun Violence: The Real Costs, which laid out a new and much more comprehensive method for evaluating the social costs of gun violence. Sisters Sara, 12, Jessica, 6, and Kaitlyn Gerckens, 10, (from left) of Derby, Conn., gather at the Derby Green during a vigil to remember the lives lost during the shooting at Newtown’s Sandy Hook Elementary School.

Spring 2013 11

“It’s obvious the 40 percent figure is laying the groundwork for the most important policy relating to guns in 20 years.”

aP/sUsaN walsh

As the discussion of federal policy options intensified and began to focus on background checks, a figure from research done by Cook and Ludwig took center stage.

Vice President Joe Biden, center, speaks during a meeting with sportsmen and wildlife interest groups, Jan. 10, 2013, in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building.

They also are the co-editors of Evaluating Gun Policy: Effects on Crime and Violence. Like Goss, Cook was initially skeptical there would be any national policy response.

Responses Gain Steam By January, it was clear media interest hadn’t waned, in part because state and federal lawmakers were showing signs of action. Cook and Goss both wrote multiple op-eds, published by CNN, The Times of India, Newsweek, The News and Observer and other outlets. Both continued to be interviewed by reporters from NPR, Reuters, The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, among others, and by media outlets from countries as diverse as Australia, France, Canada, Russia, Singapore and the UK. A Turkish TV station produced an hour-long special program that included an interview with Cook. President Obama appointed Vice President Joe Biden to lead a gun violence task force. The NRA called for armed guards in every American school. High-profile veterans, including Gen. Colin Powell, Gen. Stanley McChrystal, and Beau Biden, an Iraq War veteran and the attorney general of Delaware, spoke out in support of reform. Public policy scholars harbor the hope that their work will inform the creation of policy, but the slow pace of research and publication often frustrates that hope. This time, the scholarly community seized the moment. On Jan. 10, more than 110 scholars sent a letter to Vice President Biden and members of his gun violence task force recommending that the government remove restrictions on “firearm-related research, policy formation, evaluation and enforcement efforts” and calling for direct investment in data collection and other research. Since the early 1990s, federal legislation funding the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has mandated that none of the funds “may be used, in whole or in part, to advocate or promote gun control.” The NIH and CDC are the primary sources of research grants 12 SANFORD InsIghts

Major NIH research awards and cumulative morbidity for select conditions in the US, 1973–2012 Condition Cholera Diphtheria Polio Rabies Total of 4 diseases Firearm injuries

Total cases 400 1337 266 65 2068

Total awards 212 56 129 89 486

> 4,000,000


in public health. When that language was introduced into the funding bills, “it completely cut out the public health people,” says Cook. He was one of the first three signatories on the letter to Biden. It included a list of the number of research awards from 1973 to 2012; there were only three.

Scholars Raise Their Voices Johns Hopkins University President Ronald Daniels led the next major scholarly response. A summit held Jan. 14-15 assembled 20 leading experts who presented and analyzed research-based approaches to reducing gun violence. The experts drafted a list of recommendations, including new regulations on background checks, trafficking and dealer licensing, mental health, assault weapons and research funding. Cook was one of the presenters, via Skype. Two weeks later, the Johns Hopkins University Press published the edited volume, Reducing Gun Violence in America: Informing Policy with Evidence and Analysis, which collected the work of the summit participants, with a forward by New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg. Copies were sent to policymakers across the country, including members of Congress and the Obama administration. Cook and Ludwig co-authored the second chapter, “The Limitations of the Brady Act: Evaluations and Implications.” Their research found little impact on the rate of homicides and suicides that could be attributed to the Brady Act and discussed possible reasons, including the restriction of background checks only to licensed dealers, the “private sale loophole.” Cook also co-authored the chapter “Preventing Gun Violence Involving People with Serious Mental Illness,” which raised the

search available. Cook found some of the controversy surprising, as the research has long “been out there for everyone to use and enjoy.” In an op-ed Cook and Ludwig wrote for The National Review they made the point that the case for a universal background check is actually stronger if the true percentage is lower, since as a logical matter it would affect fewer transactions. It’s one case where he hopes his critics are correct, he said.

frequently overlooked point that the majority of gun deaths each year are due to suicide, not homicide. The CDC reported that in 2010, 61 percent of all gun deaths in the United States —19,393 of 31,672 —were suicides.

The 40 Percent Question As the discussion of federal policy options intensified and began to focus on background checks, a figure from research done by Cook and Ludwig took center stage. The figure — 40 percent — is an estimate of the amount of gun sales that do not involve a federally licensed dealer, and hence would not normally be subject to a background check under current law. It comes from a survey conducted in 1994 that they reported on in 1996. President Obama used the 40 percent figure during his press conference announcing his plan for reducing gun violence. His plan included 23 executive actions; he also called on Congress to close background-check loopholes, ban assault weapons, improve


A New Chapter — Perhaps

Media converge on a gun rights advocate during a protest Dec. 17, 2012 in Washington, D.C. outside the NRA office.

mental health services and lift restrictions on research. Hours after the president’s announcements, Cook and Goss took part in a conference call with staff members from the North Carolina legislative delegation in D.C., discussing the issues and the proposals made by the White House. Goss, who lives outside Washington, has attended nearly every Capitol Hill hearing on gun policy reforms. At a public forum hosted by the House gun violence task force leader, Rep. Mike Thompson (D-Calif.), “the 40 percent figure was the first statistic that Rep. Thompson mentioned, and it was featured on a huge pie chart on the dais,” Goss said. It also has come up “again and again” in the Senate hearings, she said. “It’s obvious the 40 percent figure is laying the groundwork for the most important policy relating to guns in 20 years,” she said. Cook says the estimate “has been misquoted a bit.” Their conclusion was that the percentage was 30 to 40 percent, rather than precisely 40, and the figure refers to all sorts of transactions, not just sales; gifts and loans of firearms are quite common. Articles in The National Review contested the 40 percent figure, while The Washington Post ran a “fact-checker” piece on it, calling the information “stale” but acknowledging there is little other re-

There have been some signs of political change. Gun control was a major issue in a special Democratic primary for a Chicago congressional seat. The candidate with an “F” rating from the NRA attracted outside funders, including Mayor Bloomberg, and won the election over a favored candidate with an NRA “A” rating. The Senate Judiciary Committee held a series of hearings on gun violence in January and February. Goss attended the hearings, including one on Feb. 27, when Neil Heslin, the father of a boy shot at Sandy Hook, offered testimony. “It was “With Friday’s defiant statevery emotional; everyone ment, the National Rifle was in tears,” she said. In Association massed its troops March, four bills passed out of committee and were along familiar fronts in the expected to be considered culture war—and even by the full Senate. The bills would crack down on opened some new battle transfers to people not lelines. But it also squandered gally allowed to own guns, an opportunity to participate expand the background check system, fund imin reasonable dialogue with provements in school an America that has begun security and ban assault losing its appetite for political weapons and high-capacity magazines. Gun policy extremism.” reform measures have —Kristin Goss, op-ed, “The NRA’s Vision also passed, or are movof ‘Genuine Monsters,’” CNN online, ing through, legislatures in Dec. 24, 2012. several states. Goss is writing a follow-up book to Disarmed. “There is so much to learn by studying this in real time,” she said. Social change often happens when new voices join the debate, and Goss sees that happening now on gun violence. For example, exactly two years after she was shot in the head at a constituent event, former Congresswoman Giffords launched Americans for Responsible Solutions to raise money for pro-gun-control candidates and lobby for the cause. Both Cook and Goss think the legislation with the best chance of success is a measure to extend the scope of background checks. At the request of Oxford University Press, they are in discussions to co-author a book on gun violence and policy in a short, accessible Q&A format. “It’s a chance to educate the public” on the issue, said Cook. “The time for shrill, slogan-driven ‘national conversations’ is over,” said Goss. “The time to really talk has just begun.” Spring 2013 13

interview RoBERT Cook-dEEGAN, M.d.

Genomes, Mapping & Patents : QA DUKE PhotograPhy

How will this inform your work at Sanford? It will enrich my teaching, and has given me perspective on the challenges in higher education. I am working on an article for the Association of Governing Boards about the advantages of having a trustee serve as an interim president, as someone who can pose broader questions to the administration.

By Blair Trame After 10 years as director of the Duke Center for Genome Ethics, Law and Policy, Dr. Robert Cook-Deegan has stepped aside to focus on research, policy engagement and teaching. He weighs in on the impending U.S. Supreme Court decision regarding patentable genetic matter (in which he coauthored several amicus curiae briefs), the privacy implications of mapped genomes and his role in the new Duke in D.C. program. Recent events suggest the Supreme Court may reverse established practice in biotechnology patents, making DNA molecules whose sequences are found in living organisms ineligible to be patented. What are the implications of this decision? This case is unusual because it does not pit two litigants in a fight over who gets patent rights. The suit was brought by the ACLU and the Public Patent Foundation in order to change the law, 14 SANFORD InsIghts

not to make money. The suit was filed against the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Myriad Genetics and members of the board that oversees patents held by the University of Utah. Companies whose business plans are based on gene patents for DNA-based tests would have to devise a different patent strategy if the court rules against Myriad. That’s actually not very many companies. However, the intellectual framework that comes out of the decision could have an impact on other patents — for antibiotics, vaccines, hormones, stem cells and diagnostics on infectious microbes that are found in nature. This could affect agricultural biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, green-tech, the use of organisms to produce alternative fuels and other applications. What is your prediction? I expect the Supreme Court to reverse lower court decisions at least in part. I expect the Supreme Court to say that genes are just not the sort of thing that can be patented. Exactly how they say that is just as important as whether that’s what they decide.

Implications of making one’s genetic information public have been in the news recently. Can personal privacy be protected while still meeting the needs of the research community? Most of the time, yes, but some protections that we need are not yet in place. The idea that you can make your whole genome sequence publicly available and that nobody would know it is yours no longer appears to be plausible. So, in the age of DNA sequencing, what we mean by anonymity will change. The federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) prohibits discrimination in health insurance and employment, and many states have even stronger protections. Safeguards and penalties for misuse similar to those that govern financial data could be applied to genetic data. States and other countries are beginning to take this on. The federal government may also expand beyond GINA. The Affordable Care Act protects individuals from being denied health insurance based on pre-existing conditions, including those discovered through genetic testing.

Currently, there are no laws governing the use of genetic information by life insurance, long-term care insurance and disability insurance companies. What does this mean for consumers? For insurers?

Insurers already use questionnaires and interviews to gauge the risk of, say, Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, there is nothing stopping insurers other than health insurers from denying coverage to consumers based on genetic information. Conversely, companies in the market need to protect against such risk or they could go bankrupt. Sanford Professor Don Taylor has analyzed options for the longterm care insurance market in light of Alzheimer’s disease genetic testing. We could make long-term care insurance an entitlement, we could subside high-risk individuals, we could mandate coverage like automobile insurance, or we can allow the market to stratify into high-risk/high-price and low-risk/ low-cost. It’s a policy debate we need to have. What is your role in the Duke in D.C. program? I’m teaching one of the courses for Duke in Washington this spring, the first time we’ve offered the program. It’s exactly the teaching I love. I believe in the synergy between doing policy research and teaching. It’s really fun for me and I hope also for the students. In D.C., people are looking to solve policy problems. Duke students can get involved in that process. The program provides an opportunity for academic research layered on top of real-world engagement.


Diversity Study Finds Economic Disparities Rising In NC Schools The racial balance in North Carolina’s public schools has remained steady since 2005-06, ending a trend of growing disparity from the previous decade, but students are increasingly separated by income. These are among the findings of a comprehensive report from Sanford professors Charles Clotfelter, Helen Ladd and Jacob Vigdor. They studied whether schools in each of the state’s 100 counties mirror the racial and economic composition of that county as a whole. “Although state-enforced school segregation is now a distant memory, significant disparities remain between schools, both racial and economic,” Clotfelter said. “These disparities are among the most pressing civil rights issues of our time.” “Racial and Economic Diversity in North Carolina’s Schools: An Update” highlights the important role played by public policies in shaping the diversity of school populations. Local districts can reduce disparities by merging city and county

Counties with the Highest White/Nonwhite School Level Imbalance Index, 2011/12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Halifax Davidson Mecklenberg Alamance Forsyth Lenoir Guilford Chatham Union Rowan

0.48 0.35 0.33 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.22

Source: N.C. Department of Public Instruction, membership data, 2011/12. Authors’ calculations.

school districts and adopting student assignment plans that minimize economic disparities between schools, while state policymakers can take steps to limit the number of charter schools or ensure they have diverse student bodies, the report states. Ladd noted that across some North Carolina counties, racial and economic imbalances in schools are large. “These disparities are important because research shows they can have negative educational consequences for students,” she said.

ONLINE The report was published in January in the Sanford Working Papers series online: research.

The imbalance index measures the degree to which the racial composition of public schools in a county fails to mirror that of the county as a whole. This index ranges from 0 (signifying schools that are perfectly balanced in racial composition, and thus not segregated) to 1 (signifying total separation of students). An index of 0.20, for example, indicates that actual interracial contact in the schools is 20 percent less than it would be if all schools in the county were perfectly balanced by race.

Nonprofit Group Calls On IRS to Modernize Rules for News Startups The Nonprofit Media Working Group, a nonpartisan group of foundation and nonprofit media leaders, recommended in March that the IRS modernize its rules to remove obstacles in the way of nonprofit news outlets. The working group, created by the Council on Foundations (COF), grew in part out of a May 2009 conference at the Sanford School of Public Policy organized by Professor James T. Hamilton, director of the DeWitt Wallace Center for Media and Democracy. Hamilton served as a consultant to the Federal Communications Commission working group that produced the 2011 report, “The Information Needs of Communities,” and also was a member of the COF working group.

The agency’s “antiquated” approach to granting tax-exempt status has undermined the creation of new media models, the group said in its report, “The IRS and Nonprofit Media: Toward Creating a More Informed Public.” As more online publications began applying for nonprofit status, the IRS noted the trend and slowed down approvals, Hamilton said. As a member of the COF working group, Hamilton provided the economic argument in favor of granting tax-exempt status to nonprofit news organizations. “Accountability journalism should be considered a ‘public good,’” Hamilton said. “There is a market failure in news, although the FCC is still not willing to say that. Because of this, organizations trying to provide ‘broccoli journalism’ should receive indirect public support through tax benefits.”

ONLINE The full report can be read at

Spring 2013 15

senior profile MELIssA YEo

Student Focuses Duke Experiences on Points Where Media, Policy Meet By Anna Koelsch

“When I was trying to decide what to major in, I was torn between history, economics and political science. Public policy presented itself as a mix of all three.” Background art: An upended house in Ofunato, Japan, following an earthquake and subsequent tsunami, March 15, 2011. (Credit: U.S. Navy Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Matthew M. Bradley)


Cooling towers of the Byron Generating Station in northern Illinois, about 110 miles west of Chicago.

16 SANFORD InsIghts

During her four years at Duke, senior Melissa Yeo has explored media from different angles: snapping photographs for The Chronicle, serving as a research assistant on media-related projects, interning for the Sanford School of Public Policy’s communications office and, finally, writing a thesis analyzing media coverage of the Fukushima disaster. She started working at The Chronicle during the first week of her freshman year, and rose to photography editor during her junior year. Among the highlights were photographing President Obama during a visit to the Triangle, and twice shooting Duke-UNC basketball games. She currently serves as the creative director for Towerview, The Chronicle’s magazine. Yeo, originally from Singapore, will graduate with a double major in public policy and environmental sciences and policy. The public policy major allowed her to combine the majority of her academic interests, she said. “When I was trying to decide what to major in in college I was torn between history, economics and political science,” Yeo said. “Public policy presented itself as a mix of all three. It’s a way for me to do one major but study all the things I’m academically interested in.”

Her favorite professors include Evan Charney, who taught Policy Choice as Value Conflict, environmental history professor Gunther Peck and Phil Bennett, who taught News as a Moral Battleground. Her closest relationship has been with Jay Hamilton, who taught Political Analysis for Public Policy. Yeo started as Hamilton’s research assistant during the summer after her freshman year. Yeo’s projects over the next two years included evaluating the effectiveness of open government initiatives and assessing press access laws across states. She worked as his research assistant until her junior year, when, with his encouragement, she became his thesis student. “Professor Hamilton really shaped my interest in media analysis and media economics, and strongly encouraged me to do a thesis,” Yeo said. Initially, Yeo thought she wanted to write about media coverage of climate change. But, a personal experience led her to change her topic. She planned to study abroad in Japan during the summer after her sophomore year, but the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami led to the Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, and her parents refused to let her go to Japan. She told them Fukushima was far from where she planned to study, but her parents insisted it was unsafe, citing what they had read in newspapers. Yeo said this prompted her interest in studying how media covered Fukushima. Yeo’s thesis explored whether physical proximity to a domestic nuclear plant affected a U.S. newspaper’s coverage of Fukushima. She conducted a content analysis of more than 1,400 newspaper articles from 60 cities, coded each with one of 12 possible codes, found how much of each content type appeared and measured that against the distance to the nearest nuclear plant. “I was surprised by how clear and consistent the results from my data were,” Yeo said. Yeo found coverage of U.S. nuclear facilities increased after the Fukushima accident. Newspapers closer to a nuclear

thing came together,” Yeo said. In her last semester at Duke, Yeo interned for McKinney, a Durhambased advertising agency. The experience was a change of pace from her other internship experiences, which included working as a research intern at the Singapore Institute of International Affairs in 2011 and as a communications intern for the League of Conservation Voters in Washington, D.C. After graduation, Yeo said she hopes to work in some facet of communications. “My thesis really helped solidify my interest in how people connect to policy, how people connect to ideas, and how policy and ideas are communicated to them,” Yeo said. “… I want to do something in the media world that explores that connection more.” MatEEN saFFarIaN

plant demonstrated a greater increase in articles about nearby plants, while newspapers farther from a nuclear plant demonstrated a smaller increase. The changes were proportional to the proximity of the plants. She also found that newspapers closer to nuclear plants provided more information about safety and the technological causes of the meltdown, while newspapers farther from nuclear plants tended to write about human interest and health implications. Her thesis earned highest distinction in the public policy major. Yeo said writing a thesis taught her a lot about her academic interests and her working style, as well as how to set deadlines and effectively manage time. “I loved my thesis because I’m interested in media analysis, and I’m interested in Japan, so every-

Hamilton to Depart for Stanford After 23 years at Duke, James T. (Jay) Hamilton will leave at the end of this semester for Stanford University in California, where he will become the Hearst Professor of Communication and direct the school’s graduate program in journalism. Hamilton, the Charles S. Sydnor Professor of Public Policy and professor of economics and political science at Duke, has directed Sanford’s DeWitt Wallace Center for Media and Democracy since 2008. He also co-leads the undergraduate Policy Journalism and Media Studies Certificate program. In 2012, Hamilton received Sanford’s Susan E. Tifft Undergraduate Teaching and Mentoring Award in recognition of teaching that exemplifies hands-on, integrated learning. He taught more than 2,000 Duke students, many in the core course “Political Analysis for Public Policy,” which he taught 25 times. Hamilton also mentored 81 students though honors theses, master’s projects and independent studies.

Hamilton said the new professorship will give him the opportunity to continue his research in the emerging field of computational journalism in a region ideally matched for it — Silicon Valley. Ninety percent of Stanford’s freshmen take an introductory computer science course, he noted. “I’m hoping the journalism program will become a larger hub that attracts new tech companies to the field of journalism,” he said. Hamilton will continue pursuing a renewal of “accountability journalism,” which has suffered due to major economic shifts in the media industry. He has two related books in progress. The Stanford communications department has about 65 undergraduate journalism majors, a technology-focused master’s degree program and the nation’s top-ranked PhD program. Hamilton spent a sabbatical year at Stanford’s Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in 2007-08, led two workshops at Stanford and has collaborated

with future colleagues, including co-author Fred Turner. The department’s faculty includes veterans of The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. Under Hamilton’s direction, the DeWitt Wallace Center hired leading journalists as professors of the practice, sought new economic models for news, and aimed to create new tools to lower the cost of investigative reporting — the mission of the center’s Reporters’ Lab, launched by Sarah Cohen in 2011. Closing the gap in data and news available to low-income people has been another area of focus for the center. Hamilton served as a consultant to the Federal Communications Commission and pursued other media policy engagement projects, while also forging new interdisciplinary connections on campus. A Duke lecture series on computational journalism will begin next year in partnership with the computer science department. “The opportunity to go to Stanford was a great opportunity for Jay,” Dean Bruce Kuniholm

ONLINE Read another student profile online: Public Policy Senior Ian Harwood researched college gender violence prevention programs.

said in an email message to Sanford School faculty and staff, “and the prospect of a leadership position in one of the top journalism programs in the country, at a school whose resources dwarf Duke’s, was one that was impossible for him to pass up… “Jay has been one of very few who have made Sanford what it is over the last 20 years and we owe more than I can recount here for what he has done for us.” Hamilton was assistant director of the Sanford Institute in 2001-02 and revamped the undergraduate curriculum during the time he served as director of undergraduate studies (2004-07). He was a candidate for dean of the school during its first search in 2011-12, but did not seek the position when a new search began last fall. Founding director of the Sanford Institute Joel Fleishman, professor of law and public policy, told The Chronicle he was heartbroken to learn of Hamilton’s decision. “This is truly an extraordinary loss for Sanford and Duke,” he said.

Spring 2013 17

faculty books & publications Clotfelter, Charles T., H.F. Ladd, and J.L. Vigdor. Racial and Economic Diversity in North Carolina’s Schools: An Update. Sanford School of Public Policy Working Paper 13-01 (Jan. 16, 2012). Clotfelter, C.T., H.F. Ladd, and J.L. Vigdor. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 18161 (June 2012). Clotfelter, C.T. Op-ed. Even in Death, College Sports Fans Remain Die-Hards. Indianapolis Star, Nov. 30, 2012. College Football Fans are Devoted, Right to the End, Newark Star-Ledger, Nov. 30, 2012. College Team Passions are Never Laid to Rest, News and Observer, Dec. 3, 2012. Cook, Philip J. and J. Ludwig. 2013. The Limited Impact of the Brady Act: Evaluation and Implications. In D. Webster and J.S. Vernick, eds., Reducing Gun Violence in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Swanson, Jeffrey W., P.J. Cook, et al. 2013. Preventing Gun Violence Involving People with Serious Mental Illness. In D. Webster and J.S. Vernick, eds., Reducing Gun Violence in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Cook, P. J., Op-ed. Gun Point, The Times of India, Dec. 24, 2012. How can we reduce gun violence? The Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 8, 2013. Cook, P.J. Book Review. Voice of Calm in Debate on Guns: Craig R. Whitney’s ‘Living With Guns’ Nods to Both Sides. The New York Times, Dec. 25, 2012. Cook-Deegan, Robert, et al. 2012. The Next Controversy in Genetic Testing: Clinical Data as Trade Secrets? The European Journal of Human Genetics. Nov. 14, 2012. doi: 10.1038/ ejhg.2012.217 Cook-Deegan, R. 2012. Law and Science Collide Over Gene Patents. Science 338:745-747. Cook-Deegan, R. 2013. Genomics and Patents: A Practical Guide for Genome Scientists and Clinical Researchers. In G. S. Ginsburg and H.F. Willard, eds., Genomic and Personalized Medicine Vol.1 (2nd Ed.). London: Elsevier (Academic Press): 464-473. Darity, Jr., William, A.A., Aja, and D. Hamilton. Op-ed. If Not Race, Then Wealth: Why Universities Should Avoid Income As Proxy for Race-Based Admissions Policy. Huffington Post, Jan. 16, 2013. 18 SANFORD InsIghts

Goss, Kristin A. 2012. The Paradox of Gender Equality: How American Women’s Groups Gained and Lost Their Public Voice. University of Michigan Press.

Professors Update Book on HIV in the South


second edition of “You’re the First One I’ve Told:” The New Faces of HIV in the South by Kathryn Whetten, professor of public policy and global health, and Brian Pence, associate professor of community and family medicine and global health, has been released by Rutgers University Press. First published in 2002 with Trang Quyen Nguyen as co-author, the book featured the stories of 25 people living with HIV/AIDS combined with survey data from the Deep South. In the 10 years since, HIV/AIDS has continued to spread through the rural South, which accounts for 36 percent of new cases while representing 22 percent of the U.S. population. The book’s second edition incorporates research from the authors’ recent quantitative study, “Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast” (CHASE), which includes 611 HIV-positive patients from North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Louisiana. The research showed that many of the patients had also experienced sexual abuse, family violence and other traumatic events and highlights challenges to treating this population. “We found that HIV was simply one more event in a long history of traumatic life experiences,” the authors wrote. “We believe it is critical to develop HIV medical care models that acknowledge, ask about and respond to patients’ life histories in order to best promote patients’ health.”

Darity, Jr., W. 2012. From Here to Full Employment. Review of Black Political Economy Online, Nov. 2012. 12xok09

Darity, Jr., W., and D. Hamilton, 2012. Bold Policies for Economic Justice. Review of Black Political Economy 39 (1):79-85.

Darity, Jr., W. et al. 2012. Antipoverty Policy: The Role of Individualist and Structural Perspectives. In P.N. Jefferson, ed., The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press: 780-796.

Darity, Jr., W. 2011. A New (Incorrect) Harvard/Washington Consensus: Review of William Julius Wilson’s More than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City. DuBois Review 8(2):467476.

Darity, Jr., W. et al. 2012. Causality in the Relationship Between Mental Health and Unemployment. In L.D. Appelbaum, ed., Reconnecting to Work: Policies to Mitigate Long-Term Unemployment and Its Consequences. Kalamazoo, Mich.: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research: 63-94.

Elson, Tony. 2012. Global Financial Reform — Where Do Things Stand? World Economics 13(2):155-170.

Darity, Jr., W., and D. Hamilton, 2012. Crowded Out? The Racial Composition of American Occupations. In J.S. Jackson et al., eds., Researching Black Communities: A Methodological Guide. University of Michigan Press: 60-78.

Fuller, Sarah, and H. F. Ladd. 2013. School-Based Accountability and the Distribution of Teacher Quality Among Grades in Elementary Schools. CALDER Working Paper 75 (February 2013). Gassman-Pines, Anna, E. B. Godfrey and H. Yoshikawa. 2013. Parental goals moderate the effects of welfare policies on children: A person-environment fit approach. Child Development 84:198208.

Hemming, Richard, and G. Everaert. 2012. Some Fiscal Priorities for Development. In T. Henckel, ed., Sustaining Development and Growth in East Asia. Oxford: Routledge Studies in the Growth Economies of Asia, Oct. 3, 2012. Hemming, R. 2012. Public Debt Sustainability and Hidden Liabilities in the Peoples’ Republic of China. In B. Ferrarini et al., eds., Public Debt Sustainability in Developing Asia. Asian Development Bank/Routledge. Hemming, R., et al. 2013. Beyond the Annual Budget—Global Experience with Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Jentleson, Bruce. 2012. The Obama Administration and R2P: Progress, Problems and Prospects. Global Responsibility to Protect Journal 4(4). Kelly, Roy. 2013. Property Tax Collection and Enforcement. In W.J. McCluskey et al., eds., Primer for the Property Tax: Policy and Administration. West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publications Ltd.:141-170. Das, Jishnu, Manoj Mohanan, et al. 2012. In Urban and Rural India, A Standardized Patient Study Showed Low Levels of Provider Training and Huge Quality Gaps. Health Affairs 31(12): 2774-2784. Pizer, William A., R.G. Newell and D. Raimi. 2013. Carbon Markets 15 Years after Kyoto: Lessons Learned, New Challenges. Journal of Economic Perspectives 27(1):123-46. Vigdor, Jacob L. 2013. Solving America’s Math Problem. Education Next 13(1).

This is a sample of publications by Sanford faculty. For more complete information visit faculty web pages at

Sanford Alums Plentiful at GAO, OMB By Blair Trame More than 30 Sanford alumni have positions at the Office of Management and Budget and the Government Accountability Office, where they have access to the White House and top cabinet agency administrators and provide influential analyses for critical decision making. The number of MPP alums in these agencies is considerable, given the relatively small size of Sanford’s master of public policy program, said Donna Dyer, the Sanford School’s director of career services. At the GAO, Sanford alums total 18, including staff at the main Washington, D.C., office as well as in various field offices. OMB boasts more than a dozen Sanford alums at every level of the organization. As Associate Director for Health Keith Fontenot MPP ’82 oversaw the massive health care budget and prepared many analyses for the health reform effort. He left March 31st for Brookings Institution. Controller Danny Werfel MPP ’97 is guiding federal agencies through the spending cuts demanded in implementing the sequester. In addition, branch chiefs and analysts manage important financial accounts in many policy areas, including health care, education, energy, environment and infrastructure development. At the OMB, Werfel says, “We work in a fast-paced environment where every day has a different footprint. We support the president and his administration, which depends on us as a critical anchor for how they approach any policy debate.” Werfel explained that most assignments have a turnaround of only one to three hours. Analytical skills and the ability to communicate concisely and effectively are

paramount at both agencies, alumni said. Gregory Wilhusen, director of information security issues at the GAO, summed up three primary attributes he looks for when hiring GAO staff. “We look for people with critical thinking skills, capable of doing data-driven analysis. We look for people with strong communication skills, people who can write in a concise and convincing manner. Lastly, our projects usually include team members of different skill sets and backgrounds, so the ability and energy to operate and coordinate with others is key.” Senior Policy Analyst Rebecca Rose MPP ’09 says, “At the GAO, there are quantitative and qualitative folks, and neither group does a very good job of coordinating with each other. Bridging this divide is key. The skills I picked up at Sanford allow me to do just that.” GAO Digital Communications Manager Jeremy Cluchey MPP ’09, took his communication skills a step further, applying his broadcast experience at Duke’s radio station, WXDU, when he launched the GAO podcast program. Since its inception in 2010, Cluchey has produced over 140 podcasts. Podcasts usually feature Cluchey engaging in a question and answer session with GAO report authors. “Podcasts are an effective way to communicate the work that GAO does. Instead of reading our reports, people can listen to a 5-minute podcast and get the gist of the research that’s coming out of the GAO.” Will Carroll MPP ’10, program examiner in OMB’s education branch, is responsible

During a Senate Appropriations Committee hearing on sequestration in Washington D.C., Feb. 14, 2013, Controller Danny Werfel, Office of Management and Budget, far left, testifies with the Secretaries of Education, Arne Duncan; HUD, Shaun Donovan, Homeland Security Janet Napolitano, and Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter.

for policy ranging from charter schools to education on Native American reservations. The wide expanse of policy areas requires a strong knowledge base as well as the industriousness to gain deeper knowledge on an issue. Says Carroll, “I’m not able to be an expert on every one of the programs I oversee. When a proposal comes my way, I need to know where to find quality information and where to find it quickly.” In the fast-paced environment of the OMB, Carroll and Laura Duke MPP ’06, program examiner, VA/defense health branch, said communicating with busy bosses, “may mean summarizing your expertise in a one-paragraph email.” Carroll says stating the facts isn’t enough. “We’re expected to go out on a limb and make a recommendation.” Because both agencies are small and have flat organizational charts, new staff can quickly make key contributions, Dyer said. At GAO, for example, staff members testify before Congress on the results of their research more than 200 times each year. Sanford alums have thrived at both agencies. “The personalities of each organization suit different types of people,” Dyer said. “Those who are interested in research and analysis and finding the right answer gravitate to the GAO,” she said. “People who value the proximity to the White House and administration, the faster pace and finding the politically expedient answer, backed up by solid analysis, gravitate to the OMB. In both places, they find their work makes a difference.” Spring 2013 19

ErIN a. KIrK-CUoMo, DoD



Women’s Voices Falter in American Politics By Kristin A. Goss Associate Professor of Public Policy and Political Science


hroughout much of the 20th century, American women’s organizations championed broad concerns ranging from strengthening public education and care for the vulnerable, to environmentalism, international peace, civil rights and electoral reform. Over time, seismic shifts occurred in the agendas and authority of American women, and in recent times, women’s organizations have become a weaker presence. They focus on specialized concerns and are often regarded as marginal, special-interest players on the national political scene. How did this happen, and why should we care? My recent study probes women’s national political advocacy from 1878 to 2000 by tracking 10,400 instances when women’s organizations testified before Congress. Examining the groups that testified and the causes they espoused offers a unique window into women’s advocacy and helps us to unravel the causes and consequences of American women’s reduced influence in political life.

THE RISE AND FALL OF WOMEN’S GROUPS The conventional wisdom about women in public life goes something like this: In the early 20th century, feisty activists with big hats and bold signs mobilized to win the right to vote — think “the suffragette.” The next generation squandered the victory by embracing wifely and motherly devotion at home — think June Cleaver. There women stayed until the feminist equal rights movement erupted in the 1970s, taking them out of the kitchen and into public life – think Hillary Clinton. Unfortunately, this narrative gets the story of women’s collective engagement in public life almost exactly wrong. 20 SANFORD InsIghts

Far from retreating into private life, organized women in the post-suffrage era charged into the halls of power and played a pivotal role in debates about the most important domestic and foreign policy legislation. The authority of women’s associations peaked during the supposedly placid 1950s and ’60s. In contrast, after the women’s movement of the 1970s, women’s groups faded. By the late 1990s, they became less prominent on Capitol Hill than they had been before the right to vote was secured in 1920. The policy agendas of women’s groups moved from broad advocacy in “the public interest” to lobbying for special rights. From the 1920s through the 1960s, women’s groups spoke to an expanding array of issues from education to international affairs, immigration, health care, retirement policy, civil rights and the environment. To convey their political authority, women’s groups often drew on narratives of maternal care and good citizenship, which resonated with women’s roles as mothers and caregivers and leveraged popular perceptions of their special civic virtue. From the 1970s, however, women’s groups narrowed their emphasis to advocating specifically for female rights, status and wellbeing. Maternal and civic narratives gave way to justifications rooted in professional expertise and occupational advancement.

WHAT DROVE CHANGES? Multipurpose, mass-membership associations that spoke for tens of millions of women, such as the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, aged and faded from the Washington scene. Smaller feminist groups blazed through Capitol Hill hearing rooms in the 1970s through the early 1980s, but then declined in prominence. Women’s groups that arose in the “post-feminist” era were small and focused on niche causes. Women’s organizations lost breadth, size and national clout for several reasons:

• The movement of mothers and educated women into the paid labor force left them unable to put large amounts of time into associational life, and at the same time boosted women’s reliance on occupational and professional groups. • Professionalization and specialization took hold for all kinds of U.S. interest groups in the late 20th century, and women’s groups were forced to adapt. Volunteerism and inclusive member activities declined. • Public policy in the 1970s and after acknowledged that women were an aggrieved group and created incentives for them to organize around gender-equality claims. When further policies addressed some of the most glaring injustices, organized activism ironically lost some of its special impetus.

WHY IT MATTERS Women learn valuable civic skills in women’s groups —more so than in mixedgender organizations — and these skills help launch females into political leadership. Conversely, mixed-gender groups mostly remain male dominated and often fail to articulate or implement women’s distinctive views. This matters, because women tend to hold more progressive views on issues such as health care, gun control and international cooperation. Females remain a minority in public office (e.g., just 17 percent of the House and Senate in 2012), and studies show that women’s groups are key in urging lawmakers to champion women’s concerns and supporting the lawmakers when they do so. The Paradox of Gender Equality: How American Women’s Groups Gained and Lost Their Public Voice by Kristin A. Goss (University of Michigan Press, 2012) Republished with permission from Scholars Strategy Network.

ITHACA, N.Y. Evan Charney Feb. 7-8, 2013 Presentation: “Behavior Genetics and Post Genomics” Cornell University Department of Psychology EAST LANSING, MICH. Helen Ladd Dec. 14, 2012 Presented paper: “The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra,” co-authored with Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor Michigan State University, Economics of Education Project

WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. Robert Cook-Deegan Nov. 14, 2012 Presentation: “Personal Genomics in an Era of Ubiquitous DNA Sequencing” Cedars-Sinai Medical Center SAN DIEGO, CALIF. Bruce Jentleson Jan. 6, 2013 Chaired a session on educational accountability American Economic Association meetings TUCSON, ARIZ. Bruce Jentleson Jan. 31, 2013 Lecture: “Challenges of the 21st Century and the Future of U.S. Superpower Status” Tucson Committee on Foreign Relations

NEW YORK, N.Y. Anna Gassman-Pines Dec. 3, 2012 Talk: “Children Left Behind: The Effects of Statewide Job Loss on Student Achievement” Institute of Human Development and Social Change, New York University NEW YORK, N.Y. Judith Kelley Oct. 25, 2012 Talk: “From Scrutiny to Shame: Social Pressure in U.S. Anti-Human Trafficking Policy” New York University School of Law

NASHVILLE, TENN. William Darity Jr. Jan. 14, 2013 Lecture: “Achieving Racial Equality in ‘Post-Racial’ America” Vanderbilt University School of Law ORLANDO, FLA. Nicholas Carnes Jan. 3-5, 2013 Presentation: “Who’s Selling Working-Class Candidates Short? [Preliminary] Evidence from a National Survey of State Legislative Candidates” Southern Political Science Association annual meeting

SanfordAbroAd Sanford School faculty travel worldwide, giving presentations and lectures and conducting research. This map shows selected recent faculty activities. COPENHAGEN, DENMARK Bruce Jentleson Dec. 6, 2012 Workshop: Senior Foreign Policy Advisors’ Workshop in International Security Brookings Institution and Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs

WASHINGTON, D.C. Philip Cook Jan. 24, 2013 Speaker: “The role of private sector action in crime control” Vera Institute of Justice Judith Kelley Feb. 4, 2013 Talk: “From Scrutiny to Shame: Information as Social Pressure in International Relations” Georgetown University Helen Ladd Feb. 22, 2013 Presented paper: “Developmental Education in North Carolina Community Colleges” Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research (CALDER) annual conference

COPENHAGEN, DENMARK Judith Kelley Oct. 15, 2012 Talk: “International Election Observation” Danish Foreign Ministry

BALTIMORE, MD. Helen Ladd Nov. 8-10, 2012 Presented two papers: “Developmental Education in North Carolina Community Colleges,” and “Early Childhood Initiatives and Special Education Placement in Third Grade: Evidence from North Carolina,” co-authored with Clara Muschkin and Kenneth Dodge Association for Public Policy Analysis & Management fall conference Jacob Vigdor November 8-10, 2012 Moderated panel discussion on school compliance with federal mandates Association for Public Policy Analysis & Management fall conference

PARIS, FRANCE Robert Cook-Deegan Nov. 12, 2012 Presentation: “Biotechnology, the Genome, and the Internet: Growing Up Together” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

BANGALORE, INDIA Manoj Mohanan Dec. 19, 2012 Guest Lecture Indian Institute of Management ISTANBUL, TURKEY Helen Ladd Oct. 2012 Talk on Schools and Religion Institute for the Alliance of Civilizations BRIDGETOWN, BARBADOS William Darity Jr. Nov. 26, 2012 Lecture: “High Unemployment: Global and Local” Barbados Central Bank

Spring 2013 21

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ix-term veteran Senator Richard Lugar (R-Ind.) gave the Terry Sanford Distinguished Lecture in the Fleishman Commons on Feb. 12. In a conversation with Dean Bruce Kuniholm, Lugar discussed today’s hyper-partisan climate in Washington. Congress is failing in basic tasks of governance, he said. He called on President Obama to sit down with political opponents to begin to heal the divide. He blamed the uncivil tone of discourse mainly on “a massive industry that makes money off of political discord.” This industry encompasses broadcast, online and print media, think tanks and Super PACs. While American media have always thrived on controversy, in the Internet era age both the opportunities and the political rewards have mushroomed, Lugar said. Lugar spent the day visiting public policy classes and meeting with student groups. Find Lugar’s remarks and video of his talk on the Sanford School website:

DUKE PhotograPhy

Lugar Delivers Sanford Lecture

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Sanford Insights  
Sanford Insights  

Sanford Insights is the biannual magazine of the Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University, reporting on faculty and student resea...