GRØN DYST 2016 Book of abstracts

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Green Challenge

Student conference on sustainability, the environment and climate technology.


PROGRAMME 9.30 - 10.00 REGISTRATION

10.00 - 10.15 WELCOME BY MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT CHRISTINE ANTORINI

10.45 - 12.35 JUDGING THE PROJECTS

12.35 - 13.35 LUNCH

13.35 - 15.20 JUDGING THE PROJECTS

15.20 - 16.15 RECEPTION, (DELIBERATION)

15.45 - 16.15 ENTERTAINMENT WITH MAGICIAN/COMEDIAN RUNE KLAN

en Gre

l Cha

e leng

16.15 - 17.00 AWARD CEREMONY WITH KOREAN AMBASSADOR IN DENMARK YOUNG-SAM MA

17:30 - 21.00 – BBQ and DJ 18.30 CONCERT WITH SINGER-SONG WRITER ANNIKA AAKJÆR

BBQ FROM 17.30, GRØNNEGÅRDEN BBQ, DJ AND CONCERT ARE FREE FOR GREEN CHALLENGE PARTICIPANTS. FOR NON PARTICIPANTS TICKETS ARE AVAILABLE AT S-HUSET


CONTENT Welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Case story 1: Donkey Republic goes worldwide after Green Challenge 2015. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Case story 2: Shark skin and fluid dynamics put to the test in Green Challenge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Case story 3: Students on a blue mission. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Green Challenge 2015. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Judging panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Presentation formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Criteria for project evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Legend info. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Acknowledgements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Abstracts Bachelor level course/project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Bachelor final assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Master level course/project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Master thesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

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WELCOME Dear participant, Welcome to DTU and to the Green Challenge (GRĂ˜N DYST) Student Conference 2016. Climate change, deteriorating ecosystems, decreasing biodiversity, poverty, and a continuously growing population are among the global challenges that may have catastrophic implications for humanity. To reverse this development, the world needs new and innovative technical solutions, and creative engineers who will play a pivotal role in the transition towards a sustainable society. At DTU we are committed to incorporate sustainability, environmental issues, and climate technology as fundamental aspects in all of our engineering programmes and research.

Marianne Thellersen Senior Vice President—Innovation and Entrepreneurship Member of the Green Challenge executive committee

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The Green Challenge student conference is an annual and unique opportunity for participating students to present their projects to their peers and professors as well as invited guest and DTU alumni. We are delighted that Christine Antorini, Chairman of the Danish Education and Research Committee has agreed to open the Green Challenge student conference 2016 and also participate as one of the judges. Welcome to a day of discovery and eye-opening sustainable solutions.

Martin E. Vigild Dean of Undergraduate Studies and Student Affairs, Chairman of the Green Challenge executive committee


The Green Challenge (GRØN DYST) student conference — celebrating DTU’s partnerships with leading universities around the world

Dear participant, The Green Challenge student conference addresses global problems. When universities engage in research that may lead to future solutions, they do so in collaboration with universities and researchers from around the world. The Green Challenge student conference brings together bright minds from across the globe. Innovative DTU students work alongside innovative students from some of DTU’s esteemed partner universities. This gathering of international students from many different countries adds real value to Green Challenge. It brings even more new perspectives to the table, and it makes the event truly international.

Having an international campus that provides a real international learning experience to all of its students – domestic and international – is very important to DTU as a means of showing its openness to the world. Green Challenge reflects this and is an important annual event at DTU. It would not be as significant an event without the presence of talents from some of the leading universities in the world. A warm welcome to a day with a strong international flavour. And a special welcome to participating international students and international members of our judging panels. Your presence and contribution is highly appreciated.

Martin Bendsøe Senior Vice President, Dean of Graduate Studies and International Affairs

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Waste & recycling Water Energy conversion, distribution and storage Food and Health Energy from wind, sun and water

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Buildings and infrastructure Transport Communication Concepts and Technologies Environmental Problems and Solutions Products and Sustainability

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DONKEY REPUBLIC GOES

Donkey Republic was one of the first prize winners of Green Challenge 2015. And since then, it has been full steam ahead for the then small, budding start-up project. “In 2016, we have introduced Donkey Republic in 20 countries,” says Alexander Frederiksen, who participated in Green Challenge with the Donkey Republic project last year, and who is now CMO for Donkey Republic. Bike rental the flexible way Donkey Republic has developed a—in principle— global bicycle rental service, among other things with support from a successful crowdfunding campaign. By means of a smart lock, which can be activated with a mobile phone and an app, you can easily find a rental bike in Copenhagen and pay the fee right away. Donkey Republic has made bike rental flexible. Why a donkey? Why is the bicycle called a ‘donkey’? As a bike is also called an ‘iron horse’ in Denmark, the people behind the project thought it would be fun to call their bike a ‘donkey’, mainly because a donkey is

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reliable and hard-working, even though this may not be quite as fast as a horse. Technical challenges One of the main challenges for Donkey Republic was to make a lock with a low power consumption. The battery must be able to last up to 500 days, which is difficult to achieve. Another challenge was the connection between the lock and a smartphone. The locks are based on stateof-the-art Bluetooth technology. It has to work the first time you activate it. The app must always be able to send a message to the lock to check whether it’s locked, a function that eats into battery life. In addition, you need a smartphone to be able to unlock the bike. We have now also launched an offline version of the system, so you only need Internet access once before you pick up a bike


WORLDWIDE AFTER GREEN CHALLENGE 2015

and once after you have returned it. This makes it easier for tourists to use the bike rental service. Donkey Republic also received financial support from the European innovation platform ClimateKIC and participated in Climate-KIC’s ‘Journey to Paris’ campaign, which had the COP21 summit as its destination.

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SHARK SKIN AND FLUID

On the DTU course project in Physics and Nanotechnology, Thomas Erik Bohn Smitshuysen wrote a project about how sharks use their skin to lower fluid resistance (drag) when swimming.

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Thomas and his partner Emil Christian Jensen took the opportunity to enter their project in DTU’s Green Chellenge student conference. Not much time for preparations “Our participation was actually a bit unexpected, because we were both busy putting the final touches on the experiments that were part of our project.


DYNAMICS

PUT TO THE TEST IN GREEN CHALLENGE

The decision to participate and the deadline for submitting an abstract actually coincided, and with exams just around the corner, a half-finished experiment, and a report, Green Challenge was not exactly the extra burden we were looking for,” Thomas says. “But with the prospect of a fun day, a free Green Challenge T-shirt, and a barbecue party, we deci-

ded to write an abstract and to participate after all,” Thomas explains. “The preparations for Green Challenge were quite stressful. On the afternoon we had to prepare for the conference, we ran into computer problems, we had problems with the plan for our presentation, and, when the poster was finished, the printer played up. And even though the poster perhaps isn’t the most professional product I’ve made, we had to make do with it,” says Thomas. Caught by the atmosphere It wasn’t until the day of the conference that Emil and Thomas actually became aware what Green Challenge really is and what the day can be used for. “It was the first time we had to present a complex physical idea and at the same time sell it as something both feasible and useful,” says Thomas. “Emil and I had worked thoroughly on our project for six months, so we were seized by the atmosphere. We were therefore extremely proud, even though we came off to a bumpy start. And we were therefore also very surprised when we—in the afternoon at the end of the Green Challenge conference—were awarded a second place by the panel of judges,” says Thomas.

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STUDENTS ON A

BLUE MISSION “It’s absolutely brilliant in its simplicity. Impressive with functional prototype. Great potential for reduced water consumption.” It was the opinion of one of the judges at Green Challenge 2015, where the WaterCue project won first prize in Bachelor course concept category.

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Rasmus Thude, Esben Grande, and Peder Mannerup are behind the — according to the panel of judges — brilliant idea. All three are students on the BEng programme in Process and Innovation, and they participated in Green Challenge. ”Cycling home from DTU, Esben and I discussed the fact that consumers today are more aware than ever before, but most people don’t give a second thought to how much time they spend in the shower — and they have no idea how much water they’re using. After a short research, we found out that high-tech products costing more than DKK 800 had already been developed. We thought it possible to make a water-saving device which nudges the consumer, and which is so cheap that people will add it to their shopping cart,” says Rasmus Thude with great enthusiasm. From idea to functional model ”We wanted to build a function model, i.e. a functioning prototype, as it has a really good effect when people see something actually working. We thought that the concept was so simple that it should be possible to make a model which could be set up in a real environment, i.e. a shower cabinet. And it would, of course, ’nudge’ already after two minutes, as the pitch at Green Challenge must only take two minutes,” says Esben about the background for making a prototype.

Pure panic To begin with, Esben’s bathroom became the venue for testing the prototype, but both Esben and his family quickly tired of it. So the three students contacted the workshops at DTU Diplom’s department of Building and Civil Engineering which helped them build a water installation. ”We got a lot of help with making a water installation with a thermostat and water heater, and we were allowed to work in the workshop so we could test and improve the function model. We were extremely busy during the three weeks, and the first two weeks were pure panic. Things did not work, the materials were delayed, but in the last week, we had a breakthrough,” says Esben. Judges ”We got very good feedback from the judges, and we were both very surprised and happy about how well our idea was received. One of the judges said: ”Why hasn’t anybody thought of this before?” It was a relief to be able to present your project in a different way than at an ordinary examination,” explains Rasmus. Give people a blue conscience ”We want to give people—particularly the next generation—what we call a ’blue conscience’, because water is well on its way to becoming the next scarce resource.” We are now working on refining the function model based on the feedback we received at Green Challenge, and then we’ll see,” Rasmus concludes.

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Green Challenge 15


LUNCH AND BBQ LUNCH: TIME:

FROM 12.35 TO 13.35

PLACE: 1ST FLOOR - DTU LIBRARY MENU: SANDWICH

BBQ: TIME:

FROM 17.30

PLACE: GRØNNEGÅRDEN MENU: BURGER

CHICKEN BREAST FILET

GRILLED SAUSAGE

MIXED SALAD

VEGETARIAN ALTERNATIVES WILL BE AVAILABLE

BEER OR SOFT DRINKS


PANEL 2

Britta L. Nissen Afdelingsleder, CPH Asset Management CPH Airport

Jan B. Lilllelund Executive Architect CTO

Karin Gaardsted Member of Parliament Socialdemokratiet

Christian Danvad Damsgaard Head of Studies DTU Physics

Maria Reumert Gjerding Member of Parliament Enhedslisten

Grunde Jomaas Head of Studies DTU Civil Engineering

Lars Bogø Jensen Head of Studies DTU Food

Anker Degn Jensen Chairman of the board of studies DTU Chemical Engineering

Laura Kramer Fisker Student DTU

Mia Oehlenschlaeger Student DTU

JUDGING PANELS 2016

PANEL 1


PANEL 3

Henning Jørgensen Global R&D Director Poultry Linco Food Systems a/s

Christine Antorini Member of Parliament Socialdemokratiet

Gunvor Marie Kirkelund Head of Studies DTU Civil Engineering

Anne Hauch Chairman of the board of studies DTU Energy

PANEL 4 Christine Antorini, Chairwoman of the Research, Innovation and Further Education Committee Christine Antorini is a Danish politician who has been Member of Danish Parliament beginning in 1999. Over the years she has had several breaks from the political world and has among others worked as an anchorwoman on a daily Danish national television news programme and was Head of secretariat, for the Danish Consumer Information . She was Minister for Education from August 9th 2013 to June 28th 2015 and before this she was Minister for Children and Education from October 3rd 2011 to August 9th 2013. Today she is Chairwoman of the Research, Innovation and Further Education Committee from 2015. She is also group secretary of the parliamentary group of the Social Democratic Party from 2015.

Sebastian Molbech Hansen Chairman of Polyteknisk Forening DTU

JUDGING PANELS 18

Henrik Poulsen Head of Department, Energy and Industrial Safety Force Technology

Pernille Schnoor Member of Parliament Alternativet

Hans Peter Christensen Head of Studies DTU Diplom

Erik Vilain Thomsen Chairman of the board of studies DTU Nanotech

Stine DybkjĂŚr Student DTU


PANEL 5

PANEL 6

PANEL 7

Kristine Garde Development Manager Force Technology

Liv Kartvedt Lyskjær Bygherrerådgiver Emcon a/s

Morten Osted Partner Mio Management

Carolina Magdalene Maier Member of Parliament Alternativet

Marlene Harpsøe Member of Parliament Dansk Folkeparti

Christian Poll Member of Parliament Alternativet

Henning Skriver Head of Studies DTU Space

Per Sieverts Nielsen Senior Researcher DTU Management Engineering

Henrik Lehrmann Christiansen Head of Studies DTU Photonics

Jens Christian Andersen Chairman of the board of studies DTU Electro

Henrik Bredmose Associate Professor DTU Windenergy

Jørn Smedsgaard Professor DTU Food

Lina Christensen Student DTU

Alexander Flemming Greve af Rosenborg Student DTU

Charlotte Hauervig-Jørgensen Student DTU

JUDGING PANELS 19


PANEL 8

PANEL 9

Peter B. Lange, IT Architect at IBM Ole Jakob Thorsen Partner Eteqventure

Peter B. Lange Executive IT-Architect IBM

Henrik Hahn-Nissen CEO HELO group

Jens Stenbæk Member of the Capital Region of Denmark Venstre

Jacob Kronbak Head of Studies DTU Management Engineering

Jan Martinussen Head of Studies DTU Systembiology

Karsten Wedel Jacobsen Chairman of the board of studies DTU Physics

Jens Nørkær Professor DTU Windenergy

Pernille Bendsen Student DTU

Jacob Hellum Nielsen Student DTU

JUDGING PANELS 20

Peter B. Lange is Executive IT Architect at IBM and has worked in a number of international jobs in the public sector in Europe. He speaks frequently at major conferences, workshops and seminars. In the past decade he has mainly worked with Smart Cities. Peter has a long background of being a pioneer in start-ups as well as in IBM. He is also engaged in the vitality and relevancy of IBM’s technical community of IT-architects as Nordic IT-architect profession leader responsible for eg professional certification and validation.


PANEL 10

PANEL 11

PANEL 12

Simon Borkenfelt Associate Awapatent

Thomas Kristian Kristensen Treasurer and Board Member Geoforum

Dorete Dandanell City Councillor, Lyngby SF

Søren P. Rasmussen City Councillor, Lyngby Venstre

Dorthe la Cour City Councillor, Lyngby No party

John Clausen Head of Studies DTU Diplom

Knud Erik Meyer Head of Studies DTU Mechanical Engineering

Joachim Holbøll Head of Studies DTU Electrical Engineering

Henriette Hansen Innovation consultant Scion DTU

Jørgen Knoop Associate Professor DTU Diplom

Lars Dittmann Chairman of the board of studies DTU Fotonik

Ole Schultz Associate Professor DTU Diplom

Victoria Rapson Student DTU

Nikolaj Arslev Student DTU

Trine Hagerup Student DTU

JUDGING PANELS 21


PANEL 13

PANEL 14

PANEL 15

Thomas Fænø Mondrup Sustainability Specialist MTHøjgaard

Martin Borchert Senior Department Manager, Bioinformatics and Microbe Technology Novozymes

Frank Brodersen Senior Vicepresident, Partnership & Environment Hofor

Sofia Osmani Mayor, Lyngby Konservative

Kåre Harder Olesen City Councillor, Ballerup Venstre

Barbara Kessner Landau Enviromental attorney and urban planner Noble, Wickersham & Heart LLP

Mads Peter Schreiber Head of Studies DTU Diplom

Axel Grøndahl Kristiansen Deputy Head of Department DTU Diplom

Stig Wedel Head of Studies DTU Chemical Engineering

Tina Birk Vice head of Studies DTU Food

Per Boelskifte Head of Studies DTU Mechanical Engineering

Lisbeth Lindbo Larsen Chairman of the board of studies DTU Diplom

Johannes Hansen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Amalie Pernille Rasmussen Vice-Chairman of Polyteknisk Forening DTU

Peter Grønborg Student DTU

JUDGING PANELS 22


PANEL 16

PANEL 17

Barbara Kessner Landau, Counsel at Noble, Wickersham & Heart LLP Barbara Kessner Landau specializes in environmental, land use, and construction law. She has more than twenty years of experience in the public and private sectors. She is based in Cambridge, MA, United States. Barbara represents businesses, property owners, real estate developers, non-profit organizations and serves as outside counsel to towns and redevelopment authorities. She helps clients obtain and maintain liability protection and negotiates resolution of disputes involving hazardous waste cleanup and other land use and environmental issues. Barbara also assists clients with construction and real estate matters at brownfields sites; and she assists with permitting and development of renewable energy projects.

Johanna Englev Lassen CEO Nordic designers

Henrik Winther Senior Market and Project Director COWI

Steve (Sung Tae) Ahn Director KAIST

Vesna Najdanovic Dr, Faculty Fellow Lancaster University

Irene Kouskoumvekaki Head of Studies DTU Systembiology

Lasse Engbo Christiansen Head of Studies DTU Compute

Lotte Bjerregaard Jensen Head of Studies DTU Civil Engineering

Alfred Heller Associate professor DTU Civil Engineering

Martin Carsten Nielsen Boardmember of Polyteknisk Forening DTU

Martin Kristiansen Boardmember of Polyteknisk Forening DTU

JUDGING PANELS 23


PANEL 18

PANEL 19

Mary Gardill Projekt manager Coomonwealth Massachusetts

Christian Stahl Partner Business Evangelist Microsoft

Jörg Hübner Director DTU Danchip

Young-Sam Ma Ambassador Republic og Korea

Veronica Eady VP and Director Conservation Law Foundation Massachusetts

Marja Koski Head of Studies DTU Aquatics

Allan Larsen Head of Studies DTU Management Engineering

Lex Lemmens Dean of the Bachelor College Eindhoven University of Technology

Thomas Erik Bohn Smitshuysen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Peter Vilhelm Skov Chairman of the board of studies DTU Aquatics

Louise Drue Andersen Boardmember of Polyteknisk Forening DTU

JUDGING PANELS 24


PANEL 20

PANEL 21

PANEL 22

Peter Keller-Andreasen CEO knowit

Erik Michelsen Founding Partner Innovation Embassy

Gregers Juul-Pedersen Senior Project Manager Novonordisk

Hans Nørgaard Hansen Deputy Head of Department DTU Mechanical Engineering

Jaana Sorvari Prof. (Assoc.), D.Sc. (Tech.), Lic. Tech. Aalto University

Charlotte Irene Sørensen Projectmanager Entrepreneurial School Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Lars Ulrik Aaen Andersen Head of Department DTU Fotonik

Lars D. Christoffersen Head of Department, Vicedean DTU Diplom

Per Valentin Bigum Associate Professor DTU Diplom

Karsten Kryger Senior Innovation Officer DTU Food

Lars Staalhagen Head of Studies DTU Photonics

Casper Fisker Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Cecilie Bang Ottosen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Andreas Jacobsen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Per Goltermann Head of Studies DTU Civil Engineering

JUDGING PANELS 25


PANEL 23

PANEL 24

PANEL 25

Lasse Toft CEO Tyrens

Elisabeth Waersted Graduate, R&D and Innovation Saint-gobain

Anette Nørgaard NextGeneration Manager Microsoft

Er Meng Hwa Vice President (International Affairs) Nanyang Technological University

Grethe Bertelsen Associate Dean for Education University of Copenhagen, Science

Narasimalu Srikanth Program Director at Energy Research Institute Nanyang Technological University

Rasmus Larsen Head of Department DTU Compute

Maria Skou Head of Innovation Centre Embassy of Denmark, Seoul

Peter Hauge Madsen Head of department DTU Windenergy

Alexis Laurent Associate Professor DTU Management Engineering

Søren Linderoth Head of Department DTU Energy

Alberto Nannarelli Associate professor DTU Compute

David Nielsen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Nökkvi Steinn Sigurdarson Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

Patrick Moritzen Former winner GRØN DYST DTU

JUDGING PANELS 26


PRESENTATION FORMATS Various modes of presentation are available to the Green Challenge participants. They have when doing the presentation of their projects: Poster/laptop presentation The poster presentation allows students to present their work in text and graphics in a persuasive way to passers-by. Unlike the fast pace of a slide show or verbal presentation, a poster presentation allows viewers to study and restudy the information and discuss it with the students one on one.

A laptop presentation addresses a smaller audience, typically three to six persons, gathered around the laptop. This allows viewers to discuss the project and results in a small group or even one on one. Free style presentation This presentation format allows students to present their projects and the results in any way other way than the above mentioned. Anything goes. It could be a shout out, a theater performance, an exhibition of artifacts, a video show – you name it!

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CRITERIA FOR PROJECT EVALUATION The panels of judges evaluate the projects in accordance with the following criteria: • Is the project well-structured and clearly communicated? Is there a clear thread running throughout the presentation, does the presentation stay within the allotted time frame, is there cohesion between the visual and oral presentation and is the message clear. • To what extent is the project likely to have a positive environmental or energy impact? Does the project demonstrate the extent of the environmental benefit and whether it is realistically feasible? We recommend using methods to support the probability of a positive environmental or energy impact.

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• To what extent is the project technically applicable and likely to be realized? Is the project realizable and can it be implemented within a reasonable time frame? How probable is it that the technology can be applied in the desired manner? • To what extent is it visionary and/or innovative? Is the project innovative? Are the findings surprising? The projects are evaluated on a scale from 1-10. 1 is the lowest grade and 10 is the highest grade. Total score is calculated by adding the individual score from the four criteria. Regardless the score a project cannot receive a Green Challenge prize unless it includes sustainability, the environment or climate technology.


LEGEND INFO Level

Category

Project themes

Bachelor Level Course / Project

Concept

Buildings and infrastructure

Bachelor Final Assignment

Idea

Communication Concepts and Technologies

Master Level Course / Project

Energy conversion, distribution and storage

Master Thesis

Energy from wind, sun and water

Presentation format

Environmental Problems and Solutions

Free Style

Food and Health

Laptop

Products and Sustainability

Poster

Transport

Waste & recycling

Water

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Steering Committee Dean of undergraduate studies, Martin Vigild (president) Senior Vice President, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Marianne Thellersen Director, Jørgen Jensen Director, Jacob Fritz Hansen Head of Communications, Tine KjÌr Hassager Reference Committee Associate Professor, Stig Irving Olsen (DTU Management) Associate Professor, Lasse Engbo Christiansen (DTU Compute) Associate Professor, Jakub Kolarik (DTU Civil Engineering) Assistant Professor, Monica Garcia (DTU Environment) Professor, Rasmus Fehrmann (DTU Kemi) Director of Center for Bachelor of Engineering Studies, Lars D. Christoffersen Head of Department, Lars-Ulrik Aaen Andersen (DTU Fotonik) Academic Officer, Mette Haagen Marcussen (DTU Systembiologi) Representative from PF, Louise Drue Andersen Student Henrik Mikkelsen Student, Nanna Cecilie Egede Andersen Student, Maria Annel

A special thanks to Associate Professors Stig Irving Olsen and Peter Kjeldsen for categorizing all the abstracts.

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BA CH EL OR

/ PROJECT / IDE RSE A U CO L VE E L

ABSTRACTS




BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

101

Air is care C. Elmelund, K. Jensen, T. Bertelsen and V. Østergaard DTU Diplom - Process & Innovation, Technical University of Denmark The indoor environment in Danish institutions does not meet the specified recommendations of 800 ppm CO2. There is potential for improvement and the subject needs more public awareness.

CONCEPT

The debates of mankind are primarily directed at CO2 levels in the atmosphere without caring for the indoor environment in which millions of children spend their school hours. Dysfunctional levels of concentration, fewer opportunities for further education and reduced health can be direct consequences, as a result of reduced efficiency if the indoor environment is poor. Measurements shows that the efficiency of the children can be increased 6,3% by shifting the air correctly. Although environmental sustainability is very important, we argue that social sustainability is equally important. “Shift the air” – by shifting the air with through drought for short periods a couple of times a day you can alternate the poor indoor environment and obtain the optimal learning environment. Through drought can furthermore lower humidity, prevent dampen and mould and increase the lifetime of buildings. FREE STYLE

A nationwide campaign aimed at the children intends to create awareness of their own learning environment and inspires them to airing. A supporting product will accompany the campaign with the intention to let leaders, the children and other stakeholders to follow the guidelines of airing. By creating awareness of the issue, we can achieve our goal to establish a whole generation of healthy, higher educated population.

FOOD AND HEALTH

The children are after all the future of mankind.

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Turbulent Channel Emulator for Low-Power Light Communications J. M. T. Carpintero and P. Y. Fernandez

DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION Optical high-data-rate communications are an important enabler to support deeper penetration of internet connectivity. In free-space optical links, atmospheric scintillation is the main impairment. Normally, engineers operate transmitter at the maximum power to overcome this limitation, incurring in heavy power consumption. We decided to built a “hot air turbulence generator” (ATG), which can effectively emulate an optical link in the lab. Engineers are then able to given a known link emulate the system in the lab and minimize the optical power launched in the system, thereby reducing the overall power consumption of the system.

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

102

FREE STYLE

THEORY According to Kolgomorov, small scale turbulent motions are statistically isotropic. Therefore, links can be emulated by manipulating the motion of the molecules the signals travel through. The basic design concept in this project involves the production and the blowing of cold and hot air into the chamber (controlled motion of molecules) at different positions and in opposite directions. In this regard, the displacement of the air is such that it is transverse to the optical beam direction of traveling. The difference in temperature of the two flows will determine the strength of the generated turbulence. In addition, the combination of blowers, heaters and a temperature control unit ensures a temperature gradient between the source and the detector. The generator is a rectangular box in which opposite sides contain blowers generating air flows guided along two rectangular pipes, which will collide in the chamber. In order to enhance temperature mixing and to generate stronger turbulence, the two air flows have to pass through a homogenizing mesh. The control of the ATG is performed by an external module, composed of a microcontroller, a relay controlling two high temperature sensors and an LCD for monitoring; the external module is used to activate or deactivate the electrical resistor and to control the blower intensity in order to achieve an immediate temperature control inside, among other functionalities.

COMMUNICATION

Conclusions We built a turbulent channel emulator which permits to emulate in the lab the conditions of terrestrial communication links – by being able to test in the lab the link, we can adjust the laser power to its minimum, therefore reducing the overall power consumption of the transmitter and the footprint of the communication system and reducing administrative costs and licenses to put equipment in other buildings

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BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

103

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CONCEPT

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LAPTOP

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36


Emergency Surfacing Device J. P. Schøler, K. Ebbehøj, M. J. Ravn, R. S. Lund, S. R. Petersen and S. Bundgaard DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

CONCEPT

ABSTRACT The Emergency Surfacing Device, ESD, is a modular emergency solution, conceptualized for all current and future autonomous underwater robots. The ESD will ensure reusability of underwater robots, that have experienced critical failures. Instead of sinking, ESD will make sure that the robot resurfaces, encouraging further explorations of the oceans, than what has already been seen.

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

104

The flotation device will activate when the robot experiences a failure, by inflating a float bladder that will create buoyancy with at a low terminal speed. The module has a pressure relieve valve, to eliminate the possibility of rapid expansion in the float bladder, possibly leading to explosion.

37

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

FREE STYLE

The ESD will be an important part of the usage of autonomous underwater robots in the future, since it enables the possibility of thorough testing in the robot’s proper working environment, in contrast to testing in an artificial environment, as the testing is done now, with a cord attachment.


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

105

Green light installation for Roskilde Festival 2016 powered by photovoltaic cells using MPPT A. R. Stokholm, J. Bindslev, K. Brunak and M. Braagaard DTU Elektro, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

The 130.000 people attending Roskilde Festival makes the festival equal in size to the fourth biggest city in Denmark. As one can imagine, powering a festival this size is complicated. This project is an attempt of making a green and sustainable solution for a light installation meant for entertaining the festival goers at Roskilde Festival 2016 while being independent of the power grid. The power source used to drive the installation will be solar energy harvested from photovoltaic cells.

THEORY

POSTER

The efficiency of a photovoltaic cell is nonlinear. Figure 1 shows the power produced by the photovoltaic cell (red line) and the current through the cell at different voltage levels (green line). The power is at its maximum just at the point where the current drops. The voltage level at this point depends on the amount of sunlight. It is possible to increase the efficiency by implementing Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). The purpose of MPPT is to adjust the voltage across the solar panel so that it is as close to VMPP as possible.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

Figure 1 - PV Panel IV Curve. The green curve is the IV curve and the red curve is Watts. Source: http://www.solarhome.ru/en/control/mppt/

METHODS MPPT is achieved by the Perturb and Observe method. A micro-controller is used to control a duty cycle for a buck converter. The buck converter adjusts the power applied to the battery. Changing the duty cycle alters the voltage across the photovoltaic cell and thus the efficiency.

CONCLUSION The project is still ongoing and will be completed immediately before GRĂ˜N DYST. The results will be presented at the conference.

38


Co-Creating a Sustainable Bag F.K. Brandt DTU Process and Innovation, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

39

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

FREE STYLE

CONCEPT

Worldwide production of plastic bags is estimated to be about one trillion pr. year and this is just plastic bags. When you add the rest of plastic used for food packaging the quantities of plastic trash is vast. Almost all of this is made of fossil fuel based LDPE plastic which is not a sustainable source nor is it biodegradable and because of this it bio-accumulate on land and in the oceans. Now new grocery store initiatives with 100% loose sale are spouting in the US and France with major success and now, in June, in Denmark as well. But if you don’t have packaging, how do you bring your groceries home? The state-of-the-art is Tupperware, jars, fabric bags or backpacks. But how many times have you forgotten to bring an old bag to the supermarket? Would you bring 5 jars of glass with you in your bag pack for everyday shopping? My project aims to create a solution for this which is sustainable for the environment and user needs. Needs such as comfortable shopping, easy transport on foot or with bicycle and securing availability in situations such as coming home from work or having forgotten bringing a used bag to the supermarket. I have made a deal with this new grocery store, LØS, to co-create a sustainable solution in the shop in cooperation with the customers. A customer segment eager to solve some of the great environmental problem. LØS Facebook page has 8000 likes already – months before the opening. I could not restrain myself either, so I have developed a concept to serve as a platform for development. The concept is a linen bag with two or four straps of fabric which enables the user to tie a handle it in in anyway desirable. As a shopping bag, shoulder bag or to a bicycle as a bicycle bag, which makes shopping easier, encourages bicycling and you won’t forget it if it’s strapped to your bike. This bag made of flax and have reduce CO2 emissions after the second time used, compared to using a regular plastic bag from Fakta. It is a multifunctional solution relevant to many other everyday transport situations as well. For instance, general shopping, moving some things from your apartment or a startup business that need some goods but is not able to afford a car.

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

106


Ideal waste sorting trashcan J. Hammerskov DTU Energy, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

In Denmark, we are very aware of the importance of recycling as much waste as possible. As it is now our renovation workers already collect paper separate from our household waste. There's just one big problem. We don't sort any other reusable materials in our household. We Danes have a disposal system for bottles and cans of soda, beer, water etc. It's called "Dansk Retursystem". It has the motto "It's all about responsibility". The idea is good, but in practice it's more incriminating to people to be obligated to deliver the "pant" (bottles and cans) back to the supermarket, rather than sort it themselves, and then have their own choice whether they want to bring it to the recycling center or they want the renovation workers to get it for them. This concept I'm introducing to you should with time be able to replace our current disposal system - and even be more environmentally sustainable.

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

107

THE PRODUCT WHICH’S MARKING THIS CONCEPT GREAT

Two different examples of "The Ideal Waste Sorting Trashcan", which everybody should have in their kitchen:

LAPTOP

Why is this concept environmentally sustainable

WASTE & RECYCLING

First of all; transporting these empty bottles and cans in for example a plastic bag, destroys the plastic bag and makes it impossible to reuse. Otherwise these bags can be used for groceries transporting lots of times. Furthermore "Dansk Retursystem" emits a unnecessarily large amount of CO2, by the double transporting, necessary to get the recycling waste first from the consumer to the supermarket and then from the supermarket to the recycling center. By this concept, this transporting would be cut in half. That's a great beginning - remember; "It's all about responsibility". An even more important aspect to consider regarding this concept is; during ordinary cooking, a lot of the food comes in plastic packaging. Normally this plastic just goes to the household waste, which isn't the best solution, considering that it could be sorted and recycled. A similar issue is when you buy food, contained in metal cans, glass jars etc. this metal and glass usually just end up in the ordinary trashcan, from where they end up at the combustion. Nevertheless if you had this Ideal Waste Sorting Trashcan, the jars would immediately be thrown in the glass-garbage bag, and the cans in the metal-garbage bag - from where it could be recycled just like paper does (but separate).

40


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BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

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BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

108


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POSTER

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

109

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Fly Green Chen Wen (Ms), Deng Zichao (Mr) Nanyang Technological University Singapore - NTU

INTRODUCTION

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

110

The blue track meandering the periphery of the NTU campus is a desirable platform to exercise and attain fitness. Along the track, beautiful scenery of rainforests provides the runners with fresh air and aesthetic pleasure.

CONCEPT

However, the beauty of Mother Nature is sometimes destroyed by the uncollected garbage lying sporadically on the grassland. Besides the unsightliness, the wastes impose potential harms to the environment. They are non-biodegradable, which means they will not be broken down by the microorganisms in the soil. Also, the unfinished drinks could cause water pollution. Moreover, what if the wild animals eat the plastic bags accidentally? Biodiversity could be threatened. Our attempts to clean the rubbish were obstructed by a wire fence. As such, our proposal was to lift the trash with a UAV, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. A trap made of double-sided tapes is attached under the UAV. Three sets of pilot tests were conducted for three types of targets. We successfully lifted plastic bags, water bottles and cans. Here is a video illustration. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fvflcdjbXN4 Despite how splendidly the UAV worked, it faces certain restrictions and potential pitfalls.1. It cannot fly in rainy or windy conditions. 2. It might get entangled in the grass. 3. It has a short battery life of 10 minutes. 4. Sometimes, the wind of the drone blows the trash away.

LAPTOP

The structural design can be improved in the following ways. The short battery life can be extended by a hybrid cell which incorporates hydrogen power and fuel. Relevant research is conducted in the NTU Fuel Cell Lab. The trap could be replaced with mechanical claws like those in the claw crane game machines. Such modifications would enhance the performance of UAV and increase the success rate of capturing waste. In addition, we sincerely request the school to place recycling bins around the blue track to encourage appropriate disposal of wastes. The cans and plastic bottles can be recycled in innovative and environmental-friendly ways. A real-life application of UAV in waste cleaning is to reduce tourism pollution. If UAV could pick up the unreachable trash in the mountains, there would be no need for the cleaners in the video to climb a few hundred meters every day. These cleaners are featured in a Chinese reality show called Infinite Challenge in appreciation of the unimaginable difficulty of their work.

WASTE & RECYCLING

So thanks to UAV, we can now enjoy a clean view of the natural reserve when running on the blue track. Our project is just a prototype, but we hope it contributes to building a cleaner campus and a more resource-saving Singapore.

43


Nordic Algae M.S.B Andersen, M. Decara, D.L.L. Kristensen, E.E. Mørkedal and O. Schmeltzer DTU Diploma, Process and Innovation, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this paper is to show the benefits of harvesting seaweed in a new and optimised way. In Denmark there is a growing market for seaweed. Restaurants and health shops are using the very nutritious seaweed more and more. The seaweed even contains the 5th sense of taste called umami which opens up for a whole new level of cooking. The discovery of the more than 10.000 types of seaweed makes a lot of new opportunities when cooking. The seaweed can replace many of the vegetables presented in the middle layer of the food pyramid. Even in the forage-industry seaweed is used to bring nutrition into the forage.

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

111

THE CHALLENGE

The challenge about seaweed production is the harvest methods. The few people who produce seaweed in Denmark harvest by hand which takes a lot of time and sometimes it leaves the farmers with no more time to harvest the seaweed before the season ends. The consequence is a small production that cannot satisfy the demand. The demand is currently so big that the companies import seaweed from Ireland, Island and parts of Asia. This means that there is a big market for the seaweed, but it also means there is a lot of import which means a lot of expensive transportation that emits a lot of CO2.

THE SOLUTION

FOOD AND HEALTH

FREE STYLE

To examine this problem Nordic Algae has developed a new and automatically working harvesting machine. The machine will be harvesting the seaweed which grows on some special made lines that measures 200 meters. The machine will have a harvesting speed of 2.5 km/h, which means it can harvest a hectare (the maritime fields will be made of 5 â‹… 200 m lines) in 24 minutes. This means that Nordic Algae can become one of the biggest suppliers on the Danish market within a few years if everything goes according to planned. And in perspective of 10 years export to Asia is a possibility due to expanded production. The maritime fields are for free in Denmark and there is no need for chemicals and pesticides. This makes the production organic which has positive implications on the ocean environment since the algae cleans the water, absorbs CO2 and makes new natural reefs for fish and other sea life. The bigger the seaweed production is the more CO2 can be neutralized.

44


Power loss management M. Henriksen, P. Karstensen and N. Thanthrige DTU Elektro, Technical university of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

112

Music festivals such as Roskilde festival require installing a short term electric grid. The consumers which include food stands and small marketplaces, often have a very limited knowledge about their power consumption. Electricity is bought in greater quantities than needed, and therefore a lot of power and money is wasted. Nevertheless, it is seen that very expensive equipment is used to watch the power consumption, by measuring at the electric node points. (DEIF meters are used to help this challenge). CONCEPT

DESCRIPTION

This project involves the construction of cheap, small and accurate energy meters, that measure current, voltage and power. The device is a standalone unit, and the information is wirelessly sent to a central processing unit, where the data can be analyzed. The goal is simply to gather information about changes in the electric grids (in real time). By doing this a lot of knowledge is now present and ready to be interpreted. Questions that would be answered would be of the category: -

How much electricity did we use on specific occasions? (Busy or less busy times) When is it ideal to use less power for refrigerators or ovens? How much electricity should we buy for next year?

THE BROADER PERSPECTIVE

POSTER

Being able to measure at certain points and mapping this data into a chart, is a brand new technology. Times are changing, and now in 2016 we rely on renewable energy sources more than ever. The political increased demand for renewables, leads to uncertainty in our electric grids. By extensive measuring and monitoring, our grid will be more reliable, since grid balancing is made an easier task to comprehend.

METHODS

A literature research of the aspects concerning grid balancing has been made as part of the B.Sc. course “Power technology – economy, politics and technology”. Additional knowledge has been obtained by visiting power plants, the advocacy group “DANSK ENERGI” and the company energinet.dk, who are responsible for securing the Danish electric and gas supply. As part of the B.Sc. project on fourth semester, we have investigated the feasibility of constructing the energy meter devices. By using the deductive scientific approach, we have succeeded in design the required electrical circuits.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION

CO M M U N IC ATI O N

The energy meter is able to measure on 3 phases. As it is right now, it can deal with (230 V + 10%) and 20 A. A microcontroller is built into the device, and it is capable of calculating the power and phase changes.

45


Water Hydraulics Based Robotic Arm for Underwater Use – A part of the REMORA project M.S. Frisk, N. Israelsen, C.M. Jørgensen, A. Thorsen and I. Örnolfsson DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark This is the concept for a robotic arm developed for the DTU-based REMORA-project. The arm is actuated by water hydraulics and is designed for mounting on a small underwater ROV. The purpose of the ROV is to service offshore structures, and this arm is going to be the main tool for these servicing operations. The idea is for the arm to be able to carry different tools for different tasks - a drill for drilling, a brush for cleaning, or sonar for reconnaissance, just to name a few. The goal of the underwater robots is to replace heavy, energy-consuming offshoreservicing machinery with lightweight, modular and adaptive ROVs based on environmentally responsible water hydraulics. These ROVs will pose no threat to marine ecosystems, and will ultimately make the Pale Blue Dot even greener.

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

POSTER

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

113

46


The Smart Toilet Internet of Things D. Thoren, K. Andersen, and M. P. Eilersen DTU Network Technology and IT, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

114

Every year clean water is wasted due to leaking toilets. A single toilet can leak as much as 1100 L/day (Source?) and many people are unaware or uncommitted to their toilet’s physical condition. This is why we are proposing a smart solution that detects leakages, overflows and potentially many more water-wasting issues.

CONCEPT

By embedding a sensor tethered to a microcontroller within the toilet, where leaking water flows, it is possible to detect even the smallest leaks before the waste becomes significant. The solution is designed to work as an IoT (Internet of Things) device working over WiFi, this way different setups can be made for different scenarios. The solution also is an intelligence adaptable to all toilet independently by its frequency the toilet is used. The sensor has broad applications, from being a single add-on unit for existing household toilets to large systems of toilets (campuses, dormitories, hospitals) to being a built in feature in future generations of toilets. Our prototype has been implemented using a Wi-Fi compatible Arduino microcontroller and water-contact sensors. By using MQTT, a light weight messaging protocol, and Amazon Web Services (AWS) we are able to host our IoT infrastructure in a flexible and secure way. This architecture makes it possible to store the data in a database, send out notifications to specific users and produce statistics of water consumption and toilet conditions.

WATER

LAPTOP

Over the course of work on this project, we envisioned countless extended functionalities offering out of the box solutions that could save significant amounts of water. We hope our description caught your attention and highlighted the issue at hand.

47


Tool for measuring food waste C.B. Letting, K. B. Rasmussen, M.S. Larsen, S.M. Fohlmann and S. SeitzRasmussen 2

DTU Diplom, Technical University of Denmark

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?

Every year Danish citizens tosses 63 kg edible food per person in the trash bin, this adds up to the equivalent amount of 16 billion Danish kroners. This is a problem due to resources, water and energy spent producing and transporting the food from field to consumer. This overproduction has a huge impact on the climate change. Food waste is not an unknown problem for the consumer and is synonymous with “a dirty habit”. There is a continuous growing will to reduce food waste by the end consumers as the problem becomes more and more obvious.

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

115

WHAT ARE WE THE INSPIRED BY?

Throughout the research we have conducted, we have come across several homepages and movements pointing to different ways of changing the culture of food waste. www.StopSpildafmad.dk is a NGO which is trying to change the behaviour trough debate, enlightenment and hands-on solutions. Our research has shown that there are a lot of tools for reducing food waste, though they are more lifestyle than hands on-tool. The waste of food is also happening very much at the retailers, and FDB, United Danish Cooperative Society, published a report of the consumers’ habits in regards to food, meals and waste. We have been inspired by the recommendations for how to lower the food waste generated in families. Also the members of our group have been looking into their own habits around food making and eating and what happens after this event.

HOW DO WE SOLVE THIS PROBLEM? FREE STYLE

We propose a simple and energy neutral solution, which will give the consumer a better insight in how much biological waste they generate, and dispose on a weekly basis. Our tool will furthermore give a direct link between wasted food and CO2 emission generated. By giving a more accurate value of the weight of the waste generated, the consumers can get a first hand view of their waste and habits around shopping and food making. We will provide a simple way to monitor, and register, how much food is wasted, and give an estimate on how much money and CO2 could be saved, with a very small effort in changed habits. LCA Materials Production Use Diaposal In all CO2 2,45 kg CO2 0,183 kgCO2 0 kg CO2 -0,08 kg CO2 2,553 kg CO2 Energy 54,5 MJ 2,86 MJ 0 MJ -11,2 MJ 46,16 MJ Table 1: This LCA form shows the CO2 and energy costs in production, usage and disposal of our tool.

WASTE & RECYCLING

The average consumer disposes 150kg CO2 pr. year. We propose that our solution will decrease this number by 15%, and will approximately save 22,5 kg CO2 pr. consumer pr. year. With these figures, the production of our tool will be CO2 neutral after just 40 days. After this, it will be providing a surplus of savings for at least 5 years that is the estimated minimum lifespan of our tool.

48


Water Bottle 2.0 J. P. Steenstrup, C. Toft, A. H. Jensen and N. Andersen DTU Diplom, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

116

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

When a person drinks one liter of bottled water, the impact on the environment is just a high as when a car drives a kilometer on the road. This is one of many problems with water from plastic bottles, and that is why we as a group have decided to try and do something to get more people to drink tap water, and use less of the disposable plastic bottles that we see on the market today, that are so bad for the environment. The goal of our project is not only to create the best water bottle on the market, but also to make the consumers reconsider what kind of water they are drinking, and try to get them to choose tap water instead of bottled water. Bottled water is a problem both in terms of the environmental impact it causes, but the water is also not as clean as one might be led to believe. In fact, most bottled water would not be approved for regular tap water because there are too many bacteria in it. Additionally, there is a problem in relation to reusing of the disposable plastic bottles, as this is not sanitary after a couple of times. We will use sustainable materials, and this refers equally on working conditions as well as environmental. We are developing a new type of closing system for the bottle; it is powered by magnets and to ensure a watertight experience that will not wear out over time. LAPTOP

We see a "problem" in the vast majority of water bottles which is in clear neon colors, and we are therefore drawn to believe that the amount of hours that has gone into the design of the bottles is minimal. We want to make water bottles that people actually want to use and keep. They must be beautiful, environmentally friendly and last but not least, they must neither be hazardous through repeatable use.

WATER

All in all our group does not want to create a new and original product, but instead we want to improve an already existing one, and through that we aim to help solve the many problems that we see with the current way we use plastic bottles.

49


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

117

Wave Energy Pressure Stabilizing Valve J. Lodberg, T. G. Jensen, C. L. Hansen, M. S. Jensen, A. Gohamar, E. L. Jespersen and C. Vestbjerg DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION In the search for new ways to exploit sustainable energy sources, wave energy constitutes a huge potential as there are so far only a few operating Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) even though energetic waves are in abundance all over the world.

MOTIVATION CONCEPT

There are two major challenges for Wave Energy Converters. The first challenge is the price per kilo-Watt-hour, which is as of yet too high compared to e.g. wind energy. This owes to the generally high weight and extensive mooring requirement of WEC-plants, which is essential for sufficient resistance to the large forces that occur during storms at sea. The other main challenge for WEC plants is the conversion of mechanical energy of waves into electrical power. This project addresses the second problem in relation to a Wavepiston system. The system consists of a long tube with a number of perpendicular plates attached. The plates are moved in both directions by propagating waves, creating a pressure inside the tube. Our project addresses the challenge of stabilizing the pressure and water flow in the tube in order to create optimum conditions for running a Power Take-Off System presumably in the form of a Pelton Turbine.

METHOD

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

POSTER

The project will include an experiment as a pivotal element. The aim of the experiment is to test is to test whether it is possible to control and stabilize the pressure of the discharge flow from the Wavepiston tube. The experiment will be conducted using a setup of tubes of the same type as wave piston though on a smaller scale. There will be a flow of water in the piping driven by a high-pressure pump. During the experiment, pressure and flow conditions will be set to resemble a scaled version of a Wavepiston tube under diverse weather conditions. A needle valve will attached to the outlet of the pipe in order to be tested for its ability to stabilize the flow and pressure in the pipe as well as at the discharge point. The pressure and flow settings of the system will correspond to simulated values for the system computed by our supervisor. The results of the experiment will be compared to further theoretic data for the optimum performance of a Power Take Off system under given conditions. Initially, the objective of the experiment was to test the pressure stabilizing abilities of a valve designed specifically for the experiment conditions. Due to shortage of time the valve used in the experiment will be a resembling nozzle bought for the occasion.

Results

As the project is not finished at the deadline of this abstract, the results are not yet known. Given a positive result, it will be possible to stabilize the pressure in the Wavepiston Tube and thereby creating evidence that the Wavepiston system can feed a Power Take Off system.

50


Project Title: “Working Prototype Design of Green Advertisement Space (GAS) with Environmental Air Control� L. L. Tan Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

118

ABSTRACT

CONCEPT

Levels of air-borne Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are a major concern for air quality control (AQC) within enclosed indoor environments, such as underground platforms and shopping malls. VOCs in air increase and concentrate with increasing anthropogenic activities and are harmful towards human health. In order to maintain Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) concentrations in air within a healthy level, constant ventilation of indoor air and replacement with fresh outside air is required. However, as air quality in a majority of global major cities worsen, it is not a good alternative to utilise the flushing method. Also, it is of cost interests to recirculate indoor air for more cycles so as to minimise energy consumption expended in the air conditioning process. Usually, this then results in a compromise whereby VOCs tend to accumulate in indoor air.

51

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

LAPTOP

To allow for extended recirculation of air while keeping VOCs levels at bay, local treatments are necessary to remove air-borne VOCs. Existing indoor advertisement spaces which have their backlighting perpetually switched on are considered as a viable platform for the incorporation of visible light enabled photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) filters to create a Green Advertisement Space (GAS). As part of a feasibility study of the GAS, this project aims to design a working prototype of the GAS.


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

119

Micro-Hydro Power Plant on Himalaya 1

2

W. Kim , E. Gwag , D. Kang 1

1

Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 2 Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced of Science and Technology

CONCEPT

Our team has visited Nepal three times for three years to install and improve the micro-hydro power generator in Nangi Village. Nepal is one of the developing countries, th ranking 145 of 187 countries on the Human Development Index. Nepal is also very underpowered, with limited access to electricity: only 40% of Nepal’s population has access to electricity. Fortunately Nepal is full of rivers and streams. Current estimates indicate approximately 83,000 MW from 66 possible hydro plant sites. Majority of Nepal’s rural population is disconnected from the country’s power grid. More than 95% is powerless and still behind. To help the small villages, our team decided to build a micro-hydro power plant based on the efficiency of 24 hours running and easy access to stream of no water shortage. The plant will be able to provide power enough a small village. Additionally, if we make the micro-hydro power plant simple enough, then people in the mountains will be able to install it by themselves and the knowledge will spread. When the knowledge spreads, the unpowered rural Nepali village will become selfsustainable.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

LAPTOP

Nangi village, like other mountain villages in Nepal, is close to a small stream and is located on rather flat surface of the mountain. There are lands to be cultivated and stream water to be used. To exploit hydro power of the stream, we chose Pelton turbine to rotate our power plant. The power plant requires little to none in maintenance. To concentrate the energy of stream, pipes are built from the source of water to the power plant along the stream; there is no effect on local environment. Turbine is turned by concentrated jet of water through two of 15mm nozzles in the opposite direction, which rotates the turbine at 500 rpm (steady state); this is equivalent to 300 Watts of power. Energy is saved in battery that can hold up to 1500Wh. Inverter converts 12VDC from battery to 220VAC. Alternating current from inverter is connected to single-phase 440VAC transformer made from ordinary 220VAC transformer. The increased voltage current from generator site is connected to a lodge about 1 km away where another transformer is connected to change it back to 220VAC. Lodge is where people gather and hikers visit. This is where electricity is most needed. Grid connected from generator to lodge is then connected to school near-by. During the most recent trip second power plant that is about 200m further downstream the first one was installed. These two power plants are connected directly through turbines, essentially forming a grid. Current generation from first and second generator is as follows: 108W and 288W, totaling about 400W. We are now in the end-phase of our plan. In this year, we plan to make a userfriendly manual. Almost all of the materials were purchased on Nepal. Only the turbine was purchased outside the country. This means the system that we built is cheap and easy. So by following up the manual, we expect Nepali to install the identical generator set by themselves, so can supply power steadily. Finally, based on the individual power plants, we hope to build the grid system that can supply electricity on Himalaya.

52


GRØN DYST Sustainable Urban- and Transport Planning 1

2

A. XXX , B.YYY 1

2

B.Eng. Traffic and Transport, Technical University of Denmark B.Eng. Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

120

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

All over the world, the majority of people lives in urban areas and urbanization is only increasing. An urban environment provides many advantages as an agglomeration of knowledge, technology, culture and trade with a focused and concentrated supply of housing, work, service and infrastructure. All this come however with some drawbacks. Even when many people lives in dense areas they still have a need for transport and that generates negative effects like congestion, emissions, and accidents.

THEORY Cities all over the world faces huge challenges related to a growing number of cars leading to increased congestion, air pollution, loss of open landscape and ecosystems. Some of these challenges can be addressed by introducing sustainable urban- and transport planning. Where transport planning traditionally look upon the traffic itself, urban planning focuses upon the functionalities of the city and how these interact. Combining these two approaches with a sustainable focus gives new possibilities for integrated planning that leads to more sustainable solutions.

METHODS

• • • •

POSTER

Based upon theory and methods for sustainable urban– and transport planning a project with focus upon one of the following themes has been evaluated and a sustainable solution has been proposed. All projects originates in the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. Green field development of new urban areas Densification of existing urban areas Introducing light rail in an urban context Promoting bicycling in urban areas

RESULTS

TRANSPORT

The result of the project is a suggestion for sustainable solution to a specific planning problem within the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. The solution not only addresses sustainability but also comply with planning practice, regulations and plans on both local, regional and nation level.

53


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

121

GRØN DYST Sustainable Urban- and Transport Planning 1

2

A. XXX , B.YYY 1

2

B.Eng. Traffic and Transport, Technical University of Denmark B.Eng. Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

All over the world, the majority of people lives in urban areas and urbanization is only increasing. An urban environment provides many advantages as an agglomeration of knowledge, technology, culture and trade with a focused and concentrated supply of housing, work, service and infrastructure. All this come however with some drawbacks. Even when many people lives in dense areas they still have a need for transport and that generates negative effects like congestion, emissions, and accidents.

THEORY Cities all over the world faces huge challenges related to a growing number of cars leading to increased congestion, air pollution, loss of open landscape and ecosystems. Some of these challenges can be addressed by introducing sustainable urban- and transport planning. Where transport planning traditionally look upon the traffic itself, urban planning focuses upon the functionalities of the city and how these interact. Combining these two approaches with a sustainable focus gives new possibilities for integrated planning that leads to more sustainable solutions.

METHODS POSTER

Based upon theory and methods for sustainable urban– and transport planning a project with focus upon one of the following themes has been evaluated and a sustainable solution has been proposed. All projects originates in the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. • • • •

Green field development of new urban areas Densification of existing urban areas Introducing light rail in an urban context Promoting bicycling in urban areas

RESULTS

TRANSPORT

The result of the project is a suggestion for sustainable solution to a specific planning problem within the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. The solution not only addresses sustainability but also comply with planning practice, regulations and plans on both local, regional and nation level.

54


GRØN DYST Sustainable Urban- and Transport Planning 1

2

A. XXX , B.YYY 1

2

B.Eng. Traffic and Transport, Technical University of Denmark B.Eng. Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

122

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

All over the world, the majority of people lives in urban areas and urbanization is only increasing. An urban environment provides many advantages as an agglomeration of knowledge, technology, culture and trade with a focused and concentrated supply of housing, work, service and infrastructure. All this come however with some drawbacks. Even when many people lives in dense areas they still have a need for transport and that generates negative effects like congestion, emissions, and accidents.

THEORY Cities all over the world faces huge challenges related to a growing number of cars leading to increased congestion, air pollution, loss of open landscape and ecosystems. Some of these challenges can be addressed by introducing sustainable urban- and transport planning. Where transport planning traditionally look upon the traffic itself, urban planning focuses upon the functionalities of the city and how these interact. Combining these two approaches with a sustainable focus gives new possibilities for integrated planning that leads to more sustainable solutions.

METHODS

• • • •

POSTER

Based upon theory and methods for sustainable urban– and transport planning a project with focus upon one of the following themes has been evaluated and a sustainable solution has been proposed. All projects originates in the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. Green field development of new urban areas Densification of existing urban areas Introducing light rail in an urban context Promoting bicycling in urban areas

RESULTS

TRANSPORT

The result of the project is a suggestion for sustainable solution to a specific planning problem within the municipality of Lyngby-Tårbæk. The solution not only addresses sustainability but also comply with planning practice, regulations and plans on both local, regional and nation level.

55


IronCare - Student and commercial ironing service 1

1

1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

FREE STYLE

In Denmark, employees of big companies require ironed clothes for their daily routine. This creates issues for employees that bike to their workplace: they need to change clothes at the workplace, clothes is difficult to carry on a bike without creating wrinkles. This keeps employees from taking the bike, and leads to more using the convenient, but environmentally undesired transportation option: driving to work by car. We have designed an environmentally friendly solution to this problem: a productservice system, which deliver ironing of clothes at the workplace. We expect to alter the transportation behaviour of employees to using the bike for transportation more often. This solution will result in a factor 2,4 improvement the energy usage. The two described service systems are integrated into one service-system, which provide the optimal use of the equipment involved, as the same irons will be used both in the companies and at the student dormitories. On the long term, we hope to decrease the number of irons, by eliminating the need to own an iron. Energy consumption

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

I. Cordius , M.B. Eriksen

This solution has two parts; we will be describing each separately. At some point in time, most people will have to face the challenge to iron their clothes for a fancy event. People often encounter this challenge for the first time while being a student. Students (and other unexperienced ironers) rarely spend the money required to get durable ironing equipment, while achieving inferior ironing results. Materials and energy are being wasted on cheap ironing equipment lasting just a few uses. We have designed an environmental-friendly solution to this wasteful problem: a product-service-system, which deliver premium quality ironing at student dormitories. Using the functional unit of “ironing of 1 piece of clothing six times a year� this solution for dormitories will result in a factor 4,9 improvement in energy use.

CONCEPT

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

123

Users Iron life cycle Usage of own iron Iron life cycle of the service Usage of ironing service User transportation Service transport Additional material Total [MJ] Factor X improvement

Current company solution 66 45 0 0 9713 0 0 9824

IronCare company solution 62,7 0,013 0,165 13,5 4034 0,41 1,13 4112 2,4

Table 1 Generic LCC Table

56

Current dormitory solution 132 1,9 0 0 0 0 0 133,9

IronCare dormitory solution 26,4 0 0,332 0,38 0 0,03 0 27,1 4,9


57


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

201

Get your bike back! J. Egeskov, E. Pedersen, and J. Odgaard DTU Diplom, Technical University of Denmark

THE PROBLEM In Copenhagen more than 20,000 bicycles are reported stolen every year. However, the problem is more extensive in that an additional 20,000 bikes disappear according to an annual estimate. A majority of these thefts are caused by so-called use thefts, where the thief does not keep the bike. It results in many of these bikes being abandoned at stations and bus stops, rusting up until they are removed and abolished by the municipality.

THE SOLUTION IDEA

We wish to involve the Danish population in the fight against this problem and we will do so by offering a service that brings those who find the stolen bicycles and the owners of the bikes together. The concept is uncomplicated and as well as user-friendly. Bike owners buy a QR tag that is attached to the bicycle frame, signs up as users in our app, which enable us to get in touch with them if it is required later on. In case of the bicycle being stolen, the owner just reports his bike missing in our app. As a so called “bike finder�, the concept is straight forward. Start by installing our app on a phone, then begin scanning bicycles with QR codes, and information such as location will be sent to our system. This means that the owner of the bike will be able to get his bike back when it is stolen, after paying a fee. We will motivate bike finders to scan bicycles by letting them have part of the fee payed by the bike owners, and also by paying them micro transactions per scanned bike.

NUMBERS

COMMUNICATION

LAPTOP

It is not only bike owners who have an interest in lowering the number of lost bikes, but also the Copenhagen municipality. In addition to having to use 2,200,000 DKK every year to locate and dispose of bicycles, they also indirectly lose potential savings: It is estimated that the municipality saves 55 DDK in health care per 10 km, driven on a bike. It may not sound like much, but 1 out of 10 bikes in Copenhagen are stolen every year. Assuming that it takes one working week before a new bike is purchased, and that the owner rides 10 km each working day, a total of 50 km is lost for each stolen bike. This corresponds to (40,000 bikes x 50 km) = 2,000,000 km of cycling lost per year, each costing 5.5 DKK per km. This results in bikes theft costing the Copenhagen municipality (2,000,000 km x 5.5 DKK) = 11,000,000 DDK annually. Therefore, we will seek public funds for the development and marketing of our app and system.

58


L. K. Aagaard, A. E. S. Berthelsen, J. M. Schuler, W. A. L. Michael and S. S. Martinussen DTU Diploma, Process & Innovation, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION In 2016 The World Economic Forum published a report in which worrying facts were written. “Plastic production has surged over the past 50 years, from 15 million tonnes in 1964 to 311 million tonnes in 2014, and is expected to double again over the next 20 years” (World Economic Forum, 2016). Together we all contribute to the increasing amount of plastic in the world, since we are in contact with plastic products constantly through bottles, bags, containers etc. Every day, people all over the world brush their teeth with toothbrushes made of non-recyclable plastics. In Denmark alone we change our toothbrush 2.27 times per year in average, which corresponds to approximately 12.9 million toothbrushes or 254 tonnes of non-recyclable plastics yearly. We provide a solution with a toothbrush that has the potential to reduce the total amount of toothbrushes used per year by 50%, whilst not forcing the user to change their habits remarkably.

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

Hygienic Toothbrush

IDEA

202

THEORY

METHODS We are going to achieve our goal, by making a manual toothbrush with a more durable design, and material choice, so that you’ll only need to swap it once a year. The brush will be injection moulded into a single piece of solid natural rubber. This includes the bristles, which are going to be pointy enough go get in between your teeth, and still achieve the same cleaning effect, just as your conventional toothbrush. The main reason why people change their toothbrush is because it looks worn out and dirty. Our bristles will not be deformed during use, like todays nylonbristles, due to the elastic properties of natural rubber. Furthermore, our toothbrush will not be as likely to collect and store bacteria and food bits, especially because there are no drilled holes where the bristles are attached. This is due to the brilliant single material design.

POSTER

The idea that we suggest is not a complete answer to the problem we try to overcome. However, with our product there comes a message which can inform people about an environmental challenge that we strongly believe most people do not think about in their everyday lives. Plastic is one of the major causes that threatens the environment, and the plastic from toothbrushes contributes to this. There are people who make a difference to help with a greener environment by making decisions to cut down on different things, but even the greenest person has to brush their teeth. Our product helps them stay in that green perspective, when they do something that is a normal all over the world.

CONCLUSION WASTE & RECYCLING

Our product has the potential to cut down on the global use of manual and electric toothbrushes, and thereby cut down the use of plastics that end up in landfills, nature, and the daily trash. We wish to show that such a product is possible to create, and during the time in our three week course, we will build and test several versions of this product. These prototypes and tests, will set the stage for further development of our idea, and guide us on the road to environmental success.

Reference

World Economic Forum. (2016). The New Plastics Economy. World Economic Forum. 59


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

203

ENZE DO YOU ALSO HAVE CHAIRITY? S. Ellebæk, M. Nørgaard, and P. Brogaard DTU Diplom, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

It is so easy to forget to clean up after yourself, when the last tone is played at Orange scene at Roskilde Festival. Roskilde Festival is over and you have to go home after a wild and wet festival. Every year this leaves the organizers of the festival with a huge amount of waste including tents, pavilions and festival chairs. To prevent this situation, we want to present a new and green way to sit at Roskilde Festival, and with time any other outdoor event or festival. We will present two of the main features of our project: -

A re-designed single-material version of the currently most used chair at the festival. A concept to bring back and re-cycle the chairs after use.

WASTE & RECYCLING

LAPTOP

The idea behind our project is to lower the number of discarded chairs at the end of the festival. Our chair is, unlike the currently most used chair, made of only a single type of material, which means the chair is easier to recycle when the cleaners at the festival have gathered the trash after the festival. Our project is also a concept. We offer the customer to rent a chair. The price includes a deposit and a smaller amount of money, for renting the chair. If the chair breaks or anything else happens, the customer is then always in his or hers right to bring the chair to a booth at the festival, and for a smaller amount of money, get the chair replaced with a new. At the end of the festival, the festival visitor can return the chair, in case they don’t want to keep it, and we refund the deposit. If the refunded chair is not in a condition where it can be used again, the chair should be able to be re-melted and reshaped to a new chair for a future festival. With our partner “Roskilde Festival” struggling with the high amount of trash after the festival, this chair could be a little step forward towards a solution to the huge problem.

60


GA – GREEN AWARENESS Towards a green future

E. R. Peterson, A.O. Oemann, J.R. Hansen, M.D. Petersen and F. Simonsen DTU Process & Innovation, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

204

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

There is a great debate in the society, when it comes to climate changes and the environment. Some believe that the solution should be found politically, some in new technologies etc. We believe that all these are a part of the solution. But first and foremost, we argue that the way to a green future is going through us, as people. We need to be more aware of the environment and we need to take on a responsibility. If we want a green future, we need to think green at a whole new scale. You can make as many and as good plans for recycling as possible, but what it all comes down to, is whether people are actually recycling. If they just toss out all of their waste under the sink, it doesn’t help a bit.

THE IDEA That is what our idea is trying to prevent. We wish to make people aware of what we as individuals can do to help the environment. Our business idea is to create a board game, for children in middle school (3. grade to 5. grade) that sets focus on the environment and some of the challenges we are facing. The idea is that the board game will contain questions that due to the answers will work as an eye opener for the students. The hope is that these eye openers can contribute to a change of behaviour for the students and get them to think about the environment and the challenges it is facing. On top of that the students will have fun, due to our gameplay, which we believe is very important and an essential factor, if we are to succeed in influencing the students in a green way. FREESTYLE

An example of a question could be a question concerning recycling. In this category the student will draw a card with a picture of, for example a cereal packaging, and will have to decide which trashcan or recycling container the packaging should go in. In this way, the students become aware of where to throw out different kind of waste. We have made estimates based on key numbers from the campaign named “Kend dit affald”, which show that if 100 students start to think about recycling, we could safe the environment 10,7 tons CO2 per year. If we succeed in changing the behaviour of 1.000 students it is 107 tons per year, and so on. That means that the potential in this category alone, is enormous. The board game has several categories, such as water, energy, recycling etc. We believe that this is something that can change the way children think and understand the environmental challenges we are facing. And hopefully, they will carry that knowledge with them, and pass it on to their parents, their families in general and their future children.

COMMUNICATION

To sum up, we see a great potential in this idea and our goal is to help influence the future generation in a green direction, towards a green future.

61


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

205

Optimal flow through a humidity induced convection pump A. H. Christensen DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

IDEA

The inspiration for potential new sources of renewable energy can come from a wide variety of phenomena. This project was inspired by the flow of atmospheric gases through emergent plants, like the waterlily. In energy conversion reactions, in e.g. plants, oxygen plays an important role. For plant cells on land this is not a problem as oxygen is readily available in the atmosphere and diffuse easily to the parts of the plants where it is needed. For emergent plants however, this process is not sufficient. These plants have therefore developed some kind of lung-like organs, in which a network of veins works to transport oxygen, which diffuses through a porous surface in the leaves, through the plant to the submerged parts of the stem and the roots. The physical mechanisms that drive the flow are, however, at the moment not completely understood. In particular it is unknown how the flow depends on the different geometric parameters of the system. Should this pump be used in biologically inspired engineering as e.g. a source of renewable energy, it is of interest to find out if there exists an optimal geometric configuration.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

POSTER

A simplified structure of such a humidity induced convection pump mimicking the structure of a plant has in this project been studied. The simplified pump consists of a chamber containing a reservoir of water covered by a porous membrane and connected to a venting pipe. Assuming that the relative humidity is higher in the chamber than in the atmosphere, an advective flow will be present through the venting pipe. If one was to place a turbine at the end of the venting pipe, this pump could potentially be used to produce electricity. The flow of gases through the pump due to humidity induced convection is influenced by a number of factors including the partial pressures of the different gas components and the resistances to flow offered by the porous membrane and venting pipe, which in turn depend on their respective geometries and sizes. Using the laws of conservation of particles and the fluid mechanical principles of diffusive and advective flows, a mathematical model for the flow of oxygen through the pump was derived. By analyzing the mathematical model for the simplified humidity induced convection pump it was found that the flow through the venting pipe does depend on the different geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, it was found that the flow through the venting pipe reached a maximum at a specific value for the membrane pore radius, which in turn was found to only depend on the other geometric parameters of the system. Hence if the pump is to be used as a source of renewable energy it would be advantageous for the geometric parameters to satisfy this specific relationship.

62


Reduction of Ultra-Fine-Particles N.Thorball, I. L. Hygum M.T. Møller DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

63

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

POSTER

IDEA

Urbanisering gør mennesker i Danmark, bor tættere og tættere sammen. Det forud sager at befolkning også bor tættere på trafik og fabriker der ligger i byen. Det gør at der er kommet en større koncentration af ultra-fine partikler i byer, og dermed får byboere en øget eksponering for ultra-fine partikler. Ultra-fine partikler øger risikoen for hjertekar sygdomme og kraft, det kan også skade menneskers DNA. Derfor har vi designet et eksperiment opstilling, der kan måle koncentrationen af ultra-fine partikler over tid. Vi ville gerne teste på tre planter; mos, fyrretræ og karse, om de kunne nedsætte koncentrationen af ultra-fine partikler med vores forsøgsopstilling. Det viste sig at forsøg med mos og fyrretræ i alle forsøg, havde en højere henfaldskonstant end kontrol forsøget. Derfor er vores konklusion, at nogle planter kan nedsætte koncentration af ultra-fine partikler. Forslaget er derfor at implementere planter i byen; en grøn by. Dette kan være i form af mos tage og evt. vægplanter, for at planter en naturlig del af bybillede, så koncentrationen af ultra-fine partikler i byen nedsættes.

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

206


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

207

Reducing resource waste from fresh herbs L. Heiden, R. Ø. Mortensen and N. S. Garde DTU Mechanical Engineering

INTRODUCTION

A project in the course “Design of mechatronics 41030”. Today the fresh herbs you buy in the supermarket are not made to last. The manufactures use to many seeds to secure the production. On the long term, this means that there is not enough room for the plants, and they will not survive.

IDEA

The main idea of the project is to design a construction that allows you to grow your own fresh herbs in the kitchen instead of buying new ones in the supermarket. With the help of different sensors, lights and pumps, the system will make sure that the herbs will survive for a long time, and will let you know when it is time to use your herbs. This concept means less waste of material because there is no need of packaging. Also the CO2 emissions caused by transportation are reduced. Through this project, our goal is to improve the awareness of a great waste associated with the fresh herbs you can buy in the supermarket.

METHODS

The methods used include a Life Cycle Assessment, to identify the environmental impacts of the current way kitchen herbs are produced and distributed. These impacts are compared to our product, to show the advantages of “Herbarium”. Through the course we will produce prototypes to improve the design for material use, manufacturing, disposal etc.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

FOOD AND HEALTH

POSTER

This project will present a mechatronic solution to improve the preservation of, and reduce the waste associated with, fresh herbs.

64


Roskilde Resources M. L. F. Ravn, N. S. Jensen, and A. C. W. Hjalsted DTU Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

208

In “miljøfagprojekt” we, a group of environmental engineering students from DTU, gave an assessment of the waste management at Roskilde Festival 2016. The purpose of the report was to uncover and map the waste management of selected fractions: pavilion rods, camping chairs, car batteries, and PVC air mattresses. The purpose was hereafter to examine how each fraction could be handled in a more sustainable way at the festival in 2016 and onward or alternatively to find scientific evidence that the current solution is the most sustainable. IDEA

We developed a qualitative tool to determine how to prioritize between different waste fractions at large events such as festivals. The tool is a prototype which can be chanced and improved, but it is a necessary stepping stone for anyone interested in waste management (on a large scale) where time and economic resources are scarce. The project is developed for Roskilde festival but could be expanded to include other festivals as well. The project is developed as a collaboration between DTU and ReAct, and the conclusions of the project thus aim to support ReAct’s communication with the volunteers during Roskilde Festival 2016. The project is based on scientific data, personal communication, and data provided by ReAct, but has to some extent been limited by confidential information. The project provides a mapping of the selection of waste fractions as well as a qualitative ranking of the waste fractions at Roskilde Festival 2016.

WASTE & RECYCLING

POSTER

Using the prioritizing tool, the project concluded that PVC air mattresses and car batteries should be prioritized during the festival as they are toxic and must be collected by law. Furthermore it concluded that camping chairs should be prioritized over pavilion rods and that both these fractions can largely be left to collect after the festival. The report concludes with a number of recommendations for ReAct regarding the possibility of optimizing the sustainable waste management at the festival.

Figure 1 Research conducted by the authors at a metal recycling station in Roskilde

65


The Seaweed Project 1

3

1

2

Product Design, School of Art, Design and Media, NTU Product Design, University of Applied Science, Schwaebisch Gmuend, Germany 3 Industrial Design, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, Vancouver, Canada

New material design examines the art and science involved in material selection and exploration related to the development of new product designs. The seaweed project explores a wide range of different materials and processes (properties, application, production methods), innovating materials that could possibly substitute materials that degrade our environment. Using only natural binders to reconstitute recycled cork, the aim of our project was to develop an eco-binder made out of seaweed and combine it with cork. Through our findings, we hope to use our seaweed-glue cork product to produce viable new ecological and economical designs. Our research focused on exploring the natural capabilities of cork, which is an emerging sustainable material. The research process included experimenting on creating an ecobinder using seaweed. Cork is an under-utilized resource that is often wasted despite its promising material capabilities. We hope to tap on this material by using reconstitute cork which we hope would encourage communities to re-think waste. Through our research, we found that seaweed contains alginate - a natural polymer that has a viscous and adhesive effect. With the combination of seaweed, soda ash, water and calcium carbonate, part of our project focused on finding the suitable quantities to produce seaweed glue. We began by testing the effectiveness of natural binders. Our findings results were that natural binders will degrade over time, can cause mold to form and aren’t water resistant. Hence, we decided to use seaweed, as it would not turn moldy if left in an open environment. Next, we experimented with the effects of varying granule cork sizes, binder ratio, pressure and heat. After several rounds of experimentation, the key variables to create a successful sample are: the cork and seaweed glue ratio, optimum temperature range used when creating the glue, pressure and drying time. Through our experimentation, we manage to develop a recipe that would create a successful sample. We were able to sand the sample using 120grit. After sanding, the sample could be used as a new wood material. We also carried out a water test and found that the material would dissolve in water. Despite the successful outcome from the recipe, the recipe was not effective when used to cook on a larger scale; some of the cork granules did not bind. Moving forward, we would continue to work on experimenting and finding the right recipe that would be effective when up-scaled and ideate on possible product applications.

LAPTOP PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

2

Low Si Wei Ivana , Julian Kohr , and Samein Shamsher

IDEA

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

209

Experiment No.

Lab el

Seaweed Soak

Recipe

Cork:Binder Ratio

#7

AA

6g cut seaweed + 200ml Water

Soak + 10g Soda Ash + 5g Calcium

1:3 (5g:15g)

U

6g cut seaweed + 200ml Water

1:2 (5g:20g)

CC

NIL No soak, 6g cut seaweed + 200ml Water

Soak + 6g Soda Ash + 5g Calcium 6g Sodium Alginate + 5g Calcium + 200ml water No soak + 4g Soda Ash +5g Calcium

1:2 (5g:10g)

I

Table 1: Results of seaweed binder and varying cork to binder ratio

66

1:2 (5g:10g)


Sustainable Orø 1 Authors to be determined1, 2 1

DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

210

INTRODUCTION In the bachelor course 42340 “Sustainability in engineering solutions”, students apply simple tools to environmental assessment of products and solutions in their life cycle. They apply methods and tools for the development of environmentally improved products and solutions in their project work, where they also consider social and management aspects of sustainability. The theme of this years course is “the sustainable Orø” and projects are defined by and carried out in cooperation with Holbæk Erhvervsforum (Orø), and Fors A/S. IDEA

This project considers one of a number of alternative challenges: How to make the most sustainable heating systems locally; How to handle different types of waste (garden waste, construction and demolition waste); Most sustainable means of transportation; how to treat waste water; etc.

METHODS The method is a stepwise approach to include environmental thinking in product development and is based on “Environmental improvement through product development – a guide” (available at mst.dk) supplemented by more detailed literature on environmental assessment and on sustainability management.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

67

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The project investigates the current solutions at Orø in terms of their most significant environmental impacts and their causes. It presents new approaches to deliver the solutions, assess the potential environmental improvements, the economic costs, and the potential challenges in implementing the solution.


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

211

Sustainable Orø 2 Authors to be determined1, 2 1

DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION In the bachelor course 42340 “Sustainability in engineering solutions”, students apply simple tools to environmental assessment of products and solutions in their life cycle. They apply methods and tools for the development of environmentally improved products and solutions in their project work, where they also consider social and management aspects of sustainability. The theme of this years course is “the sustainable Orø” and projects are defined by and carried out in cooperation with Holbæk Erhvervsforum (Orø), and Fors A/S. IDEA

This project considers one of a number of alternative challenges: How to make the most sustainable heating systems locally; How to handle different types of waste (garden waste, construction and demolition waste); Most sustainable means of transportation; how to treat waste water; etc.

METHODS The method is a stepwise approach to include environmental thinking in product development and is based on “Environmental improvement through product development – a guide” (available at mst.dk) supplemented by more detailed literature on environmental assessment and on sustainability management.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The project investigates the current solutions at Orø in terms of their most significant environmental impacts and their causes. It presents new approaches to deliver the solutions, assess the potential environmental improvements, the economic costs, and the potential challenges in implementing the solution.

68


Sustainable Orø 3 Authors to be determined1, 2 1

DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

212

INTRODUCTION In the bachelor course 42340 “Sustainability in engineering solutions”, students apply simple tools to environmental assessment of products and solutions in their life cycle. They apply methods and tools for the development of environmentally improved products and solutions in their project work, where they also consider social and management aspects of sustainability. The theme of this years course is “the sustainable Orø” and projects are defined by and carried out in cooperation with Holbæk Erhvervsforum (Orø), and Fors A/S. IDEA

This project considers one of a number of alternative challenges: How to make the most sustainable heating systems locally; How to handle different types of waste (garden waste, construction and demolition waste); Most sustainable means of transportation; how to treat waste water; etc.

METHODS The method is a stepwise approach to include environmental thinking in product development and is based on “Environmental improvement through product development – a guide” (available at mst.dk) supplemented by more detailed literature on environmental assessment and on sustainability management.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

69

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The project investigates the current solutions at Orø in terms of their most significant environmental impacts and their causes. It presents new approaches to deliver the solutions, assess the potential environmental improvements, the economic costs, and the potential challenges in implementing the solution.


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

213

Sustainable Orø 4 Authors to be determined1, 2 1

DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION In the bachelor course 42340 “Sustainability in engineering solutions”, students apply simple tools to environmental assessment of products and solutions in their life cycle. They apply methods and tools for the development of environmentally improved products and solutions in their project work, where they also consider social and management aspects of sustainability. The theme of this years course is “the sustainable Orø” and projects are defined by and carried out in cooperation with Holbæk Erhvervsforum (Orø), and Fors A/S. IDEA

This project considers one of a number of alternative challenges: How to make the most sustainable heating systems locally; How to handle different types of waste (garden waste, construction and demolition waste); Most sustainable means of transportation; how to treat waste water; etc.

METHODS The method is a stepwise approach to include environmental thinking in product development and is based on “Environmental improvement through product development – a guide” (available at mst.dk) supplemented by more detailed literature on environmental assessment and on sustainability management.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The project investigates the current solutions at Orø in terms of their most significant environmental impacts and their causes. It presents new approaches to deliver the solutions, assess the potential environmental improvements, the economic costs, and the potential challenges in implementing the solution.

70


Sustainable Orø 5 Authors to be determined1, 2 1

DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

214

INTRODUCTION In the bachelor course 42340 “Sustainability in engineering solutions”, students apply simple tools to environmental assessment of products and solutions in their life cycle. They apply methods and tools for the development of environmentally improved products and solutions in their project work, where they also consider social and management aspects of sustainability. The theme of this years course is “the sustainable Orø” and projects are defined by and carried out in cooperation with Holbæk Erhvervsforum (Orø), and Fors A/S. IDEA

This project considers one of a number of alternative challenges: How to make the most sustainable heating systems locally; How to handle different types of waste (garden waste, construction and demolition waste); Most sustainable means of transportation; how to treat waste water; etc.

METHODS The method is a stepwise approach to include environmental thinking in product development and is based on “Environmental improvement through product development – a guide” (available at mst.dk) supplemented by more detailed literature on environmental assessment and on sustainability management.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

71

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The project investigates the current solutions at Orø in terms of their most significant environmental impacts and their causes. It presents new approaches to deliver the solutions, assess the potential environmental improvements, the economic costs, and the potential challenges in implementing the solution.


BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

215

Modelling future climate change based on the Paris Agreement at COP21 Selina Howalt Owe

DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

During COP21 the Paris Agreement was developed. This agreement was made to prevent nd the change in Earth’s global temperature to exceed 2°C. On the 22 of April 2016 the agreement was signed by enough parties to take effect. Using model technology to model and predict future climate change, makes it possible to test and evaluate the goals set by politicians to prevent global warming. This project uses the DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System Science) Earth system model to scrutinize the COP21 agreement.

THEORY Earth system models are used to investigate the future global changes. As these models improve and become more precise, it's possible to inspect the goals set by politicians to review if they are ambitious enough to prevent global warming. And as our knowledge of computer models and Earth climate science becomes increasingly more advanced it becomes possible to create simple models able to depict the climate more precise. Using the DCESS model, a simple box model, the goals set by the world leaders at COP21 is scrutinized.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

POSTER

METHODS A study of different climate forcings and scenarios has been made to alter the DCESS model such that it corresponds to the most possible future. A literature study of the Paris Agreement has also been made to extract the most important model inputs so that the model predictions fit the agreement. Since the Paris agreement itself only has a CO2 emission goal for year 2030, the near future emissions (until year 2100) has been modelled by imagining different scenarios of decrease in CO2 emission. RESULTS The results of the project are the model outputs. The model shows, that the current Paris Agreement goal of 40 Gt CO2 emission in 2030 results in a global temperature change of 1.5C in 2030 since the pre-industrial age. The model shows that a 5% decrease in global emission from each year after 2030 is needed to stay just at 2°C above pre-industrial temperatures. This illustrates the need for immediate action and faster conversion to greener energy and immediate reduction in the global CO2 emission.

72


3G-bioethanol from abundant seaweeds Marie Blatt Bendtsen Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

BACHELOR LEVEL COURSE / PROJECT

216

IDEA

The world's storage of fossil fuels is coming short. The demand for alternative energy sources that meet the world’s energy requirement in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner is great. After decades of first generation bio-fuels, ethanol production from biomass has proven to be a suitable alternative to fossil fuels. The different challenges rd associated with 1G- and 2G-bioethanol call for a 3 generation of substrates for bioethanol. Seaweeds are abundant in the oceans worldwide, and might just be what we are looking for.

Figure 1: Seaweed on the northern coast of Zealand

THEORY

Figure 2: Seaweed in Mahahual, Mexico

POSTER

Seaweeds contain a great amount of potentially fermentable sugars. The advantages of using seaweeds compared to terrestrial biomasses are numerous. The cultivation of seaweeds requires no fertilizer, the growth-rate is high and neither freshwater resources nor farming land are exploited. The sustainability is pronounced, but as of now the ethanol yield from fermentations of seaweeds do not reach the 2G-bioethanol benchmark of 40 g ethanol pr. liter. This study looks into why this is, and how to design a pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process that allows a sufficient yield of ethanol.

The currently used methods to process seaweeds are designed to process terrestrial biomass and have proven insufficient for seaweeds. The great challenge lies within designing an effective and low-cost process. Pretreatment such as hydrothermal treatment, wet-oxidation, dilute acid hydrolysis are possible choices in combination with enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis can be conducted with various enzyme combinations. For optimal hydrolysis new and more suitable enzymes could be derived from for instance seaweed degrading fungi. Various microorganisms such as S. cerevisiea or ethanogenic E. coli can carry out the fermentation. This literature study will give a qualified suggestion for a new process design of the future 3G-bioethanol.

73

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

METHODS


74


Collective Smart Metering and Behavioural Change J. Glasser, C. Page, A. Petricu, C. Correale, R. Theophanous, V. Carare Lancaster University

INTRODUCTION

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

301

In a bid to increase sustainability, we suggest minimising energy consumption through changing the consumption habits of individuals, in part by using smart meters. Experts argue that conserving energy is one of the best ways to prevent climate change (Löfstedt, 1991) . Universities send out thousands of graduates into the world every year. If these institutions can influence those individuals’ consumption habits to become more sustainable, this could potentially have a wide impact extending far beyond just the University campus. CONCEPT

THEORY

Our aim is to change attitudes, social norms, behaviours and increase self-efficacy as research showed this was the best strategy (Sheeran, 2006). Smart meters are a technology which not only monitors electricity consumption, but also makes this information available to the consumer. We will use a traffic light system along with a percentage and text display, as these three combined were shown to have the greatest influence, to provide people with information about how sustainable their energy use is (Sally Malam, 2009). Research points to the need of combining different strategies in a coherent and consistent way, because attitudes themselves are influenced by factors aside from information provision, for example: price, trust and a sense of moral obligation (G. Gardner, 1996) (H. Devine-Wright, 2004).

METHODS

LAPTOP

We propose displaying the traffic light results of their flat’s smart meter, along with a percentage and some text, on each individual’s Student Portal webpage. This is a personal page for each student to check all the things related to their course. Moreover, research into the outcome of implementing smart meters highlighted that communal metering would be much more influential than individual monitoring. Not only are many of the most highly energy consuming appliances found in communal areas, such as cookers, kettles and toasters; but behavioural modification was found to be most significant when the costs benefits were shared (Leygue , et al., 2014). Furthermore, we will: introduce an ‘energy use cap’ for each flat, which if exceeded will incur small monetary fines; set specific energy rd saving goals and create a team of people dedicated to act as a 3 party in supporting the students in achieving these; create more discussion around sustainability; generate self-talk and prompt practice(Sheeran, 2006) (H. Devine-Wright, 2004).

RESULTS

COMMUNICATIONS

Potential results are: creating a sustainable behaviour in students; reducing energy consumption; monetary income for the University from fines for excessive energy use; social cohesion inspired by working with flatmates to reduce energy use; provision of data for potential research opportunities for academics and students; improved University image and reputation regarding carbon footprint.

CONCLUSION The advantage of our idea is that it is very easy to implement and makes use of technology in a smart way, for a durable success. Moreover, we envision expanding our idea to include smart meters for heating and water consumption.

75


Innovation and development centre for green roofs N.B Slundt and M. M Haurholm DTU Building and infrastructure, Technical University of Denmark Introduction In the recent years, the planet's large cities have been challenged on many fronts i.e. the migration from rural to urban areas has never been bigger than it is today. This has led to increasing CO2 emissions, smog problems, noise pollution, rising temperatures, bigger and more frequent rainfall events. Green roofs are said to be a part of the solution to all these challenges. But are they? This project focuses on green roofs, their impact on the environment and on the structures they are installed on. The project is supported by the five biggest companies that sell or manufacture green roofs in Denmark.

CONCEPT

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

302

The goal is to ensure better roofs for better cities. Method An innovation and development centre for green roofs will be established on the DTUDiploma campus in 2016 to achieve a better understanding of green roofs solutions. In autumn 2016, six test facilities will be constructed at a site on Ballerup campus, on which different companies will install their green roof. Measuring equipment will be installed to document and demonstrate the influence the roofs have on the environment and on the structures.

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

Conclusion The project has received great support from the industry and interest from the state and civil society. This has led to DTU granting the project innovations funds to start up the innovation and development centre at Ballerup campus, which over the next year will be passed on from graduating students to new students who can develop the centre with new initiatives. We imagine that many green solutions will eventually be developed at DTU-Diploma in close collaboration with the industry.

76


High efficient standalone solar system design tool P. Nymann, F. S. Hansen DTU Photonics, Technical University of Denmark

Figure 1 - A principle sketch of a standalone solar system.

REFERENCES [1] Behrensdorff Poulsen, P., Thorsteinsson, T., Lindén, J., Overgaard Ploug, R., Nymann, P., Svane, F., Mira, M. C., Knott, A., Mogensen, I., Retoft, K. “Design, characterization and modelling of high efficient solar powered lighting systems”. (2016)

77

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

POSTER

CONCEPT

The purpose of this project is to create a mathematical model for valuation and component sizing of standalone solar systems. Solar energy is one of the most reliable, daily available and environmental friendly renewable energy sources; being unlimited, clean and free. Due to this and the increasing efficiency and decreasing costs of PV-panels, progressively more technologies incorporate/rely on solar energy. Other than being self-sustainable, solar powered standalone systems have the advantage of greatly reducing installation costs, as no cabling is required. Known examples of cabling cost include 700 €/m in Copenhagen and up to 2000€/m in Berlin [1]. In order to leverage the technology, e.g. in standalone systems, to its fullest with minimal costs, it is necessary to determine the dimensions of the system components before development. To date no complete model exists for valuation and system sizing. This model developed in this project will be able to predict by simulation whether a standalone system is able to perform as desired, before putting the system into production. Entering component characteristics into the model, it is able to predict system performance at any given location by using solar irradiation data only. The model is developed in MatLab and is designed to simulate “light-2-light” systems e.g. park lights and bollards. However, the model can be readily expanded to incorporate any desired load, for instance a standalone electrical vehicle charging station, and a more user-friendly interface.

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

303


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

304

Silicon solar cells with carrier selective contacts F. Villebro, M. Plakhotnyuk, O. Hansen DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION Silicon solar cells are the most widespread, reliable and non-polluting energy resource, however in the fabrication process multiple high temperature steps is needed. These steps such as doping and annealing are expensive and require a lot of energy. This project aims to reduce the solar cell fabrication thermal budget with deposition of carrier selective contacts instead of the conventional doping required for a pn- junction.

CONCEPT

CARRIER SELECTIVE CONTACTS Carrier selective contacts work by blocking one type of charge carriers and letting the opposite charge carrier go through. More than a few thin films possess this ability like titanium oxide (TiO2), molybdenum oxide (MoO3) and nickel oxide (NiO). The advantages of these metal oxides are the low deposition temperature and perfect band alignment with silicon. In this work, we focus on optimization of the deposition process for NiO thin film, which is an electron-blocking layer. NiO thin film is deposited with varying deposition parameters and its electrical properties is evaluated with current-voltage characterization in dark and at one sun equivalent illumination. Once complete the optimized process is included in the fabrication of a silicon solar cell. SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH CARRIER SELECTIVE CONTACTS

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

POSTER

The energy band diagram of the final silicon solar cell is shown on Fig 1. The solar cell consists of more than the NiO film. Aluminum layers are used for contacts, while the TiO2 film is a hole-blocking layer, aluminum oxide helps to passivate the Si surface. Everything taking into account this will reduce the thermal budget as well as simplify the fabrication process.

Figure 1: Energy bandgap diagram of final solar cell.

78


Solar bag harvests energy on the go K.M. Andersen and C. Ronnenberg DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

305

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

Sustainable energy is a positive component in the struggle to positively impact climate change. In 2013, in Denmark, solar energy was only responsible for 518 GWh (1,9 PJ) worth of electricity, which is only 1,5% of Denmark’s collective electrical consumption1. In order to increase awareness of the various ways to utilize solar energy, we have created a concept that consists of a solar bag capable of harvesting solar energy on the go. Work on this project was done under the assumption that, if more people began to see the possibilities with solar technology and begin to use the technology in their everyday lives, the greater the push towards general sustainable energy will be. Asking the questions; why only use solar cells in a stationary way, as solar cells can be small and light? And why are solar cells considered ugly and what can be done to make them more aesthetically pleasing? From the gained insight, a decision was made to combine fashion with solar technology and create a solar bag for men. This resulted in a particular custom shape of the solar cells and a 3D coating: a unique solution for solar bags.

METHOD

By using 1st generation polycrystalline solar cells, it has been possible to cut the solar cells into rhombus shapes before coating them with transparent polyester. A custom briefcase was made and the solar cells implemented alongside a power bank, so that the user could utilize the harvested energy whenever necessary.

RESULTS SO FAR POSTER

The 3D coating of the solar cells has been proved to improve the efficiency of the solar cells by a small percentage. The reception of the concept thus far has been strictly positive, and in terms of making the concept into an actual product, the technologies already exist and are widely available.

REFERENCES

Figure 1 Concept Drawing

79

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

[1] http://www.ens.dk/undergrund-forsyning/vedvarende-energi/solenergi


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

306

Conversion of Sulphurous Flue Gases to Sulphuric Acid, and its Impact on Industry and the Environment A. Irfan Chemical Engineering, Lancaster University Department of Engineering

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

Flue gases from power generation and many chemical processes contain amounts of sulphur dioxide that exceed the amount permissible to be released into the atmosphere for environmental and health reasons. Plants go to much expense to control these emissions – a price which may be offset by using the gases for the production of commercial grade sulphuric acid. The findings of this proposal have an effect on the status quo in industry as well as a positive effect on the environment without restricting industry.

Theory

Sulphur dioxide in flue gases can be reacted over a vanadium pentoxide catalyst to yield commercial grade sulphuric acid as shown in the following reactions: 1. 2.

����2 ����5

đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†2 + 12 đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†2 �⎯� đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†3 đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†3 + đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ť2 đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘† → đ??ťđ??ťđ??ťđ??ť2 đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†đ?‘†4.

These exothermic reactions take place simultaneously in a continuous plug flow reactor. As the temperature of the bulk gas increases, the rate of reaction also increases, causing the equilibrium to favour the reverse reaction in accordance with Le Châtelier’s Principle.

LAPTOP

This proposal suggests the use of a multistage fixed bed reactor with inter-stage cooling to promote the forward reaction, and to prevent the destruction of the catalyst. It is proposed that the catalyst be used over a calcinated kieselguhr carrier in zeolite form to give a high exposed surface area and minimal pressure drop.

Results and Conclusions

Flue gases from a gasification plant are used to design a reactor to convert 259kg/h of flue 3 gas with 0.65 mass fraction sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid. A reactor size of 137m is calculated based on an overall conversion of 95%. The design of three heat exchangers in between three catalytic beds and a condenser are included to yield the final aqueous product and retrofitting this technology to existing plants is also discussed.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

This proposal urges further study into the field of catalysts. A higher heat tolerance would reduce costs associated with cooling, and a conversion closer to 100% may be achieved. Common desulphurisation processes in place today include the wet scrubbing of flue gases with limestone slurry, producing SO2-free flue gas, carbon dioxide and calcium sulphite. Currently, the costs relating to this are offset by the conversion of calcium sulphite to gypsum, a requisite in the construction industry. Regardless, sulphuric acid is currently trading at up to $40 per tonne – significantly greater than $16 per tonne for crude gypsum. The financial incentives outlined in this proposal should lead to plants striving to reduce emissions further, in an effort to produce greater amounts of marketable sulphuric acid. Needless to say, with SO2 being a major contributor to acid rain and the acidification of lakes and streams, greater reduction in emissions is beneficial to the environment and to posterity.

80


Flywheel Energy Storage - A huge leap towards planet sustainability! A. Carson

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

307

Mechanical Engineering, Lancaster University, UK

CONCEPT

Energy usage is the forethought of society, fossil fuel usage has been a concern for two decades and requires elimination. Demand is high for implementation of clean and efficient energy generation. Clean generation is being implemented worldwide, harvesting energy from renewable sources, however storage is a challenge. A common solution is batteries, which have a limited life and energy leakage rates. Efficient energy storage would eliminate deficits and improve efficiencies. Current methods have environmental impact and low efficiencies, implementation of lean and efficient FES will result as a sustainable planet. A study conducted by KEMA states that the global energy storage market value will be between $200-600billion ten years from now!

POSTER

A FES a.k.a. a mechanical battery, stores energy in a rotating mass, and is made to rotate faster by an input current, which comes from an energy converter, like a wind turbine or a solar panel. FES devices are the simplest, effective economic energy storage method. Most FES devices have a maximum rotational speed of 64,000rpm, limiting their energy capacity. My design achieves 100,000rpm. Most FES use electromagnetic bearings, requiring power to function. My design removes this need, reducing maintenance and operation costs. My current design concept achieves permanent levitation, eliminating touchdown bearings. Most FES use an external Motor/Generator unit (MGU), which contributes to inefficiencies, mine integrates the MGU into the FES, increasing efficiency, and minimal energy loss. The maximum instantaneous power achieved by my design so far is 3.8MegaWatts. Many applications would significantly benefit from FES addition, including vehicles, power grids, and power deficit prevention. FES devices have higher power density than most energy accumulators, efficiency ~98%, compared to 50-90% for batteries, so would be smaller than its battery counterpart. FES devices do not use chemicals or dangerous materials that harm the environment. Impressively the life span is ~30 years, in comparison to a battery that deteriorates rapidly if abused. These results are preliminary, and can be optimised further. This is my individual MEng project, the overall aim is to achieve a FES design that; is highly efficient and effective, has good energy density and capacity, and is lean, making the most of materials and the natural behaviour of components

ENERGY CONVERSION

The design will be validated and backed by design models with results from industry-recognised software. There has been no financial funding for a physical model, but simulations and design modelling has all taken place at Lancaster University Engineering department. I wish to take this project further beyond my degree, and create working prototypes, aiming to eventually create commercially viable energy stores that can be utilised in varying scale. I believe this will be the next biggest step towards planet sustainability.

81


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

308

Urban Wind Energy for Patagonia P. Guamรกn and R. Sรกnchez CvO University of Oldenburg

ABSTRACT

In Patagonia, the burning of wood to heat up homes is predominant among households; causing pollution and ashes to contaminate the air of the surrounding cities. Because of this matter, a city like Coyhaique currently rates as the second most polluted city in the American continent.

CONCEPT

The totality of Patagonia holds untapped wind resources with high yield. However, without a high population density and the large distances between villages and often populations in isolated locations an investment on large wind turbine infrastructures that could potentially supply the energy the households require could not be justified. Our concept would solve these issues by supplying small wind-energy generators that could be installed on the roofs of houses. The design can be made as vertical (VAWT) and horizontal axis concepts (HAWT), and manufactured with local materials such as wood. The assembling kit to be distributed is based on the Hugh Piggott wind turbine construction.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

FREE STYLE

In this way, the highly polluting wood fuel would be replaced with clean energy mainly manufactured in situ, helping the local economies to produce their own electricity and heating.

82


Waste Tyre Gasification Process for the Production of Hydrogen Fuel C.L Brickman Chemical Engineering, Lancaster University

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

309

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

It is estimated that roughly 1.5 billion waste tyres are produced globally (Messenger, 2013). With the development of third world populations demanding access to vehicles and an ever growing global population, this number is set to rise throughout the foreseen future. This poses considerable health, fire and environmental risks due to the majority of end-of-life waste tyres being placed into land fill or dumped. With the developing consideration for human activity’s impact on the environment and biodiversity, this poses a great concern in finding alternative means of disposing waste tyres. This project focuses on the process of gasification of waste tyres in order to recover the hydrogen gas contents which can then be utilised as a clean energy source.

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

Waste tyre gasification plants could be located in rural areas within reasonable distance to main cities with high waste tyre production to justify transportation. In order to utilise the economic potential of the process, useful by products such as iron can also be separated out to be sold and reused. Hydrogen gas has a range of industrial uses: -

A energy source used in hydrogen fuel cells which is under extensive development said to be the pollution free fuel of the future The production of agricultural fertiliser vital for crop production which is become vastly more important in the future with top soils in decline The production of pharmaceuticals, plastic, foods and glass production. LAPTOP

THEORY

Gasification is defined as a process in which organic material, in this case waste tyre; undergoes partial oxidation. Process conditions are under high temperatures with a controlled oxygen supply without combustion. Additional processes are used to separate out by products and contain environmentally hazardous waste products such as carbon monoxide and ash.

RESULTS

This project outlines the series of process steps taken in order to utilise the production of hydrogen and by product metals as well as safely separate and contain waste products.

CONCLUSIONS

WASTE & RECYCLING

With the worlds crisis of finding an alternative environmentally friendly energy source to meet the population’s demands and the extensive growth of waste tyre land fill deposits, this process meets both concerns in a safe and utilised manner.

REFERENCES

Messenger, B., 2013. waste management world. [Online] Available at: https://waste-management-world.com/a/tackling-tyre-waste [Accessed 01 02 2016]

83


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

310

Detection of microbial outbreaks in water distribution networks with an ATP based monitoring system Mathias R. Hjorth Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark The frequency of assessing microbial drinking water quality in Danish water distribution networks is fairly low, ranging from once every second year to 37 times a year depending on the distributed amount of water. Although microbial water quality assessments take place, it happens quite often that microbial outbreaks occur. 105 and 102 occasions of severe microbial outbreaks took place in 2010 and 2011 respectively.

CONCEPT

Conventional methods of assessing drinking waters microbial quality typically relies on heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and fecal indicators such as the Colilert-18. These tools are very precise in their assessment and are able to differentiate between pathogens and apathogenic microorganisms, but results can first be interpreted after days of incubation.

POSTER

A more rapid way of assessing microbial drinking water quality is through measurements of adenosine 5´-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations. ATP is an energy-carrying molecule present in all living cells, which makes it a great parameter for identifying microbial activity. The department of environmental engineering at DTU is currently in charge of designing a remote controlled real time monitoring system for drinking water, using ATP as microbial water quality indicator. The project is a part of the Aquavalens framework, which main purpose is to protect European citizens health from contaminated drinking water. Measuring ATP takes a matter of minutes and is therefore well suited for a real life monitoring system, however it’s not possible to differentiate between pathogen and apathogenic microorganisms with this method. The system can be used to identify sudden uprising bacterial activity, which typically indicates contamination. Real time monitoring of our drinking water using an ATP based monitoring system, would allow for proactive actions instead of reactive ones. Implementation of the system would give the ability to manage microbial infected water properly, thus minimizing the frequency of diseases caused by microbial contaminated water. Measurements of microbial ATP rely on extraction of ATP through cell lysis. Cell lysis is typically performed using a chemical lysing reagent and is a proven, effective and reliable method of extracting ATP from cells. Despite being a reliable method of extraction, chemical lysing has shown undesirable properties when used in the microfluidic system designed to measure ATP due to precipitation of particulates; these are capable of compromising the self-sustainability and reliability of the platform. Thermal lysing has been proposed as a substitute to chemical lysing, since no particulate matter is formed in this process. The properties of thermal lysing have been investigated throughout this bachelor project. Thermal lysing has shown great characteristics and the method has proved to be up to 29.6 % better at extracting ATP than chemical lysing. Results have shown that an exposure time between 5-7.5s at temperatures of 90-100 °C yield the highest extraction of ATP.

WATER

This project’s main purpose has been to identify whether or not thermal lysing could act as a substitute to chemical lysing. The promising results obtained through laboratory experiments strongly suggest that it could and have therefore taking the ATP based monitoring system one step closer to implementation and safer drinking water.

84


85


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

401

BIPV in single-family detached houses M. Håkan-Mose and C.G. Bruun DTU Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

IDEA

The upcoming Danish building regulations for 2020 low energy buildings is reducing the upper limits of the energy usage in a new single-family detached house. It is reduced to a point where the needs for local renewable energy production – like solar power – could turn out to be necessary in terms of achieving the requirements. This project deals with a study of the challenges with the integration of photovoltaics (PV) in the building envelope, in terms of finding the most effective- and sustainable solution. This is done by a large parametrization of the major challenges by the integration of the photovoltaics in a singlefamily house. Photovoltaics are often made in standardized solutions, which are directly rack mounted onto the building envelope. This causes problems in many terms and especially at the aesthetics of a single-family house, which can turn out to be a crucial factor in terms of the building value. The studies of the aesthetics in this project are dealing with contrasts and how to reduce and minimize these contrasts. There is a tendency to use the photovoltaics as a construction material in the building envelope of larger constructions. This is called Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV). These integrated PV solutions are though very individual- and specialized solutions, which makes it difficult to transfer directly to smaller constructions, such as single-family houses. The studies show that it is possible to reduce the use of construction materials with weather resistant BIPV solutions, by replacing classical building envelope materials, such as bricks, tiles or concrete. It is thereby possible to reduce the carbon footprint of the building compared to a building with rack mounted PVs.

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

A great challenge in the project is to utilize the electricity in the building while it is available from the solar array. A single-family household are normally using the most electricity during the mornings and the evenings, but the regular – and technically most efficient – south oriented PVs are mainly producing electricity during the day. The studies during this project are showing some great advantages by integrating PV in the building envelope elements facing east and west. This is reducing sale of electricity to the grid, by utilizing the energy in the household when it is produced, and thereby making up for the less efficient orientations. A standard silicon based solar cell module would convert ca. 20% of the incoming solar irradiation to electricity. With an angle of 30 degrees a standard sloped roof of a singlefamily house has a loss by respect to optimum irradiation of 2% facing south and 20% facing east or west, while a façade has a loss of 25% facing south and 44% facing east or west. By integrating the solar modules in the building envelope, it opens up for some opportunities to combine solar energy and -heat production and thereby increase the total utilized solar energy. The heat production from the solar cells could be used through a ventilated PVThermal system (PVT), used for space heating, or through a liquid based PVT collector in terms of hot water production. The air based PVT has a PV-efficiency of ca. 20% and a thermal efficiency of ca. 25%, while the liquid based PVT has a PV-efficiency of ca. 12% and a thermal efficiency of 50%.

86


Fabrication and characterization of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) based sensors for detection of pathogens N. P. Bjerg and S. L. G. Pedersen

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

402

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

IDEA

Detection of Pathogens is useful for maintaining a good working environment and prevents injuries in the industry as well as in private households. It is important that the amount of pathogens stays under a certain limit, which should be measured on a regular basis for maintaining safe environment. Such an example has been seen recently in the Siemens Wind Power scandal, where employees have been exposed to damaging amounts of epoxy and isocyanates during several years without knowing and with severe injuries as a result. From 2006 to 2015 there have been 64 cases of lifelong injuries such as asthma and allergic rashes with abscesses and blisters. This could have been prevented using a CMUT based sensor, with a suitable recognition element on top for detection of the pathogens. The CMUT is a transducer that can be thought of as a parallel plate capacitor where a change in mass gives rise to a change in resonance frequency which can be modelled as Hooke’s law for a spring. By using two electrodes and a simple electrical setup a frequency shift output is obtained.

COMMUNICATION

POSTER

Using state of the art facilities in DTU Danchip’s cleanroom we managed to fabricate CMUTs for the purpose of sensing. The device has been fabricated and developed throughout the process over the last couple of months. Characterization shows that CMUT based sensors could become a reality in the future.

87


Design for Biodegradability M. B. Eriksen and C. M. Hansen DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT Today huge amounts of waste are littered in nature throughout the globe (Jambeck et al., 2015). Much of this waste (especially plastic waste) end up in the oceans, entering and affecting the food chain from the bottom up (Cole et al., 2014; Mattsson, Hansson, & Cedervall, 2015). Many of the materials in use today are persistent when littered in nature. Plastic waste will eventually degrade and disintegrate into micro- and nano-sized particles whose effect on the environment is yet not fully understood. In the last decade, biodegradable bioplastics have been promoted as a part of the solution to this problem. A common misunderstanding is that bioplastics can biodegrade in environments such as soil and water. Often this is not the case, as many bioplastics require temperatures elevated to above 50C as well as oxygen to be available.

IDEA

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

403

Product developers lack knowledge on biodegradable materials, resulting in unsubstantiated design choices. Yet no work has gone into assisting the product developer in accounting for the impact of adding biodegradability as a product feature, as well as biodegradable material selection and approach for biodegradable product design. To assist product developers in designing biodegradable products, we have synthesised a set of design methods for material selection and created guidelines for design for biodegradability. These easy-to-use design tools can be implemented in the design phase, paving the way to reducing the environmental impact from littered products.

REFERENCES

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

POSTER

Cole, M., Webb, H., Lindeque, P. K., Fileman, E. S., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S. (2014). Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms. Scientific Reports, 4, 4528. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep04528 Jambeck, J. R., Geyer, R., Wilcox, C., Siegler, T. R., Perryman, M., Andrady, A., … Law, K. L. (2015). Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science, 347(6223), 768– 771. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352 Mattsson, K., Hansson, L.-A., & Cedervall, T. (2015). Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment. Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts, 17(10), 1712–21. http://doi.org/10.1039/c5em00227c

88


Drone Based Aerial Inspection of Energy Systems H. Petersen and O.L. Christiansen DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

404

A national goal for Denmark is to fully cover the national energy consumption by renewable energy sources by 2050. A large part of the national energy consumption is scheduled to be covered with the use of solar energy, which means that the amount of solar power plants is 1 increasing rapidly.

IDEA

Continuous maintenance is important in order to ensure the optimal operation and longevity of energy systems. Manual maintenance of large energy systems such as solar power plants, district heating, overhead power lines etc. can be complicated, time consuming and energy inefficient. As an example the traditional method of inspecting high voltage cables is 2 using a helicopter. A preferable low cost and energy efficient method of inspection could be implemented using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with an infrared camera. Using an infrared camera it is possible to detect faults in the systems, which can be characterized by hot and/or cold spots. As the amount of images needed to cover an energy system is proportional to the size of the system, an effective image coding scheme is needed, to accommodate limited storage capabilities on board the UAV and/or limited bandwidth for real-time inspection via a wireless video link, while maintaining an image quality high enough for detection of defects. Furthermore, the future development of infrared cameras of higher resolution, will increase the need for effective image/video coding techniques handling the specific characteristics of infrared images/video such as a bit depth of 14-bits compared to the 8-bits used per colour component in standard digital images of the visual light spectrum.

POSTER

The main aim of the project is to study the application of the JPEG2000 image codec, for the coding of infrared images obtained using FLiR Tau and FLiR Quark cameras. JPEG2000 is an extension of the standard JPEG codec, commonly used for the compression of the images in the visual light spectrum. JPEG2000 supports encoding of 14-bit images and incorporates wavelet theory to improve image quality at lower bitrates. The image/video coding will be tested using a UAV at a solar power plant located at DTU Risø in Roskilde. The results of several test flights will be presented at GRĂ˜NDYST.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Supervisors: S. Forchhammer and C. Mantel

REFERENCES 1

COMMUNICATION

Denmark reaches 2020-goal for solar energy before time. (2012, September 12). Retrieved May 18, 2016, from http://um.dk/en/news/newsdisplaypage/?newsid=25147b44-3dce-46478788-ad9243c22df2 2 Helicopters used to conduct transmission line inspections in Toledo Edison services area. (March 2, 2016). Retrieved May 18, 2016, from http://www.pennenergy.com/articles/pennenergy/2016/03/helicopters-used-to-conducttransmission-line-inspections-in-toledo-edison-services-area.html

89


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

405

Evaluation of environmental impacts of a submarine tailing deposit in Northern Norway M.V. Henning and M.M. Kudahl DTU Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

The Norwegian company Nussir ASA has in 2015 got the permission to deposit copper mine tailings in Repparfjorden, Kvalsund, Norway, like it was done in the 1970’s. The most common way to deposit tailings are in dams on land. In Norway submarine tailing deposits (STD) are commonly used due to lack of space on land and due to the rocky surface. It is usually used for sulphide-rich tailings to avoid acid rock drainage (ARD). The deposition of tailings in fjords in Norway is against EU’s regulations on waste in the marine environments and STD is prohibited USA and Canada. Copper tailings are sulfide-rich and dissolution of copper is extremely poisonous for marine organisms. In sediment, the limit value for copper is 84 mg/kg. Four cores from around and inside the old deposit was examined by sequential extraction to evaluate the bonding of copper in the sediment. Nussir ASA argues that copper found in tailings is bonded in the fraction least willing to dissolve in water and thus poses no threat to the marine environment. This project investigated in which stage the copper is bonded and if STD would have environmental effects in Repparfjorden.

METHOD

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

POSTER

Sequential extraction with four steps was used for two cores of 20 and 21 cm depth (20-21 samples) and one core of 10 cm depth (10 samples), while sequential extraction with five steps was used for one core of 216 cm depth (7 samples). Sequential extraction measures copper availability in four stages (increasing in bond strength): ion exchange, reduction of metal oxides, oxidation of organic material and residuals. The five step method includes two steps of ion exchange.

RESULTS Each core showed increased levels of copper in depths of app. 4-12 cm. This indicates presence of tailings from ~40 years ago. In three cores, 50-60 % of the copper was bonded in the fraction most willing to dissolve in water (ion exchange) and only 8-10 % in residuals. The three cores had at 7-8 cm depth a content of copper of 300-500 mg/kg sediment. The last core had ~10 % bonded in the most willingly to dissolve in water fraction and 25 % in residuals. The last core had at 7-8 cm depth a content of copper of 60 mg/kg sediment.

CONCLUSION The core with smallest fraction bonded in ion exchange and largest fraction in residuals was located outside the old deposits and together with the low content of copper, this indicates that the deposited tailings from the old deposit have not moved. The content of copper in the three other cores shows that approximately 90 % of copper from the tailings deposit is bonded in easy/relatively easy dissolvable fractions in opposition to the evaluation from Nussir ASA. Furthermore, the concentrations of copper in the sediment are significantly higher than the limit value. Even though sedimentation will happen naturally and encapsulate the contamination, the high concentrations and the proved availability of the copper in the sediment cause a risk to the marine environment.

90


Implementing Material Efficiency Strategies in the Early Design Phase M. T. Nielsen and C. K. Haugvaldstad DTU Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

406

ABSTRACT

IDEA

Optimisation of material efficiency represents a large potential in energy consumption reduction. This project studies which environmental benefits implementation of material efficiency strategies in a design proposal may result in. A renovation project in Stavanger represents the case where the strategy of direct re-use of materials is implemented in the design stage. The project thereby challenges the established mindset of building design which is designing a building and producing materials to fit the design. Our case relies on the existing materials to set the restrictions of the new building’s form and shape. Architecture is all about finding limitations and setting constraints for the design. In reality, only laws of physics and economy limits the possibilities for the architect. By striving for optimum material efficiency, a natural motivation occurs and a challenging aspect arises in the development of new design proposals. A LCA has been made to evaluate the environmental benefits and impacts resulting from a design strategy relying on the existing materials to set the restrictions. The LCA of our alternative design proposal is subsequently compared with more conventional design approaches relying on more or less complete replacement of the existing structures.

91

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

This project intends to inspire a new approach to building renovation cases, and encourage building designers to realize the possibilities in the existing structures and materials and hence to minimize the demand for producing virgin materials.


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

407

Qualification of service lifespan in relation to sustainability assessments of buildings L. S. Thorsted and N. Ă˜stergaard DTU Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION Today the sustainability assessments and certifications, as DGNB provides, assume a service lifespan of 50 years of all buildings. Based on a sample of 20999 observations of buildings demolished between 2009 and 2015 the mean lifespan is calculated to 70 years. This means there is a big difference between the assumption and the actual lifespan of buildings in Denmark. This project seeks to obtain a better model to estimate the service lifespan of buildings, which can improve the accuracy of sustainability assessments of buildings. IDEA

THEORY The theory is that the service life of buildings depends on a number of variables, whose relation can be estimated by a regression analysis. The outcome of the analysis is a multiple linear regression model, which can be used to predict the value of the dependant variable, the service life, given the values of the independent variables.

METHOD The work began with calculating the basic statistics of the data with focus on different relevant variables as the region, refurbishment, the use type, the wall material and the roof material. The provided data was then used to generate the multiple linear regression model, which estimates the lifespan based on the different variables.

RESULTS

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

POSTER

The analysis showed that the mean lifespan of all buildings is 70 years. The mean lifespan of the buildings analyzed by the different variables is shown in table 1. The mean lifespan of residential and commercial buildings is respectively 67 and 72 years, where the agricultural buildings stand out with a mean lifespan of 103 years. Buildings with wooden panelling have a mean lifespan of 49 years, brick buildings have a mean lifespan of 83 years, while buildings of timber stand out with a mean lifespan of 138 years. Capital /

Refurbished /

Other regions

Not refurbished

60 / 72

74 / 69

Use type

Wall material

Roof material

44-103

31-138

68-71

Table 1 – Mean lifespan of buildings in years

CONCLUSION It was found that region, refurbishment, use type and wall material was significant variables in relation to the service life, but the roof material was not. The constant model of 50 years estimates the service lifespan with an average error of 30 years. The multiple linear regression model estimates the service lifespan of buildings with an average error of 24 years, which is clearly an improvement from the existing model.

92


Reactivity of nano-iron particles for contaminant remediation L. BrabĂŚk1and I. L. Kristensen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

408

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

In Denmark, we rely on groundwater resources for drinking water. It is of great interest to monitor and protect the groundwater in order to secure clean drinking water. A common cause of groundwater contamination is chlorinated solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE), which is a major concern in Denmark. Chlorinated solvents appear in the groundwater zone as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). DNAPL in water are hydrophobic separate phase liquids immiscible with water, and therefore tend to rest in the subsurface. DNAPL found in the subsurface is referred to as the source zone and can persist in the subsurface for decades, hereby serving as long-term sources of groundwater contamination (Abriola, Ramsburg, & Pennell, 2011). It is of high interest to find an effective remediation technique and nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) shows good prospects due to a high specific surface area, which makes them highly reactive and enables them to degrade chlorinated solvents (Hwang, Salatas, Mines, Jakobsen, & Andersen, 2015). There are many commercially available nZVI particles, which are produced in different ways, have different coatings and therefore have different properties. A better understanding of nZVI is needed, particularly how they should be applied for remediation and which factors play an important role in relation to the particles reactivity, transport, affinity and toxicity. The aim is to be able to inject nZVI directly into the source zone, where they are able to degrade the chlorinated solvents to a nontoxic product.

PROJECT LAPTOP

The main goal of this project is to investigate simple methods ability to assess the reactivity of seven different nZVI products. If this is possible then extensive and time-consuming tests can be limited to the most reactive particles. The toxicity and mobility of the nZVI-particles is also investigated in order to achieve a more complete understanding of the different particles. It is incorporated within the project how the particles should be pretreated before they are tested to achieve highest reactivity. In order to assess the reactivity two different reactivity tests is conducted. The first reactivity test is an experiment testing whether the nZVI-particles are able to degrade an azo dye called Naphthol Blue Black, which is more degradedable than chlorinated solvents. The nZVI-particles that showed reactivity in the azo dye experiment are tested regarding their ability to degrade 4-Chlorophenol. The ability to degrade 4-Chlorophenol is assessed by using a colour-assay test, to check whether the degradation product phenol is created after injecting the nZVI particles. Altogether, this project contributes to more knowledge being gained on the testing and properties of nZVI. th As the project will be handed in on the 20 of July 2016 results cannot be presented yet.

REFERENCES WATER

Abriola, L., Ramsburg, a, & Pennell, K. (2011). Development and Optimization of Targeted Nanoscale Iron Delivery Methods for Treatment of NAPL Source Zones, (April). Hwang, Y., Salatas, A., Mines, P. D., Jakobsen, M. H., & Andersen, H. R. (2015). Graduated characterization method using a multi-well microplate for reducing reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron materials. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental181, 314–320

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BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

409

Investigation of Shark Skin Biomimicry for Fuel Reduction A. N. Kolborg and K. Feld DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

This work builds on previous projects in the department in which shark skin has been investigated as a source of energy reduction in global transportation. It is known that sharks are highly energy efficient swimmers and that microscopic structures on their skin play an important role in this. If successful, a shark skin inspired surface on aero-planes, tankers, ships and other means of transport could reduce fuel consumption. Such a surface might also prevent algae growing on ships; helping reduce the amount of toxic paints currently used to fight this problem. The first step to create better designs is to get a better understanding of the processes by which the energy reduction is realized. (In order to create better designs a better understanding is needed of the processes that happen to reduce the energy consumption.)

METHODS

POSTER

Our projects aim to add new knowledge of the flow around shark denticles by looking at shark skin from new angles. Both projects work with micro PIV to visualize and analyze the flow near the surface of shark skin. The chambers in which the measurements are made have been optimized since the previous projects to obtain a higher flow rate and visualization from new angles. In addition to this, one project attempts to computationally solve the flow around simplified structures representing the shark skin.

POTENTIAL USE At the end of these projects we hope to have a visualization of the flow around shark denticles – both from experiments and from simulations. One of the projects also looks for a connection between the size and density of the denticles and the fluid drag reduction. All this combined should give a better understanding of the structure and effects of the shark skin. This would hopefully contribute to a better foundation for producing more fuel efficient surface structures.

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

REFERENCES Bechert, D.W., Bruse, M. & Hage, W. (2000). Experiments with three-dimensional rebilets as an idealized model of shark skin. Experiments in Fluids, 28, 403-412. Wen, L., Weaver, J.C. & Lauder, G.V. (2014, January 14). Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabiraction and hydrodynamic function. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 16561666. Dean, B & Bhushan B. (2010, September 20). Shark-skin surfaces for fluid-drag reduction in turbulent flow: a review. Philosophical Transactions The Royal Society, 368, 4775-4806.

94


CZTS and CTS Thin-film Solar Cells L. Ravnkilde and T. H. Youngman DTU Physics and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Solar cells are a renewable energy source that utilizes the energy from the sun to generate electricity. After the initial commercialization of solar cells, several different types have entered the energy market. Thin-film solar cells are solar cells which are approximatley 200 times thinner than regular solar cells. This reduces material costs and gives the thin-film solar cell the possible advantage of being flexible. For thin-film solar cells the most dominating solar cell on the market is the CdTe based technology reaching efficiencies of 21.5%. The element Te included in the structure of the CdTe thin-film solar cell is becoming more expensive and less available with the increasing production of this solar cell type. The most efficient thin-film solar cell is the CIGS (CuIn(or Ga)Se2) with concentration based technology reaching efficiencies of 23.3%. The production cost of this solar cell type is increasing as indium becomes more scarce and with the increasing demand of renewable energy sources, research in thin-film solar cells made with abundant and non-toxic materials is of utmost relevance. These requirements have inspired the CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) and CTS (Cu2SnS3) solar cell technologies. The research in CZTS and CTS thin-film solar cells strives towards an energy efficiency comparable to the CIGS solar cells, and the current world record CZTS and CTS solar cells have reached efficiencies of 8.4% and 2.92%. Furthermore the raw materials for CZTS is about five times cheaper than those for CIGS, and estimates of global materials reserves (for Cu, Sn, Zn, and S) suggest it is possible to produce energy to power the world with only 0.1% of the availalbe raw materials resources.

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

410

METHODS POSTER

The main goal of the project was to characterize, through various methods, different CZTS and CTS thin-film solar cells fabricated by the CHALSOL research group. This was done to help optimize the fabrication method with the purpose of reaching higher efficiencies. The characterization methods used spanned from electrical I-V measurements to chemical composition analysis along with morphology imaging through electron microscopy.

CONCLUSION

95

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

The highest efficiencies achevied during the project were 0.31% for CTS and 0.12% for CZTS. The charazterizations performed during the project concluded that the main performance issues occured as a result of non-ideal stoichiometry. Furthermore several fabrications steps were found possible to optimize towards the goal of a higher efficiency and commercially available thin-film CZTS or CTS solar cells.


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

411

Potential Use of Underground Radioactive Waste Storage in the UK S. Finlinson Engineering Department, Lancaster University

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

In 2014 in the UK, nuclear power was responsible for 19.52% of the electricity generated, compared to 29.81% by coal, 30.95% by gas and 19.72% by renewables (1). In 2014 coal and gas use in power stations produced 121.0 MtCO 2e (2) (millions of tonnes of CO2 equivalent), whereas nuclear and renewables produce no direct CO2 emissions. To meet target emission reductions nuclear is an important source of energy. For nuclear power to be used as a wide-spread alternative, more long-term storage solutions for high-level radioactive waste are needed as there is a general mistrust in the nuclear industry. This project will focus on whether an underground storage facility would be feasible in the UK as Sellafield in the North of England is one of the major radioactive waste reprocessing plants.

METHODS

POSTER

Currently our solution is to vitrify the waste in glass and contain it in stainless steel lined concrete, however this is not a long-term solution, one possibility is to then store this vitrified waste in underground facilities in order for it to be safer. Currently there are trial underground storage facilities in Finland and recently they have approved a permanent underground storage facility. A literature review will be taken out on the possible suitability of an underground storage facility within the UK, reviewing: suitable ground types that could hold a storage facility safely, ground water interference and structure of the storage facility. The results from this will then be compared with the current storage solutions for radioactive waste, taking into account the following factors: cost, time-scale, safety and a brief consideration on public opinion towards storage types.

RESULTS

This feasibility report shows that although there is a long time-scale in production of an underground storage facility and it has a high capital cost, it could be considered as a longterm storage solution in the UK as it is safer than our alternatives. The major advantages of underground radioactive waste storage is that it is a long-term solution rather than just storing it somewhere in the interim and it’s a safer type of storage. If it was built near Sellafield it would also reduce cost and safety issues of transporting the waste.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

REFERENCES

th

(1) Department of Energy and Climate Change. (26 March 2015). UK Energy Statistics, 2014 & Q4 2014. th (2) Department of Energy and Climate Change. (26 March 2015). 2014 UK Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Provisional Figures.

96


Sustainable Bus driving on Formic Acid M. Tiemessen Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

412

WHO AM I

IDEA

I am Marvin Tiemessen, 20 years young and currently doing my bachelor at the Eindhoven University of Technology, there I study Sustainable Innovation. This study is all about green innovative solutions with a focus on different aspects; social, economic and of course, technical. In my third year, I also started at student team FAST. Besides doing my academic courses, I work 25 hours a week at Team FAST. So yeah I am pretty busy, but I love doing it so that keeps me driving. Within Team FAST I focus business development and so far it is going pretty well, we are already competing in semi-finals of multiple challenges and prizes.

TEAM F AST

Team Fast is a student team at the TU/e, here we develop world’s first bus that is able to drive on formic acid. This allows the bus to be silent, sustainable and completely harmless to the environment. These value propositions are of course nothing new with sustainable alternatives. However, we think liquid hydrogen carriers have the future, they are energy dense, easy to handle and promising for the heavy transport sector.

THE PROBLEM

POSTER

The problem we face in the heavy transport sector is that no sustainable technology is viable enough to compete with the standard; cheap fuel, long ranges and lightweight. However, this standard comes with negative side effects; Noisy, polluting the environment with CO2, NOx, particulate matter and soot, causing global warming but also reducing air quality. If we want to transition towards a more sustainable society, this sector has to change as well, and possibly the solution could lie in using formic acid to power heavy vehicles.

THE SOLUTION

The solution is not as easy as ‘just’ combusting formic acid in Diesel engines. No, to avoid NOx and Particulate Matter, we need to drive electric. This electricity would be provided with a fuel cell. A fuel cell is a device that turns hydrogen (H2) into electricity and water with sucked in oxygen. Hydrogen can be produced sustainable, thus a good solution for the environment. Normally using hydrogen would require highly pressurized hydrogen stored in strong and heavy tanks. The problem with hydrogen is its storage and the safety risks coming with it. We at Team FAST use a catalyst developed at our own university. This catalyst allows the fast reaction of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This reaction makes formic acid viable as a hydrogen carrier. As a liquid, it allows large tanks at atmospheric pressures, resulting in being safe, silent and sustainable for heavy transport.

TRANSPORT

We aim to deliver the bus before the end of 2016, showing that driving on formic acid is indeed possible and a valid alternative to the proposed sustainable solutions that already exist.

97


Serious Game: Energy Transition 1

C. Treglia , and R. van der Veen 1

1

Student at the department of Industrial Design, Technical University of Eindhoven

The authors of this project believe in designs that support people who embrace societal issues. This project concerns the development of a serious game concerning the implementation of green energy in the Netherlands, in view of the Paris agreement for 2020. Green choice is more than just a choice; it is an ethical choice from both environmental social perspectives. Through research on this project it was found that, stunningly, the green energy share in Netherlands is still only 4% of the total energy consumption. But which factors make the transition from conservative energy resources to green alternatives difficult? And what does it take for someone to structurally change his/her energy-use? Several experts were consulted concerning these topics. In addition to the fact that a large number of organizational rules and regulations impede new changes in a big system, it was found that the intrinsic motivation of everyone involved in the area of energy transition has an impact. Through different design iterations, we came to the idea of a serious game. Through an expert meeting with Maarten Robben (serious game designer, Frisse Blikken) and through research concerning the effect of serious games (Léon de Caluwé) we were convinced that this would be a very good medium to trigger discussion, raise awareness and touch upon the personal as well as professional responsibility of policy makers, citizens, big energy suppliers, municipalities, the government, NGO’s and smaller green start-ups.

IDEA

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

413

COMMUNICATION

FREESTYLE

The designed game is a physical game that will be played around a big table. Participants will play the role of different stakeholders; municipality, the government, a big energy company, small green-start ups, technology developers and a NGO. A Judge will regulate the game where needed. The different stakeholders are given a common challenge: Increase the green energy share from 4% towards 20% within 4 years. The game triggers the stakeholders to discuss, negotiate and to make decisions. Every 30 minutes of the game stands for 1 year of policy making. The game provides many variables, difficulties and questions that will always trigger the participants to reflect on what they’re doing. The game visualises decision making, but more importantly, it visualizes the effects of their decision making. The game touches upon the environmental aspects, but also on the geopolitical level. Participants can buy, sell or trade windmills, solar panels or access to oil taps (coming from parties like Russia, Middle East or the North-Sea). Companies need to hire employees, make sure they have clients. Moreover, every stakeholder on the table is also provided with their own interests and difficulties concerning the company/organization itself. Therefore, they need to discuss internally about possible trade-offs between the common goal (going from 4% to 20% of the green energy share in 2020) and their internal goals. After every year (30 min) there is room for assessment and reflection; What factors influenced your decision making, and who do you need to change? The game provides discussions as well as role play (people position themselves in unfamiliar roles). It provides tangible outcomes of decision making and gives an overview of possible future scenarios regarding the implementation of green energy in the Netherlands (this will be discussed during the debriefing of the game). Since the game is still in development, we are figuring out to what extend we can rely upon own moral values and the sense of responsibility of the participants and what the role of design plays/can play in this.

98


Biologically Inspired Engineering: Efficient Evaporation From a Synthetic Leaf K. S. Haaning DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark

BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT

414

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Chemical separation, such as evaporation, drying and distillation, accounts for 10-15% of the world’s total energy consumption [1]. Methods to purify chemicals that are more energy efficient could cut costs and reduce carbon dioxide emissions significantly. Unfortunately, alternative technologies are underdeveloped or expensive to scale up. We propose a completely new system for efficient evaporation inspired by gas exchange through small pores in plant leaves. Our results show that this biomimetic device can achieve gas exchange rates comparable to an open container, although the pores cover only a few percent of the surface area. Implementing the biomimetic membrane in evaporation processes may reduce heat loss, without impeding evaporation rates. BACKGROUND Photosynthesis is a fundamental process to plant life on Earth, converting CO2 to oxygen. Plants utilize small, specialized pores on the surface of their leaves called stomata, to control the exchange of CO2 and oxygen between the interior of the leaf and the atmosphere. This makes these vital structures an important focus of research. There is a striking diversity in the size and density of stomata pores and the overall pattern shows that plants possess either a few large stomata or a numerous collection of smaller stomata. By controlling the number of stomata and the aperture of the stomatal pore the exchange of gas can be regulated. RESULTS

In conclusion, our experiments show that gas exchange rates comparable with the free surface rate can be obtained using a perforated biomimetic membrane with pores covering only a few percent of the surface. Using such biomimetic engineering, chemical separation processes, which account for a significant portion of the world‘s total energy consumption, could be optimized with regards to energy efficiency. [1] Sholl, D. S., & Lively, R. P. (2016). Seven chemical separations to change the world. Nature, 532(7600), 435-437. doi:10.1038/532435a

99

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

POSTER

In this project we examined the exchange of gas of stomata and used a combination of theory and experiments on 3D printed synthetic leaves, to rationalize the observed changes in stomatal geometry. The synthetic leaf is designed to mimic the diffusive transport through stomata pores. Evaporation experiments on the synthetic leaves showed correlations between stomatal size and density, which are consistent with the hypothesis that plants favor efficient use of space and maximum control of dynamic gas conductivity. With pores covering only a few percent of the surface the evaporation rates were up to 50% of a free surface. The experiments also showed a trend in the stomata distribution. Such trends have previously been used to infer prehistoric atmospheric CO2 content and have surprisingly remained approximately constant over the last 300 million years. Even though these trends are used for such inferences, the physical mechanism and design principles responsible for major trends in stomatal patterning, are not yet understood. CONCLUSION


BACHELOR FINAL ASSIGNMENT IDEA

415

Bekæmpelse af orme i vandværks-sandfiltre S. B. Nava and S. V. Afshar DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUKTION På danske vandværker behandles råvandet i biologiske sandfiltre, som nedbryder uønskede stoffer. De mikrobiologiske processer i filtersandet fjerner blandt andet ammonium fra råvandet. Ud over mikroorganismer har nogle danske vandværker oplevet tilstedeværelse af makroorganismer i form af orme i deres sandfiltre. Disse orme skaber æstetiske problemer for vandværkerne, hvorfor de ønskes fjernet. Dette bachelorprojekt havde til formål at undersøge metoder til at bekæmpe orme i vandværkssandfiltre. Dette ønskedes gjort uden at hæmme filtersandets funktionelle mikroorganismer og derved dets evne til at rense grundvandet, samtidig med at metoden var så skånsom som mulig for den efterfølgende behandling af filtervandet.

METODE

POSTER

I projektet blev fire forskellige behandlingsmetoder undersøgt i batchforsøg. De fire undersøgte behandlingsmetoder var med brintoverilte, monokloramin, nitrogen samt kuldioxid. Hver behandlingsmetode blev testet ved tre forskellige forsøgsopstillinger. Først med orme i vand for at undersøge hvorvidt behandlingsmetoderne havde en effekt på disse, og i så fald hvilke koncentrationer, der skulle til for at opnå 100% dødelighed (LC100). Herefter blev behandlingsmetoderne testet i vand samt filtersand for at vurdere, hvordan koncentrationen af stofferne udviklede sig i sandet. Her var formålet at bestemme de initialkoncentrationer der skulle tilsættes sandet for at opretholde de forudbestemte LC100værdier i vand. Behandlingsmetoderne blev efterfølgende testet på orme i vand og filtersand. Slutteligt blev sandet, der havde været udsat for de forskellige behandlingsmetoder, testet for dets evne til at nedbryde ammonium. Dette med det formål at vurdere hvorvidt sandets mikroorganismer havde taget skade af behandlingsmetoderne.

RESULTATER Laboratorieforsøg med behandlingsmetoderne med brintoverilte og monokloramin viste at hvis 100% dødelighed skal opnås, vil det betyde, at filtersandets funktionalitet ligeledes ødelægges. I forsøgene med gennembobling med nitrogen blev der ikke opnået 100% dødelighed af orme i vand. Denne behandlingsmetode blev således ikke testet i filtersand. Forsøg med kuldioxid opnåede 100% dødelighed af orme i filtersand. Dette blev opnået efter seks timer. Ved efterfølgende undersøgelse af sandets evne til at fjerne ammonium, sås det, at filtersandet stadig var funktionsdygtigt. Da råvandet der pumpes op til vandværkerne i forvejen har en høj CO2 concentration, er denne løsning meget let og billig at implementere og samtidigt meget skånsom for miljøet.

WATER

KONKLUSION Ud fra forsøgene udført i dette projekt vurderes det at behandlingsmetoden med kuldioxid har størst potentiale til at dræbe orme i vandværks-sandfiltre. Behandlingsmetoden førte til 100% dødelig på seks timer uden samtidig at nedsætte filtersandets funktionalitet betydeligt.

100


101


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

501

Car4Share E. Fleischmann, A. Michel and A. Piatto DTU Transport, Technical University of Denmark

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION Although car traffic is necessary as it is required to fulfil a need it creates a series of problems. Besides every day present congestion and noise, NOx, SOx, PM and CO2 emissions are emitted. The best approach to tackle this problem is to reduce the total number of cars. The innovative idea is to create a shared economy model that let people travel together. The enabler for this new business is autonomous driving cars, as it makes repositioning of the vehicle without human interaction possible. The service is provided by an easy-to-use smartphone app that connects the user to the vehicle.

CONCEPT

LAPTOP

People can enter their request in the app Car4Share (either regular or one-time travel) and get assigned to a car based on their travel. This model mainly is suitable for times when a lot of people travel in one direction with similar starting and ending points, such as people going from/to work in the morning and afternoon. In addition to this feature, the users of the app can also rent a car for a certain period. The provided cars in the app are either owned by a private person or offered by a specialized company. Furthermore, the potential of autonomous vehicles can be sustainably integrated in the app, such that cars can drive autonomous to the requested location and no driver has to be assigned to the car. A positive environmental impact is made through the overall reduction of cars (less congestion and noise), shared transport capacity (less emissions per passenger-km) and less accidents (less cars and autonomous driving).

METHOD In order to show the positive environmental impact of the app Car4Share, two possible routes with an autonomous car are selected. Both, individual travel and shared autonomous driving are compared in terms of CO2 emissions per passenger-km.

RESULTS The results of the calculations show, that fuel consumption and a great amount of CO2emissions can be saved by using service of the app. Moreover congestion can be reduced. The results are shown in Table 1.

TRANSPORT

Route section Individual Cars Autonomous car Total balance

102

Route 1 Route 2 Total fuel CO2 Total fuel consumption Emissions Route section consumption [kg] [g/p-km] [kg] 4,57 96,7 Individual Cars 2,08 1,72 34,2 Autonomous car 2,01 2,85 62,51 0,07 Table 1: Comparison of Fuel Consumption and Emissions

CO2 Emissions [g/p-km] 96,7 93,3 3,38


Data Measurements for Optimal Utilization of Resources and Identification of Environmental Issues T. Brasch1, T. J. Neergaard1, J. Mortensen2, C. A. L. Petersen2 and H. Ehrari3 DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 1

2

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

502

3

A NEW WAY OF COLLECTING AND USING DATA

CONCEPT

This project has created a cheap, flexible and robust data measurement method which can be put up and taken down using a minimal amount of resources. Several environmental parameters can be measured simultaneously and transmitted in real-time to a central server, such as noise, gasses (e.g. CO2 and NO2) temperature, humidity and UV radiation. The new aspect of this method is that while many existing solutions offer very precise and singular measurements, no one is offering large scale and continuous measurements. The existing solutions are often sufficient to give the desired answers needed, but seen from an environmental perspective, the large scale measurements is very interesting as well. It can be compared to either having a crystal clear photograph, or a low-pixel video. The video will give another type of information than the photograph, and maybe also function as a way to determine when to take the photograph. Right now the data measurement devices are still at a relatively simple state, but hold a huge potential for further development by implementing additional sensors and new technology.

THE TECHNICAL DETAILS

FREESTYLE

The sensor platform is built upon the open-hardware platform LinkIt One with an interface for the Grove sensor system. This allows sensors to be connected using a plug-n-play system where components easily can be replaced if needs arise. This makes the sensor system itself environmentally friendly as single sensors can be replaced when upgrades are needed, instead of replacing the whole sensor system. Furthermore, defective parts can quickly be replaced without special training from the technicians, and at a low cost.

APPLICATIONS OF THE SYSTEM The sensor system is fit to be installed within the urban space of a municipality, and thus creating a smart city like infrastructure by mapping the environmental data. This means that the municipality can e.g. locate noise pollution or unwanted gasses. The system is also fit to be used by private companies such as architectural engineers, which can e.g. install the sensors on a soon-to-be construction site and use the data to make models and simulations in the hopes of creating an energy neutral building.

THE GREEN WINNINGS COMMUNICATION

The main green benefit of this system is to optimally utilize the resources at hand by analyzing the data given from the sensors, instead of wasting precious time and material by guessing on where to allocate the resources. Furthermore, there is a major potential for identifying so far unknown environmental issues by having continuous data measuring in the urban space, and thus create potential for many more smart solutions derived from this sensor system.

103


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

503

Co-Creating Household Cricket Farms to Reduce Undernourishment and Malnutrition in Cambodia F. Hansen, E. Kylvåg, M. Böhm, C. Hansen, C. Lindahl and S. Schuster MSc Design and Innovation, Technical University of Denmark

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION Ending world hunger is one of the 17 global goals of the United Nations, but is still an issue in several countries around the world. This project looks into the potential of farming edible insects as a mean to reduce hunger, and is initiated in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Insects have both nutritional, environmental and resource-use advantages (van Huis et al., 2013). The project is conducted in collaboration with the NGO InnoAid, who is specialized in cocreating solutions with locals. InnoAid have not worked with insects before, thus the goal is to enable the NGO to innovate a proof of concept project in the local environment.

THEORY AND METHODS The holistic engineering system design approach has been used throughout the project. The underlying Thinking Principle (Maier & Oehmen, 2016) has been InnoAid’s mission to use co-creation to obtain innovative and successful solutions. The co-creation method makes for higher user value, which increases the chance for a successful concept. The project is interfering with the early stage of InnoAid’s system life cycle, and has interventions on the artifact and complex system levels, which will inevitably affect the complex engineering system (Maier & Oehmen, 2016).

POSTER

RESULTS The result of the project is a handbook presenting InnoAid with the needed knowledge and co-creation methods to start a pilot project to test the impact of cricket household farming in Siem Reap. This includes knowledge about Siem Reap and facts about how to farm crickets. The co-creation methods include the themes Value Creation, Criteria Mapping and Solution Development. These methods will be used to successfully co-develop a household cricket farm with locals. The handbook also includes an implementation plan for planning and execution of the pilot project.

CONCLUSION

FOOD AND HEALTH

Taking advantage of the benefits of insect farming, a pilot project for farming crickets will be made in Siem Reap, Cambodia, in collaboration with InnoAid. The foundation of the pilot project is the knowledge and co-creation material, which this project has developed. By the end of the project InnoAid will be able to assess the impact of household farming of edible insect. If a reduction of undernourishment and malnutrition, or other positive impact, is observed, they can decide to start up insect farming projects in the future.

REFERENCES van Huis, A., van Itterbeeck, J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Halloran, A., Muir, G., & Maier, A. & Oehmen, J. (2016). 42090 Holistic Design of Engineering Systems. Lecture, Skylab at DTU. Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible insects. Future prospects for food and feed security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

104


Growing Circular A. M. Loklindt, C.M. Rossing, C.H. Grønborg, L.B. Daugaard, M.M. Bahrenscheer and N.C. Funk DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

504

INTRODUCTION Growing Circular is a holistic system design of a scalable mushroom production for Nordic restaurants, utilizing waste from a local brewery. Establishment of small production loops and upcycling of urban by- products will accelerate local transition towards circular food systems and guide the transformation of consumers to sustainable paths. CONCEPT

THEORY The concept is based on the thinking principles from circular economy (Jurgilevich et al., 2016) and the experience economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1998). By using design thinking and a holistic approach to designing engineering system the concept has been developed, based on a literature study in mushroom production and interviews with relevant stakeholders.

Growing circular is a product service system that consists of a growing facility where the growing material will be sourced and prepared, handling the initial growth of mushrooms – a process that requires great attention, care and knowledge. When the mushrooms are ready to fruit, they will be moved to the restaurants, where an optimal fruiting environment is provided, which can display the mushroom process. The mushrooms will be popping up every two or three days, ready to be harvested. After this the leftover materials will be collected and again utilized as compost or insect fodder, circulating them once again. This concept is utilizing the spent brewers grains from microbreweries, utilizing the nutrients instead of sending them to incineration. The restaurants are offered a mushroom supply with showcasing of the growing process. This enables them to take a step towards a circular food system, and the staging of an experience for their guests to create awareness of their ecofootprint. Growing Circular is making a sustainable circular mushroom production accessible to brave restaurateurs while enabling their restaurants and guests to transition to more sustainable paths, by telling the story of local resource loops and leading by example. Once established, the concept can grow organically and involve more breweries and restaurants and eventually take part in setting a new standard for food production and consumption.

FREESTYLE

THE DESIGN SOLUTION

REFERENCES FOOD AND HEALTH

Jurgilevich, A., Birge, T., Kentala-Lehtonen, J., Korhonen-Kurki, K., Pietikäinen, J., Saikku, L., & Schösler, H. (2016). Transition towards Circular Economy in the Food System. Sustainability, 8(1), 69. doi:10.3390/su8010069 Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105. doi:Article

105


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

505

Life Cycle Assessment for innovative and environmental friendly designer lamps A. Evangelio and M. Faragò DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

Increasing is the attention of the public in creating less environmentally impacting products and services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that quantitatively assesses which is the environmental impacts related to all the stages of a product’s life. The aim of this study is to apply LCA to two different innovative designer lamps made of two types of materials: lamp 1 of powder-coated steel and zinc and lamp 2 of polished brass (Figure 1).

Figure 1: From the left, Powder coated (zinc) steel and polished brass lamps.

POSTER

THEORY The theoretical approach of this study is to perform not only a life cycle check of the lamps but also to use the LCA cradle-to-grave approach to evaluate the environmental impacts along all the phases of the life cycle including material, manufacturing, distribution and disposal of the 2 lamps. Based on the results of the LCA, a recommendation on which material is more “environmental friendly” is made in order to help the commissioner to choose the material for production.

METHODS AND RESULTS

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

The methods include goal and scope definition of the project, system boundaries assessment, inventory analysis of all the processes included in the assessment, final environmental impact assessment and sensitivity analysis. Results show that the steel lamp has the lower environmental impacts in all the stages of the life cycle. In short, in table 1 the normalized endpoint categories impact scores are presented. Damage category

Lamp 1 (Steel)

Lamp 2 (Brass)

Human Health

0.002

0.019

Ecosystems

0.001

0.002

Resources

0.009

0.119

Total

0.012

0.140

Table 1: Normalized impact scores for human health, ecosystems and resources categories.

106


Materials of the future: Nanocellulose reinforced Honeycombs T. H. Lund DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

506

INTRODUCTION In the transport sector new ultra light materials can reduce the weight of aeroplanes-, cars and containers. This will lead to a reduction in the CO2-emisions as less mass needs to be transported. In this project new ultra light and strong materials have been investigated.

Honeycomb structures are used as core layer in high performance sandwich materials, and with steel or fibre composite as skin layers on top and bottom of the honeycomb. Honeycombs structures have been used for more than 50 years. Until now honeycombs have been expensive to produce, however with a new production method is it now possible to produce Honeycombs structures at a low cost, see fig. 1.

CONCEPT

THEORY

CONCEPT AND METHOD The concept in the project is to reinforce the cell walls of the Honeycomb by coating them with Nanocrystalline cellulose and thereby making an ultra light and strong material. The Nanocellulose is extracted from wood fibres and is therefore a renewable resource. It has a strength of ten times higher than steel, and at the same time it is eight times lighter.

POSTER

Fig 1: New production method.

In the project an analytical model has been made to describe the compressive strength of the Honeycomb structure. Furthermore an analytical model has been constructed in order to describe the behavior when nanocellulose is added to the structure.

As the project is not finished yet, no conclusions have been drawn. However at the presentation day, the project is finished and the conclusion will be presented.

107

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

507

Modelling Analytical Frame Structure Using Parametric Design K. Petersen DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

Basic building structures such as steel frames are very common but depending on the context, they will have very different dimensions. Setting up the structural model to perform the structural analysis might be somewhat trivial but still very laborious to do. By performing the structural calculations, the use of materials can be optimized. Steel production for construction is 832 mega tons. Steel production emits roughly 1.8 tons CO2 per tons crude steel [WS], so even a marginal reduction of use can have a great environmental impact. This project aims to automate the model setup for very basic structures in order to improve engineering productivity and improve structural optimizations.

THEORY The concept of parametric design is to make an abstraction of a design that can be altered by manipulating various parameters. In this case a steel frame can be defined by five points that are connected by four lines. The relative distance between the nodes can be set up as parameters that can then be modified. Modifying the parameters will change the overall geometry of the structure.

POSTER

METHOD Using Autodesk Dynamo a visual programming interface to set up the geometry and Autodesk React Structures to perform the structural calculations an analytical model is set up. The model geometry is parametrically driven such that changes to for instance width, length or height will propagate to the analytical model.

CONCLUSION

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

The project has not been applied in a real world case, so there is no evidence that this will lead to more optimal designs or improved productivity. The concept can be extended to be used in architecture that is more complex as long as a geometric abstraction can be made. Especially architects would be able to exploit this concept greatly since they easily can test and explore various designs and at the same time perform a basic preliminary structural analysis, giving a competitive edge.

REFERENCES [WS] - https://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/Sustainability-indicators.html

108


Prototype for simultaneous sand separation and pretreatment of cast seaweed for biogas production P. Karachalios DTU Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

508

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

Thousands tons of seaweed are washed up naturally on Danish shores each year, being a significant source of waste. The decomposing algae is the cause of environmental implications on local ecosystems, produces stenches and obstructions to the recreational activities. The economic, environmental and management issues of the collection are considerable, but can be avoided, if cast seaweed is used as a readily available feedstock for biogas production (Hughes & Qureshi, 2014). The main bottleneck of this idea is the high presence of sand and debris and the extra costs that are added for their sufficient removal. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of algae is a promising and sustainable source for bioenergy production and it holds many advantages, compared to the 1st and 2nd generations of biofuel production. Apart from biogas (CH4 and CO2), the process of AD generates anaerobic digestate, a by-product that can be utilized as a bio-fertilizer. The present study is focused on the effect of the simultaneous pretreatment and sand separation of cast seaweed onto the Biological Methane Potential (BMP), and the evaluation of the biofertilizing potential of the digested effluents based on their nutrients content.

METHODS

POSTER

An innovative prototype machine was developed in order to sufficiently remove sand and debris from cast seaweed and to simultaneously pre-treat it, by minimizing the time, energy and water requirements. In order to assess the effects of the process to the potential biogas production, batch reactors were set up according to I. Angelidaki’s protocol (2009).

RESULTS 1. 2. 3.

Sand could be sufficiently removed when the appropriate conditions were used. Water could be recycled at least 3 times in the same process. Two pretreatments (alkaline, acidic) significantly increased the biogas potential.

CONCLUSIONS Outcomes from this study can play an important role for development of innovative solutions for bioprocessing of cast seaweed towards biofuel production.

REFERENCES WASTE & RECYCLING

Angelidaki, I., Alves, M., Bolzonella, D., Borzacconi, L., Campos, J., Guwy, A., van Lier, J. (2009). Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops: a proposed protocol for batch assays. Water Science and Technology, 59(5), 927-934. Hughes, S. R., & Qureshi, N. (2014). Biorefineries. Integrated Biochemical Processes for Liquid Biofuels. In N. Qureshi, D. Hodge, & A. A. Vertes (Eds.), Chapter 2 Biomass for Biorefining: Resources, Allocation, Utilization, and Policies (pp. 37-58). Illinois: Elsevier B.V.

109


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

509

Real-time Location Analytics for Smart Cities P. J. Savnik DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT

In the Smart City context, there is an increasing demand to adapt the city environment to the behavior and consumption of the people living there. With personal electronic devices that are on-line an opportunity to monitor the behavior of thousands of people electronically arises, with the objective to adapt the environment to its users. City resources can be distributed based on the behavior in real-time and the potential in reduced resources is huge. One can imagine trash bins which are only emptied then full or an App showing where the closest available parking spot is.

THEORY The continuously increased popularity of personal wireless devices using Wi-Fi, such as phones etc, enables the development of Wi-Fi based localization techniques. A Wi-Fi enabled mobile device frequently sends out a beacon. This beacon can be picked up by a receiver station. The radio wave path-loss is used to calculate the distance from mobile device to a receiver station. Measurements from at least tree receiver stations are used to trilaterate an exact position of the mobile device. The Cookie Order describes conditions for which such a data collection is legal.

FREESTYLE

METHOD A Wi-Fi module is connected to a computer and set in Monitor mode in order to receive all send Wi-Fi beacons (Probe Request Frames). The computer then subtracts information of the MAC address and Received Signal Strength (RSS). The MAC address is then hashed, using a new algorithm that changes every 24 hours. Then the MAC address, the received signal strength and time are send to a central database. The Server gathers measurements from multiple stations in one database and process the data.

Figure 1, System overview for real-time location analytics.

RESULTS

COMMUNICATION

An experimental setup was tested during the DSE Fair 2016 in March at DTU, tracking visitors and staff. The experimental setup tested the proximity based positioning using cheap commercially available hardware. The result of the experiment proved the concept of using Wi-Fi beacons for real-time location analytics.

CONCLUSION Using Wi-Fi to provide real-time data for location analytics has proven to be a feasible method. A newly developed algorithm to anonymise collected data satisfying the laws and regulations from the Cookie Order. This could change how we deploy city resources and adapt in real-time.

110


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112


Implementation of Changeover Control Scheme in Battery Management System of Small Electric Car to Enhance the Battery life D. Dhua DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

512

The introduction of small-scale electric car in rural areas in developing countries (e.g. India) is highly appreciated by the local inhabitants. The electric car is one of the most precious output of sustainable development towards the green future of the globe. It not only reduces the dependence on fossil fuel, but also add flexibility to the users for regular working purposes. The small scale electric cars in rural areas require cheap and reliable wheel-drive system instead of the smart high-speed engine. Hence, the driving electric machine can be of small power rating for medium speed applications. The Battery Energy Storage system plays the major role in such vehicles and also suffers the most due to rapid acceleration and braking actions. The State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is not maintained due to the frequent overcharging and drainage of it during running of the car. Eventually, these factors affect the State of Health (SOH) of the battery, henceforth the Battery lifetime. The battery life makes significant difference in usage in such remote locations, hence longer battery life is desired.

CONCEPT

ABSTRACT

ENERGY CONVERSION

LAPTOP

The situation can be significantly improved by the introduction of supercapacitors connecting in parallel to the battery. The supercapacitor takes care of the rapid transient actions and is able to protect the battery from sharp charging-discharging currents. In this project, a complete model of the Battery-Supercapacitor-Drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. A changeover control scheme is proposed and implied in this model to maintain the SOC of the battery. This project is successful in the enhancing the Battery life provided that the speed of the car is kept within the desired speed-limit.

113


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

513

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114


The Beehive – An innovative housing initiative Ali Kücükavci, Dennis R. Nielsen, Jesper Larsen and Mikki Seidenschnur DTU Byg, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

514

ABSTRACT

In Denmark, the standards of living is relatively speaking, quite high with a BNP/person of 36.600$. In order to create higher densities of people living pr. liveable area, cities must become more dense with higher population numbers and less need for transportation. Copenhagen, the capitol city of Denmark has a count of 38 m2/person pr. liveable housing area, according to Barfred (2016). The population density of Copenhagen is equal to that of Los Angeles, CA, which is compliant with the term “sprawl”, meaning that they promote lowdense urban environments. Overall, the indication for sprawl is that the need for unnecessary transportation is high, due to high distances between; home, job, and shopping is too grand (Grescoe, 2012).

CONCEPT

The world’s population is on the road of an exponential climb, which will result in ultimately higher population densities. In order to accommodate higher population densities, buildings must be built with a perspective of the future world’s population count.

It is believed, by the means of decreasing housing rents, and enforcing the social aspect of common living, that the world will immerse itself into a state of holistic sustainability. We are not only building for people now - we’re strategising, designing, constructing, and maintaining for the future of the earth, and the people populating it.

POSTER

Entering the realm of building for higher population densities, in the cities, one must understand the needs of the demographics moving to the city. Urbanization has been on a rise for the past decade, and therefore the demand for housing has followed this trend. As 2 seen in Figure 2, the demand has lead to an increase in price DKK/m of rented apartment in Copenhagen. In order to decrease rent, while accommodating the increasing demand for housing in Copenhagen, densification should be increased (more people should live on less area).

115

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

- The BEEHIVE initiative, 2016


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

515

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116


117


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

601

Characterization and analysis of hydrocarbon degrading capability of bacteria sampled in Arctic T. S. Rasmussen

Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

LAPTOP

IDEA

ABSTRACT

The risk for a major oil spill will follow the increased human activity and interest of oil exploration in the Arctic. A wide spectrum of microorganisms is capable to utilize hydrocarbons and has shown to reduce the environmental damage in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez accident. In this study, 80 strains were isolated from sediment collected in the Arctic, of which half of the strains came from an oil polluted harbor and the other half from a pristine area. A 16S rRNA sequencing and a subsequently BLASTn analysis identified the isolated strains genus. In addition, their ability to grow in the presence of crude oil, diesel and naphthalene was evaluated. Degradation of crude oil was observed for 12 strains representing both sample locations. While growth related to all 80 strains was observed in the presence of three different hydrocarbons. The following 10 genera were identified: Pseudoalteromonas, Colwellia, Psychrobacter, Halomonas, Marinomonas, Shewanella, Alteromonas, Loktanella, Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium. The distribution of the genera between the two sample locations, and their associated growth levels, indicated that bacteria with the most efficient utilization of hydrocarbons had adapted to the presence of pollutants in the harbor. This may have caused in a decreased diversity in the harbor compared to the pristine area. The phylogenetic analysis indicated the possibility of two novel species related to the genera Psychrobacter and Pseudoalteromonas, since a 16S rRNA gene alignment with the closest related strains, showed an identity percentage in the range of 41-45%. Although hydrocarbon degradation is present in pristine environments, it is of great importance to investigate the impact on the microbial diversity by hydrocarbon contamination, as well as how to increase the efficacy of bioremediation. This is especially relevant in the Arctic regions where the extreme temperatures will prolong the time perspective of the biochemical processes. Key words: PAH, oil spill, diesel oil, naphthalene, phenanthrene.

118


Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks L. P. Hansen DTU Photonics, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

602

Resiliency in communication networks is a very important matter in a time where everything is connected to the internet. In terms of communication networks, energy efficiency and resiliency are two often contradicting goals because making the network more resilient usually requires more energy consuming equipment. This project investigates the opportunity of combining energy efficiency and resiliency within communication networks, and does also consider the fact that networks consists of multiple layers, and these layers are protected using different protection schemes. The goal of the project was to identify which design aspects have the highest positive impact on the energy efficiency of the deployment scenario.

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

METHOD

RESULTS

COMMUNICATION

The results show great improvements when choosing the right resiliency mechanism: 48,4% improvements are obtained for a mix of protection and restoration compared to double 1+1 protection. Also the appropriate network design method results in an improvement of 65,7% between the best scenario using network protection and end to end grooming and the worst scenario. Using double 1+1 protection results in the highest amount of deployed resources due to the lack of coordination between the protection planning processes at both layers, which results in additionally deployed resources at the optical layer, and more resources leads to higher energy consumption. The results support earlier claims that resiliency in the lowest layer is the most energy efficient scheme. The strategy of avoiding the deployment of lightly-loaded fibers did not result in significant power consumption savings as the figure illustrates (Re-routing).

POSTER

The investigations are performed using SP Guru Transport Planner from Riverbed on a PanEuropean network topology. The project focuses on the planning phase where a green-field network is dimensioned and deployed targeting an energy-efficient, resilient, multi-layer design. The network traffic consists of a random client traffic matrix with demands varying between 1 and 10 Gb/s flows. Three main aspects are considered: resiliency in multi-layer networks, traffic grooming type and avoiding lightly-loaded fibers. Avoiding lightly-loaded fibers is simulated by analyzing which links have low utilization and then redirect traffic away from those by adding a higher cost at the critical links.

119


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

603

DTU BioBuilders - A standardized genetic toolbox for Yarrowia lipolitica B. Hou , B. Schwetz , C. Krogsgaard , G. Verkleij , I. Loft , K. Ciurkot , K. B. Falkenberg , L. Andresen , M. A. Storm , M. El Lakany , N. J. Kofod-Jensen , S. E. Clemmensen , S. Pjaca , T. S. Bladt , V. Rantos , M. B. Bjerregård 1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

2

4

DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark DTU Systemsbiology, Technical University of Denmark DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark

1

2

3

4

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

Replacement of petrochemical products with bio-based alternatives is one of the main goals in Biotechnology. Currently however, the sustainability of bio-refineries is limited by the narrow substrate range of the organisms used. The most common feeds in use are simple carbohydrates such as glucose, produced by enzymatic hydrolysis from edible plants such as maize, rice and wheat. An organism that currently receives increasing attention to tackle this problem is Yarrowia lipolytica. This yeast is able to utilize a wide range of substrates including organic acids, fats and shows exceptional growth rates on glycerol. Y. lipolytica also exhibits enhanced sugar utilization when grown on mixed sugars. Due to its versatility, the yeast Y. lipolytica could potentially be implemented in future bio-refineries, utilizing a range of low-cost feedstock and near-zero cost industrial waste-streams for production of value-added compounds. No large scale production is presently based on Y. lipolytica, as genetically manipulation has been tedious and time consuming.

POSTER

METHODS

The recent implementation of high-efficiency CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in Y. lipolytica has paved the way for exciting new possibilities in targeted genetic manipulation. Using this novel technique, we aim to extent the substrate range further to the utilization of pentoses. In addition, our project aims to develop CRISPR related standardized genetic tools specific to Y. lipolytica that enable efficient engineering, such as easy introduction of new pathways.

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

CONCLUSION

The development of a versatile genetic toolbox for Y. lipolytica, could allow for the utilization of waste streams on a large scale and potentially revolutionize industrial biotechnology. Y. lipolytica’s preference for non-conventional substrates, make it an obvious choice for the utilization of various waste streams. A standardized genetic toolbox will aid to unlock Y. lipolytica’s full potential as a versitile workhorse of future bio-refineries. Based on its substrate range it could also be used on wastestreams from oil mills, food manufacturing, biodiesel plants and hydrolysates from lignocellulosic material. The prospective products range from low value products, sucs as conventional organic acids and sugar alcohols, to single cell oils with potential applications in health and biodiesel production. Furthermore, the characteristics of the secretory apparatus in Y. lipolytica are closer realted to mammalian cells than to those of many yeasts, making it particularly interesting as host for the production of high value therapeutic proteins.

120


Implementation of Changeover Control Scheme in Battery Management System of Small Electric Car to Enhance the Battery life D. Dhua

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

604

DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

IDEA

The introduction of small-scale electric car in rural areas in developing countries (e.g. India) is highly appreciated by the local inhabitants. The electric car is one of the most precious output of sustainable development towards the green future of the globe. It not only reduces the dependence on fossil fuel, but also add flexibility to the users for regular working purposes. The small scale electric cars in rural areas require cheap and reliable wheel-drive system instead of the smart high-speed engine. Hence, the driving electric machine can be of small power rating for medium speed applications. The Battery Energy Storage system plays the major role in such vehicles and also suffers the most due to rapid acceleration and braking actions. The State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is not maintained due to the frequent overcharging and drainage of it during running of the car. Eventually, these factors affect the State of Health (SOH) of the battery, henceforth the Battery lifetime. The battery life makes significant difference in usage in such remote locations, hence longer battery life is desired.

ENERGY CONVERSION

POSTER

The situation can be significantly improved by the introduction of supercapacitors connecting in parallel to the battery. The supercapacitor takes care of the rapid transient actions and is able to protect the battery from sharp charging-discharging currents. In this project, a complete model of the Battery-Supercapacitor-Drive is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. A changeover control scheme is proposed and implied in this model to maintain the SOC of the battery. This project is successful in the enhancing the Battery life provided that the speed of the car is kept within the desired speed-limit.

121


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

605

Industrial Production of 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid from Biodiesel Waste by Microbial Fermentation R. Kirstrand 1

DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark

IDEA

INTRODUCTION Our world is slowly running out of fossil fuels and our continuously increasing demand and need for more efficient, greener, low cost and sustainable production of energy, materials and chemicals calls for innovative alternatives for a sustainable future. In some areas, emerging or industrial biotechnological solutions can be of special interests, since they can be both economical viable and environmental friendly. One area where this is particular true is for production of so-called platform chemicals or building block chemicals, which can be used as starting points for making more sophisticated and advanced organic and polymeric structures. One chemical of interest is 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), since it can be used to make acrylic acid, a type of plastic used in many industries such as packaging, toys and house hold care. Today, the annual production of acrylic acid is 5 million tons with a total market value of $8 Billion USD, and it is all made from petrochemicals via chemical synthesis using a variety of hazardous chemicals.

POSTER

THE PROJECT IDEA This project evaluates the techno-economical possibilities of building a plant for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol, a major byproduct from biodiesel production, by utilizing microbial fermentation. The plant is designed to cover 1 % of the market, which corresponds to an annual plant production of 36.000 tons/year. The project idea includes a comprehensive literature study, overview of alternative processes, elucidating a metabolic engineering strategy for bio-based production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol waste by microbial fermentation, flowsheet for production process, sizing and location of production plant, commercial assessment and a plan for investigating future research targets.

CONCLUSION

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

In total, the project concluded that it is possible to commercialize a production process for 3hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol, although yield, productivity and titer of the fermentation must be improved, before the process will be economically viable and product price is comparable to the current price of petroleum-based acrylic acid. It is estimated that the proposed process can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption by more than 50% when compared to traditional petroleum-based acrylic acid production.

122


Parking Efficiency in a Mixed Environment of Automated and Manual Vehicles Towards Greener Cities 1

1

S. Woo , S. Choi , and H. Yeo 1

1*

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

606

Civil & Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

Parking is one of the crucial elements of driving experience, as it may influence the efficiency, user utility, and the environmental impact of traveling by changing the travel time. Especially preparing for the emergence of automated vehicles, researchers have to investigate the understudied field of parking, as automated driving with different parking behavior and utility may influence the performance of parking infrastructure. To improve the understanding on the impact of automated vehicles on the parking infrastructure, two objectives of this study are proposed. First is to develop a simulation framework for evaluation of various car-park scenarios for a mixed environment of automated and manual vehicles using real trip data of taxi in Daejeon. Second is to evaluate efficiency, as well as environmental impact, of various parking scenarios in order to provide insight for urban planners.

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

In the first part of the study, a simulation framework is developed for evaluation of parking in Daejeon. The simulation framework was developed by organizing different parking cases for different vehicle types, parking availability and public transit linkage availability. This simulation takes origin-destination traffic demands as well as various scenarios of parking space distribution as input to the simulation. The output is total cost by the population using the parking infrastructure of the city. Different parking cases are theorized to depict people’s behavior in parking, such as searching for a substitute parking space when it is not available at destination. For performance measure, cost functions of parking for different vehicle types, i.e. autonomous and manual, are suggested and vehicle-mile-travelled (VMT) for environmental impact. In the second part of the study, various parking scenarios are tested under different variables such as market penetration, public linkage system level, demand factor, and fee factor. As a result of scenario evaluation, for each scenario, its total cost and VMT is calculated for finding the best parking distribution.

LAPTOP

METHODOLOGY

Due to increasing ratio of vehicles on the road to parking infrastructure, efficient planning of parking infrastructure can increase the efficiency of travelling as well as land usage. This framework can take any parking scenarios, traffic demand scenarios, and flexibility in parking behavior. By using optimization methods, like genetic algorithm, parking plan for a city can be optimized. As a result, this framework can be very efficient in redesigning the old cities with parking problems, as well as in planning new cities with estimated traffic demand pattern.

123

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

EXPECTED RESULTS


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

607

Novel Degradable Mulch Based on Starch 1,2

1,2

1,2

X. Li , K. Gao , D. Lv , and Y. Niu 1

1,2

Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, China 2 DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Plastic film in increasingly used as agricultural mulching by 0.9 billion farmers in rural China. The primary benefits of agricultural mulching are weed reduction, keeping the soil temperature for early stage, controlling moisture and reducing nutrient leaching. The majority of mulches are prepared by polyethylene (PE), a polymer that has poor biodegradation characteristics. The typical fate of the PE film is to be removed from the field and then buried or burned at the end of growing season. Thus a degradable film that can be plowed into the soil and decomposed within a few months is required.

THEORY

The degradation process is divided into two stages: fragmentation will occur in the first stage whereby the mulch is divided into small fragments by mechanical forces, solar photodegradation and so on. In the second stage, the partially fragmented mulch can be used by microorganism as a carbon-energy source.

LAPTOP

METHOD

Several methods were investigated to solve those issues including mulch reutilization and development of alternative mulch. Starch, as a sustainable and abundant biomass was selected to provide the raw material to synthesis starch-based films. Due to the high degree of crystallinity of starch, micronization process was introduced to destroy its lattice and reduce its crystallinity. Bioaminosilane was used as a coupling reagent for modification under usage 1.5% at 95℃. Meanwhile, a double-plastify step which consists of a single plasticization by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a compound plasticization by triethanolamine (TEA), was applied. PEG and glycerol was added to enhance the mechanical property.

RESULT AND CONCLUSION

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

The longitudinal and lateral tension load reached 1.8 N and 1.6 N, respectively. And the biodegradation rate of the mulch is gradual increase from 23.5% (34 days) to 62.4% (112 days). The agriculture mulch based on starch has potential application in the field. It can be degraded in a few months.

124


A.A. Jeppesen, F.H. Akhtar, J.A. Arnesen, J.S. Larsen, M.L. Nielsen, R. Gurung KU SCIENCE, University of Copenhagen

INTRODUCTION:

PestiCeps is on a mission to produce a sustainable bio-insecticide solution against agricultural insect. Our product is a combination of an entomopathogenic fungus and other complementary components that improve the efficacy in insect control. Bio-insecticides are cost-effective alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides and they are proven to be effective against a wide variety of pests. They are biodegradable in nature and thus minimize the environmental hazards caused by chemical insecticides. Studies have shown that application of bio-insecticides alongside the regular chemical insecticides improve the yield and crop quality. There has also been a high demand in organic products and a rise in health consciousness amongst the end consumers. According to market report, the global pesticide market is estimated to have a compounded annual growth rate of 17.3% over the period 2015-2020 with the total market value reaching 10.05bn USD by 2020.

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

PestiCeps - a smart and sustainable pest control

IDEA

608

STRATEGY:

To develop the idea for a novel bio-insecticide including entomopathogenic fungi the following strategy was used: first relevant insect pest species were screened by searching scientific literature and governmental websites. The insect species were evaluated by which crops they infest, how large the economic damage is and the current solutions. Selected insect species were investigated for natural fungal predators in scientific literature. The fungal species were evaluated by their host specificity, effectiveness in killing their host, survival conditions and if means of cultivating the fungi had been developed. Furthermore, patent databases were searched for relevant patents regarding specific fungi being used as bio-insecticides. This was to ensure that a novel fungal bio-insecticide could be patented.

FUTURE RESEARCH:

No in vitro cultivation method for N. fresenii has been established in the scientific literature. We therefore aim to develop a novel, patentable in vitro cultivation method for N. fresenii. Research is needed to develop large-scale productions of P. neoaphidis and N. fresenii. The aim is to develop a final product that may include P. neoaphidis, N. fresenii and complementary components. The final design of the product will consider propagation method and shelf life.

125

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

Aphids attack major crop plants including cotton, soy and potato. The estimated loss each year because of aphids reaches up to 100 million dollars each year. Today aphids are being controlled by the farmers by the use of conventional insecticides such as chemicals, but also bio-insecticides are being used. However, the bio-insecticides on the market are not specific to aphids and may also affect desired insects such as pollinators. We have found two fungi species that are specific for aphids, and can potentially be used as an aphid specific bio-insecticide. These are Neozygites fresenii and Pandora neoaphids. They are effective and will kill the aphid within four days, which is faster than any other bioinsecticide on the market today. Also, they are naturally occurring so they can be used for organic as well as conventional farmers. There is very little patent coverage of these fungi and no patent regarding their use as a bio-insecticide.

LAPTOP

RESULTS:


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

609

Preparation of filter membrane from cellulose T. Zhao, W. Li, Y. Cheng, and C. Ma Sino-Danish College, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Petro-based synthetic film is the major source of the world film production, however, considering the limited fossil fuel, it has to be replaced by film originated from renewable sources. Cellulosic film with abundant sources was regarded as a suitable alternative, however the water and air pollution generated during current manufacturing process darkened its application prospects. All above, this project is aimed at producing cellulosic film in an environmental friendly way by using ionic liquids.

Material and methods [DBNH]OAc was prepared by neutralization of 1, 5-diazabicyclo [4.3.0]non-5-ene, DBN, with acetic acid. Cellulose was dissolved in [DBNH]OAc at 70 ℃ in a water bath to obtain a uniform slurry, a further dissolution of which was conducted at 80℃ for 90 min at 10 rpm under reduced pressure. Undissolved particles or impurities were then removed by hydraulic pressure filtration. The very viscous dope obtained was then send to flat membrane casting equipment to get film and stored at cold temperature for solidification. The regeneration of IL was easily achieved by putting the membrane in water and dissolve IL in it.

LAPTOP

Results A sample of cellulose membrane made from cellulose will be obtained and provide a macroscopic characterization of the cellulose films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the cellulose films will be performed, this can give a characterization of the microstructure of cellulose films. Mechanical properties, primary air gap, bath temperature and drawing speed, of cellulose films will be tested. The filtering quality of the cellulose films will be tested and compare with filter paper made from traditional raw material.

Results

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

Life Cycle Check (LCC) will be performed and demonstrate the positive environmental or energy impact of our project. LCA Materials Energy Chemistry Other

Materials

Production

Use

Table 1 Generic LCC Table

126

Disposal


Process design of cadmium(II) removal from industrial waste water 1,2

1,2

1,2

J. Zhang , X. Fang , P. Hu , X. Wu 1

1,2

Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, China 2 DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

610

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Cadmium, existing in the natural environment as well as in the industrial emissions, may cause serious damage to human health as a toxic metal. Therefore, removal of cadmium from water, especially from the industrial wastewater, is necessary. Integrating magnetic separation with aeration to separate cadmium from industrial waste water and the related process design were proposed in our project.

THEORY Ethanediamine-modified magnetic poly-(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres (EMPs) were synthesized to adsorb cadmium(II). EMPs is easier to be captured by the bubbles into the magnetic field than the cadmium(II) alone due to the hydrophobicity of EMPs. Cd-loaded 1 EMPs can be eluted by EDTA solution, then EMPs were recycled after wash by water .

METHODS Based on the theory, our idea for designing a process of cadmium(II) removal from waste water is presented. Firstly, the method in the literature for cadmium(II) separation from waste water is tested in laboratory to find the optimal operation condition. Then a process including separation and recycle loop is designed. Finally, the suggestion for the process improvement is given. LAPTOP

RESULTS The process includes cadmium(II) separation from industrial waste water and magnetic microsphere recycle operation. In the separation part, the optimal operation condition is at pH 6.5, in 25°C and the gas flow rate is dependent on the loading volume. The average recovery of Cd-loaded EMPs is 90%. After adsorption, EMPs can be reused by eluting it with EDTA solution and distilled water. The recovery of EMPs is more than 99%.

CONCLUSION In our process, an aeration and magnetism combined method was applied in the removal of cadmium from industrial wastewater. Our main separating medium is EMPs, which shows a great adsorption for Cd and good recycling property. By aeration, we can overcome the limitation of magnetic force distance. In addition, our process can also be applied for other heavy metals in wastewater, which shows a promising outlook.

REFERENCE WATER

1. Dong, T.; Yang, L.; Zhu, M.; Liu, Z.; Sun, X.; Yu, J.; Liu, H., Removal of cadmium(II) from wastewater with gas-assisted magnetic separation. Chemical Engineering Journal 2015, 280, 426-432.

127


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

611

Antibiotic Degradation in Manure by Composting and Laccase Oxidation 1,2

1,2

1,2

Z. Su , H. Fan , N. Ma , J. Petersen

1,2

1

2

Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, China DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION All Large amounts of antibiotic agents are being used in animal husbandry and aquaculture. Thus also high quantities of residual antibiotics are found in farm animal excrement which might then threaten the diversity of microorganisms in the ecosystem if the manure is released directly to the environment. Thus attention and research has been drawn in regards to find a method to degenerate the antibiotics.

THEORY Composting has been demonstrated to be an effective and green way in order to degrade antibiotics in manure. Since solid-liquid mixed manure is not suitable for aerobic composting, the liquid part is treated by laccase which is widely used in the degradation and removal of antibiotics due to its effective oxidation ability in liquid.

METHOD AND RESULTS

POSTER

A lab scale low pressure fermenter is designed and manufactured for the aerobic composting under manually control. A simulation antibiotics solution with laccase was treated under various reaction conditions. Initial and residue concentration of the samples were tested in order to determine the performance pattern for compost and laccase degradation.

FURTHER WORK -

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

-

Analysis of the results from the composting and laccase oxidation. Determination of the most efficient parallel treatment of degradation of antibiotics in solid and liquid excrement. Proposal of a large scale treating process for practical application. Determination of modifications needed to be implemented in regards to the scale up for the process.


Use of Discarded Fishing Nets as Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement for Prolonging Lifetime of Existing Structures N. M. Sigvardsen

MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

612

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

In recent years there has been a growing concern regarding the state of the ocean ecology due to marine litter. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2009 6 estimated 6.4 ¡10 metric tonnes of ocean litter is discarded into the oceans pro anno. 10% of this is estimated to be discarded fishing nets, thus 640,000 metric tonnes of fishing nets end up as free floating ocean waste annually. Fishing nets are made from plastic fibers, which do not biodegrade, but undergo a physical and chemical degrading process. When the plastic fibers are degraded into micro plastic it can be absorbed in plankton and thereby pollute the entire food chain. It would therefore be beneficial for the environment to find a new use for the discarded fishing nets, thus reducing the growing amount of marine litter. One use for discarded fishing nets could be as different types of reinforcement in concrete. Due to the big fishing industry in Greenland an alternative use for discarded fishing nets would have a decreasing effect on the amount of marine litter in the Arctic. In this study discarded fishing nets from Sisimiut, Greenland were used for creating fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for near surface mounted reinforcement (NSMR). NSMR prolongs the lifetime of existing structures, and thus reduces the amount of materials transported to Greenland, reducing CO2-emission and expenses as well.

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

This field of study still requires mush further research before it is fully implementable. A chemical analysis and characteristic of the mechanical properties of the fishing nets should be made. Alternative methods can be used for casting FRP bars e.g. the strings of fishing nets could be dipped in epoxy or coating for the purpose of crating larger anchors to increase the sealing effect. Furthermore discarded fishing net could be used as e.g. mesh reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in concrete constructions. The opportunities for using discarded fishing nets as an alternative reinforcement, thus preventing further pollution of the oceans, are defiantly present.

WASTE & RECYCLING

Throughout this study a method for casting NSMR FRP bars with discarded fishing nets were developed and beams with NSMR FRP bars were tested and analyzed. The beams with NSMR FRP bars generally attain a higher load compared to a beam without NSMR, and the point of cracking increases. This means cracking of the beam is postponed, and it can further be concluded, from the pattern of visible cracks, that the FRP bars reduce the cracks caused by shear strength. Furthermore there is a tendency that the use of NSMR FRP bars, made from discarded fishing nets, has a decreasing effect on the formation of visible cracks. Thus the use of discarded fishing nets as NSMR FRP bars can propone the point of failure and increase the lifetime for a concrete beam.

POSTER

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION


MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT CONCEPT FREESTYLE COMMUNICATION

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MASTER LEVEL COURSE/PROJECT

615

Battling agricultural leaching 1

Tobias Straarup Andreasen , Alexander Rosenberg Johansen 1

2

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark

ABSTRACT

CONCEPT

Agricultural leaching is causing major environmental challenges across Europe. Current efforts have been ineffective and has caused a severe decrease in productivity. We propose a novel algorithm that allow us to accurately measure, in real time, agricultural leaching and its effect on the environment. Given estimates from the danish government, such solution could profit dent into a currently untouch 667 billion kr. market in Europe alone.

CONTENT

While global focus the last few decades have been on CO2 pollution and global warming, agricultural leaching has not had as much media focus. Even though the aggressive use of fertilizers in agriculture is causing detrimental damage to water supplies, ocean- and freshwater health. This has led to several environmental catastrophes throughout the world such as Mariager Fjorden in Denmark in 1997. As recently as in march 2016, Florida saw its worst crisis ever with upwards 50% of marine wildlife killed - visualized in online media with mile long stretches of rivers covered in death fish.

FREE STYLE

Denmark is a frontrunner on regulating agricultural leaching. However, farmlands varies greatly in type and the current methods for regulating is not able to capture that, which recently (Feb. 2016) lead to the redrawal of the Danish minister for environment and food. It is estimated that proper method for assessing leaching could gain Denmark upwards 10% increase in agricultural revenue (2.5 bn kr.). In 2020 a European Union standard has legislated that every country in the union must follow strict agricultural guidelines for leaching of fertilizer, such as the case in Denmark. We estimate, given the agricultural portion of the the European union’s GDP, that the increase in revenue would be upwards 662 bn kr. annually.

COMMUNICATION

To solve this problem we present a novel computer vision (image recognition) algorithm, built on state of the art artificial intelligence. The algorithm we propose is capable of recognizing images of plankton with upwards 85% accuracy over 121 different species. Plankton are microorganisms living in freshwater and oceans. Their size and numbers are directly correlated with the nitrogen level in the given environment, thus reflects agricultural leaching. Our solution will place a network of cameras throughout rivers and creeks affected by leaching allowing us to measure environmental impact in real time to inform farmers and authorities. The solution is cheap and scales well, we estimate Denmark could be covered for 15 mill kr. annually, less than 1/1000’th of agricultural revenue increase - not taking environmental benefits in account.

132


133


MASTER THESIS

701

BIM automatization for building services design of High-Performance Buildings 1

A. Mata 1

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

1

In the last years, AEC industry has faced the need of designing more High-Performance 2 3 Buildings and has used BIM to cope with IPD process. But many times it has been translated into higher production costs and has led to outsource in low-cost countries. The aim of this study is increase design process efficiency of building services by using automatization and lean process. This study has been carried in collaboration with MOE A/S CONCEPT

PROBLEM

4

IPD process for HPB design requires a high collaboration, especially during early design phases. However, nowadays AEC industry faces a lack of software development that often causes a lack of consistency among 3D building model, design data, and client requirements. As a result, AEC firms have faced waste of activities, implying a lower design value of HPB with higher project design cost. So, many Danish firms have been forced to outsource for coping with project budgets. However, this caused other issues such as increase of collaboration time with high-quality control workload and project standardization.

METHOD

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

FREESTYLE

Surveys and Leavitt-Ry expanded model have been used as analytical means to determine problems in the existing design process. For achieving a better understanding of the design process, both a representative completed project was analyzed besides and active participation in ongoing projects at MOE A/S. As a result, a series of applications were coded by using the visual programming tool “Dynamo” and programming language “Python”.

PRODUCT

A series of applications were successfully coded and validated for building services design of HPB based on automatization, reusability, data monitoring and open standards. By using these tools, higher quality in the deliverables and integration with other AEC parties is achieved. Moreover, project production time and waste in the design process are reduced, data management is increased, and project information is properly structured and integrated with the life cycle of HPB. As a result, firms could avoid outsourcing by producing in a more sustainable and efficient way. Hence, benefits could get kept in local communities and give opportunity to human resources of using their time for being creative and solving problems.

CONCLUSION

This study presented a feasible and sustainable alternative to outsourcing. This project can be really valuable and help AEC Danish firms to be world leaders in designing of HPB. AEC industry is such a traditional sector, where thinking out of the box is challenging. However, innovation demands change and this is what this project aimed for. Coding and technology are such powerful tools that all AEC companies should be skilled and passionate by using them. So more and better High-Performance Buildings could get designed and built. People are such a valuable company’s asset that shouldn’t be used as project production machines. 1

2

AEC : Architecture, Engineering and Construction; BIM : Building Information Modelling; 3 4 IPD : Integrated Project Delivery; HPB : High-Perfomance Buildings 134


MASTER THESIS

702

Circular Economy in the Anthropogenic Food System U.Gaztelu DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

THEORY

Geels & Schot (2007) define four transition pathways in which niche activities might become mainstream. The effect of the sociotechnological landscape on esteem and self-actualisation demonstrates the need to transform the landscape to foster motivation. Self-determination theory explains how wellness of individuals is created by the fulfilment of intrinsic goals (Grant, 2012). Moreover, autonomy, mastery and purpose increase motivation at work (Pink, 2009). Among current CE transition methodologies, business model innovation and material flow analysis based process optimisation strategies do not seek the fulfilment of intrinsic goals.

CONCEPT

The indifference of human actions towards biogeochemical cycles and towards our interaction with them is creating an environmentally unsustainable present. The goal of this project is to open up another dimension for human wellbeing through the creation of a circular economy (CE) transition guideline for companies. Its application will help in the transition to an environmentally sustainable future.

METHODS

FREESTYLE

Based on the theoretical background, a CE transition methodology for businesses in the food system has been proposed. After each case study implementation a refinement of the methodology is done through feedback loops. The first version is shown in Figure 1.

RESULTS

Figure 1: First version of the CE transition methodology

REFERENCES

Geels, F., & Schot, J. (2007). Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways. Research Policy, 36(3), 399–417. Grant, G. (2012). Transforming Sustainability. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 46, 123– 137. Pink, D. (Performer). (2009, July). The puzzle of motivation.

135

WASTE & RECYCLING

Results are not available yet, but will be presented in the form of feedback from the participants and through environmental and financial indicators of the implemented CE options .


MASTER THESIS

703

Design for Disassembly – building a circular future / & 0 /DUVHQ 6 'LUDRXL

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CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

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BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

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REFERENCES

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ENERGY CONVERSION

285 352-(&7


MASTER THESIS

705

Optimized Reuse of Calcium Carbonate Pellets from Drinking Water Softening C. Tang 1

1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

CONCEPT

Drinking water softening is implemented to mitigate the negative effects from high water 2+ 2+ hardness (i.e. calcium (Ca ) and magnesium (Mg ) ions) such as lime scaling in household appliances. The Copenhagen utility HOFOR has decided to implement central drinking 2+ water softening starting in 2016 with the technology of pellet softening. Here Ca is removed as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) pellets in a fluidized bed column where pH is increased using sodium hydroxide. In order to promote the precipitation process, quartz sand grains are added to the column causing CaCO3 to precipitate on the surface of these. The pellets are the only output from the softening, however, how they are handled influences the overall sustainability of the process. When fully implemented within the next 10 years, HOFOR expects an annual pellet production of 14,000 t. CaCO3 (limestone) is widely used is a number of industries such as agriculture, construction and flue gas desulphurization. However, very little attention has been paid to pellet management and their reuse potentials and hence it is not known which applications are possible for pellets from drinking water softening in a Danish context.

POSTER

The focus in this project is to investigate if the softening process can be optimized not only with respect to water quality, but from a byproduct point of view as well. Thus, the aim is to investigate: What are the potential applications of pellets? Which quality criteria must the pellets meet? Finally, how can the softening process be optimized to produce pellets of a “better” quality? This knowledge will be useful for HOFOR when planning and implementing water softening, but the aim is also to make generic recommendations for reuse optimization that other utilized can use as well. In this project the theoretical principles of pellet softening and the theory of crystallization is coupled to the results from pilot-scale experiments conducted at different waterworks. One of the main conclusions of the project is that pellets indeed are a valuable byproduct that can substitute limestone from quarries – a non-renewable resource. One important barrier is the quartz sand grain in the middle of the pellets which reduces the purity of the pellet. In order to overcome this a fraction of the pellets can be crushed and reused directly into the softening process substituting quartz sand. This eliminates the quartz sand grain and allows for local reuse. This solution is becoming common in the Netherlands. Another interesting aspect of this is that there are indications that crushed pellets reduces the consumption of sodium hydroxide and hence further increases the sustainability of the process.

WATER

Another key aspect is the placement of the pellet reactor in a traditional waterworks process scheme. Placing the softening process as the first process, iron and manganese will precipitate in the pellets reducing the purity. By placing the reactor after filtration, the last step in conventional groundwater treatment in Denmark, pellets with a purity of nearly 100 % CaCO3 are produced. This is a quality that limestone quarry cannot meet and hence pellets can potentially be a high-value product with both economic and environmental benefits.

138


MASTER THESIS

706

Reduction of Environmental Impacts in the Construction Industry through LCA Integration in BIM M. P. Tsikos DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has many times been criticized for lack of control and management of carbon emissions while recent studies have shown that buildings are responsible for 30-40% of the energy consumption in Europe and 40-50% of the greenhouse gas produced globally. To reduce the industry’s environmental impacts, architects and engineers need to take into account the impacts of their design from the early design stage. Life Cycle Assessment is a widely used method for assessing the environmental impacts of a product or system but it is time consuming and hard to implement rendering it difficult to use in more complex products like buildings. In this project, a method is proposed for performing LCA of buildings in a Building Information Modelling (BIM) environment. This can make LCA a fast and simple process which can be performed from the early design stage of a building. The simplicity of the proposed method renders LCA a decision making tool during the design process.

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

To achieve the integration of LCA in BIM, a model is proposed where Revit models are connected with an external LCI database and the Visual Programming Language environment Dynamo where all the calculations are performed with the user’s prompt. The script developed in Dynamo reads the database and all necessary information from the BIM model, calculates the environmental impacts of the building and exports the results back to a spreadsheet where the user gets feedback from automatically created charts and graphs. Furthermore, the BIM model is color-coded according to its environmental impacts making it easier for the user to identify the “problematic” elements and materials. The model was developed according to the specific way of BIM modelling in “vandkunsten” architectural studio and was tested with real projects the results of which were compared with the ones from other existing LCA applications.

POSTER

THEORY & METHODS

The results show that the proposed model can work as a decision making tool for reducing the building’s environmental impacts. The whole process for performing a whole LCA takes 30-90 seconds according to the BIM model’s size while there is no need for any preparation from the user. The charts and the color-coding provide useful feedback about which materials and constructions need to be changed in order to minimize the total life cycle impacts of the building.

139

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

RESULTS & CONCLUSION


MASTER THESIS

707

Sustainability through crowdfunding J.Lehtomäki, S.Salo, and J. Rauhala 1

Energy Technology, Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland

LAPTOP

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

Climate change mitigation demands action and sustainable solutions. These solutions are for instance sustainable projects in renewable energy (RE) production. In addition, environmental awareness and willingness to contribute has increased. However, traditional investment strategies have an obvious market failure because they do not meet people´s green values nor do they provide the possibility of investing in particular projects. Therefore, an alternative investment strategy, such as crowdfunding, together with information and communication technology is introduced to gather a large amount of people to participate with a smaller threshold into a new wave of energy solutions.

CONCEPT

We provide a crowdfunding platform for renewable electricity and thermal energy production projects. Our platform concept enables companies, local communities and governments to enroll in RE projects to be crowdfunded. The platform brings relative companies and projects together, enabling a rapid increase in RE project executions and involving local people in the development of their environment. When the project is fulfilled, the investor gets his share as an equity or as a refund for the amount of electrical or thermal energy produced in the RE power plant. Our concept enables development of RE production in developing countries by either the local community itself or by small scale investors in developed countries. By investing in domestic projects the investor increases local employment. The provided platform connects RE projects and small-scale investors in a professional manner. The goal is to fund market based RE projects and to get either a refund in the energy bill or a moderate rate of return on investment. The platform gives a guarantee for every RE project, gives pay-back security in case the fund-raising fails, gives legal advice and certifies every RE project for their sustainability and feasibility. Furthermore, monitoring the project implementation and later on also the energy production is directly available to the investor via the platform.

COMMUNICATION

The business model is simple. The platform takes a fee from every implemented project based on the amount raised. Our platform does not receive any equity shares of the projects. We provide certificates for renewable energy as well as provide consulting of the feasibility of the projects. By crowdfunding, private investors are able to contribute on their environment in a small manner, and be part on the creation of a more sustainable future. Crowdfunding is a new way to make a significant impact. Instead of buying shares from stock markets and not being able to influence the company’s decision, by crowdfunding you can channel your resources into sustainable projects.

140


MASTER THESIS

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141


MASTER THESIS

709

A Sustainable, Economical and Smart Camp (SESC) for refugees 1

R. Nejad and D. Malkowska

2

1

2

Hydraulic Engineering, Delft University of Technology Structural Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

In 2015, there is a study conducted about a feasible project due to the course, Civil Engineering in Developing Countries in the Technical University of Delft. This study provides a solution for the refugee crisis in terms of introducing a sustainable, economical and smart camp (SESC) for refugees. Moreover, changing the attitude towards the refugees is the right solution to the refugee problem. This is by changing the mind-set of governments, a dynamic approach towards the refugees. In this way, the refugees are more a boost to the economy of the hosting country rather than a burden.

THEORY

An estimated 9 million Syrians have fled their homes since the outbreak of civil war in March 2011, where over 3 million fled to Syria's neighboring countries. Those fleeing the conflicts are usually accommodated in camps, where the basic needs are provided. So far, the only aspects covered in such camps were food and accommodation, whereas the employment and emotional integration has not been dealt with at all. The camps are seen as a temporary solution, however, in many cases, the ongoing conflicts force refugees to stay abroad permanently and settle down in a foreign country, as it is the case in Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

POSTER

METHOD

A simple question has been answered. What are the needs of refugees in another country. Shelter, food, job, education and energy are the basic needs of the refugees. The study was to find feasible solutions on sustainable ways of providing accommodation, job and energy to those staying in the camps. The emphasis is on economic boost to the hosting country and a change in the way refuges are perceived by the citizens of the hosting country.

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

RESULTS

The solution is to have a sustainable housing, by using Eco-domes which is a strong and easy to build structure where the refugees are also involved in building process. An economic camp is realized, by plantation of Paulownia which is a fast growing tree with high economical value and low water supply. The energy for the camp is provided with the Stirling Solar Dish, converting the solar energy into electrical power. Education and internet access will makes the camps smart. These aspects are touched shortly in this study as well. The presented ideas were very well received by the industry partners, who were interested in implementing those into reality.

142


MASTER THESIS

710

Sustainable Recirculatory Shrimp Aquaculture M. Muntau Environmental Planning and Engineering Ecology, Technische Universität München

Aquaculture is one major solution to satisfy the global demand for animal protein without the exploitation of natural resources. Among all areas of food production aquaculture also represents the fastest growing economic sector with an even higher increasing trend in the future. Besides fish and shellfish, the production of shrimp is gaining increasing importance since they are high quality products with high market values. Recirculatory aquaculture systems thereby allow the cultivation of shrimp, independent of the geographic region and without the use of antibiotics or pesticides. Furthermore, they are considered resource efficient as > 90% of the water is internally reused by water purification technologies. However, existing facilities are still not operating sustainable and resource efficient in various aspects. Most important deficits comprise (i) the use of food pellets containing fishmeal and –oil which originates from industrial fisheries, (ii) the elimination of nutrients during water purification, (iii) the bad CO2 balance, since all facilities import larvae from overseas and (iv) the high energy demand.

CONCEPT

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project is to overcome current deficits of shrimp recirculatory aquaculture by innovative approaches in nutrient recycling and the incorporation of the full shrimp life-cycle in the production process.

FOOD AND HEALTH

The tropical White Tiger shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei is chosen as a model species in this project. The innovation lies primarily in the technological optimization of the water recycling and nutrient retention by using algae bioreactors. The algal biomass is utilized to feed shrimp larvae and in parallel to cultivate zooplankton as food source for juvenile and adult shrimp. With this approach life-stage specific food sources can be provided within the production cycle which also facilitates the maintenance of an own broodstock for shrimp reproduction. For a proof of concept the respective mass balance, nutrient retention and biomass production as well as shrimp growth, food conversion and reproduction will be quantified. Concepts for a combined heat and power cycle include the utilization of industrial waste heat and the potential energy generation by algae biogas production.

LAPTOP

APPROACH

143


MASTER THESIS

711

WARR Hyperloop Pod 1

2

L. Spanier and S. Biser 1

2

Department of Physics, Technical University of Munich Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Munich

INTRODUCTION

LAPTOP

CONCEPT

Hyperloop is a novel means of transport envisioned to use high speed pods in partially evacuated tubes for passenger transportation. The use of a levitation system and an air compressor enable the minimization of ground and air drag increasing its energy efficiency. The planned top speed of 1200 km/h makes this concept a possible replacement for short range flights.

PROJECT OVERVIEW

Within the SpaceX Hyperloop Pod Competition, we developed a technologically advanced prototype, which is able to test all critical technologies for the final market introduction. In this competition the pod will be tested at a reduced speed of 350 km/h, although our design already features all the technologies necessary for operation at transonic speeds. The pod is externally accelerated by an automatic pusher vehicle or a linear motor and maintains its speed with its battery-powered onboard systems. These involve an axial compressor, which pushes the residual air from the front to the rear of the pod. This compressor was taken from a military grade turbojet engine, and is suitable for high power operation over long durations. The compressor not only creates thrust to overcome the drag from the levitation system and air friction, but also prevents aerodynamic shocks from the accelerated gas around the pod by decreasing the total airflow. This helps the pod to reach and maintain its cruising speed. Since wheels become inefficient due to rapidly increasing drag above 500 km/h, an electrodynamic levitation system was implemented. Although its effect won’t be significant at the reduced operation speed during the SpaceX competition, this test will be valuable to improve the system. The levitation effect is generated by the induction of electrical currents in the metal base of the transportation tube from a complex array of permanent magnets. This makes the system fail safe while eliminating a necessary constant power supply. As this effect relies on the inertial speed of the pod, low friction wheels are used to carry the weight of the pod at low speeds. To provide a maximum in safety, the pod uses a pair of redundant braking systems: A primary high-efficiency eddy-current brake and a backup set of frictional brakes, which also keeps the pod in place during a standstill.

CONCLUSIONS

TRANSPORT

The overall focus on minimization of drag throughout the entire design process resulted in a noticeably high energy efficiency. In a marketable system based on our prototype, the energy required at cruising speed per person and kilometer could be 25 % lower than in rail traffic, while achieving speeds 25 % higher than air traffic.

REFERENCES

Musk, E. (2013). Hyperloop Alpha. SpaceX.(Online Article). http://www. spacex. com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha. pdf.

144


MASTER THESIS

712

Life cycle assessment of anaerobic co-digestion of casted seaweed. 1

1

1

A. Symeonidis , A. Boldrin , and D. B. Karakashev 1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

In this project the environmental impacts of various management techniques are addressed and quantified using life cycle assessment modeling. EASETECH software is used for the modelling process and the impacts are quantified in 15 different impact categories in accordance with the European Commission, whilst the study follows the respective ISO standard.

CONCEPT

Seaweed is found on the southern shores of Copenhagen metropolitan area and until recently no waste management technique was applied. The problem became irritating for locals where seaweed was causing odor nuisance and the shore could not be used recreationally.

What is purely innovative in this very research however, is the fact we put effort in order to understand and quantify the environmental impact of the natural degradation of the seaweed. The so called “Zero-Solution” which represents the possible environmental damage that is caused by neglecting the seaweed and letting it to degrade on shore without acting at all. So far in literature this problem has not been addressed although it might account for a significant impact. The results are subjected to sensitivity analysis where the sensitivity (on the result) of each parameter is calculated and discussed. Accordingly, the most sensitive parameters are tested and the uncertainty derived by them is quantified. Overall, the scenarios are compared on a fair basis taking also into account the uncertainty of the individual parameters, in an effort to conclude on the optimal waste management technique as far as the environment is concerned.

145

PRODUCTS AND SUSTAINABILITY

Since, it regards an LCA for wastes, the model principle is chosen to be consequential approach where system expansion is applied in order to create a fair comparison basis for all scenarios. In particular, the state of art model accounts also for energy substitution options as well as the avoided and/or induced production of certain products due to system expansion. Therefore, impacts from “Zero-Solution” are presented as savings for the respective waste management techniques and an overall score is derived.

POSTER

More particularly five different scenarios are modelled, four of them assume anaerobic digestion (AD) as the main waste management technique and one assumes composting. The scenarios are fully developed and represent the treatment of the seaweed from the shore till the final disposal. Therefore account processes as collection, transportation, AD/composting, distribution of digestate/compost, production of energy etc.


146


147


MASTER THESIS

801

Biological control unit: a real alternative to disinfectants for a more sustainable aquaculture A.P. Gallemí DTU AQUA, Technical University of Denmark

IDEA

BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing sectors within the food industry. Nevertheless, one of the most common problems encountered in fish farms are algae blooms, and especially, harmful algae blooms (HABs). Farmers use different types of disinfectants to eliminate these toxic microorganisms. However, some disinfectants are ineffective against some of the most common toxic algae species (cyst-forming species). Given the increasing trend of the aquaculture industry, chemical usage and discharge can only increase, unless an alternative method to eliminate algae blooms is found. This project has focused on exploring the usage of zooplankton, natural predators of the algae, to eliminate them from aquaculture systems. The specific aims of this work were to check if using zooplankton was both biologically and technically feasible – it should be an efficient removal method and easy to implement –, as well as to realistically evaluate and compare it with current removal methods.

METHODS 1) 2)

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS & SOLUTIONS

POSTER

3)

Biological part: 3 different highly-toxic algae species – all responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry – and 2 zooplankton species were used. To make experiments realistic, “bloom-like” concentration of algae was used. Technical part: a small-scale bioreactor was used to determine the feasibility (in terms of flow and velocities) of using zooplankton in recirculating aquaculture systems. This information is key to understand how to implement this new alternative in real systems. Evaluation: both methods, biological control and peracetic acid (PAA), were evaluated under 6 different scenarios. Criteria were based on the industry’s preferences.

Results and Conclusions

Figure 1. Biological Control Unit

The study showed: 1) Biological control is feasible both from biological and technical perspective. 2) Biological control in the tested conditions is as efficient as commonly-used concentrations of PAA. 3) Biological control is more effective than PAA in treating blooms of cyst-forming species. 4) Biological control outscored PAA in most of the studied scenarios.

148


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MASTER THESIS

802

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POSTER

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MASTER THESIS

803

Detection of Wind Turbine Icing J. A. L. McGowan DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark Vattenfall Wind Power

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

Wind turbine icing is a phenomenon where snow and ice accretes on a wind turbine’s wings. This effect poses several issues for wind farms in cold climates. These include the potential safety hazard from falling ice, increased wing fatigue/wear due to increased wing weight, and decreased power production due to changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of the wings as well as increased down time. The research fields of de- and anti-icing focus on removing and avoiding ice accumulation respectively. In order for any such system to function efficiently it must be aware of the current state of icing. I.e. it should only be active when icing is occurring/has occurred. For this reason a robust ice detection method is of great value. Many different ice detection systems are currently available, but all with known issues making them close to useless as standalone systems. Furthermore to the knowledge of the author no system exists which detects ice based on image analysis. Using image analysis for ice detection is of interest for various reasons, one being the high quality of off-the-shelf cameras which could translate into sensor solutions which are far cheaper than custom built sensor arrays.

POSTER

METHODS

A variety of image analysis and machine learning techniques are used to detect ice on the unsorted images provided for the project by Vattenfall. The main parts are: 1. Wing detection: Only about half of the images show any part of the wing. The images are therefore first sorted in wing/no wing using Basic Image Features(BIFs), and a custom clustering algorithm developed under the project. 2. Image segmentation: The images must then be segmented into wing/background segments in order to perform closer analysis on wing parts. This is done using manually extracted wing shape templates and background subtraction. 3. The final classification is performed using clustered BIF histograms from a manually annotated training data set.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

The final results have not been analyzed fully at time of writing but indicate classification accuracies for each of the three steps between 70 and 90% depending on the conditions under which the images were captured. Due to the extreme diversity and strong noise sources in the images in the data set this accuracy is taken as a proof of concept for image based ice detection systems which can function robustly in cold climates, and thereby help to increase the geographical areas in which wind farms are a plausible sustainable energy source.

150


MASTER THESIS

804

Direct Use of Biogas in SOFCs A. Winiwarter DTU Energy, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Biofuels are among the core sources for sustainable energy. Biogas can be derived from many different sources of residual biomass such as waste, manure, sewage sludge, and agro-industrial residues. It consists mostly of CH4 and CO2 and can be converted to electricity and heat using conventional thermomechanical processes. However, using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) instead, much higher efficiencies can be obtained, as the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, which among others reduces CO2 emissions. A second effect of using SOFCs is that due to the different reaction process, only very low amounts SOx and no NOx are produced. Additionally, a lower methane content is necessary than in conventional processes, making the use of currently discarded gas possible and thereby reduction of overall methane emissions is possible as well. While conventional processes are only sufficiently efficient in large scale, SOFCs could also be used in medium and small scale plants. They are therefore well suited for decentralized electricity production and transport of biomass can be avoided. Biogas is generally seen as high potential sustainable fuel, but most conventional applications require expensive upgrading treatment: after cleaning, the fuel is either converted to syngas (mostly H2 and CO) or CO2 (which accounts for the major part of the gas) is removed to use the remaining CH4 as natural gas substitute. In SOFCs nickel present in the anode serves as catalyst for the reforming reaction of biogas to produce H2 and CO that can be utilized electrochemically. Therefore no external gas conversion is necessary, while at the same time taking advantage of the exothermic electrochemical reactions for supplying heat for the endothermic conversion.

POSTER

METHODS AND RESULTS

ENERGY CONVERSION

In this project, biogas from a landfill unit in Denmark was used as direct fuel in SOFCs. CO2 was added as oxygen source to reduce carbon deposition, a well-known problem. The long term effect of the gas on the performance of the cells was determined and compared to a test using synthetically mixed biogas. Very low cell degradation proved the concept applicable and gives way for prototype future development of SOFC technology in combination with biogas.

Figure 1 Overview

151


MASTER THESIS

805

Energy Renovation vs. Replacement of an Existing Multi-Use Building M. Bauerova DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

The energy consumption of the building sector counts for 35% of the global energy demand. This is the main impulse for improving the energy efficiency of both new buildings and existing buildings. The decision makers about the energy improvements measures in renovations are mostly owners and users, who were in the past deciding mainly based on initial cost and personal attitude. The approach of sustainable renovations has been adopted by the assisting consultants recently, combining all 3 pillars of sustainability. Various tools were developed in order to compare different renovation alternatives. None of these tools considers demolition and replacement of an existing building as one of the scenarios.

METHODOLOGY

POSTER

This project compares 3 functional units provided by 3 different strategies in order to compare the renovation with the replacement. The functional unit is a building serving for 30, 60 and 100 years with the same functional areas. The unit is inspired by a real case: Care center Farum Midtpunkt which is a result of a deep renovation and conversion of the building realized in 2014. This renovation case is Strategy 1. Strategy 2 is a replacement of the existing building with a new building having the same parameters as the building after renovation. Strategy 3 is a replacement with a new building meeting requirements of current standards. 9 cases in total are compared from environmental, economic and social points of view. Damage oriented life cycle impact assessment is followed by life cycle cost assessment. At the end the indoor environment of the 3 strategies is analyzed.

CONCLUSION

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Evaluation of the scenarios from the whole life cycle point of view is an essential step in sustainable decision making as the results change with time. At the starting point, the renovation is more environment and cost friendly due to the large impact of building demolition in Strategies 2 and 3. Better energy efficiency of Strategy 3 changes this result in favor of Strategy 3 due to lower environmental and cost impact during the operation phase. This strategy also provides better indoor environment. More detailed analysis of the social pillar should be carried out by further research.

152


MASTER THESIS

806

Forward osmosis membrane based water extraction from anaerobic digester effluents (Energy and Water recovery) R. S. Rajmohan 1

2

3

DTU Environment , MEMENTO , Aquaporin A/S

Recent development in the membrane technology indicates that forward osmosis (FO) has a high potential for wastewater treatment, concentrating nutrients and producing high quality water. This study investigated the feasibility of applying forward osmosis (FO) dewatering process for nutrient recovery from anaerobic digestate as part of MEMENTO project in collaboration with Aquaporin A/S. The main focus of the experimental study is to evaluate FO performance based on water flux, reverse salt flux and nutrient rejection (ammonium and phosphate) and to model the water flux. Further, the energy produced from anaerobic digestion will be evaluated with the water extraction and thereby recovering both energy and water from manures and other organic wastes.

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

KEY FINDINGS AND RESULTS

The performance of FO-AnMBR fed with synthetic wastewater and various anaerobic effluents such as cow manure, pig manure, synthetic effluent and potato starch wastewater have been evaluated through several laboratory tests including osmolarity measurements, viscosity measurements, particle size distribution, ICP analysis, ion chromatography, Kjeldahl Nitrogen method, microwave digestion, TS, VS and TSS analysis. The water flux is modelled using Matlab. The water flux or the water that is extracted from the above mentioned effluents were found to be an average of 4 to 5 LMH. The reverse salt transport for the draw solution used (0.66 M MgCl2) is around 0.2 to 0.5 GMH. The Ammonia rejection in the feed side is found to be >90 % and the Phosphate rejection is found to be >99%. While the TS, VS and TSS of the feed (effluents) influenced the methane potential (energy recovery), they did not have a significant impact on the water recovery in the case of synthetic effluents and potato starch waste water as feed. The methane potential for the effluents used ranges from 150 to 350 ml/g VS. When we use the brine from sea water, the net energy and water production from the process is high and the cost of the experiment is lower, thereby enabling the process to achieve net positive energy output as well as significant water extraction.

153

WATER

An age-old phenomenon or a transport process that has been used by mankind is the process of osmosis. By tradition, osmosis is defined as the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides. When the net movement takes place only due to the osmotic pressure difference between the feed and the draw solutions without any external pressure, it is called as Forward Osmosis. The active layer of the FO membrane is impregnated with aquaporins which are proteins that allow only water to pass through them. The feed solution used are the effluents and the draw solution used are brine from sea water (or) MgCl2 (or) Sodium acetate.

LAPTOP

THEORY


MASTER THESIS

807

Optical DataCenter Networks A. Zeimpeki DTU Photonik, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

The Data Centers compromise an integral part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector that is gaining significant interest nowadays. This trend follows the increasing traffic volume of the web applications, the advance of the social networking services and the cloud computing, and necessitates more powerful facilities to arise. As a consequence, the carbon emissions are increasing and the energy consumption is a parameter that should be taken into consideration. The topologies accompanied by the technologies that are deployed affect directly the DataCenters' energy footprint.

PROJECT SCOPE

The specific project focuses on the optical technologies that are deployed in the DataCenter, and part of the scope is the comparison between different topologies in terms of their power consumption.

THEORY

The optical interconnects are widely deployed in the DataCenters nowadays as, among other advantages, they are less power hungry devices. Furthermore, the deployed physical topologies between the hosts and the switches, is a parameter that significantly affects the power consumption of the DataCenter. The different topologies (hybrid and all-optical) are compared in the present project.

Different topologies with various interconnection schemes have been theoretically investigated and then implemented on the SP Guru simulation tool. The total power consumption of each topology can be evaluated through the “bill of materials� outcome.

COMMUNICATION

POSTER

METHODS

154


MASTER THESIS

808

Potential Effects of Pulsed Electric Pre-treatments on Methane Production of Waste S. M. Safavi and R. UnnÞórsson School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, Iceland

The produced amount of organic waste is increasing dramatically each year, which can lead to a significant environmental pollution. Considerable amounts of greenhouse gasses are emitted during disposal and storage of organic waste contributing to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion (AD) converts organic waste into the useful and valuable product (methane) that can be used to generate electricity, heat and as a substitute for fossil fuels. The question arises here is whether it is possible to improve the performance of AD with pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment and reach a higher yield of methane production. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of PEF as a pre-treatment method for increasing methane potential of pig slurry (PS), landfill leachate (LL), and fruit/vegetable waste (FVW).

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

The PEF system produces a pulsed high-voltage in the substrate, which induces arc discharge. Electric power of the arc discharge in substrate generates a strong electric field that eventually destroys the cell wall of sludge. This impact elevates anaerobic digestibility of the substrates being pre-treated with three different intensities of 54, 108 and 180 kJ/kg and results in more methane production. Samples were analyzed for total solids, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, soluble chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids before and after pre-treatment. Then mesophilic batch AD assays were performed on the treated and untreated samples. The anaerobic digestibility of the pre-treated samples compared against the untreated ones to determine the effect of the PEF pre-treatment on the substrates.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

WASTE AND RECYCLING

The influence of pre-treatment on methane production was investigated via the batch AD tests. The results of the PEF pre-treatment on all the substrates (PS, LL and FVW) showed positive effects on the methane production. The highest methane improvement was obtained from the PEF pretreated PS (with 50% increase) and the PEF pretreated LL (with 48% increase) , while only 13% improvement was acheived from the PEF pretreated FVW. Methane production of the PS and LL increased with the highest intensity (180 kJ/kg). On the contrary, FVW showed that lowest intensity (54 kJ/kg) was the intensity by which the highest amount of methane was achieved.

FREE STYLE

METHODS

155


MASTER THESIS

809

Simplification of 1D/2D Hydraulic Networks for use in Urban Flood Models S. Davidsen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

POSTER

IDEA

ABSTRACT

Because of climate change, the frequency and magnitude of rainstorms will change in the future. The change in weather patterns will increase the occurrence of flooding, especially in urban areas, where sewer systems are not designed to cope with heavy rainstorms [1,2] The average annual costs due to flooding in Copenhagen alone are in the range of several hundred million kroner per year [3]. The benefits for investments in climate adaptive solutions are therefore obvious. In recent years, there has been a change in strategy from a solely preventive strategy to more adaptable strategies where flooding is accepted but damage costs are limited by protecting the most vulnerable areas. In order to make a targeted protection of these areas within the next few hours, a 1D/2D flood-forecasting model is needed. These models are widely used for dimensioning sewer systems and climate adaption solutions but the models requires large computational power and takes several hours or days of simulation time for an area similar to Copenhagen. With a new weather forecast every 5-10 minutes, the models are rarely feasible or useable for live forecasting in the current form. The aim of this project is to reduce the computational time by simplifying the network while maintaining the characteristics of the system and thereby reproducing the main results much faster. The simplification methods are tested and compared using a MIKE FLOOD model covering the southern part of Melbourne, Australia. The systems covers an area of 7x10 km with 477km piping, 13477 manholes and a 2D surface mesh with a cell size of 10x10m. The initial simulation time is around 5 hours and 30 minutes. Simplifications are conducted with two algorithms that trim/delete pipes below a threshold size and merges short pipes with approximately same diameter, joining them to a single pipe. These simplifications reduce the number of calculations to simulate the system resulting in a shorter computational time. There will however be a loss of details in the model thus the algorithms are expanded to calculate and apply volume changes and travel time due to deleted pipes and manholes. The algorithms were developed using Python and are able to cope with any MIKE Urban geodatabase hence the method can easily be transferred to other models The simplified models are compared to the full model considering computational time, surface volume differences, flooding areas and water depths. The preliminary results are convincing as they show reduction of computational times of up to 3 hours with differences of only 3% in flooding areas. With further tweaking and development of the simplification scripts, the computational time and error can decrease even further. Combining this simplification with an optimized 2D surface mesh the computational time of 1D/2D flood models could soon be applicable for live forecasting of flooding.

WATER

REFERENCES

[1] Butler, D. & Davis, J.W. (2011). Urban drainage. Third. Spon. [2 ]Leitão, J.P., Simões, N.E., Maksimović, Č., Ferreira, F., Prodanović, D., Matos, J.S. & Sá Marques, A. (2010). Real-time forecasting urban drainage models: Full or simplified networks? Water Science and Technology. 62 (9). p.pp. 2106–2114. [3] Miljø Metropolen (2011). Københavns Klimatilpasningsplan.

156


MASTER THESIS

810

Effects of trees towards climate adaptation in Copenhagen 1

A. S. Konring and S. B. Petersen 1

1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

Urban trees provide multiple ecosystem services that increase amenity value of the urban environment. This has led the municipality of Copenhagen to initiate a strategy to plant 100.000 trees in the city in the period 2015-2025. In addition, the city of Copenhagen is investing billions of DKK in holistic solutions where climate adaptation measures support current urban improvements of a greener city. A central ecosystem service of trees is the retention of water by canopy interception of rainfall and evapotranspiration of soil water. Quantifying the effects of urban trees on these hydrologic processes can help improve the synergy between the strategies.

IDEA

ABSTRACT

157

BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

The current tree cover in the municipality of Copenhagen was estimated to be 13.5 % while mean LAI of the tree cover was 3.4. Model results show that the evaporation of intercepted precipitation varied from 1.5 % in winter to 2.7 % in summer of total precipitation. Evapotranspiration was highest in the summer season with 9.7 % of total precipitation while only corresponding to 1 % in the winter season. Thus, urban trees in Copenhagen were representing 7.4 % in the urban water balance. Planting of 100.000 trees was estimated to increase interception and evapotranspiration in 2025 with 0.7 % and 0.3 % respectively. Determining the hydrological effects of urban trees in Copenhagen can contribute to the holistic assessment of nature in future climate adaptation projects. In addition, the highresolution tree cover and LAI mapping enable the quantification of other ecosystem services such as air quality, water quality, temperate regulation and CO2 reduction for a complete valuation of urban trees.

POSTER

The semi-distributed hydrological model I-tree Hydro was used to simulate the effects of trees in the city of Copenhagen based on historical hourly weather data from 11 years (2005-2015). High-resolution mapping of tree characteristics using remote sensing was conducted to provide an exact estimate of current state. This included using the national aerial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and Near Infrared ortophotos to derive tree cover and estimate evergreen tree fraction. Moreover, Leaf Area Index (LAI) of the tree cover was estimated using LiDAR with a Beer-Lambert law based model to provide a spatial distribution of leaf storage.


MASTER THESIS

811

Synthetic Diesel Production using Renewable Energy Resources on a Decommissioned Offshore Platform A. S. R. Subramanian, B. Hillenbrand, D. Short, G. Ravindra, M. H. Nygaard amd S. Song NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Transitioning from fossil fuel to renewable energy sources is essential to preserve the environment but faces intermediate challenges with regards to short term feasibility. A bridge technology is production of synthetic diesel as an energy storage medium using electricity generated from these renewable energy sources. This technology is particularly compelling if it makes use of decommissioned offshore platforms. Such infrastructure is in prime position to harness the increased intensity and frequency of renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and wave offshore. The electricity generated drives the wellknown Fischer-Tropsch process using the available water and captured carbondioxide as raw materials to produce the carbon neutral synthetic diesel to be transported offshore using existing pipelines.

POSTER

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

Figure 1: Synthetic Diesel production

METHODOLOGY

After investigating the scope for offshore electricity production from renewable sources, an assessment of the specific energy load required for the processes to produce a targeted amount of synthetic diesel is made. A suitable offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico is selected as a case-study. Economic analysis is then done to figure out an approximate dollar per liter price for the end product and compared with conventional fuel prices.

ENERGY CONVERSION

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The techno-economic analysis results in a cost price of 1.60 $/l, which is comparable with conventional fuel costs. The project has a significant positive environmental impact because it closes the carbon loop. The project is short term feasible, competitive with conventional fuel and the technology required is already available. The innovative part of this project is extending synthetic diesel production to already existing offshore infrastructure where the scope for harnessing renewable energy sources is better.

158


MASTER THESIS

812

Thermal Mapping from UAVs for hydrological applications 1

C. J. KĂśppl 1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

METHODS

As a UAV, a hexacopter with a payload capability of up to 2 kg is used. The payload consists of a thermal camera (FLIR Tau 2), a six band multispectral camera (Tetracam MiniMCA), a digital photo camera (Sony RX-100) and a GPS unit. During field campaigns precise GPS ground control points are taken and then the UAV is piloted in 20 m to 50 m height above the area of interest. The images from the photo camera are used to construct a detailed digital elevation model (DEM) through the structure from motion (SfM) approach. The images from the multispectral and thermal camera are stitched together and georeferenced and then orthorectified onto the DEM. This yields a temperature and a temperature map. That temperature map does not account for selective temperature emissivity of the land surface and reflectance of atmospheric longwave radiation. Therefore, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from the multispectral map and used to approximate emissivity. Together with approximated down welling longwave radiation this is used to correct the temperature map.

RESULTS

POSTER

Hydrological issues are of great relevance for the environment. One example are rapidly dropping groundwater tables in California and China and another example is infiltration of contaminated groundwater into surface waters like rivers. Detailed high-resolution land surface temperature (LST) maps can be used as a tool in an attempt to address these problems. This project develops a platform based on an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV, colloquial: drone) to acquire high precision LST maps and investigates possible applications of that product.

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

The resulting temperature maps from flying over a willow field had resolutions from 5 cm to 10cm, depending on the flying altitude. This resolution allows to identify single plants and to determine their temperature. Further, the soil temperature reflecting the soil moisture can be identified: higher soil moisture leads to lower soil temperatures. Another mission flying over a stream yielded a detailed map of the water’s surface temperature

The temperature and multispectral maps from agricultural fields will be used to inform hydrological models to calculate evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes. Furthermore, these maps can be used to estimate the current water deficit of plants, which can be used to develop a very efficient demand driven irrigation system at plant level, which can lower the water consumption and fight dropping groundwater tables. Temperature maps from streams will be able to identify spots of ground water infiltration through temperature hot spots, caused by temperature differences in the two water bodies. By 2017, a fixed wing UAV will be available for the project, which will greatly increase the range, and therewith the investigation area size and it will allow for automated piloting through predefined waypoints.

159

COMMUNICATION

OUTLOOK


MASTER THESIS

813

Life Cycle Assessment of Mining an Old Danish Landfill Obianuju Udodi DTU Environment, Technical university of Denmark

IDEA

1

Most studies on landfill mining have focused on land reclamation and landfill remediation . There are limited studies that have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being experimental studies or projects with little emphasis on 1 resource extraction . Landfill mining simple means the excavation, processing, treatment 2 and or recycling of deposited materials . With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, this project presents an LCA of mining an old Danish landfill. The 13years old landfill contained mixed waste. The objective of the research is to weigh if there are any environmental benefit from mining the landfill. EASETECH software was used to run the model. Two scenarios were set up – the Do nothing scenario and recovery of recyclates and combustibles material scenario. The life cycle inventory data is based on a real landfill mining project implemented at AV Miljo and additional experimental data were collected from scientific papers.

In conclusion, when the landfill is not mined, is does not just have negative environmental impacts but also economic implications. Secondly, the loss of space and environmental impact incurred from constructing and operating a new landfill is to be considered. Reference 1.

Frändegård, P., Krook, J., Svensson, N. & Eklund, M. A novel approach for environmental evaluation of land fi ll mining. J. Clean. Prod. 55, 24–34 (2013).

2.

Krook, J., Svensson, N. & Eklund, M. Landfill mining: a critical review of two decades of research. Waste Manag. 32, 513–20 (2012).

WASTE & RECYCLING

POSTER

Within the assumptions made the results show that the recovery of recyclates and combustible material scenario delivers net environmental benefits as opposed to the baseline scenario. The burning of combustible fraction to generate energy and electricity contributed to a savings in climate change impact category while the use of fuel in equipment for excavation yielded a negative impact on acidification and human toxicity impact category. Leachate from the landfill is treated at WWTP Avedore and finally discharged to surface water contributed negatively to human toxicity impact category, as well as the leachate from the bottom ash (which is further used as subbase material).

160


Calculating evapotranspiration: towards an operational Global Ecosystem Restoration Index (GERI) S. Bloch

MASTER THESIS

814

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

IDEA

Today, biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate. To understand and counter this phenomenon, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity has set 20 targets to be met by the end of the decade, and the consortium GEO BON has defined indicators to monitor progress towards these targets. The GERI is one of those indicators, it is designed to assess land restoration improvement or decline. This project is mostly about calculating evapotranspiration, a physical process that can help develop the GERI.

THEORY

POSTER

Evapotranspiration is the combined loss of water from the ground or water bodies and from the plants through stomata in their leaves. Evaluating it allows for the calculation of the nonevaporative fraction (NEF), an indicator that was shown to be useful in detecting either undisturbed or heavily disturbed areas of an ecosystem. Latent heat (LE), the expression of evapotranspiration in terms of energy, is calculated based on the surface energy balance equation: Rn - G - H - LE = 0

Figure 1 Surface energy balance equation

METHODS

The calculation of evapotranspiration is performed by the Matlab implementation of a model based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and run on a daily time-step. Data used come mainly from the MODIS satellite (e.g. radiation, albedo, land greenness) and the ERA-Interim meteorological datasets (e.g. temperature, radiation).

It is expected that a statistical analysis of data from the last decade can help detect trends in environment degradation in an area of interest situated in the south of France. Furthermore, the hope is that these trends can be linked to evolutions in biodiversity.

161

WATER

PROSPECTS


MASTER THESIS

815

Prediction of Solar Heating Plant Performance H. Pieper DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark

INTRODUCTION

More and more renewable energy sources enter the power and heat market to achieve Denmark’s goal of becoming CO2 neutral by 2050. This results in high fluctuations of power prices and difficulties to stabilize the system. One solution could be a more flexible demand, another to improve forecasts of generating power and heat from renewables. This project presents an efficient and flexible model for predicting the thermal performance of a solar heating plant.

IDEA

THEORY

Calculations of basic heat transfer and heat losses are applied to achieve high accuracy for situations in off-design conditions. This may be more precise than using the efficiency expression of solar collectors (typically provided by data sheets). The developed model is based on weather data (irradiation, ambient temperature and wind speed) as well on plant specific information. This allows applying the model basically to any location and plant.

POSTER

METHOD

For the analysis, an existing solar heating plant in Gram, Denmark, was chosen as case study. Relevant data was measured over half a year with a 10 minutes time step. The solar heating plant was modelled by a collector row and a single solar collector to investigate calculating time. The system inertia of the plant was investigated using a constant time delay. The developed model calculated the energy output, the outlet flow temperature and the volume flow rate of the solar heating plant. The model was validated by measurements of the reference plant. Weather data used as inputs were only the ambient temperature, solar irradiation on the collector tilt and a constant wind speed. In addition, calculations of converting solar irradiation from a horizontal plane to the collector tilt were performed based on three different models found in literature.

ENERGY FROM WIND, SUN AND WATER

RESULTS

The results show that the entire solar heating plant can be represented by a single solar collector to reduce calculating time. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the importance of the system inertia of the plant when calculating thermal performance. A constant time delay of 40 minutes of the fluid outlet temperature improves the accuracy significantly. The results present that the model calculates the energy output and outlet flow temperatures of the solar heating plant within a tolerance of ±0.3 MW and ±7.5°C in 75% and 72% of all cases, respectively. Converting the irradiation to the collector tilt show that all investigated models overestimated the incident irradiation. Fast changing weather conditions are difficult to predict due to local cloud covers.

DISCUSSION

The developed model is intended to be implemented in energy system optimization tools like Mentor Planner. Predicting the energy output of solar heating plants can help stabilizing and optimizing the energy system in combination with heat pumps when much wind power is present. It allows a reduced heat production and increases security of supply.

162


MASTER THESIS

816

Life Cycle Assessment and optimization of the cabin waste management in Thomas Cook Airlines D. Tonon DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark

The air transportation is one of the fastest growing industries in the world and it is forecast to grow constantly in the next 20 years. If the management of the solid waste produced in the airport is a topic that was already studied in the past, how to manage the inflight waste is a completely new issue, which is rising recently. The goal of this project is to analyze the inflight waste produced from the airline company Thomas Cook Airlines and the waste management they apply at the moment in order to provide new solutions to improve its environmental performances. Therefore, 4 scenarios were built, one representing the current situation where almost all the waste (more that 90%) is incinerated and only aluminum and newspapers are recycled. In the second scenario all the waste is sent to incineration in order to understand how big is the environmental benefit from the current recycling scheme. A third scenario will then simulate a different sorting scheme, where plastic and organic are separated in order to recycle the plastic and to send the organic fraction to the compost facility. In the last scenario some changing in the waste composition will try to identify the main hotspots proposing some alternatives (e.g. bio plastics packaging).

IDEA

INTRODUCTION

The project uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and the software EASETECH for modeling. For the life cycle inventory, mainly data obtained from the company were used. The management procedures were explained directly from the crew, while for the waste characterization, some samples were analyzed in order to find reliable results.

POSTER

METHODS

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

WASTE & RECYCLING

The results and the conclusions are not available yet since they will be discovered in the last phase of the project.

163


Reducing overflow to River Ă…rhus by using MPC N. Lund

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark In Denmark, sewer systems are designed to manage rain storms with return periods of at least 10 years. Larger rain storms can cause the urban drainage systems to fill up which might lead to flooding of streets and overflow to rivers and other natural water bodies. This can have serious consequences for both the environment and human health, and has in recent years gained increased focus. One approach to reduce flooding and overflow to the environment is by performing real-time control of the urban drainage systems such that the use of the system capacity is optimized. Real-time control can be performed by applying model predictive control (MPC) which optimizes the control of the urban drainage system by using a model to predict the future state of the sewer system. In order to evaluate how much the control of three actuators placed in the Marselisborg urban drainage system can be optimized by applying MPC, an MPC model was set up. The MPC model had to run fast enough to be used in a real-time application and was therefore a highly simplified version of reality. Here, especially the modeling of the overflow structure showed to be challenging. Subsequently, the optimized control from the MPC model was transferred to a high-fidelity model to both validate that the MPC model, despite its simple model structure, still reflected reality and to give a better estimate of the performance of the MPC optimized control. The MPC model was validated qualitatively, quantitatively and regarding its computational cost. It was shown that the transfer of the optimized controls to high-fidelity models was not always straightforward, which underlined the necessity of validating the MPC models with highfidelity model simulations. Using the optimized control from the model lead to a decrease in the total overflow volume of between 68% and 100% compared to using passive control. This decrease was obtained under the assumption that the overflow in one of four overflow structures could be avoided by expanding the model boundaries. Furthermore, the decrease was computed based on the premise that ex-post rain forecasts are used.

WATER

POSTER

IDEA

MASTER THESIS

817

164


MASTER THESIS

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Sustainability and climate change are high on the global agenda. Engineers play a central part in a sustainable development of society. Engineers from DTU can and must continue to contribute to the development of technological solutions that respond to the global challenges. Therefore DTU has initiated GRĂ˜N DYST.

www.groendyst.dtu.dk

Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1, Tel. 45 25 25 25, E-mail: dtu@dtu.dk, www.dtu.dk