GRØN DYST 2010 Book of abstracts

Page 1

groendyst.dtu.dk

GRØN

DYST Tænk stort. Tænk nyt. Tænk grønt.

Study Conference for DTU students on sustainability, climate technology and the environment. June 25, 2010.

M A GR O 1 PR


content

D A D NTERER E S Æ R P T S Y D GRØN

GRØN

DYST Tænk stort. Tænk

. nyt. Tænk grønt

u 25. juNi På DT

hvor nyt og vise, hvor stort, i din chance for at encen d. 25. jun fer GRØN DYST er kon die stu t. tænke. På på at se dit projek hvor grønt du kan ere litik po og vervsfolk U. venter kendte erh fest for hele DT ter et brag af en Og bagefter ven og trykker -D, leverer lyden e rockband, D-A e. Danmarks størst ind nogens største koncert den af til DTU’s re. Gå på DYST deltage ØN et. gratis for GR du får fat i en bill n Koncerten er rda hvo se, .dtu.dk, og www.groendyst

Concert with danish super group D-A-D at 22 pm in the GYM 2

WELCOME

5

BBQ Menu

6

program

7

map

7

MODES OF PRESENTATION

8

panels of judges

9

Criteria for project evaluation

10

Abstracts – posters

12

Abstracts – laptop

52

Abstracts – free style

83

sponsors

98

3


content

D A D NTERER E S Æ R P T S Y D GRØN

GRØN

DYST Tænk stort. Tænk

. nyt. Tænk grønt

u 25. juNi På DT

hvor nyt og vise, hvor stort, i din chance for at encen d. 25. jun fer GRØN DYST er kon die stu t. tænke. På på at se dit projek hvor grønt du kan ere litik po og vervsfolk U. venter kendte erh fest for hele DT ter et brag af en Og bagefter ven og trykker -D, leverer lyden e rockband, D-A e. Danmarks størst ind nogens største koncert den af til DTU’s re. Gå på DYST deltage ØN et. gratis for GR du får fat i en bill n Koncerten er rda hvo se, .dtu.dk, og www.groendyst

Concert with danish super group D-A-D at 22 pm in the GYM 2

WELCOME

5

BBQ Menu

6

program

7

map

7

MODES OF PRESENTATION

8

panels of judges

9

Criteria for project evaluation

10

Abstracts – posters

12

Abstracts – laptop

52

Abstracts – free style

83

sponsors

98

3


Welcome

Dear participant, Welcome to DTU and welcome to the GRØN DYST (Green Challange) event on global sustainability! Sustainability and climate change are high on the global agenda. In the wake of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 there still seems to be disagreement rather than international consensus; and obstacles and the need for solutions lie ahead of us. DTU wants – in research and in education – to maintain and fortify its focus on sustainability, climate technology and the environment. This is crucial since engineers have a vital part to play in the building of a sustainable society. Engineers, and in particular engineers from DTU, must lead the way in developing, producing and implementing new and better processes, technologies and systems. Hopefully, our effort will assist politicians and other stakeholders as they work undauntedly towards a sustainable society. GRØN DYST is a study conference and a new and innovative academic challenge for students. During the spring of 2010, students have been thinking new, thinking big and thinking green thoughts. Student ideas on sustainability, climate technology and the environment have developed into green projects in collaboration with lecturers and fellow students. Today we all benefit from their work when projects and results are presented here at DTU for our alumni, fellow students, lecturers, and representatives from industry and the political sphere. Today the students also compete for prizes,

4

and we will present these awards to send the message that sustainability is second nature to engineering - and that we will all be winners if we succeed in securing a safe and sustainable future (for mankind). By launching the GRØN DYST initiative, DTU is seeking to incorporate sustainability, climate technology and the environment as fundamental aspects in all its engineering programs. In the rapidly changing - and increasingly internationalized - higher education environment, DTU urges the engineering education community to follow suit. Thus, it is my intention that we – in the future – can have a GRØN DYST study conference with significant international attendance at DTU. I am very happy that Lykke Friis, minister for Climate and Energy, is here with us today and that she will be presenting the prizes and awards to the students. For further information on today’s program, please have a look at the following pages. I am confident that we will have an interesting day – academically as well as socially.

Professor Martin E. Vigild, Dean of undergraduate studies and student affairs, chairman of GRØN DYST executive committee.

5


Welcome

Dear participant, Welcome to DTU and welcome to the GRØN DYST (Green Challange) event on global sustainability! Sustainability and climate change are high on the global agenda. In the wake of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 there still seems to be disagreement rather than international consensus; and obstacles and the need for solutions lie ahead of us. DTU wants – in research and in education – to maintain and fortify its focus on sustainability, climate technology and the environment. This is crucial since engineers have a vital part to play in the building of a sustainable society. Engineers, and in particular engineers from DTU, must lead the way in developing, producing and implementing new and better processes, technologies and systems. Hopefully, our effort will assist politicians and other stakeholders as they work undauntedly towards a sustainable society. GRØN DYST is a study conference and a new and innovative academic challenge for students. During the spring of 2010, students have been thinking new, thinking big and thinking green thoughts. Student ideas on sustainability, climate technology and the environment have developed into green projects in collaboration with lecturers and fellow students. Today we all benefit from their work when projects and results are presented here at DTU for our alumni, fellow students, lecturers, and representatives from industry and the political sphere. Today the students also compete for prizes,

4

and we will present these awards to send the message that sustainability is second nature to engineering - and that we will all be winners if we succeed in securing a safe and sustainable future (for mankind). By launching the GRØN DYST initiative, DTU is seeking to incorporate sustainability, climate technology and the environment as fundamental aspects in all its engineering programs. In the rapidly changing - and increasingly internationalized - higher education environment, DTU urges the engineering education community to follow suit. Thus, it is my intention that we – in the future – can have a GRØN DYST study conference with significant international attendance at DTU. I am very happy that Lykke Friis, minister for Climate and Energy, is here with us today and that she will be presenting the prizes and awards to the students. For further information on today’s program, please have a look at the following pages. I am confident that we will have an interesting day – academically as well as socially.

Professor Martin E. Vigild, Dean of undergraduate studies and student affairs, chairman of GRØN DYST executive committee.

5


BBQ at 6PM – by OticonSalen

program 11:00

16:00-16:45

Conference opens. University Library

Award ceremony: Presentation of prizes by Lykke Friis, Minister for Climate and Energy,

11:45-12:30

and others. University Library

Lunch for the GRØN DYST participants. Glassalen

16:45-18:00

12:50-13:00

RECEPtiON University Library

Menu (per person)

speach by martin e. vigild, dean. University Library

1 piece of chicken breast

13:00-15:30

1 Frankfurter with mustard and ketchup

Presentations of projects for the panels of

Potato salad Mixed salad with dressing 1 piece of bread Grøn Dyst participants will get free tickets, but extra BBQ tickets will be available for DKK 50.

18:00-20:00 BBQ by Oticonsalen, DJ in S-huset

20:00-22:00

judges and other participants University Library

DJ in the Gym

15:30-16:00 Visit by Lykke Friis, Minister for Climate and

22:00-23:45

Lars Pallesen, University president.

D-A-D

University Library

23:45 DJ in S-huset

University Library

BBQ

Knuth- Wi nterfel dts Al l é

P

107

P

101

D

E

Kantine

Oticon Salen

S-huset

Glassalen

B

Gym

A

G

F

P

Anker Engelunds Vej 6

7


BBQ at 6PM – by OticonSalen

program 11:00

16:00-16:45

Conference opens. University Library

Award ceremony: Presentation of prizes by Lykke Friis, Minister for Climate and Energy,

11:45-12:30

and others. University Library

Lunch for the GRØN DYST participants. Glassalen

16:45-18:00

12:50-13:00

RECEPtiON University Library

Menu (per person)

speach by martin e. vigild, dean. University Library

1 piece of chicken breast

13:00-15:30

1 Frankfurter with mustard and ketchup

Presentations of projects for the panels of

Potato salad Mixed salad with dressing 1 piece of bread Grøn Dyst participants will get free tickets, but extra BBQ tickets will be available for DKK 50.

18:00-20:00 BBQ by Oticonsalen, DJ in S-huset

20:00-22:00

judges and other participants University Library

DJ in the Gym

15:30-16:00 Visit by Lykke Friis, Minister for Climate and

22:00-23:45

Lars Pallesen, University president.

D-A-D

University Library

23:45 DJ in S-huset

University Library

BBQ

Knuth- Wi nterfel dts Al l é

P

107

P

101

D

E

Kantine

Oticon Salen

S-huset

Glassalen

B

Gym

A

G

F

P

Anker Engelunds Vej 6

7


Modes of presentation

Various modes of presentation are available to the participants in GRØN DYST. They can choose one of three ways to present their projects:

Poster session A poster advertises your project and results. It combines text and graphics to make a visually pleasing presentation. The poster session involves showing your work to teachers, students, representatives from industry and, last but not least, the panel of judges. Dependent on the number of projects to be presen­ted at the poster session it will take place in one large room or several smaller rooms. Then, as viewers walk by, your poster should quickly and efficiently communicate your project and results. Unlike the fast pace of a slide show or verbal presen­tation, a poster session allows viewers to study and restudy your information and discuss it with you one on one. You will also be required to give short presentations on your project, for e.g. the panel of judges.

Laptop session The laptop session involves showing your work to teachers, students, representatives from industry and, last but not least, the panel of judges. Dependent on the number of projects to be presented at

8

the laptop session it will take place in one large room or several smaller rooms. Unlike a standard powerpoint presentation projected onto a large screen, a laptop presentation is addressing a smaller audience, typically three to six persons, gathered around the laptop. This allows viewers to discuss your project and results in a small group or even one on one. You will be required to give short presentations of your project at certain intervals when there is a willing audience as well as for the panel of judges.

Free style session This session allows students to present their projects and results in any other way than the above mentioned. Anything goes! It could be a shout out, a theater performance, an exhibition of artefacts, a video show – you name it! The only limit is your own imagination. If you have special requirements in order to present your project and results, please let us know. We can not promise to accommodate all needs, but we will try our best to make it possible for you to present your project just the way you want it.

Panels of judges

The panels of judges consist of representatives from the political sphere, from the corporate world, teachers and students. Panel 1 Ida Auken, Miljøordfører, MF, Socialistisk Folkeparti Ejner K. Moltzen, Divisional Director, Lundbeck A/S Sven Kolstrup, Direktør, IBM Danmark ApS Hanne Østergaard, Underviser, Risø DTU Christian Nörr Jacobsen, Studerende, Socialudvalgs­ formand Polyteknisk Forening Panel 2 Carsten Lauridsen, Director forskningsafdelingen, Novozymes A/S Eva Rindom, Markedsdirektør Bane, Atkins Denmark Tue Roth, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Karsten Clement, Studieleder, DTU Kemiteknik Erasmus Rothoizen, Studerende Panel 3 Margrethe Vestager, Gruppeformand, Klimaordfører, MF, Radikale Venstre Niels Kjeldgaard, Divisionsdirektør, MT Højgaard A/S Palle Weidlich, Virksomhedskonsulent, Væksthuset Annette Krogsbøll, Studieleder, DTU Byg Christian Vang Madsen, Studerende, Formand for polyteknisk Forening

Panel 5 Anne-Marie Levy Rasmussen, Direktør Corporate Affairs, GlaxoSmithKleine Michael Svane, Direktør, Dansk Industri Lars Gaardhøj, Formand for klima- og miljøudvalget i Region Hovedstaden, Socialdemokratiet Lotte Bjerregaard, Studieleder, DTU Byg Torben Ommen, Studerende Panel 6 Michael Knørr Skov, Afdelingschef, Trafikplan, Cowi A/S NN, Haldor Topsøe A/S Rasmus Jakobsen, Studieleder, DTU Miljø Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Studieleder, DTU Informatik Malte Markussen, Studerende Panel 7 Morten Colding Jørgensen, Scientific Adviser, Novo Nordisk A/S Kristine Garde, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster NN, Konservative Folkeparti Georgios Kontogeorgis, Studieleder, DTU Kemiteknik Michael Kjeldsen, Studerende

Panel 4 Annemette Geertinger,Teknisk chef, Force Technology David Holm, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Jakob Schiotz, Studieleder, DTU Fysik Bo Jørgensen, DTU Food Martin Abel, Studerende

9


Modes of presentation

Various modes of presentation are available to the participants in GRØN DYST. They can choose one of three ways to present their projects:

Poster session A poster advertises your project and results. It combines text and graphics to make a visually pleasing presentation. The poster session involves showing your work to teachers, students, representatives from industry and, last but not least, the panel of judges. Dependent on the number of projects to be presen­ted at the poster session it will take place in one large room or several smaller rooms. Then, as viewers walk by, your poster should quickly and efficiently communicate your project and results. Unlike the fast pace of a slide show or verbal presen­tation, a poster session allows viewers to study and restudy your information and discuss it with you one on one. You will also be required to give short presentations on your project, for e.g. the panel of judges.

Laptop session The laptop session involves showing your work to teachers, students, representatives from industry and, last but not least, the panel of judges. Dependent on the number of projects to be presented at

8

the laptop session it will take place in one large room or several smaller rooms. Unlike a standard powerpoint presentation projected onto a large screen, a laptop presentation is addressing a smaller audience, typically three to six persons, gathered around the laptop. This allows viewers to discuss your project and results in a small group or even one on one. You will be required to give short presentations of your project at certain intervals when there is a willing audience as well as for the panel of judges.

Free style session This session allows students to present their projects and results in any other way than the above mentioned. Anything goes! It could be a shout out, a theater performance, an exhibition of artefacts, a video show – you name it! The only limit is your own imagination. If you have special requirements in order to present your project and results, please let us know. We can not promise to accommodate all needs, but we will try our best to make it possible for you to present your project just the way you want it.

Panels of judges

The panels of judges consist of representatives from the political sphere, from the corporate world, teachers and students. Panel 1 Ida Auken, Miljøordfører, MF, Socialistisk Folkeparti Ejner K. Moltzen, Divisional Director, Lundbeck A/S Sven Kolstrup, Direktør, IBM Danmark ApS Hanne Østergaard, Underviser, Risø DTU Christian Nörr Jacobsen, Studerende, Socialudvalgs­ formand Polyteknisk Forening Panel 2 Carsten Lauridsen, Director forskningsafdelingen, Novozymes A/S Eva Rindom, Markedsdirektør Bane, Atkins Denmark Tue Roth, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Karsten Clement, Studieleder, DTU Kemiteknik Erasmus Rothoizen, Studerende Panel 3 Margrethe Vestager, Gruppeformand, Klimaordfører, MF, Radikale Venstre Niels Kjeldgaard, Divisionsdirektør, MT Højgaard A/S Palle Weidlich, Virksomhedskonsulent, Væksthuset Annette Krogsbøll, Studieleder, DTU Byg Christian Vang Madsen, Studerende, Formand for polyteknisk Forening

Panel 5 Anne-Marie Levy Rasmussen, Direktør Corporate Affairs, GlaxoSmithKleine Michael Svane, Direktør, Dansk Industri Lars Gaardhøj, Formand for klima- og miljøudvalget i Region Hovedstaden, Socialdemokratiet Lotte Bjerregaard, Studieleder, DTU Byg Torben Ommen, Studerende Panel 6 Michael Knørr Skov, Afdelingschef, Trafikplan, Cowi A/S NN, Haldor Topsøe A/S Rasmus Jakobsen, Studieleder, DTU Miljø Lasse Engbo Christiansen, Studieleder, DTU Informatik Malte Markussen, Studerende Panel 7 Morten Colding Jørgensen, Scientific Adviser, Novo Nordisk A/S Kristine Garde, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster NN, Konservative Folkeparti Georgios Kontogeorgis, Studieleder, DTU Kemiteknik Michael Kjeldsen, Studerende

Panel 4 Annemette Geertinger,Teknisk chef, Force Technology David Holm, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster Jakob Schiotz, Studieleder, DTU Fysik Bo Jørgensen, DTU Food Martin Abel, Studerende

9


criteria for project evaluation

The panels of judges evaluate the projects in accordance with the following criteria: • The degree to which it is technologically applicable • The degree to which it is visionary/or innovatory • The degree to which it can be used as a case to be included in teaching material • The quality of the presentation/communication • Have sustainability, climate technology, or the environment been incorporated in the project? • Number of ECTS credit points The projects are evaluated on a scale ranging from 1-10 where 1 is the lowest grade and 10 is the highest. The total score is calculated by adding up the individual score from the first four criteria (the maximum score is 40 points). Regardless the score a project can not receive an award unless it includes sustainability, climate technology or the environment. Number of ECTS points will be taken into consideration in the overall evlauation of the project.

10

11


criteria for project evaluation

The panels of judges evaluate the projects in accordance with the following criteria: • The degree to which it is technologically applicable • The degree to which it is visionary/or innovatory • The degree to which it can be used as a case to be included in teaching material • The quality of the presentation/communication • Have sustainability, climate technology, or the environment been incorporated in the project? • Number of ECTS credit points The projects are evaluated on a scale ranging from 1-10 where 1 is the lowest grade and 10 is the highest. The total score is calculated by adding up the individual score from the first four criteria (the maximum score is 40 points). Regardless the score a project can not receive an award unless it includes sustainability, climate technology or the environment. Number of ECTS points will be taken into consideration in the overall evlauation of the project.

10

11


Poster

Poster

A golden future for oxidation reactions in the chemical industry

A Novel Process to Highly Improve the Bioethanol Production

Jerrik Mielby, Søren Kegnæs, Uffe V. Mentzel and Anders Riisager

Christoffer Norn

Centre for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark s062158@student.dtu.dk

Abstract To develop a more sustainable chemical industry, there is an urgent need for more efficient and environmentally benign oxidation processes for production of the important chemicals which find use in our everyday products [1]. Today industrial oxidations are typically carried out using stoichiometric amounts of oxygen-containing metal reagents (such as chromate or permanganate), which leads to generation of large amounts of hazardous metal waste. Going from bulk to fine chemicals the amount of waste increases dramatically, and special chemicals like pharmaceuticals can result in even more than 100 kg of waste per kg of product [2]. Utilization of oxygen as stoichiometric reagent in catalytic oxidation reactions (i.e. aerobic oxidations) represent a green and highly atom-efficient reaction protocol, as oxygen is a cheap and abundant oxidant that produces water as the only by-product. Efficient aerobic oxidation is, however, dependent on a good heterogeneous catalyst that provides readily activation of the oxygen in order to allow the reaction to occur. Here, we show that supported gold nanoparticles form active and highly selective heterogeneous catalysts in a range of aerobic oxidations. The formation of imines by oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines was primarily investigated, but transformation to chemicals with other important functional groups such as acids, esters and amides are also possible (Scheme 1) [3]. The applied oxidizing agent was pure oxygen and the reactions were conducted under ambient conditions and at high substrate concentration. These reaction conditions comply with the most important principles of green and sustainable chemistry.

DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark Novozymes A/S

In 2007 the bioethanol-industry produced 24.5 billion liters of ethanol and 15.4 billion kg of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) – a left-over which can be used for livestock feeding. This coproduct does however contain enough carbohydrates to increase the total bioethanol production by 12.2%, thus giving it a huge potential impact on the process economy. The current application of DDGS is associated with a series of problems (high content of fibers, sulfur, phosphorous, possible presence of mycotoxins and high batch variation), that reduces its market value. To avoid some of these problems and to increase the bioethanol production, I have developed a novel protease-based process for simultaneous pretreatment of fibers and protein extraction. This new method can also be used for non-corn derived DDGS. The pretreatment increased the yield of C5/C6-sugars during an enzymatic hydrolysis with a factor of 3.3 and 1.7, respectively. By screening eight different commercial enzyme products, three were chosen for the hydrolysis of pretreated fibers. Different reaction conditions, i.e. enzyme ratio, pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and reaction time were evaluated with response surface and ternary mixture designs. Using optimal conditions, a total sugar yield of 58% was obtained. The hydrolyzed DDGS was readily fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae giving approx. 94% yield based upon fermentation of glucose derived from cellulose. The proteolysate enhanced the hydrolysis of the pretreated fibers, resulting in approx. 87% sugar yield, which is very promising for future development. Next step is to characterize which substance (s) is/are responsible for this effect.

Scheme 1. Possible oxidation reactions using supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts. References [1] C.H. Christensen and J.K. Nørskov, Science, 2010, 327, 278 [2] R. A. Sheldon, Pure Appl. Chem., 2000, 72, 1233 [3] S. Klitgaad et al., Green Chem., 2008, 10, 419; C. Marsden, Green Chem., 2008, 10, 168

12

13


Poster

Poster

A golden future for oxidation reactions in the chemical industry

A Novel Process to Highly Improve the Bioethanol Production

Jerrik Mielby, Søren Kegnæs, Uffe V. Mentzel and Anders Riisager

Christoffer Norn

Centre for Catalysis and Sustainable Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark s062158@student.dtu.dk

Abstract To develop a more sustainable chemical industry, there is an urgent need for more efficient and environmentally benign oxidation processes for production of the important chemicals which find use in our everyday products [1]. Today industrial oxidations are typically carried out using stoichiometric amounts of oxygen-containing metal reagents (such as chromate or permanganate), which leads to generation of large amounts of hazardous metal waste. Going from bulk to fine chemicals the amount of waste increases dramatically, and special chemicals like pharmaceuticals can result in even more than 100 kg of waste per kg of product [2]. Utilization of oxygen as stoichiometric reagent in catalytic oxidation reactions (i.e. aerobic oxidations) represent a green and highly atom-efficient reaction protocol, as oxygen is a cheap and abundant oxidant that produces water as the only by-product. Efficient aerobic oxidation is, however, dependent on a good heterogeneous catalyst that provides readily activation of the oxygen in order to allow the reaction to occur. Here, we show that supported gold nanoparticles form active and highly selective heterogeneous catalysts in a range of aerobic oxidations. The formation of imines by oxidative coupling of alcohols and amines was primarily investigated, but transformation to chemicals with other important functional groups such as acids, esters and amides are also possible (Scheme 1) [3]. The applied oxidizing agent was pure oxygen and the reactions were conducted under ambient conditions and at high substrate concentration. These reaction conditions comply with the most important principles of green and sustainable chemistry.

DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark Novozymes A/S

In 2007 the bioethanol-industry produced 24.5 billion liters of ethanol and 15.4 billion kg of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) – a left-over which can be used for livestock feeding. This coproduct does however contain enough carbohydrates to increase the total bioethanol production by 12.2%, thus giving it a huge potential impact on the process economy. The current application of DDGS is associated with a series of problems (high content of fibers, sulfur, phosphorous, possible presence of mycotoxins and high batch variation), that reduces its market value. To avoid some of these problems and to increase the bioethanol production, I have developed a novel protease-based process for simultaneous pretreatment of fibers and protein extraction. This new method can also be used for non-corn derived DDGS. The pretreatment increased the yield of C5/C6-sugars during an enzymatic hydrolysis with a factor of 3.3 and 1.7, respectively. By screening eight different commercial enzyme products, three were chosen for the hydrolysis of pretreated fibers. Different reaction conditions, i.e. enzyme ratio, pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and reaction time were evaluated with response surface and ternary mixture designs. Using optimal conditions, a total sugar yield of 58% was obtained. The hydrolyzed DDGS was readily fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae giving approx. 94% yield based upon fermentation of glucose derived from cellulose. The proteolysate enhanced the hydrolysis of the pretreated fibers, resulting in approx. 87% sugar yield, which is very promising for future development. Next step is to characterize which substance (s) is/are responsible for this effect.

Scheme 1. Possible oxidation reactions using supported gold nanoparticles as catalysts. References [1] C.H. Christensen and J.K. Nørskov, Science, 2010, 327, 278 [2] R. A. Sheldon, Pure Appl. Chem., 2000, 72, 1233 [3] S. Klitgaad et al., Green Chem., 2008, 10, 419; C. Marsden, Green Chem., 2008, 10, 168

12

13


Poster

Poster Bulk disc resonators for heavy metal detection in drinking water J. L. Rasmussen Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s052695@student.dtu.dk

Introduction High concentration of heavy metals in drinking water can cause many diseases in the population. Due to the lack of big rivers, Denmark is highly interested in new cheap ways of continuous monitoring the quality of the drinking water in the ground Description of device A bulk disc resonator is a microfabricated silicon based device, which consists of a polysilicon disc surrounded by the input electrode and the output electrode (see Figure 1) - In this case, with a diameter of 60μm. The disc is actuated electrostatically - vibrates at its resonance frequency, f0~66MHz. Since f0 depends on the amount of added mass on the surface, it is possible to see a shift down in resonance frequency if a mass is deposited on the disc. It is this phenomenon that is used in this project to detect heavy metals on the surface of the resonator. Actuation and readout Actuation and readout of the disc works with a electrostatically actuation and capacitive read-out. In figure1 the device is seen. Here an AC and DC potential are placed between the disc and the capacitor plates. When the AC frequency hits the resonance frequency of the disc the vibration amplitude of the disc will increase, and thereby increase the change in capacitance between the plates and the disc. This will lead to a higher current flowing and thereby be seen as a signal peak. A measurement - to sweep through a range of AC frequencies while monitoring the current. From this the resonance frequency can be precisely measured.

Cantilever Sensors for Measurement of Biopolymer Degradation Lene Gammelgaard and Marie Pødenphant Jensen DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark s072150@student.dtu.dk, s072143@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

The idea behind the project is that biopolymers can be used in the future as lids on microscopic medicine boxes. The biopolymer is environmentally friendly, as it degrades naturally in the environments in the human body. If the biopolymer is used for medicine boxes, various medicines could be given in smaller doses, making it cheaper and reducing the risk of potentially secondary effects. In the project it will be investigated whether it is possible to measure the degradation of biopolymer, using cantilevers on chips with a microscopic scale. This requires a couple of new techniques. To make measurements of the biopolymer on the cantilever-chips, the biopolymer has to be spray-coated onto the microscopic cantilevers. This has never been done before using biopolymer. The fabrication of the cantilevers is also a newly developed technique, which has been optimized in order to make the cantilevers as sensitive as possible.

Chemistry If a specific heavy metal is to be detected, a selective functionalisation layer is needed on the surface of the disc. In this project thiol chemistry is used. The sulfur atom will attach to the gold layer deposited on top of the silicon surface while the other end is functionalised to react with Cu. When the Cu attaches the surface should be possible to measure the added mass as a resonance frequency shift, df0, of the disc.

% change from blank Si f_0

Results Next the thiols are attached to the devices. In this project two types are used. This means that three chips were made. One with CGGH, one with Cys and one blank control chip. Below on Figure2, results are seen from the CGGS, Cys and blank chip. It is seen that CGGH-chip and Cys-chip resonance frequency drops as expected while the resonance frequency of the blank stays constant. 0,98 0,98 0,98 0,98

CGGH

0,98

Cys

0,98 0,98 14nmAu

Il lustration 1:Figure1: Picture of the device. Both the disc and the capacitor electrode are seen.

14

Blank

0,98

thiols

Cu

Fig. 1: Resonance frequency measurement before and after Fig. 2: SEM picture of cantilevers with PLLA spray-coating and after degradation of PLLA. deposited on top.

THE PROJECT

The cantilevers are made of SU-8 and gold. They have dimensions of (500 x 100 x 5) µm. The biopolymer is Poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) and it is dissolved in dichloromethane. Then the solution is spray-coated onto the cantilevers in layers varying from (1–3) µm. The device used for spray-coating is called an ultrasonic atomizing nozzle. It atomizes the biopolymer, which makes it possible to deposit very thin layers. For the degradation, Proteinase K mixed in a buffer solution is used. Before the degradation of PLLA, the resonance frequency of the clean cantilevers and of the cantilevers with a PLLA layer is measured. The frequency is depending on the mass and stiffness of the cantilevers, which means that it changes if a layer of PLLA is deposited. When the PLLA is degraded, the frequency should change back to that of the clean cantilevers. It is thereby possible to measure the degradation rates of various biopolymers, which has not been done before on a microscopic scale.

Figure2. Plot of chips with two different thiols and one blank.

15


Poster

Poster Bulk disc resonators for heavy metal detection in drinking water J. L. Rasmussen Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s052695@student.dtu.dk

Introduction High concentration of heavy metals in drinking water can cause many diseases in the population. Due to the lack of big rivers, Denmark is highly interested in new cheap ways of continuous monitoring the quality of the drinking water in the ground Description of device A bulk disc resonator is a microfabricated silicon based device, which consists of a polysilicon disc surrounded by the input electrode and the output electrode (see Figure 1) - In this case, with a diameter of 60μm. The disc is actuated electrostatically - vibrates at its resonance frequency, f0~66MHz. Since f0 depends on the amount of added mass on the surface, it is possible to see a shift down in resonance frequency if a mass is deposited on the disc. It is this phenomenon that is used in this project to detect heavy metals on the surface of the resonator. Actuation and readout Actuation and readout of the disc works with a electrostatically actuation and capacitive read-out. In figure1 the device is seen. Here an AC and DC potential are placed between the disc and the capacitor plates. When the AC frequency hits the resonance frequency of the disc the vibration amplitude of the disc will increase, and thereby increase the change in capacitance between the plates and the disc. This will lead to a higher current flowing and thereby be seen as a signal peak. A measurement - to sweep through a range of AC frequencies while monitoring the current. From this the resonance frequency can be precisely measured.

Cantilever Sensors for Measurement of Biopolymer Degradation Lene Gammelgaard and Marie Pødenphant Jensen DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark s072150@student.dtu.dk, s072143@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

The idea behind the project is that biopolymers can be used in the future as lids on microscopic medicine boxes. The biopolymer is environmentally friendly, as it degrades naturally in the environments in the human body. If the biopolymer is used for medicine boxes, various medicines could be given in smaller doses, making it cheaper and reducing the risk of potentially secondary effects. In the project it will be investigated whether it is possible to measure the degradation of biopolymer, using cantilevers on chips with a microscopic scale. This requires a couple of new techniques. To make measurements of the biopolymer on the cantilever-chips, the biopolymer has to be spray-coated onto the microscopic cantilevers. This has never been done before using biopolymer. The fabrication of the cantilevers is also a newly developed technique, which has been optimized in order to make the cantilevers as sensitive as possible.

Chemistry If a specific heavy metal is to be detected, a selective functionalisation layer is needed on the surface of the disc. In this project thiol chemistry is used. The sulfur atom will attach to the gold layer deposited on top of the silicon surface while the other end is functionalised to react with Cu. When the Cu attaches the surface should be possible to measure the added mass as a resonance frequency shift, df0, of the disc.

% change from blank Si f_0

Results Next the thiols are attached to the devices. In this project two types are used. This means that three chips were made. One with CGGH, one with Cys and one blank control chip. Below on Figure2, results are seen from the CGGS, Cys and blank chip. It is seen that CGGH-chip and Cys-chip resonance frequency drops as expected while the resonance frequency of the blank stays constant. 0,98 0,98 0,98 0,98

CGGH

0,98

Cys

0,98 0,98 14nmAu

Il lustration 1:Figure1: Picture of the device. Both the disc and the capacitor electrode are seen.

14

Blank

0,98

thiols

Cu

Fig. 1: Resonance frequency measurement before and after Fig. 2: SEM picture of cantilevers with PLLA spray-coating and after degradation of PLLA. deposited on top.

THE PROJECT

The cantilevers are made of SU-8 and gold. They have dimensions of (500 x 100 x 5) µm. The biopolymer is Poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) and it is dissolved in dichloromethane. Then the solution is spray-coated onto the cantilevers in layers varying from (1–3) µm. The device used for spray-coating is called an ultrasonic atomizing nozzle. It atomizes the biopolymer, which makes it possible to deposit very thin layers. For the degradation, Proteinase K mixed in a buffer solution is used. Before the degradation of PLLA, the resonance frequency of the clean cantilevers and of the cantilevers with a PLLA layer is measured. The frequency is depending on the mass and stiffness of the cantilevers, which means that it changes if a layer of PLLA is deposited. When the PLLA is degraded, the frequency should change back to that of the clean cantilevers. It is thereby possible to measure the degradation rates of various biopolymers, which has not been done before on a microscopic scale.

Figure2. Plot of chips with two different thiols and one blank.

15


Poster

Poster

Capturing of CO2 from flue gasses using ionic liquids  

 

Anita Godiksen DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark s072204@student.dtu.dk

Flue gasses contain large amounts of CO2, which are each day emitted to the atmosphere. Separating and capturing the CO2 from especially power plant flue gases, originating from burning of fossil fuels, is a challenge the World must overcome in near future. Today’s known CO2 absorbents use chemical absorption for separating and capturing the CO2. This sorption has some down sides e.g. it binds firmly the CO2, causing a lot of energy to be used for the reversible release of the absorbed CO2, corresponding to around 30-40 % of the total energy production of the power plant. Furthermore the absorbents have high volatility, which means that some part will be emitted to the flue gas, causing loss of materials and waste of energy for the evaporation of water and absorbent. These problems can be solved using Ionic Liquids for CO2 absorption. Ionic liquids are molten salts that are liquid below 100 C and often around room temperature. Some of these fluids show high absorption capacity of CO2 compared to other small gasses. They absorb CO2 by physical absorption mechanisms. By this technique the CO2 is held in the liquid by molecular CO2, where the absorption depends on factors as solubility and vapour pressure of CO2 in the flue gas. This method demands much less energy to reversibly release the CO2 or evaporate the sorbent, since Ionic Liquids have a negligible vapour pressure and therefore neither evaporate or get lost during the absorption/desorption process. Furthermore they may be designed to absorb very little of the water present in the flue gas, and thus eliminate the problem of energy waste for useless evaporation of water during the industrial process, as experienced for the actual applied technology..

 

  

                                                               

Today’s challenge is the design of Ionic Liquids with high enough CO2 absorption ability for commercial use. This project concerns model calculations on selected ionic liquids currently being synthesized in an ongoing research project at DTU Chemistry, and inspires to design the best Ionic Liquids suitable for CO2 capturing. DTU is on the international forefront regarding these issues, and the present project and the research effort behind will further add to keep this position.

16

17


Poster

Poster

Capturing of CO2 from flue gasses using ionic liquids  

 

Anita Godiksen DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark s072204@student.dtu.dk

Flue gasses contain large amounts of CO2, which are each day emitted to the atmosphere. Separating and capturing the CO2 from especially power plant flue gases, originating from burning of fossil fuels, is a challenge the World must overcome in near future. Today’s known CO2 absorbents use chemical absorption for separating and capturing the CO2. This sorption has some down sides e.g. it binds firmly the CO2, causing a lot of energy to be used for the reversible release of the absorbed CO2, corresponding to around 30-40 % of the total energy production of the power plant. Furthermore the absorbents have high volatility, which means that some part will be emitted to the flue gas, causing loss of materials and waste of energy for the evaporation of water and absorbent. These problems can be solved using Ionic Liquids for CO2 absorption. Ionic liquids are molten salts that are liquid below 100 C and often around room temperature. Some of these fluids show high absorption capacity of CO2 compared to other small gasses. They absorb CO2 by physical absorption mechanisms. By this technique the CO2 is held in the liquid by molecular CO2, where the absorption depends on factors as solubility and vapour pressure of CO2 in the flue gas. This method demands much less energy to reversibly release the CO2 or evaporate the sorbent, since Ionic Liquids have a negligible vapour pressure and therefore neither evaporate or get lost during the absorption/desorption process. Furthermore they may be designed to absorb very little of the water present in the flue gas, and thus eliminate the problem of energy waste for useless evaporation of water during the industrial process, as experienced for the actual applied technology..

 

  

                                                               

Today’s challenge is the design of Ionic Liquids with high enough CO2 absorption ability for commercial use. This project concerns model calculations on selected ionic liquids currently being synthesized in an ongoing research project at DTU Chemistry, and inspires to design the best Ionic Liquids suitable for CO2 capturing. DTU is on the international forefront regarding these issues, and the present project and the research effort behind will further add to keep this position.

16

17


Poster

Poster

CO2 Capture Technologies to Combat Climate Change B. Maribo-Mogensen1, A.D. Jensen1, and G.M. Kontogeorgis 1

Community Development among Ethnic Minorities in Northern Parts of Vietnam

1

C.K.Davidsen

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark bmm@kt.dtu.dk, aj@kt.dtu.dk, gk@kt.dtu.dk

DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark s052889@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION The majority of scientists, politicians, and organizations agree that climate change is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st century. While not all factors affecting the earth climate are known, the climate change is partly attributed to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which are projected to increase due to e.g. the economical growth and the associated increase in energy consumption. The climate models used by International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict an increase in global mean temperatures due to an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. At an estimated increase of 130% in atmospheric carbon dioxide by year 2050, the models predict an increase in the global average temperature to increase by 6°C. The social and environmental consequences of global warming of this extent may become cataclysmic, and must be prevented through a global effort to reduce the CO2 emissions. This is a huge challenge as economic growth and increasing population increase the global energy requirements.

COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE Reducing the CO2 emissions requires immense efforts in many areas, including e.g. improving energy efficiency of buildings, the transportation sector, industry, and most importantly, the power sector. But improvements in energy efficiencies are not enough and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), where CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and then stored in geological structures must be applied on a massive scale to reduce the global CO2 emissions. When CO2 is captured from power plants using sustainably produced biomass (i.e. that the biomass is burned at a rate equal to or lower than the growth rate), CO2 is effectively captured from the atmosphere and thereby combating climate change by reducing the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES The two carbon capture technologies that are ready to be implemented on a massive scale are “Oxyfuel Combustion” and “Post-Combustion” CO2 capture using solvents. Results of experimental investigations of the oxyfuel combustion process and thermodynamic calculations on the post-combustion capture processes are presented, and the potential of implementing these technologies on existing and new power plants is discussed. The poster summarizes the investigations done by the author since primo 2009 related to carbon capture technologies that can be applied in the near future.

18

ABSTRACT Agricultural Development Denmark Asia (ADDA) has since 2007 been running a community development project in Northern Vietnam with the goal to improve the conditions for the ethnic minority farmers in mountain areas. The project is financed by the Danish International Development Assistance (Danida) which is a part of the Foreign Ministry that finances activities that fight against the poverty in developing countries. The ethnic minorities in the mountain areas of Vietnam have poor educational conditions, low income and small profit. In fact these areas are among the poorest nationwide. ADDA aim to help these people with knowledge on sustainable agricultural practices and to make them realize that it is fertile to meet and discuss problems and together find solutions that will affect the local society. The project has trained 15.412 maize farmers in six different provinces through the participatory Farmer Field Schools (FFS) where they were taught improved cultivation techniques and the benefit of collaboration. In a recent study, data from 300 randomly selected farmers, 50 from each province, were collected. The farmers were among other questions asked of the yield of their fields after they have participated in FFS. The aim of the current project is to examine the data from before and after the FFS started to investigate the possible success based on improved income and extra maize harvested and how the success depends on province specific factors. The raw data indicates that there is a significant disparity before and after the farmers participated in FFS. They have reduced their amount of seed and yet they have a larger yield. Furthermore data shows a tendency of difference between the provinces measured on the basis of use of seed, size of maize fields, yield and income. A linear mixed-effects model with farmers as a random effect will be able to reveal which variables that describe the variation of the income and if any interesting interactions among the variables are significant. From the results of the analysis it will be possible to assess the impact the FFS have had on the ethnic minority farmers and thereby if it reasonable to make future investments in similar projects using the same strategy.

19


Poster

Poster

CO2 Capture Technologies to Combat Climate Change B. Maribo-Mogensen1, A.D. Jensen1, and G.M. Kontogeorgis 1

Community Development among Ethnic Minorities in Northern Parts of Vietnam

1

C.K.Davidsen

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark bmm@kt.dtu.dk, aj@kt.dtu.dk, gk@kt.dtu.dk

DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark s052889@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION The majority of scientists, politicians, and organizations agree that climate change is one of the biggest challenges for the 21st century. While not all factors affecting the earth climate are known, the climate change is partly attributed to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which are projected to increase due to e.g. the economical growth and the associated increase in energy consumption. The climate models used by International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict an increase in global mean temperatures due to an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. At an estimated increase of 130% in atmospheric carbon dioxide by year 2050, the models predict an increase in the global average temperature to increase by 6°C. The social and environmental consequences of global warming of this extent may become cataclysmic, and must be prevented through a global effort to reduce the CO2 emissions. This is a huge challenge as economic growth and increasing population increase the global energy requirements.

COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE Reducing the CO2 emissions requires immense efforts in many areas, including e.g. improving energy efficiency of buildings, the transportation sector, industry, and most importantly, the power sector. But improvements in energy efficiencies are not enough and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), where CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and then stored in geological structures must be applied on a massive scale to reduce the global CO2 emissions. When CO2 is captured from power plants using sustainably produced biomass (i.e. that the biomass is burned at a rate equal to or lower than the growth rate), CO2 is effectively captured from the atmosphere and thereby combating climate change by reducing the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES The two carbon capture technologies that are ready to be implemented on a massive scale are “Oxyfuel Combustion” and “Post-Combustion” CO2 capture using solvents. Results of experimental investigations of the oxyfuel combustion process and thermodynamic calculations on the post-combustion capture processes are presented, and the potential of implementing these technologies on existing and new power plants is discussed. The poster summarizes the investigations done by the author since primo 2009 related to carbon capture technologies that can be applied in the near future.

18

ABSTRACT Agricultural Development Denmark Asia (ADDA) has since 2007 been running a community development project in Northern Vietnam with the goal to improve the conditions for the ethnic minority farmers in mountain areas. The project is financed by the Danish International Development Assistance (Danida) which is a part of the Foreign Ministry that finances activities that fight against the poverty in developing countries. The ethnic minorities in the mountain areas of Vietnam have poor educational conditions, low income and small profit. In fact these areas are among the poorest nationwide. ADDA aim to help these people with knowledge on sustainable agricultural practices and to make them realize that it is fertile to meet and discuss problems and together find solutions that will affect the local society. The project has trained 15.412 maize farmers in six different provinces through the participatory Farmer Field Schools (FFS) where they were taught improved cultivation techniques and the benefit of collaboration. In a recent study, data from 300 randomly selected farmers, 50 from each province, were collected. The farmers were among other questions asked of the yield of their fields after they have participated in FFS. The aim of the current project is to examine the data from before and after the FFS started to investigate the possible success based on improved income and extra maize harvested and how the success depends on province specific factors. The raw data indicates that there is a significant disparity before and after the farmers participated in FFS. They have reduced their amount of seed and yet they have a larger yield. Furthermore data shows a tendency of difference between the provinces measured on the basis of use of seed, size of maize fields, yield and income. A linear mixed-effects model with farmers as a random effect will be able to reveal which variables that describe the variation of the income and if any interesting interactions among the variables are significant. From the results of the analysis it will be possible to assess the impact the FFS have had on the ethnic minority farmers and thereby if it reasonable to make future investments in similar projects using the same strategy.

19


Poster

Poster

Compost Toilets in Roskilde Festival 1

R. Barriol , G.Durand

2

1

DTU Mathematic Engineering S090974@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark S091550@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION The Roskilde Festival is a major event in the Danish culture calendar. This year 100 000 persons will take part in the event: 25000 volunteers and 75000 visitors. For the first time a warming up period has been created and it adds 4 days to the 5 festival days. Thus, the camping area will be used during 9 days. The Roskilde festival organization developed the green footsteps campaign in order to reduce the ecological impact of the festival. This year, they created a lot of new ways of making the festival as eco friendly as possible but not in term of toilets. Since last year they used a 800m long line of traditional toilet boxes, we thought that there is a very important improvement to do by using composting toilets instead.

COMPOST TOILETS

Abstract - Crediting of Temporary Carbon Storage S. V. Jørgensen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s042546@student.dtu.dk

The increased concern of global warming impacts has brought along a focus on approaches for mitigation, including the possibility of controlled carbon storage. However, in this relation the issue of permanence of the storage is important, as temporary storage does not have the same climatic benefit as permanent storage. Several methods for assessing the benefit of temporary carbon storage exist, expressing it in terms of carbon credits. Some of these methods are the stock change method, the Colombian approach, the average storage method and the ton year approach. Based on some of these, a suggestion for a standard on the matter of crediting carbon storage in products has been proposed by the BSI, in the PAS 2050 specification. However this specification, along with many other approaches on the matter, is based on a 100 year assessment period of global warming potentials, which has significant importance for the results of crediting temporary carbon storage, as it disregards the long timescale for atmospheric lifetime of CO2. Thus, current crediting proposals for temporary carbon storage have here been assessed using a more holistic approach, considering the interactions and relevant timescales for the entire carbon cycle on Earth. In order to do this, a model for the global carbon cycle, including not only the upper climate system part but the entire Earth, has been set up. Further, different case scenarios have been set up in order to assess the different crediting approaches, hereunder the implications of using the 100 year time horizon. The carbon cycle model reveals timescales of thousands of years for removal of carbon from the near-surface parts, whereas the timescale for e.g. fossil fuel generation is millions of years. Compared to these timescales, the use of the 100 year time horizon for considering climatic benefits related to temporary carbon storage appears hard to justify. The problematic issues regarding the use of the 100 year time horizon is further outlined through the case scenarios, illustrating e.g. how total global warming potentials of projects can be completely hidden through relatively short-term storage when applying some of the crediting approaches, while not providing real climatic benefits. These aspects underlines the insufficiency of the 100 years time horizon when considering GWP benefit potentials, and subsequently the crediting approaches relying on this are considered inadequate. Rather, relating to the timescale for removal from the near-surface carbon cycle, timescales for temporary carbon storage should be at least in the order of magnitude of thousands of years for earning permanent credits and thus crediting methods should reflect this. o

Compost toilet designed by students from EverGreen Wash,USA

However, there is also the risk of crossing dangerous tipping points, e.g. the 2-3 C above pre-industrial levels as estimated by IPCC, which might cause irreversible climate changes. For the purpose of avoiding this, fast climate change mitigation is required and consequently, shorter storage times might still yield climatic benefits. This entails that it might be beneficial to include special crediting for relevant shorter-term storage, during a bridging period, to a more carbon neutral society. A holistic approach for carbon crediting should include both aspects.

Composting toilets are toilet systems which treat human waste by composting and dehydration to produce a useable end-product that is a valuable soil additive. They come in a variety of models and brand names as well as different shapes and designs to enhance the natural composting process. They use little or no water, are not connected to expensive sewage systems, cause no environmental damage and produce a valuable resource for gardening. This kind of toilets are more and more used in eco-friendly houses, but it still meets with a lot of false considerations.

WHY ROSKILDE FESTIVAL? First of all, using this king of toilets will considerably reduce the use of water and also the wastes due to the use of classic toilet box. Besides, the compost made will help to restore the land that will suffer from the festival. And finally, it will make people realize that the compost toilets are an interesting alternative to the classic toilets that are one of the most water consuming source of our daily life.

20

21


Poster

Poster

Compost Toilets in Roskilde Festival 1

R. Barriol , G.Durand

2

1

DTU Mathematic Engineering S090974@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark S091550@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION The Roskilde Festival is a major event in the Danish culture calendar. This year 100 000 persons will take part in the event: 25000 volunteers and 75000 visitors. For the first time a warming up period has been created and it adds 4 days to the 5 festival days. Thus, the camping area will be used during 9 days. The Roskilde festival organization developed the green footsteps campaign in order to reduce the ecological impact of the festival. This year, they created a lot of new ways of making the festival as eco friendly as possible but not in term of toilets. Since last year they used a 800m long line of traditional toilet boxes, we thought that there is a very important improvement to do by using composting toilets instead.

COMPOST TOILETS

Abstract - Crediting of Temporary Carbon Storage S. V. Jørgensen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s042546@student.dtu.dk

The increased concern of global warming impacts has brought along a focus on approaches for mitigation, including the possibility of controlled carbon storage. However, in this relation the issue of permanence of the storage is important, as temporary storage does not have the same climatic benefit as permanent storage. Several methods for assessing the benefit of temporary carbon storage exist, expressing it in terms of carbon credits. Some of these methods are the stock change method, the Colombian approach, the average storage method and the ton year approach. Based on some of these, a suggestion for a standard on the matter of crediting carbon storage in products has been proposed by the BSI, in the PAS 2050 specification. However this specification, along with many other approaches on the matter, is based on a 100 year assessment period of global warming potentials, which has significant importance for the results of crediting temporary carbon storage, as it disregards the long timescale for atmospheric lifetime of CO2. Thus, current crediting proposals for temporary carbon storage have here been assessed using a more holistic approach, considering the interactions and relevant timescales for the entire carbon cycle on Earth. In order to do this, a model for the global carbon cycle, including not only the upper climate system part but the entire Earth, has been set up. Further, different case scenarios have been set up in order to assess the different crediting approaches, hereunder the implications of using the 100 year time horizon. The carbon cycle model reveals timescales of thousands of years for removal of carbon from the near-surface parts, whereas the timescale for e.g. fossil fuel generation is millions of years. Compared to these timescales, the use of the 100 year time horizon for considering climatic benefits related to temporary carbon storage appears hard to justify. The problematic issues regarding the use of the 100 year time horizon is further outlined through the case scenarios, illustrating e.g. how total global warming potentials of projects can be completely hidden through relatively short-term storage when applying some of the crediting approaches, while not providing real climatic benefits. These aspects underlines the insufficiency of the 100 years time horizon when considering GWP benefit potentials, and subsequently the crediting approaches relying on this are considered inadequate. Rather, relating to the timescale for removal from the near-surface carbon cycle, timescales for temporary carbon storage should be at least in the order of magnitude of thousands of years for earning permanent credits and thus crediting methods should reflect this. o

Compost toilet designed by students from EverGreen Wash,USA

However, there is also the risk of crossing dangerous tipping points, e.g. the 2-3 C above pre-industrial levels as estimated by IPCC, which might cause irreversible climate changes. For the purpose of avoiding this, fast climate change mitigation is required and consequently, shorter storage times might still yield climatic benefits. This entails that it might be beneficial to include special crediting for relevant shorter-term storage, during a bridging period, to a more carbon neutral society. A holistic approach for carbon crediting should include both aspects.

Composting toilets are toilet systems which treat human waste by composting and dehydration to produce a useable end-product that is a valuable soil additive. They come in a variety of models and brand names as well as different shapes and designs to enhance the natural composting process. They use little or no water, are not connected to expensive sewage systems, cause no environmental damage and produce a valuable resource for gardening. This kind of toilets are more and more used in eco-friendly houses, but it still meets with a lot of false considerations.

WHY ROSKILDE FESTIVAL? First of all, using this king of toilets will considerably reduce the use of water and also the wastes due to the use of classic toilet box. Besides, the compost made will help to restore the land that will suffer from the festival. And finally, it will make people realize that the compost toilets are an interesting alternative to the classic toilets that are one of the most water consuming source of our daily life.

20

21


Poster

Poster

Energy harvesting from raindrops

Economics of biodiesel production Camilla Christiansen

The future substitute for fossil fuels should be a fuel produced in a renewable and sustainable way. The substitute could be biodiesel, which can be added in small doses in fossil fuel without any modification of the engine of a normal car. The European Union has determined that 10 % of all fuel used in 2020 should be replaced by a biofuel. The biodiesel can be produced in two different ways; the enzymatic catalyst way and the chemical catalyst way. This project was made to give an idea about the possibility of replacing the 10% fuel by biodiesel. It was concluded that it is not possible for Denmark to replace the 10 % fuel with biodiesel produced only by rapeseed oil coming from Denmark. Furthermore this project contains an economic evaluation of two different plants, the enzymatic plant and the chemical plant. It was possible to determine the yearly budget for both the plants. The return of the chemical plant exceeds the enzymatic plant by nearly 4 times. The crucial difference between the plants was purging of the catalyst. The cost of the enzymatic catalyst was 17.3 mio.kr. higher than the chemical catalyst. To make the enzymatic plant competitive, the cost of the enzyme catalyst needs to be reduced from the current 5800 kr./kg to approximately 2100 kr. pr. kg. However, the study indicated that the enzymatic plant is expected to have an advantage because of the smaller and more flexible size and that no neutralization step is needed. The residual from both plants is glycerol coming from the transesterfication. To use the residual to the fullest, a smaller plant was designed to produce arcrolein from glycerol. The plant consists of one reactor, two heat exchangers, two flash drums, one mixer and one splitter. Approximately 66 % of the glycerol was converted to acrolein. The amount of acrolein recovered was 315 kg/h. To obtain this amount recycling of not-converted glycerol was necessary. An economic analysis of this plant indicates a possible net result of 13.2 mio.kr. The conversion has financial benefits since the glycerol is only worth 2.3 mio.kr. if it is sold.

Henrik Teglborg and Eddi Søgaard DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s082629@student.dtu.dk, s082644@student.dtu.dk.

INTRODUCTION

In this paper we will investigate which parameters are important for energy harvesting from raindrops through a piezo based sensor. We will make a chamber filled with fluid or gas and a membrane to cover the chamber. Then connect a piezo based pressure sensor to the chamber so we can register how much pressure/energy can be gained from a drop. Then we will investigate which parameters are important such as: the drop height, drop frequency, drop size and finally we will give an estimate on how much energy can be obtained from a drop.

THE CONSTRUCTION In figure 1 the construction can be seen. Here the chamber is in the middle and the air/water intake and the sensor holes are on each side. It is then the intention that the membrane is strapped over the chamber so the momentum from the drop can be absorbed into the camber and directed to the sensor. Figure 1: The construction used to harvest energy from raindrops. The construction is made in micro milled polycarbonate.

SIGNAL PROCESSING In figure 2 the signal registered from a single drop can be seen. It is interesting to note that it is just a single impact but the membrane start to oscillate. That can be very important since a piezo deliver most energy if you can get it to oscillate at a specific frequency.

Figure 2: The Pressure oscillations registered by the piezo from a drop.

22

23


Poster

Poster

Energy harvesting from raindrops

Economics of biodiesel production Camilla Christiansen

The future substitute for fossil fuels should be a fuel produced in a renewable and sustainable way. The substitute could be biodiesel, which can be added in small doses in fossil fuel without any modification of the engine of a normal car. The European Union has determined that 10 % of all fuel used in 2020 should be replaced by a biofuel. The biodiesel can be produced in two different ways; the enzymatic catalyst way and the chemical catalyst way. This project was made to give an idea about the possibility of replacing the 10% fuel by biodiesel. It was concluded that it is not possible for Denmark to replace the 10 % fuel with biodiesel produced only by rapeseed oil coming from Denmark. Furthermore this project contains an economic evaluation of two different plants, the enzymatic plant and the chemical plant. It was possible to determine the yearly budget for both the plants. The return of the chemical plant exceeds the enzymatic plant by nearly 4 times. The crucial difference between the plants was purging of the catalyst. The cost of the enzymatic catalyst was 17.3 mio.kr. higher than the chemical catalyst. To make the enzymatic plant competitive, the cost of the enzyme catalyst needs to be reduced from the current 5800 kr./kg to approximately 2100 kr. pr. kg. However, the study indicated that the enzymatic plant is expected to have an advantage because of the smaller and more flexible size and that no neutralization step is needed. The residual from both plants is glycerol coming from the transesterfication. To use the residual to the fullest, a smaller plant was designed to produce arcrolein from glycerol. The plant consists of one reactor, two heat exchangers, two flash drums, one mixer and one splitter. Approximately 66 % of the glycerol was converted to acrolein. The amount of acrolein recovered was 315 kg/h. To obtain this amount recycling of not-converted glycerol was necessary. An economic analysis of this plant indicates a possible net result of 13.2 mio.kr. The conversion has financial benefits since the glycerol is only worth 2.3 mio.kr. if it is sold.

Henrik Teglborg and Eddi Søgaard DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s082629@student.dtu.dk, s082644@student.dtu.dk.

INTRODUCTION

In this paper we will investigate which parameters are important for energy harvesting from raindrops through a piezo based sensor. We will make a chamber filled with fluid or gas and a membrane to cover the chamber. Then connect a piezo based pressure sensor to the chamber so we can register how much pressure/energy can be gained from a drop. Then we will investigate which parameters are important such as: the drop height, drop frequency, drop size and finally we will give an estimate on how much energy can be obtained from a drop.

THE CONSTRUCTION In figure 1 the construction can be seen. Here the chamber is in the middle and the air/water intake and the sensor holes are on each side. It is then the intention that the membrane is strapped over the chamber so the momentum from the drop can be absorbed into the camber and directed to the sensor. Figure 1: The construction used to harvest energy from raindrops. The construction is made in micro milled polycarbonate.

SIGNAL PROCESSING In figure 2 the signal registered from a single drop can be seen. It is interesting to note that it is just a single impact but the membrane start to oscillate. That can be very important since a piezo deliver most energy if you can get it to oscillate at a specific frequency.

Figure 2: The Pressure oscillations registered by the piezo from a drop.

22

23


Poster

Poster

Energy
Sustainable
Water
Fountain

Environmental benefits of Cerium (IV) Oxide used as a catalyst S. L. Björkqvist1, S. M. Carvalho1, and M. Vasileiou1

Kristina
Rose,
Lisbeth
Kronborg
Jensen,
Anders
Roikjær,
Thor
Peter
Andersen
og









 Carl
Haurdahl
Mikkelsen
 
 DTU
Mekanik,
Technical
University
of
Denmark
 
 This
project
focuses
on
the
reduction
of
power
consumption
of
water
fountains,
by
the
utilization
of
 laminar
 and
 hollow
 jets,
 instead
 of
 traditional
 solid
 water
 jets.
 The
 project
 was
 carried
 out
 in
 collaboration
with
Fokdal
Springvand,
who
was
the
original
company
requesting
the
hollow
jet.
 In
order
to
produce
laminar
jets,
a
certain
technique
had
to
be
utilized,
in
which
water
is
slowly
lead
 through
a
series
of
filters
in
a
barrel,
only
to
be
accelerated
by
a
sudden
drop
in
barrel
cross
section.
 A
 mathematical
 model
 was
 created
 to
 assess
 the
 boundary
 layer
 build‐up
 within
 the
 barrel,
 along
 with
effects
of
surface
tension
and
air
pressure
within
the
jet.
This
model
revealed
the
need
for
air
 supply
 to
 the
 interior
 of
 the
 jet,
 and
 the
 barrel
 was
 fitted
 with
 a
 pipe
 reaching
 from
 the
 bottom
 where
 air
 could
 be
 supplied,
 to
 the
 top
 where
 the
 jet
 was
 ejected.
 In
 collaboration
 with
 Fokdal
 Springvand,
 a
 series
 of
 designs
 for
 the
 nozzles
 were
 drawn
 in
 CAD,
 and
 later
 manufactured
 out
 of
 stainless
 steel.
 The
 esthetics
 of
 the
 water
 jet
 varied
 with
 the
 different
 nozzle
 shapes,
 and
 the
 conclusion
was,
that
the
best
result
was
with
a
sharp
edged
and
conical‐shaped
nozzle,
which
angled
 the
water
slightly
outwards
when
exiting
the
barrel.
The
water
jet
remained
hollow
and
maintained
 its
 integrity
 up
 to
 a
 meter,
 before
 collapsing
 in
 on
 itself.
 Figure
 1
 shows
 a
 close‐up
 picture
 of
 the
 hollow
jet
produced
by
the
conical‐shaped
inner
nozzle
and
a
sharp‐edged
outer
nozzle.

1 DTU Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s091155@student.dtu.dk, s091804@student.dtu.dk, s091985@student.dtu.dk

Nanotechnology is a relativity new scientific area that deals with matter at dimensions of a nanometer, from 0.1 to 100 nm. It provides smaller, cheaper and faster devices and permits the reduction in raw materials and energy consumption. Nanotechnology is nowadays fully used in all sorts of different products, ranging from cosmetics to electronics and is said to be offering solutions to many medical, social and environmental problems. However, being a new area new concerns have been raised related to health, environment and safety, especially since materials have different properties at a nanoscale. Therefore it is important to identify all the impacts the use of this technology might have. This project aims to identifying the advantages and disadvantages of the nano Cerium (IV) Oxide use, focusing mainly on the utilization as a catalyst reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Cerium oxide serves as an oxygen buffer oxidizing hydrocarbons and reducing nitrogen oxides, which results in reduced emissions of soot, NOx and CO2. A reduction in fuel consumption is gained since Cerium Oxide increases the effectiveness of the fuel burn plus it cleans the engine. In the form of a nano particle the efficiency is improved through the increased surface-to-volume ratio. In order to evaluate the risk and benefits of CeO2 usage the advantages and drawbacks were identified and the Swiss Precautionary Matrix used for completing a preliminary risk assessment.

Figure
1:
Laminar
and
hollow
jet
produced
by
conical
nozzle

In
 conclusion
 the
 project
 showed,
 that
 it
 is
 indeed
 possible
 to
 make
 laminar
 hollow‐jet
 fountains,
 and
 that
 the
 required
 power
 is
 significantly
 less
 than
 that
 of
 a
 laminar
 solid
 water
 jet
 fountain.
 However,
there
is
a
tradeoff
with
the
esthetic.


 24

25


Poster

Poster

Energy
Sustainable
Water
Fountain

Environmental benefits of Cerium (IV) Oxide used as a catalyst S. L. Björkqvist1, S. M. Carvalho1, and M. Vasileiou1

Kristina
Rose,
Lisbeth
Kronborg
Jensen,
Anders
Roikjær,
Thor
Peter
Andersen
og









 Carl
Haurdahl
Mikkelsen
 
 DTU
Mekanik,
Technical
University
of
Denmark
 
 This
project
focuses
on
the
reduction
of
power
consumption
of
water
fountains,
by
the
utilization
of
 laminar
 and
 hollow
 jets,
 instead
 of
 traditional
 solid
 water
 jets.
 The
 project
 was
 carried
 out
 in
 collaboration
with
Fokdal
Springvand,
who
was
the
original
company
requesting
the
hollow
jet.
 In
order
to
produce
laminar
jets,
a
certain
technique
had
to
be
utilized,
in
which
water
is
slowly
lead
 through
a
series
of
filters
in
a
barrel,
only
to
be
accelerated
by
a
sudden
drop
in
barrel
cross
section.
 A
 mathematical
 model
 was
 created
 to
 assess
 the
 boundary
 layer
 build‐up
 within
 the
 barrel,
 along
 with
effects
of
surface
tension
and
air
pressure
within
the
jet.
This
model
revealed
the
need
for
air
 supply
 to
 the
 interior
 of
 the
 jet,
 and
 the
 barrel
 was
 fitted
 with
 a
 pipe
 reaching
 from
 the
 bottom
 where
 air
 could
 be
 supplied,
 to
 the
 top
 where
 the
 jet
 was
 ejected.
 In
 collaboration
 with
 Fokdal
 Springvand,
 a
 series
 of
 designs
 for
 the
 nozzles
 were
 drawn
 in
 CAD,
 and
 later
 manufactured
 out
 of
 stainless
 steel.
 The
 esthetics
 of
 the
 water
 jet
 varied
 with
 the
 different
 nozzle
 shapes,
 and
 the
 conclusion
was,
that
the
best
result
was
with
a
sharp
edged
and
conical‐shaped
nozzle,
which
angled
 the
water
slightly
outwards
when
exiting
the
barrel.
The
water
jet
remained
hollow
and
maintained
 its
 integrity
 up
 to
 a
 meter,
 before
 collapsing
 in
 on
 itself.
 Figure
 1
 shows
 a
 close‐up
 picture
 of
 the
 hollow
jet
produced
by
the
conical‐shaped
inner
nozzle
and
a
sharp‐edged
outer
nozzle.

1 DTU Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s091155@student.dtu.dk, s091804@student.dtu.dk, s091985@student.dtu.dk

Nanotechnology is a relativity new scientific area that deals with matter at dimensions of a nanometer, from 0.1 to 100 nm. It provides smaller, cheaper and faster devices and permits the reduction in raw materials and energy consumption. Nanotechnology is nowadays fully used in all sorts of different products, ranging from cosmetics to electronics and is said to be offering solutions to many medical, social and environmental problems. However, being a new area new concerns have been raised related to health, environment and safety, especially since materials have different properties at a nanoscale. Therefore it is important to identify all the impacts the use of this technology might have. This project aims to identifying the advantages and disadvantages of the nano Cerium (IV) Oxide use, focusing mainly on the utilization as a catalyst reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Cerium oxide serves as an oxygen buffer oxidizing hydrocarbons and reducing nitrogen oxides, which results in reduced emissions of soot, NOx and CO2. A reduction in fuel consumption is gained since Cerium Oxide increases the effectiveness of the fuel burn plus it cleans the engine. In the form of a nano particle the efficiency is improved through the increased surface-to-volume ratio. In order to evaluate the risk and benefits of CeO2 usage the advantages and drawbacks were identified and the Swiss Precautionary Matrix used for completing a preliminary risk assessment.

Figure
1:
Laminar
and
hollow
jet
produced
by
conical
nozzle

In
 conclusion
 the
 project
 showed,
 that
 it
 is
 indeed
 possible
 to
 make
 laminar
 hollow‐jet
 fountains,
 and
 that
 the
 required
 power
 is
 significantly
 less
 than
 that
 of
 a
 laminar
 solid
 water
 jet
 fountain.
 However,
there
is
a
tradeoff
with
the
esthetic.


 24

25


Poster

Poster

Environmental Management in event planning – a Life Cycle approach, the Roskilde Festival case

A. Bonou 1

1

C. Morellato

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s081881@student.dtu.dk

The goal of this LCA-based study was to give a first estimate of the direct and indirect environmental impacts related to the activities taking place on the site of the Festival during its 8 day length as a first input into prioritizing policies and mitigation actions for inclusion in an eventual Environmental Management Plan for the Festival. The functional unit is defined as ‘The Roskilde Festival providing services to 1 adult person during the 8 days of its official duration’. In the system boundaries’ is included the accommodation of festival goers, the consumption of food and water, the consumption of fuel associated with the activities taking place during the festival and the management and treatment of all the festival related waste. The power production and the transportation of festival goers and machinery were also investigated. Each subsystem was individually planned and assessed for the whole festival and the relative contribution of its different components (products and processes) was indicated. The results were aggregated to assess the impact of the functional unit. The assessment was carried out according to the EDIP method. The reference system was the 2008 Roskilde Festival. Site specific data were provided by the Roskilde Festival environmental coordinators. Data gaps for the 2008 festival were either filled with 2007 information or with the results of two physical surveys (waste sampling to estimate the waste composition and registration of the abandoned gear items after the end of the festival) and one questionnaire survey among the festival goers (focused on behavioural intentions regarding food consumption and waste) conducted during the 2009 Roskilde Festival. For the assessments three LCA software tools were used, and scientific LCI databases provided the inventories of the environmental exchanges that characterise the modelled products and processes. GaBi (a tool for building life cycle balances) was used for modelling the ‘manufacturing’ and ‘use’ stage of all the products within the system boundaries, except for food. SimaPro is the LCA software used for modelling the food products consumed during the Roskilde Festival. EASEWASTE is the software used for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste systems. The interpretation of the results reveals that the main contributors to all the impact categories are the transportation (mostly due to the cars, and the airplanes) and the food consumption mostly due to the meat (at least 10 times higher impact than the other products in all the impact categories). The impact of the camping gear manufacturing is almost counterbalanced by the waste management impact. The water and power consumed during the festival have a comparatively insignificant environmental effect. The results of this first scoping assessment give the interesting conclusion that action by the Roskilde Festival organisers to reduce the impacts of the festival is best focussed on influencing the behaviour of festival goers rather than investing in technical solutions.

26

Estimation and Evaluation of the Effects of Future Implementation of GPS-based Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Copenhagen

DTU Transport, Technical University of Denmark s080952@student.dtu.dk

BACKGROUND One of the main challenges within transport is to cope with ever-growing mobility demand without increasing congestion, air pollution and noise, especially in urban areas. With regard to passenger transport, a modal shift from private car to public transport is generally seen as the key to solve the problem. In fact, public transport vehicles can carry much more passengers than cars, thus reducing the number of vehicles on the road and, therefore, both congestion and pollution. Since the modal shift can only be achieved by increasing the attractiveness of public transport, measures enhancing the service are extremely valuable, as mentioned in Transport Initiative 2 in the Copenhagen Climate Plan.

PROJECT IDEA The idea behind the project is to use the potential of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to enhance bus service, in line with Transport Initiative 10 in the Copenhagen Climate Plan. More precisely, the idea is to make use of GPS technology to provide buses with priority at traffic signals. According to that, a bus will be detected when approaching a signalized intersection and priority will be given, either by extending the green phase, anticipating it or inserting an extra phase in the signal cycle. In this way, buses will be able to reduce travel times and improve punctuality. Moreover, the use of GPS instead of other technologies, e.g. inductive loops or roadside beacons, has some significant operational advantages, due to the fact that physical detectors are replaced by “virtual” detectors, thus resulting in: − Low installation and maintenance costs − Easiness to extend the system to many intersections − Flexibility in the relocation of detectors, to respond to changes in the network. Furthermore, once the buses are equipped with GPS, real-time information can also be easily provided, thus increasing comfort. Since market analyses have shown that passengers, when deciding on transport mode, give the most weight to short travel times, high reliability and comfort, the significance of these achievements is straightforward.

PROJECT APPLICATION The concept described above is applied to the bus network around Flintholm station, in Copenhagen. The area is crucial, being one of the main public transport hubs in Copenhagen, which will become even more vital after the implementation of Metro City Ring in 2018. The project includes the development of bus priority logic and its testing by means of simulations carried out with the software VISSIM. The results, in terms of bus travel times and disruption to other traffic, will be evaluated in order to assess both the operational savings for the bus company and the potential for the modal shift.

27


Poster

Poster

Environmental Management in event planning – a Life Cycle approach, the Roskilde Festival case

A. Bonou 1

1

C. Morellato

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s081881@student.dtu.dk

The goal of this LCA-based study was to give a first estimate of the direct and indirect environmental impacts related to the activities taking place on the site of the Festival during its 8 day length as a first input into prioritizing policies and mitigation actions for inclusion in an eventual Environmental Management Plan for the Festival. The functional unit is defined as ‘The Roskilde Festival providing services to 1 adult person during the 8 days of its official duration’. In the system boundaries’ is included the accommodation of festival goers, the consumption of food and water, the consumption of fuel associated with the activities taking place during the festival and the management and treatment of all the festival related waste. The power production and the transportation of festival goers and machinery were also investigated. Each subsystem was individually planned and assessed for the whole festival and the relative contribution of its different components (products and processes) was indicated. The results were aggregated to assess the impact of the functional unit. The assessment was carried out according to the EDIP method. The reference system was the 2008 Roskilde Festival. Site specific data were provided by the Roskilde Festival environmental coordinators. Data gaps for the 2008 festival were either filled with 2007 information or with the results of two physical surveys (waste sampling to estimate the waste composition and registration of the abandoned gear items after the end of the festival) and one questionnaire survey among the festival goers (focused on behavioural intentions regarding food consumption and waste) conducted during the 2009 Roskilde Festival. For the assessments three LCA software tools were used, and scientific LCI databases provided the inventories of the environmental exchanges that characterise the modelled products and processes. GaBi (a tool for building life cycle balances) was used for modelling the ‘manufacturing’ and ‘use’ stage of all the products within the system boundaries, except for food. SimaPro is the LCA software used for modelling the food products consumed during the Roskilde Festival. EASEWASTE is the software used for the evaluation of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste systems. The interpretation of the results reveals that the main contributors to all the impact categories are the transportation (mostly due to the cars, and the airplanes) and the food consumption mostly due to the meat (at least 10 times higher impact than the other products in all the impact categories). The impact of the camping gear manufacturing is almost counterbalanced by the waste management impact. The water and power consumed during the festival have a comparatively insignificant environmental effect. The results of this first scoping assessment give the interesting conclusion that action by the Roskilde Festival organisers to reduce the impacts of the festival is best focussed on influencing the behaviour of festival goers rather than investing in technical solutions.

26

Estimation and Evaluation of the Effects of Future Implementation of GPS-based Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Copenhagen

DTU Transport, Technical University of Denmark s080952@student.dtu.dk

BACKGROUND One of the main challenges within transport is to cope with ever-growing mobility demand without increasing congestion, air pollution and noise, especially in urban areas. With regard to passenger transport, a modal shift from private car to public transport is generally seen as the key to solve the problem. In fact, public transport vehicles can carry much more passengers than cars, thus reducing the number of vehicles on the road and, therefore, both congestion and pollution. Since the modal shift can only be achieved by increasing the attractiveness of public transport, measures enhancing the service are extremely valuable, as mentioned in Transport Initiative 2 in the Copenhagen Climate Plan.

PROJECT IDEA The idea behind the project is to use the potential of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to enhance bus service, in line with Transport Initiative 10 in the Copenhagen Climate Plan. More precisely, the idea is to make use of GPS technology to provide buses with priority at traffic signals. According to that, a bus will be detected when approaching a signalized intersection and priority will be given, either by extending the green phase, anticipating it or inserting an extra phase in the signal cycle. In this way, buses will be able to reduce travel times and improve punctuality. Moreover, the use of GPS instead of other technologies, e.g. inductive loops or roadside beacons, has some significant operational advantages, due to the fact that physical detectors are replaced by “virtual” detectors, thus resulting in: − Low installation and maintenance costs − Easiness to extend the system to many intersections − Flexibility in the relocation of detectors, to respond to changes in the network. Furthermore, once the buses are equipped with GPS, real-time information can also be easily provided, thus increasing comfort. Since market analyses have shown that passengers, when deciding on transport mode, give the most weight to short travel times, high reliability and comfort, the significance of these achievements is straightforward.

PROJECT APPLICATION The concept described above is applied to the bus network around Flintholm station, in Copenhagen. The area is crucial, being one of the main public transport hubs in Copenhagen, which will become even more vital after the implementation of Metro City Ring in 2018. The project includes the development of bus priority logic and its testing by means of simulations carried out with the software VISSIM. The results, in terms of bus travel times and disruption to other traffic, will be evaluated in order to assess both the operational savings for the bus company and the potential for the modal shift.

27


Poster

Poster Heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide. J.O. Abildstrøm DTU Chemistry, CSC, Technical University of Denmark s072209@student.dtu.dk

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is recognized as very harmful in destroying the stratospheric ozone layer. The Kyoto protocol of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (December 1997) states that N2O is a second non-CO2 greenhouse gas. It has been reported that N2O has 310 and 21 times the global warming potential of CO2 and CH4, respectively. N2O is also known to contribute to catalytic stratospheric ozone layer destruction. The human contribution of the N2O emission to the atmosphere is estimated to be 4.7-7 million ton per year, about 30-40% of the total emission. Some of the sources are nitric acid manufacturing, fossil fuels and biomass combustion, plus land cultivation. Unfortunately N2O is also formed by selective catalytic reduction of NOx. If the atmospheric N2O is to be stabilised, there has to be a 70-80% reduction of the human emission. As it is now, there are no legislations on the emission of N2O. It is though believed that it soon will come because of the growing governmental awareness, of the environmental impact of emission gasses. Emission reduction of N2O can be achieved in different ways. One of them is after-treatment, end of pipe solutions. A possible after-treatment is catalytic decomposition of N2O into the harmless gasses N2 and O2. This reaction has been known for some time, and many catalysts have been tested for the decomposition. Still no promising catalyst has yet been found. For the catalyst to be suitable for industrial application, it o needs to operate at relatively low temperature (under 300 C), must not lose activity over time, have low cost in the making and of course have a high conversion of N2O. In this project, different catalysts have been prepared and analysed for their activity in this decomposition of N2O, under conditions given by the industry. Among them are cesium doped cobalt-oxide spinels plus iron and cupper modified zeolites. All the catalysts was analysed with different quantities of the impregnated material. This was done to find the optimum ratio of the support and for further analysing. The goal of this project is to find catalysts suitable for industrial application.

In silico exploration of the chemical space of natural compounds from Ayurveda traditional medicine Honey Polur DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark s081185@student.dtu.dk

Natural products and their derivatives have historically been invaluable as a source of therapeutic agents and our natural environment remains a non-exhausted creative pool for the discovery and synthesis of new drug compounds. It has long been recognized that natural-product structures have the characteristics of high-chemical diversity, biochemical specificity and other molecular properties that make them favorable as lead structures for drug discovery, which serve to differentiate them from libraries of synthetic and combinatorial compounds. Natural products can be viewed as a population of privileged structures selected by evolutionary pressures to interact with a wide variety of proteins and other biological targets for specific purposes. On the basis of this concept, a guiding principle has emerged that natural products, by virtue of their molecular evolution to preferentially bind to the protein folds, are validated starting points for drug-development. In the proposed project advanced chemoinformatics tools will be used for the mapping of the chemicals space of natural compounds from plants used in Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine. Our approach will consist of the following consecutive steps: 1. Curation of the Ayurveda database: Each natural compound will be eventually described with its 2D chemical structure in SMILES and sdf format. A database will then be constructed that will include: a) chemical name, b) structural information, c) plant source and d) medicinal use according to Ayurveda. 2. As most part of the chemical space of Ayurveda medicine is virtual ‘terra incognita’, a detailed structural analysis of the natural compounds from the database will be performed including the distribution of properties related to drug-likeness, such as molecular weight and hydrogen bond donors and acceptors . 3. The structural similarity of the natural compounds with compounds from the databases included in ChemProt server: (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt-1.0/) will be evaluated to propose potential new ligands of natural origin. The part of the database that consists of natural compounds with known and documented biological activities (if any) will be analyzed and these will be compared to the traditional medicinal use. Two types of descriptors, MACCS fingerprints and pharmacophore-based descriptors will be evaluated. 4. Finally, the natural compounds from the Ayurvedic plants will be compared with the human metabolites from the Human Metabolome Database (http://www.hmdb.ca/) to investigate whether they potentially interfere with human metabolic pathways.

28

29


Poster

Poster Heterogeneous catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide. J.O. Abildstrøm DTU Chemistry, CSC, Technical University of Denmark s072209@student.dtu.dk

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is recognized as very harmful in destroying the stratospheric ozone layer. The Kyoto protocol of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (December 1997) states that N2O is a second non-CO2 greenhouse gas. It has been reported that N2O has 310 and 21 times the global warming potential of CO2 and CH4, respectively. N2O is also known to contribute to catalytic stratospheric ozone layer destruction. The human contribution of the N2O emission to the atmosphere is estimated to be 4.7-7 million ton per year, about 30-40% of the total emission. Some of the sources are nitric acid manufacturing, fossil fuels and biomass combustion, plus land cultivation. Unfortunately N2O is also formed by selective catalytic reduction of NOx. If the atmospheric N2O is to be stabilised, there has to be a 70-80% reduction of the human emission. As it is now, there are no legislations on the emission of N2O. It is though believed that it soon will come because of the growing governmental awareness, of the environmental impact of emission gasses. Emission reduction of N2O can be achieved in different ways. One of them is after-treatment, end of pipe solutions. A possible after-treatment is catalytic decomposition of N2O into the harmless gasses N2 and O2. This reaction has been known for some time, and many catalysts have been tested for the decomposition. Still no promising catalyst has yet been found. For the catalyst to be suitable for industrial application, it o needs to operate at relatively low temperature (under 300 C), must not lose activity over time, have low cost in the making and of course have a high conversion of N2O. In this project, different catalysts have been prepared and analysed for their activity in this decomposition of N2O, under conditions given by the industry. Among them are cesium doped cobalt-oxide spinels plus iron and cupper modified zeolites. All the catalysts was analysed with different quantities of the impregnated material. This was done to find the optimum ratio of the support and for further analysing. The goal of this project is to find catalysts suitable for industrial application.

In silico exploration of the chemical space of natural compounds from Ayurveda traditional medicine Honey Polur DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark s081185@student.dtu.dk

Natural products and their derivatives have historically been invaluable as a source of therapeutic agents and our natural environment remains a non-exhausted creative pool for the discovery and synthesis of new drug compounds. It has long been recognized that natural-product structures have the characteristics of high-chemical diversity, biochemical specificity and other molecular properties that make them favorable as lead structures for drug discovery, which serve to differentiate them from libraries of synthetic and combinatorial compounds. Natural products can be viewed as a population of privileged structures selected by evolutionary pressures to interact with a wide variety of proteins and other biological targets for specific purposes. On the basis of this concept, a guiding principle has emerged that natural products, by virtue of their molecular evolution to preferentially bind to the protein folds, are validated starting points for drug-development. In the proposed project advanced chemoinformatics tools will be used for the mapping of the chemicals space of natural compounds from plants used in Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine. Our approach will consist of the following consecutive steps: 1. Curation of the Ayurveda database: Each natural compound will be eventually described with its 2D chemical structure in SMILES and sdf format. A database will then be constructed that will include: a) chemical name, b) structural information, c) plant source and d) medicinal use according to Ayurveda. 2. As most part of the chemical space of Ayurveda medicine is virtual ‘terra incognita’, a detailed structural analysis of the natural compounds from the database will be performed including the distribution of properties related to drug-likeness, such as molecular weight and hydrogen bond donors and acceptors . 3. The structural similarity of the natural compounds with compounds from the databases included in ChemProt server: (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/ChemProt-1.0/) will be evaluated to propose potential new ligands of natural origin. The part of the database that consists of natural compounds with known and documented biological activities (if any) will be analyzed and these will be compared to the traditional medicinal use. Two types of descriptors, MACCS fingerprints and pharmacophore-based descriptors will be evaluated. 4. Finally, the natural compounds from the Ayurvedic plants will be compared with the human metabolites from the Human Metabolome Database (http://www.hmdb.ca/) to investigate whether they potentially interfere with human metabolic pathways.

28

29


Poster

Poster

Intelligent Energy System for Small Scale Alternative Intermittent Power Sources

Investigation of MSWI Fly Ash for Utilization in Mortar 1

Charlotte Rask Jensen , Heidi Serup

2

C. E. R. Sonne, M. Drejer 1

DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark s050436@student.dtu.dk, s032237@student.dtu.dk,

INTRODUCTION This project is the design and implementation of an intelligent energy system for an existing setup of intermittent alternative energy generators. This includes solar and wind energy, and a small scale energy bank.

INTELLIGENT POWER SYSTEM The IES will monitor incoming and outgoing power to the system, and intelligently control power drains according to their capabilities. Some are scalable (ie. dampable lighting) and some are binary (ie. power inverter), and they should be controlled differently depending on its importance. In case of overcharge on the battery bank, some power sources can be disabled to avoid catastrophic overheating of the battery. We will implement a rig to measure the relevant power and voltage levels, and the IES itself will be implemented on an Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller. It will communicate with a light controller implemented on a separate microcontroller via a serial communication link, which might also be used to reach simple controllers for other sources and drains.

Picture of energy sources (credit: Lars Bertelsen, ing.dk 2008)

30

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s070074@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s070267@student.dtu.dk

Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is classified as hazardous waste because of the high content of heavy metals and salts. It is currently being disposed of in Norway although it contains potential resources. In addition to disposing potential resources the disposing and transport of the MSWI fly ash is a costly and resource consuming affaire. In this project it was investigated whether MSWI fly ash may partly substitute cement in Portland cement mortar after upgrading the MSWI fly ash by electrodialytical removal of metals and salts. The main emphasis was laid on the workability, strength and heat evolution of the mortar with MSWI fly ash. This was carried out by using different methods for mixing the mortar and varying the content of MSWI fly ash. As references were used mortar without fly ash and mortar with fly ash from the coal industry which is a material commonly used in Portland cement mortar. Before upgrading the MSWI fly ash was carbonized, and the fly ash was further carbonized during the electrodialysis. During electrodialysis metals, salts and water-soluble substances were removed from the MSWI fly ash. This removal resulted in an up-concentration of all metals investigated, except for barium. Leaching of metals was on the other hand reduced for all heavy metal. The results were compared to Danish legislation, (the limiting value for possible reuse of waste materials), and all the metals were below the permissible. Utilization of MSWI fly ash in mortar showed no difference compared with the reference mortars as regard to the strength when substituting 15 % (weight) or less cement. The high content of carbonate caused a low workability for the mortar however adding superplasticizer improved the workability essential, even when adding only a small amount (0.5 % of total cement and fly ash weight). Heat evolution from mortar with MSWI fly ash was delayed and reduced causing a delayed strength development. After seven days of curing the strength was however at the same level as the reference mortars. The reason for the delayed and reduced heat evolution might be lime which is added during flue gas treatment at the incineration plant and which later forms gypsum. Gypsum slows the early rate hydration. Leaching of salts showed a higher concentration of water-soluble sulfate which increases the risk for sulfate corrosion, the mortars investigated showed however no signs of sulfate corrosion. Based on the results mentioned above it was concluded that utilization of MSWI fly ash is possible in mortar when substituting 15 % and adding superplasticizer. Since production of Portland cement contributes about 5 % of global total CO2 emission it is clearly important to find ways to improve the production. The CO2 emission from the concrete production is directly proportional to the cement content used in the concrete mix. A substitution by 15 % MSWI fly ash in a mortar will therefore reduce the emission of CO2 caused by the cement production.

31


Poster

Poster

Intelligent Energy System for Small Scale Alternative Intermittent Power Sources

Investigation of MSWI Fly Ash for Utilization in Mortar 1

Charlotte Rask Jensen , Heidi Serup

2

C. E. R. Sonne, M. Drejer 1

DTU Informatics, Technical University of Denmark s050436@student.dtu.dk, s032237@student.dtu.dk,

INTRODUCTION This project is the design and implementation of an intelligent energy system for an existing setup of intermittent alternative energy generators. This includes solar and wind energy, and a small scale energy bank.

INTELLIGENT POWER SYSTEM The IES will monitor incoming and outgoing power to the system, and intelligently control power drains according to their capabilities. Some are scalable (ie. dampable lighting) and some are binary (ie. power inverter), and they should be controlled differently depending on its importance. In case of overcharge on the battery bank, some power sources can be disabled to avoid catastrophic overheating of the battery. We will implement a rig to measure the relevant power and voltage levels, and the IES itself will be implemented on an Arduino Duemilanove microcontroller. It will communicate with a light controller implemented on a separate microcontroller via a serial communication link, which might also be used to reach simple controllers for other sources and drains.

Picture of energy sources (credit: Lars Bertelsen, ing.dk 2008)

30

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s070074@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s070267@student.dtu.dk

Fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is classified as hazardous waste because of the high content of heavy metals and salts. It is currently being disposed of in Norway although it contains potential resources. In addition to disposing potential resources the disposing and transport of the MSWI fly ash is a costly and resource consuming affaire. In this project it was investigated whether MSWI fly ash may partly substitute cement in Portland cement mortar after upgrading the MSWI fly ash by electrodialytical removal of metals and salts. The main emphasis was laid on the workability, strength and heat evolution of the mortar with MSWI fly ash. This was carried out by using different methods for mixing the mortar and varying the content of MSWI fly ash. As references were used mortar without fly ash and mortar with fly ash from the coal industry which is a material commonly used in Portland cement mortar. Before upgrading the MSWI fly ash was carbonized, and the fly ash was further carbonized during the electrodialysis. During electrodialysis metals, salts and water-soluble substances were removed from the MSWI fly ash. This removal resulted in an up-concentration of all metals investigated, except for barium. Leaching of metals was on the other hand reduced for all heavy metal. The results were compared to Danish legislation, (the limiting value for possible reuse of waste materials), and all the metals were below the permissible. Utilization of MSWI fly ash in mortar showed no difference compared with the reference mortars as regard to the strength when substituting 15 % (weight) or less cement. The high content of carbonate caused a low workability for the mortar however adding superplasticizer improved the workability essential, even when adding only a small amount (0.5 % of total cement and fly ash weight). Heat evolution from mortar with MSWI fly ash was delayed and reduced causing a delayed strength development. After seven days of curing the strength was however at the same level as the reference mortars. The reason for the delayed and reduced heat evolution might be lime which is added during flue gas treatment at the incineration plant and which later forms gypsum. Gypsum slows the early rate hydration. Leaching of salts showed a higher concentration of water-soluble sulfate which increases the risk for sulfate corrosion, the mortars investigated showed however no signs of sulfate corrosion. Based on the results mentioned above it was concluded that utilization of MSWI fly ash is possible in mortar when substituting 15 % and adding superplasticizer. Since production of Portland cement contributes about 5 % of global total CO2 emission it is clearly important to find ways to improve the production. The CO2 emission from the concrete production is directly proportional to the cement content used in the concrete mix. A substitution by 15 % MSWI fly ash in a mortar will therefore reduce the emission of CO2 caused by the cement production.

31


Poster

Poster

Light Directional Elements (LDIR) M. F. la Cour1, S. V. Fischer1, K. B. Frøhling1, and M. Al-Abbadi1 1 DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062107@student.dtu.dk, s062120@student.dtu.dk, s062081@student.dtu.dk, s080878@student.dtu.dk

Using the light of the sun as the primary source for illuminating offices and houses is one of the most effective ways of saving energy. The problem, which many knows, is that on a sunny summer day, the light may be too intense to be used directly. Reading a book if the rays of the sun hits directly on the pages can be impossible, not to mention the problem of seeing what is happening on the computer screen. By using nanostructured windows it is possible to homogeneously redirect natural light, eliminating the need for using blinds and electric lighting during daytime. In the 3-week course 33422 Nanolithography we have investigated the possibilities of fabricating sub 10 nm-structures using a nanostructured stamp. Nanolithography is the technique needed for efficiently structuring windows in the most precise and cost effective way. Mastering nanolithography is important in order to save energy and material during fabrication. This is done by understanding the theory and latest experiments, as well as using simulation tools in order to find the most optimal parameters.

32

Making technology for production of bioethanol from lignocellulose economically feasible: plant wide simulations D. Cepulyte DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s091473@student.dtu.dk

The development of an optimal process technology for second generation bioethanol production (biological route) is still one of the major challenges facing the green production of biofuels. It is a huge technology and engineering challenge from the process design and operation point of view. This course takes on this challenge and will search for the optimization of one conventional bioethanol process flowsheet. The course will use dynamic plant model simulations to generate innovative solutions. The course will look for an optimal production of the biofuel by identifying, manipulating and fine-tuning the most critical variables presented in the complete production process.

33


Poster

Poster

Light Directional Elements (LDIR) M. F. la Cour1, S. V. Fischer1, K. B. Frøhling1, and M. Al-Abbadi1 1 DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062107@student.dtu.dk, s062120@student.dtu.dk, s062081@student.dtu.dk, s080878@student.dtu.dk

Using the light of the sun as the primary source for illuminating offices and houses is one of the most effective ways of saving energy. The problem, which many knows, is that on a sunny summer day, the light may be too intense to be used directly. Reading a book if the rays of the sun hits directly on the pages can be impossible, not to mention the problem of seeing what is happening on the computer screen. By using nanostructured windows it is possible to homogeneously redirect natural light, eliminating the need for using blinds and electric lighting during daytime. In the 3-week course 33422 Nanolithography we have investigated the possibilities of fabricating sub 10 nm-structures using a nanostructured stamp. Nanolithography is the technique needed for efficiently structuring windows in the most precise and cost effective way. Mastering nanolithography is important in order to save energy and material during fabrication. This is done by understanding the theory and latest experiments, as well as using simulation tools in order to find the most optimal parameters.

32

Making technology for production of bioethanol from lignocellulose economically feasible: plant wide simulations D. Cepulyte DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s091473@student.dtu.dk

The development of an optimal process technology for second generation bioethanol production (biological route) is still one of the major challenges facing the green production of biofuels. It is a huge technology and engineering challenge from the process design and operation point of view. This course takes on this challenge and will search for the optimization of one conventional bioethanol process flowsheet. The course will use dynamic plant model simulations to generate innovative solutions. The course will look for an optimal production of the biofuel by identifying, manipulating and fine-tuning the most critical variables presented in the complete production process.

33


Poster

Poster

MEMS energy harvesters based on silicon and PZT thickfilm technology for wireless sensor systems

Nano Imprint Lithography, a green technology S. Tanzi, A. B. Fønss, M. B. Laursen, M. U. Grønbech

A. Thyssen, A. Stoot and T. L. Christiansen DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark S072148@student.dtu.dk; s072157 student.dtu.dk; s072165 student.dtu.dk In recent years, the concept of energy harvesting has attracted much attention. The basic idea is to scavenge or harvest energy from the ambient surroundings of a device, convert it into electrical energy and use it to power a device, typically a wireless sensor system. The energy harvester can thus be seen as a small local power plant which uses otherwise wasted energy in the form of vibrations, temperature differences etc. which are abundant in most systems. By creating energy harvesters of the same size as modern batteries, the technology therefore has the fascinating future prospect of making batteries redundant. This is therefore a green technology that can be integrated in a wide range of systems, making it highly interesting.

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark simt@nanotech.dtu.dk, s082621@student.dtu.dk, s052291@student.dtu.dk, s052859@student.dtu.dk

In the 3-week term June 2010 we have worked with Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) in the course 33422. NIL is a non conventional lithographic technique for high-throughput patterning of polymer nano structures at great precision and at low cost. NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist material and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional techniques. In this presentation we will present NIL as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly technology compared to traditional micro and nano fabrication approaches. We will introduce NIL and describe why it can be considered a green technology.

During two bachelor projects, several contributions to the development of vibrational energy harvesters have been made. A theoretical model have been developed which is capable of predicting the power output of vibrational energy harvesters based on cantilevers operated at resonance. This makes it possible to investigate the designs that yields the maximum power output. In addition to this, a range of different cantilevered energy harvesters have been designed and fabricated using cleanroom processing and screen printing techniques. This combination have made it possible to produce novel designs with cantilevers made of silicon and PZT or cantilevers made solely of PZT, thereby demonstrating different methods of harvesting the maximum amount of energy from ambient vibrations. The use of silicon technology facilitates the future integration of external electrical circuits in the design and makes it possible to fabricate a whole system consisting of both the energy harvester and the corresponding sensor system in the same process flow, thus making the production easier, faster and cheaper. In the presentation results obtained with real energy harvesters designed and fabricated during the two bachelor projects will be presented and the prospects of energy harvesting will be discussed.

34

35


Poster

Poster

MEMS energy harvesters based on silicon and PZT thickfilm technology for wireless sensor systems

Nano Imprint Lithography, a green technology S. Tanzi, A. B. Fønss, M. B. Laursen, M. U. Grønbech

A. Thyssen, A. Stoot and T. L. Christiansen DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark S072148@student.dtu.dk; s072157 student.dtu.dk; s072165 student.dtu.dk In recent years, the concept of energy harvesting has attracted much attention. The basic idea is to scavenge or harvest energy from the ambient surroundings of a device, convert it into electrical energy and use it to power a device, typically a wireless sensor system. The energy harvester can thus be seen as a small local power plant which uses otherwise wasted energy in the form of vibrations, temperature differences etc. which are abundant in most systems. By creating energy harvesters of the same size as modern batteries, the technology therefore has the fascinating future prospect of making batteries redundant. This is therefore a green technology that can be integrated in a wide range of systems, making it highly interesting.

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark simt@nanotech.dtu.dk, s082621@student.dtu.dk, s052291@student.dtu.dk, s052859@student.dtu.dk

In the 3-week term June 2010 we have worked with Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) in the course 33422. NIL is a non conventional lithographic technique for high-throughput patterning of polymer nano structures at great precision and at low cost. NIL relies on direct mechanical deformation of the resist material and can therefore achieve resolutions beyond the limitations set by light diffraction or beam scattering that are encountered in conventional techniques. In this presentation we will present NIL as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly technology compared to traditional micro and nano fabrication approaches. We will introduce NIL and describe why it can be considered a green technology.

During two bachelor projects, several contributions to the development of vibrational energy harvesters have been made. A theoretical model have been developed which is capable of predicting the power output of vibrational energy harvesters based on cantilevers operated at resonance. This makes it possible to investigate the designs that yields the maximum power output. In addition to this, a range of different cantilevered energy harvesters have been designed and fabricated using cleanroom processing and screen printing techniques. This combination have made it possible to produce novel designs with cantilevers made of silicon and PZT or cantilevers made solely of PZT, thereby demonstrating different methods of harvesting the maximum amount of energy from ambient vibrations. The use of silicon technology facilitates the future integration of external electrical circuits in the design and makes it possible to fabricate a whole system consisting of both the energy harvester and the corresponding sensor system in the same process flow, thus making the production easier, faster and cheaper. In the presentation results obtained with real energy harvesters designed and fabricated during the two bachelor projects will be presented and the prospects of energy harvesting will be discussed.

34

35


Poster

Poster

Optimization of Trailer Transport

PHASE III BIOREFINERY FOR HANDLING WASTES GENERATED IN SMALL TOWN

K. B. Kallestrup James Atwoki Mugabi – s052748

DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s062343@student.dtu.dk

Hemalata Ramesh – s091182 Naleli Vad – s091862

20% of Europe’s total GHG emission comes from road transportation, up 40% since 1995. Freight transport energy consumption, and thus emission levels, is tightly coupled to GDP. So if Europe seeks to dramatically reduce GHG emissions without sacrificing economic growth, it is crucial to address the issue of energy efficiency within the road transportation sector. Today, empty journeys comprise 25%-40% of all road haulage. This means that road transportation energy efficiency per goods delivered can potentially be increased by onethird by optimizing routing plans. In this project, it will be investigated how such an optimization can be carried through to illustrate the possible efficiency gain. The strength of logistic optimization opposed to energy technology innovations are the simple facts that there is no long process of refitting the fleet of vehicles and no resource consumption associated with realizing the reductions. Emissions can be cut immediately and costless. The problem instance considered is that of container transportation. Moving a container over long distances from one point to another can be done as a sequence of moves using some intermediate points. The first truck is picking up the container at its origin and moving it to the first intermediate point, where it is dropped off. Later, an empty second truck arrives to pick it up and drive it to the next drop off point. The last truck finally delivers the container at its destination. The optimal route for a network of trucks and containers, minimizing total distance travelled, will be sought using the tools of integer programming. The aim is thus to describe and solve the problem instance and consider the scalability of the chosen solution approach. If a solution approach for large scale problems of this type can be found, it will allow haulers, and hauler-alliances, to reduce their amount of empty journeys, benefiting their profit margin and the environment.

Kristina Ranc – s090956

Affiliates: 1

Henrik B. Nielsen

Jens E. Schmidt2 Anna Belinda Thomsen3

ABSTRACT As the advent of industrialization has led to the depletion of fossil fuels there is a constant search for renewable resources. Although renewable energy can be obtained in the form of solar and wind energy, it is essential to consider the utilization of biomass as it is the only renewable source of the carbon backbone typical of all high energy output fuels. The aim of the report is to use the different renewable resources, which are otherwise wastes, in a phase III biorefinery to produce biofuels. While the lignocellulosic components are utilized for bioethanol production, after being pre-treated, the bread wastes are directly utilized as they are carbohydrate rich. As a part of the pre-treatment, fat is separated and then used for the production of biodiesel in conjunction with oil from bleaching earth. The rest of the wastes received such as slaughterhouse waste, sludge and the effluent from the bioethanol reactor are pretreated and used for the production of biogas, which can later be potentially used for electricity and district heating. A brief consideration of the fate of glycerol from the biodiesel plant has been discussed. The purpose of the biorefinery is to obtain multiple products which can be used for energy production, in order attain sustainability while also being able to sell energy. The energy requirements of the plant are mainly obtained from the burning of saw dust, lignin and biomass. While, the difference in energy requirements can be bought as in conventional refineries.

36

37


Poster

Poster

Optimization of Trailer Transport

PHASE III BIOREFINERY FOR HANDLING WASTES GENERATED IN SMALL TOWN

K. B. Kallestrup James Atwoki Mugabi – s052748

DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s062343@student.dtu.dk

Hemalata Ramesh – s091182 Naleli Vad – s091862

20% of Europe’s total GHG emission comes from road transportation, up 40% since 1995. Freight transport energy consumption, and thus emission levels, is tightly coupled to GDP. So if Europe seeks to dramatically reduce GHG emissions without sacrificing economic growth, it is crucial to address the issue of energy efficiency within the road transportation sector. Today, empty journeys comprise 25%-40% of all road haulage. This means that road transportation energy efficiency per goods delivered can potentially be increased by onethird by optimizing routing plans. In this project, it will be investigated how such an optimization can be carried through to illustrate the possible efficiency gain. The strength of logistic optimization opposed to energy technology innovations are the simple facts that there is no long process of refitting the fleet of vehicles and no resource consumption associated with realizing the reductions. Emissions can be cut immediately and costless. The problem instance considered is that of container transportation. Moving a container over long distances from one point to another can be done as a sequence of moves using some intermediate points. The first truck is picking up the container at its origin and moving it to the first intermediate point, where it is dropped off. Later, an empty second truck arrives to pick it up and drive it to the next drop off point. The last truck finally delivers the container at its destination. The optimal route for a network of trucks and containers, minimizing total distance travelled, will be sought using the tools of integer programming. The aim is thus to describe and solve the problem instance and consider the scalability of the chosen solution approach. If a solution approach for large scale problems of this type can be found, it will allow haulers, and hauler-alliances, to reduce their amount of empty journeys, benefiting their profit margin and the environment.

Kristina Ranc – s090956

Affiliates: 1

Henrik B. Nielsen

Jens E. Schmidt2 Anna Belinda Thomsen3

ABSTRACT As the advent of industrialization has led to the depletion of fossil fuels there is a constant search for renewable resources. Although renewable energy can be obtained in the form of solar and wind energy, it is essential to consider the utilization of biomass as it is the only renewable source of the carbon backbone typical of all high energy output fuels. The aim of the report is to use the different renewable resources, which are otherwise wastes, in a phase III biorefinery to produce biofuels. While the lignocellulosic components are utilized for bioethanol production, after being pre-treated, the bread wastes are directly utilized as they are carbohydrate rich. As a part of the pre-treatment, fat is separated and then used for the production of biodiesel in conjunction with oil from bleaching earth. The rest of the wastes received such as slaughterhouse waste, sludge and the effluent from the bioethanol reactor are pretreated and used for the production of biogas, which can later be potentially used for electricity and district heating. A brief consideration of the fate of glycerol from the biodiesel plant has been discussed. The purpose of the biorefinery is to obtain multiple products which can be used for energy production, in order attain sustainability while also being able to sell energy. The energy requirements of the plant are mainly obtained from the burning of saw dust, lignin and biomass. While, the difference in energy requirements can be bought as in conventional refineries.

36

37


Poster

Poster

Profitability of Low Energy District Heating for Areas with Low Energy Buildings

ReaxFF modelling of enzyme catalysis Peter B. Jensen

I.Nagla DTU BYG, Technical University of Denmark S071217@student.dtu.dk

In order to achieve sustainable economical growth in the future society the whole energy concept should be reviewed and optimized. Buildings account for about 40% of the total energy consumption, where heating and cooling are the key figures. An efficient energy supply systems together with energy conservation in the buildings is a promising concept to reach sustainability in the building sector. District heating (DH) is based on the idea of utilizing locally available heat sources, that otherwise would be lost, such as waste incineration plants and heat from the industrial processes. Low energy DH gives new opportunities of utilizing renewable energy (solar, geothermal), better exploitation of the energy sources and smaller heat losses. However, DH in relation to low energy buildings has several challenges. As heating requirement is predicted to be very low, the cost-effectiveness of DH systems is affected by high investment and operational costs, in comparison to the income from the delivered heat. The general topic of the thesis is to develop a proposal of methods to make DH systems competitive for areas with low energy buildings, from the economical and environmental point of view.

DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark & Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark pbjen@kemi.dtu.dk

Modelling of chemical systems is an important research area, which has many advantages compared to what people normally think chemistry is (that is synthesis). Computers can be used to model complicated chemical reactions a lot faster, than the time an ordinary experiment would take. This gives one the opportunity to study many different substitutions patterns and mutations, that is possible improvements, of molecules. This can be used as a guideline for selecting the reactions that should be checked in the laboratory – synthesis is still needed to prepare the molecules and furthermore the computational predictions could be inaccurate. In this project the so-called reactive force field, ReaxFF, which is capable describing chemical reactivity orders of magnitude faster than the current state-of-the-art methods, is developed. The methods normally used to describe chemical reactions rely on ordinary quantum mechanics (QM) and density functional theory (DFT), but with the current computational power they are too slow (Fig. 1). The method is tested on Subtilisin Savinase®, an enzyme capable of hydrolysing esters and peptides, which is utilised commercially as a component of washing powders. Its function is to remove dirt, in the form of protein, which could come from sauce for example. Subtilisin Savinase® is constantly being engineered to improve its performance. One thing that could be optimized is the enzyme's ability to function at lower temperatures. If successful, this could make it possible to wash at lower temperatures than today or even with cold water, which is both cost-saving and environmentally friendly. In general the ReaxFF method could be used to study every chemical reaction and improve them thereby lowering the amount of experiments needed. In addition to being time-saving, this also reduces the costs and is beneficial to the environment due to lower use of chemicals and reduced waste treatment.

Firstly, an idea generation workshop has been organized with people involved in the field from DTU, COWI A/S and Hillerød Kommune. The main areas, where analysis and improvements could be done, have been determined as followed – metering system, user behavior, energy demand in the buildings, number of connected consumers to the DH network, optimization of the DH network, energy regulations, economical considerations, energy supply and energy storage. Building energy simulations for different types of low energy buildings have been performed in IDA ICE using a model (developed at DTU) that is capable to take into account realistic human behavior. Results show that a so called “low energy” buildings are not using so little energy, however still can be supplied with low temperature. The output from the building energy simulations was used in DH network simulations, using TERMIS software. Various types of buildings, user profiles and network configurations were considered, investigating possibilities to achieve a cost-effective and environmentally friendly heating technology for a future sustainable society.

38

Fig. 1: ReaxFF will have an improved speed/accuracy ratio.

39


Poster

Poster

Profitability of Low Energy District Heating for Areas with Low Energy Buildings

ReaxFF modelling of enzyme catalysis Peter B. Jensen

I.Nagla DTU BYG, Technical University of Denmark S071217@student.dtu.dk

In order to achieve sustainable economical growth in the future society the whole energy concept should be reviewed and optimized. Buildings account for about 40% of the total energy consumption, where heating and cooling are the key figures. An efficient energy supply systems together with energy conservation in the buildings is a promising concept to reach sustainability in the building sector. District heating (DH) is based on the idea of utilizing locally available heat sources, that otherwise would be lost, such as waste incineration plants and heat from the industrial processes. Low energy DH gives new opportunities of utilizing renewable energy (solar, geothermal), better exploitation of the energy sources and smaller heat losses. However, DH in relation to low energy buildings has several challenges. As heating requirement is predicted to be very low, the cost-effectiveness of DH systems is affected by high investment and operational costs, in comparison to the income from the delivered heat. The general topic of the thesis is to develop a proposal of methods to make DH systems competitive for areas with low energy buildings, from the economical and environmental point of view.

DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark & Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark pbjen@kemi.dtu.dk

Modelling of chemical systems is an important research area, which has many advantages compared to what people normally think chemistry is (that is synthesis). Computers can be used to model complicated chemical reactions a lot faster, than the time an ordinary experiment would take. This gives one the opportunity to study many different substitutions patterns and mutations, that is possible improvements, of molecules. This can be used as a guideline for selecting the reactions that should be checked in the laboratory – synthesis is still needed to prepare the molecules and furthermore the computational predictions could be inaccurate. In this project the so-called reactive force field, ReaxFF, which is capable describing chemical reactivity orders of magnitude faster than the current state-of-the-art methods, is developed. The methods normally used to describe chemical reactions rely on ordinary quantum mechanics (QM) and density functional theory (DFT), but with the current computational power they are too slow (Fig. 1). The method is tested on Subtilisin Savinase®, an enzyme capable of hydrolysing esters and peptides, which is utilised commercially as a component of washing powders. Its function is to remove dirt, in the form of protein, which could come from sauce for example. Subtilisin Savinase® is constantly being engineered to improve its performance. One thing that could be optimized is the enzyme's ability to function at lower temperatures. If successful, this could make it possible to wash at lower temperatures than today or even with cold water, which is both cost-saving and environmentally friendly. In general the ReaxFF method could be used to study every chemical reaction and improve them thereby lowering the amount of experiments needed. In addition to being time-saving, this also reduces the costs and is beneficial to the environment due to lower use of chemicals and reduced waste treatment.

Firstly, an idea generation workshop has been organized with people involved in the field from DTU, COWI A/S and Hillerød Kommune. The main areas, where analysis and improvements could be done, have been determined as followed – metering system, user behavior, energy demand in the buildings, number of connected consumers to the DH network, optimization of the DH network, energy regulations, economical considerations, energy supply and energy storage. Building energy simulations for different types of low energy buildings have been performed in IDA ICE using a model (developed at DTU) that is capable to take into account realistic human behavior. Results show that a so called “low energy” buildings are not using so little energy, however still can be supplied with low temperature. The output from the building energy simulations was used in DH network simulations, using TERMIS software. Various types of buildings, user profiles and network configurations were considered, investigating possibilities to achieve a cost-effective and environmentally friendly heating technology for a future sustainable society.

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Fig. 1: ReaxFF will have an improved speed/accuracy ratio.

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Poster

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Poster

  

      

  

                                                                                                                                                                                               

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Project description: The project is based on the Vejlefjord bridge, which is a cantilever concrete bridge, connecting Mølholm on the southern side of Vejlefjord with Nørremarken in north. The bridge functions as a part of the highway running from north to south in Jutland, running east of Vejle. It spans 1712m, is 26.7m wide and has 110m between the pillars. The main purpose of this project is to compare the original bridge with a similar bridge constructed in superlight concrete. The comparison is divided into two parts. First we have estimated the bearing capacity for the old bridge. Then we constructed the super light bridge using the same load. The second part is a comparison related to the price, CO2 and weight between the original bridge and the new superlight bridge. Comparison: The overall comparison shows that the superlight concept in our case both has some advantages and concerns. Seen from an architectural point of view the super light bridge looks bigger and heavier. Some dimensions are nearly doubled. This is a concern. On the positive side we believe that the bridge looks more interesting when seen close up. On the other hand the price, the CO2 emission and the weight is very profitable. Comparison of the four types of bridges Original bridge (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) Super light bridge (span=220m) Super light bridge (span=340m)

The super light bridge is advantageous because of the significant lower price (27,7%), lower CO2 emission(18,7%) and the lower weight(39,3%), compared to the original bridge, the data for the bridges is listed below. The table below includes also data for two other super light bridges, with double span and pillars as arches. Here it is very clear to see how important the correct use of the arches is, because the bridge, with pillars made as arches, is approximately 50% lower in all the data compared. The bridge with double span do not profit by the arches because of the small height of the arch in proportion to the length. Foundation: The price of the foundation is a very significant influence, in the comparison between the bridge with single span and double span in relation to the price, because it is cheaper to build the bridge with double span, if the unit price for the foundation is over 7000 DKK/m3. The conclusion for the comparison between the bridges is that it is possible to build a greener and cheaper bridge when using super light concrete. The biggest advantage comes when optimizing the dimensions of the arches as makes it possible to build a bridge with only half the cost, half the CO2 emission and half the weight.

Figure 1 Table with the data for the four bridges, [WF]=without foundation

CO2 emission [ton] Price [mio.DDK] weight [ton] 17.878 90,5 103.040 14.542 65,4 62,592 20.430 95,31(WF) 100.392 27.843 138,18 (WF) 130.529 8.652 41,479 (WF) 41.479

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Poster

 

Poster

  

      

  

                                                                                                                                                                                               

40

Project description: The project is based on the Vejlefjord bridge, which is a cantilever concrete bridge, connecting Mølholm on the southern side of Vejlefjord with Nørremarken in north. The bridge functions as a part of the highway running from north to south in Jutland, running east of Vejle. It spans 1712m, is 26.7m wide and has 110m between the pillars. The main purpose of this project is to compare the original bridge with a similar bridge constructed in superlight concrete. The comparison is divided into two parts. First we have estimated the bearing capacity for the old bridge. Then we constructed the super light bridge using the same load. The second part is a comparison related to the price, CO2 and weight between the original bridge and the new superlight bridge. Comparison: The overall comparison shows that the superlight concept in our case both has some advantages and concerns. Seen from an architectural point of view the super light bridge looks bigger and heavier. Some dimensions are nearly doubled. This is a concern. On the positive side we believe that the bridge looks more interesting when seen close up. On the other hand the price, the CO2 emission and the weight is very profitable. Comparison of the four types of bridges Original bridge (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) Super light bridge (span=220m) Super light bridge (span=340m)

The super light bridge is advantageous because of the significant lower price (27,7%), lower CO2 emission(18,7%) and the lower weight(39,3%), compared to the original bridge, the data for the bridges is listed below. The table below includes also data for two other super light bridges, with double span and pillars as arches. Here it is very clear to see how important the correct use of the arches is, because the bridge, with pillars made as arches, is approximately 50% lower in all the data compared. The bridge with double span do not profit by the arches because of the small height of the arch in proportion to the length. Foundation: The price of the foundation is a very significant influence, in the comparison between the bridge with single span and double span in relation to the price, because it is cheaper to build the bridge with double span, if the unit price for the foundation is over 7000 DKK/m3. The conclusion for the comparison between the bridges is that it is possible to build a greener and cheaper bridge when using super light concrete. The biggest advantage comes when optimizing the dimensions of the arches as makes it possible to build a bridge with only half the cost, half the CO2 emission and half the weight.

Figure 1 Table with the data for the four bridges, [WF]=without foundation

CO2 emission [ton] Price [mio.DDK] weight [ton] 17.878 90,5 103.040 14.542 65,4 62,592 20.430 95,31(WF) 100.392 27.843 138,18 (WF) 130.529 8.652 41,479 (WF) 41.479

41


Poster

Poster Sustainable playground

Superconducting wind turbines 1

2

2

2

2

A. Barington , D. Bjørneboe , R. Borrasso , W.Z. El-khatib , K. Hansen , A.H. 2 2 2 2 Klingest , S. Högberg , S. Massin , B.N. Madsen

Anne Mette Vraa1 & Kirsten Vraa2

1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s060140@student.dtu.dk, 2 DTU Elektrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s022978@student.dtu.dk, s090697@student.dtu.dk, s094112@student.dtu.dk, s092347@student.dtu.dk, s072619@student.dtu.dk, s052427@student.dtu.dk, s090971@student.dtu.dk, bbj@elektro.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT Conversion of coal and oil based energy production to renewable and CO2 neutral energy will be a major political, technical and scientific challenge in the near future. In order to cover 20% of the European electric power consumption by 2030 by wind turbines, it is proposed to install 120 Giga Watt offshore wind power in northern Europe. In this project we shall investigate the feasibility of using type II high temperature superconductors in electric generators of future off shore wind turbines. High temperature superconductors can be used to generate a considerable higher magnetic field than in classical magnet designs. The power per mass of the generator increases, thereby reducing size and weight. The load on the wind turbine foundation, tower and nacelle is reduced and the total construction costs can be lowered. The purpose of the project is to assess the technical and economical feasibility of using superconducting generators for sea based wind turbines each producing 10-20 MW.

1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Annemettevraa@hotmail.com, 2 DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kirstenvraa@hotmail.com

The world’s energy resources (especially oil) are running out and this forces politicians to look for new resources. The need for finding sustainable energy calls for a general understanding of energy, not just among politicians but among all human beings. Our vision is to give people a better understanding of what energy is and what it takes to produce it. To accomplish this we have turned our attention toward children and youngsters. We wish to build a playground where the play equipment challenge and teach the children about energy. We want to give them an idea of what it takes to produce energy and through this, make them appreciate it, so that it might affect their daily use of energy. We imagine our playground to contain play equipment that uses known technologies like solar energy, wind energy, water energy but mostly energy produced by physical action. As an example we are constructing a roller (see the picture below) that converts the physical produced energy to lights, music and mains, where fx cell phone charging is possible.

Left figure: Vind turbine. Right figure: Small scale prototype superconducting generator from the Super Wind project (http://www.supervind.dk). The superconducting coated wires generating the magnetic field are shown in black colour in the rotor. This part is cooled by liquid nitrogen. The outer stator windings are made of normal conducting Cu wires.

Reference: Design study of 10 kW superconducting generator for wind turbine applications. A.B. Abrahamsen et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 19(3), 16781682, 2009.

Fig. 1: Roller

Teachers: Bogi Bech Jensen (DTU Electrical Engineering), Jørn Bindslev Hansen (DTU Physics), Asger Bech Abrahamsen (Risø DTU), Mads Peter Sørensen (DTU Mathematics).

42

43


Poster

Poster Sustainable playground

Superconducting wind turbines 1

2

2

2

2

A. Barington , D. Bjørneboe , R. Borrasso , W.Z. El-khatib , K. Hansen , A.H. 2 2 2 2 Klingest , S. Högberg , S. Massin , B.N. Madsen

Anne Mette Vraa1 & Kirsten Vraa2

1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s060140@student.dtu.dk, 2 DTU Elektrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s022978@student.dtu.dk, s090697@student.dtu.dk, s094112@student.dtu.dk, s092347@student.dtu.dk, s072619@student.dtu.dk, s052427@student.dtu.dk, s090971@student.dtu.dk, bbj@elektro.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT Conversion of coal and oil based energy production to renewable and CO2 neutral energy will be a major political, technical and scientific challenge in the near future. In order to cover 20% of the European electric power consumption by 2030 by wind turbines, it is proposed to install 120 Giga Watt offshore wind power in northern Europe. In this project we shall investigate the feasibility of using type II high temperature superconductors in electric generators of future off shore wind turbines. High temperature superconductors can be used to generate a considerable higher magnetic field than in classical magnet designs. The power per mass of the generator increases, thereby reducing size and weight. The load on the wind turbine foundation, tower and nacelle is reduced and the total construction costs can be lowered. The purpose of the project is to assess the technical and economical feasibility of using superconducting generators for sea based wind turbines each producing 10-20 MW.

1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Annemettevraa@hotmail.com, 2 DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kirstenvraa@hotmail.com

The world’s energy resources (especially oil) are running out and this forces politicians to look for new resources. The need for finding sustainable energy calls for a general understanding of energy, not just among politicians but among all human beings. Our vision is to give people a better understanding of what energy is and what it takes to produce it. To accomplish this we have turned our attention toward children and youngsters. We wish to build a playground where the play equipment challenge and teach the children about energy. We want to give them an idea of what it takes to produce energy and through this, make them appreciate it, so that it might affect their daily use of energy. We imagine our playground to contain play equipment that uses known technologies like solar energy, wind energy, water energy but mostly energy produced by physical action. As an example we are constructing a roller (see the picture below) that converts the physical produced energy to lights, music and mains, where fx cell phone charging is possible.

Left figure: Vind turbine. Right figure: Small scale prototype superconducting generator from the Super Wind project (http://www.supervind.dk). The superconducting coated wires generating the magnetic field are shown in black colour in the rotor. This part is cooled by liquid nitrogen. The outer stator windings are made of normal conducting Cu wires.

Reference: Design study of 10 kW superconducting generator for wind turbine applications. A.B. Abrahamsen et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 19(3), 16781682, 2009.

Fig. 1: Roller

Teachers: Bogi Bech Jensen (DTU Electrical Engineering), Jørn Bindslev Hansen (DTU Physics), Asger Bech Abrahamsen (Risø DTU), Mads Peter Sørensen (DTU Mathematics).

42

43


Poster

Poster

Unfired clay – the green construction material

Wind Sensing Doppler LIDAR,

E. D. Kristiansen and T. Gregersen

Improving Wind Turbines

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s053486@student.dtu.dk, s072580@student.dtu.dk

A. S. Olesen

UNFIRED CLAY – THE GREEN ALTERNATIVE

Unfired clay as construction material is an alternative to concrete or brickwork. The unfired clay is less annoyance for the environment, as it does not need a lot of energy to be processed before use. In Denmark unfired clay can be excavated from below the mould.

Pisé and clay recipe

1

1

DTU Photonics, Technical University of Denmark S081861@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

The wall for a house is constructed by the pisé method. A layer of the clay mixture into the mould and stamped a specified number of times using a fitting tool. Then another layer of the clay mixture is added and stamped again. The clay mixture contains clay, water, sand and gravel. In this project we are trying different mixes of the clay mixture. One clay–sand mixture, one clay-sand-gravel mixture and one clay-sand-crushed tiles mixture. The project will answer how the aggregates effects the strength and the moisture-buffering effects and moisture content.

In recent years, the focus on alternative energy has grown and with that the interest in optimizing of known alternative energy sources. It has been shown by Catch The Wind inc. that wind sensing Doppler LIDAR mounted on a wind turbine can be used to optimize the performance of wind turbines up to 10%. It has further more been shown, that wind sensing Doppler LIDAR mounted on the ground is a good alternative, to expensive mast mounted wind measurement, for analyzing potential wind park locations.

Compared to reinforced concrete unfired clay is a much greener material. The production of concrete demands cement which is burned at 1450 degree as well as machines to mix the cement with gravel, water and sand. Furthermore, vehicles are needed to transport the concrete from the concrete production site to the building site. Concrete constructions need more reinforcement than clay constructions. The clay constructions only need reinforcement to strengthen the door- and window holes. On the building site, less machines and less material to build with unfired clay are needed. So the conclusion is that buildings made of unfired clay are greener and also economical affordable compared to concrete buildings.

This project investigates a novel technique of Doppler LIDAR and its pros and cons. In specific the choice of wavelength, the use of fiber laser, and pulsed signal versus continues signal will be investigated. In addition to this, other uses of the LIDAR will be investigated. This could be temperature measurements, ash detection, or detection of atmospheric composition such as CO2 concentrations.

Environmental benefits

THE PROJECT

Figure 1 Horns Rev wind farm, wake effects

44

45


Poster

Poster

Unfired clay – the green construction material

Wind Sensing Doppler LIDAR,

E. D. Kristiansen and T. Gregersen

Improving Wind Turbines

DTU Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s053486@student.dtu.dk, s072580@student.dtu.dk

A. S. Olesen

UNFIRED CLAY – THE GREEN ALTERNATIVE

Unfired clay as construction material is an alternative to concrete or brickwork. The unfired clay is less annoyance for the environment, as it does not need a lot of energy to be processed before use. In Denmark unfired clay can be excavated from below the mould.

Pisé and clay recipe

1

1

DTU Photonics, Technical University of Denmark S081861@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

The wall for a house is constructed by the pisé method. A layer of the clay mixture into the mould and stamped a specified number of times using a fitting tool. Then another layer of the clay mixture is added and stamped again. The clay mixture contains clay, water, sand and gravel. In this project we are trying different mixes of the clay mixture. One clay–sand mixture, one clay-sand-gravel mixture and one clay-sand-crushed tiles mixture. The project will answer how the aggregates effects the strength and the moisture-buffering effects and moisture content.

In recent years, the focus on alternative energy has grown and with that the interest in optimizing of known alternative energy sources. It has been shown by Catch The Wind inc. that wind sensing Doppler LIDAR mounted on a wind turbine can be used to optimize the performance of wind turbines up to 10%. It has further more been shown, that wind sensing Doppler LIDAR mounted on the ground is a good alternative, to expensive mast mounted wind measurement, for analyzing potential wind park locations.

Compared to reinforced concrete unfired clay is a much greener material. The production of concrete demands cement which is burned at 1450 degree as well as machines to mix the cement with gravel, water and sand. Furthermore, vehicles are needed to transport the concrete from the concrete production site to the building site. Concrete constructions need more reinforcement than clay constructions. The clay constructions only need reinforcement to strengthen the door- and window holes. On the building site, less machines and less material to build with unfired clay are needed. So the conclusion is that buildings made of unfired clay are greener and also economical affordable compared to concrete buildings.

This project investigates a novel technique of Doppler LIDAR and its pros and cons. In specific the choice of wavelength, the use of fiber laser, and pulsed signal versus continues signal will be investigated. In addition to this, other uses of the LIDAR will be investigated. This could be temperature measurements, ash detection, or detection of atmospheric composition such as CO2 concentrations.

Environmental benefits

THE PROJECT

Figure 1 Horns Rev wind farm, wake effects

44

45


Poster

Poster Energy Harvesting: Computing without Batteries?

Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles The solution for contaminated sites or another threat for health and environment induced by human activity

1

1

2

Johan Pedersen , Jan Madsen and Thomas Sørensen 1

2

R. Holub, M. L. Kirstein DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s100241@student.dtu.dk, s071543@student.dtu.dk

Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are one of the newest environmental remediation technologies used especially in case of in situ applications. First of all due to their small size (10 -100 nm) and thus their large surface area nZVI particles are more efficient compared to other technologies for groundwater cleanup. This small size makes it possible that the particles are spread easily in soil by the flow of groundwater, what can lead into reduction of cleanup time. The above mentioned abilities make nZVI a cost efficient treatment tool. The option for further modifications in the future could lead to even lower operation expenses. nZVI can be used to treat several compounds e.g. nitrite, chlorinated methanes, brominated methanes, trihalomethanes, chlorinated ethenes, chlorinates benzenes, other polychlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and dyes. The core of this project is to describe the benefits of this green nanotechnology and analyze the possible unforeseen side effects of using nZVI.

DTU IMM, Technical University of Denmark s052402@student.dtu.dk, jan@imm.dtu.dk DELTA Danish Electronics, Lights and Acoustics, Hørsholm – Denmark ths@delta.dk

Introduction

Wireless sensor networks, where a large number of small sensing and computing devices are deployed in the environment, enables remote sensing and monitoring of climate and environmental conditions within a potential large area which can be in the outdoor environment as well as indoor in buildings. When applied in buildings, a more efficient monitoring of temperature, airflow, lighting, humidity, etc. will not only allow a better indoor climate, but also reduce the amount of energy usages and, hence CO2.

Although the sensing and computing devices are small, they need energy to run! Until recently, energy has been provided by batteries. However, it is possible to harvest energy from the environment, effectively obtaining a free and clean energy source. In this project, we will explore the potential of harvesting energy from temperature differences between an object and its surrounding air. The energy lies in the heat flow between objects and the air, when the air temperature changes. An example of an object could be a road sign, with a large metal mass. When the surrounding air temperature changes due to the weather, objects situated in this air will change temperature correspondingly, but with a small time delay. Due to this time delay there will be moments where a temperature difference between the air and the object arises. This temperature difference can be utilized to harvest electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The TEG creates electrical power when it is placed between a warm and a cold temperature. There will be a heatflow from the warm to the cold side and this heat flow makes electrons move within the TEG, creating an electrical voltage that can be harvested.

Project

In this project a thermal energy harvesting model based on a TEG has been developed in Matlab. It simulates how much energy can be harvested from a certain object in a certain temperature environment. The model can be used to decide whether an object and corresponding temperature environment is suited for thermal energy harvesting and how much energy can be achieved. The model is tested and verified in a free field climate chamber provided by Delta. Object Temperatures − Verification of Energy Harvesting model Climate Chamber Alu plate − Model Alu plate − Real Steel rod − Model Steel rod − Real Alu triangle − Model Alu triangle − Real

Temperature [celcius]

20

15

10

8

x 10

Harvested Energy − Model Harvested Energy − Measured

6 5 4

Measured − Total Harvested Energy: 2.85 Joules

3

1

Figure 1 Test setup in free field chamber: 3 objects with TEGs attached. Thin aluminium plate, aluminium triangle and a steel rod.

Energy Output from TEG on Steel Rod

2

5

0 0

−4

7

Power [W]

25

50

100 Time [minutes]

150

200

Figure 2 Measured and simulated test object body temperatures. The black line is the surrounding temperature change.

0 0

Model − Total Harvested Energy: 2.67 Joules

50

100 Time [minutes]

150

200

Figure 3 Energy harvested from the steel rod in the free field chamber, measured and simulated.

Due to a surrounding temperature change, the model simulates the object body temperature change (figure 2). This is then used to calculate the temperature difference between air and object. The thermal energy to be harvested is directly proportional to the temperature difference, thus making it possible to simulate how much energy can be achieved from a TEG attached to the object when the surrounding air temperature changes (figure 3). A wireless sensor node consumes around 0.1W when operating, and it needs max 1s to measure temperature etc. and process and transmit the data wirelessly. This means that a sensor node using 0.1J/operation could be run more than 24 times from the energy harvested in this test. This energy could be spread over a whole day, making it possible to run the sensor once every hour. The amount of energy available depends on the object size and material, and the changing temperature environment. If more energy/operations are needed a larger object could be used to increase the temperature delay, and thus increasing the thermal energy harvesting. The model predicts that thermal energy harvesting can replace batteries as energy supply for wireless sensor nodes, making it possible to place selfpowered sensor nodes even in positions where other energy harvesting sources as solar or vibrational energy are not present. This opens up many new measurement data not available before.

46

47


Poster

Poster Energy Harvesting: Computing without Batteries?

Zero Valent Iron Nanoparticles The solution for contaminated sites or another threat for health and environment induced by human activity

1

1

2

Johan Pedersen , Jan Madsen and Thomas Sørensen 1

2

R. Holub, M. L. Kirstein DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s100241@student.dtu.dk, s071543@student.dtu.dk

Zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) are one of the newest environmental remediation technologies used especially in case of in situ applications. First of all due to their small size (10 -100 nm) and thus their large surface area nZVI particles are more efficient compared to other technologies for groundwater cleanup. This small size makes it possible that the particles are spread easily in soil by the flow of groundwater, what can lead into reduction of cleanup time. The above mentioned abilities make nZVI a cost efficient treatment tool. The option for further modifications in the future could lead to even lower operation expenses. nZVI can be used to treat several compounds e.g. nitrite, chlorinated methanes, brominated methanes, trihalomethanes, chlorinated ethenes, chlorinates benzenes, other polychlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides and dyes. The core of this project is to describe the benefits of this green nanotechnology and analyze the possible unforeseen side effects of using nZVI.

DTU IMM, Technical University of Denmark s052402@student.dtu.dk, jan@imm.dtu.dk DELTA Danish Electronics, Lights and Acoustics, Hørsholm – Denmark ths@delta.dk

Introduction

Wireless sensor networks, where a large number of small sensing and computing devices are deployed in the environment, enables remote sensing and monitoring of climate and environmental conditions within a potential large area which can be in the outdoor environment as well as indoor in buildings. When applied in buildings, a more efficient monitoring of temperature, airflow, lighting, humidity, etc. will not only allow a better indoor climate, but also reduce the amount of energy usages and, hence CO2.

Although the sensing and computing devices are small, they need energy to run! Until recently, energy has been provided by batteries. However, it is possible to harvest energy from the environment, effectively obtaining a free and clean energy source. In this project, we will explore the potential of harvesting energy from temperature differences between an object and its surrounding air. The energy lies in the heat flow between objects and the air, when the air temperature changes. An example of an object could be a road sign, with a large metal mass. When the surrounding air temperature changes due to the weather, objects situated in this air will change temperature correspondingly, but with a small time delay. Due to this time delay there will be moments where a temperature difference between the air and the object arises. This temperature difference can be utilized to harvest electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The TEG creates electrical power when it is placed between a warm and a cold temperature. There will be a heatflow from the warm to the cold side and this heat flow makes electrons move within the TEG, creating an electrical voltage that can be harvested.

Project

In this project a thermal energy harvesting model based on a TEG has been developed in Matlab. It simulates how much energy can be harvested from a certain object in a certain temperature environment. The model can be used to decide whether an object and corresponding temperature environment is suited for thermal energy harvesting and how much energy can be achieved. The model is tested and verified in a free field climate chamber provided by Delta. Object Temperatures − Verification of Energy Harvesting model Climate Chamber Alu plate − Model Alu plate − Real Steel rod − Model Steel rod − Real Alu triangle − Model Alu triangle − Real

Temperature [celcius]

20

15

10

8

x 10

Harvested Energy − Model Harvested Energy − Measured

6 5 4

Measured − Total Harvested Energy: 2.85 Joules

3

1

Figure 1 Test setup in free field chamber: 3 objects with TEGs attached. Thin aluminium plate, aluminium triangle and a steel rod.

Energy Output from TEG on Steel Rod

2

5

0 0

−4

7

Power [W]

25

50

100 Time [minutes]

150

200

Figure 2 Measured and simulated test object body temperatures. The black line is the surrounding temperature change.

0 0

Model − Total Harvested Energy: 2.67 Joules

50

100 Time [minutes]

150

200

Figure 3 Energy harvested from the steel rod in the free field chamber, measured and simulated.

Due to a surrounding temperature change, the model simulates the object body temperature change (figure 2). This is then used to calculate the temperature difference between air and object. The thermal energy to be harvested is directly proportional to the temperature difference, thus making it possible to simulate how much energy can be achieved from a TEG attached to the object when the surrounding air temperature changes (figure 3). A wireless sensor node consumes around 0.1W when operating, and it needs max 1s to measure temperature etc. and process and transmit the data wirelessly. This means that a sensor node using 0.1J/operation could be run more than 24 times from the energy harvested in this test. This energy could be spread over a whole day, making it possible to run the sensor once every hour. The amount of energy available depends on the object size and material, and the changing temperature environment. If more energy/operations are needed a larger object could be used to increase the temperature delay, and thus increasing the thermal energy harvesting. The model predicts that thermal energy harvesting can replace batteries as energy supply for wireless sensor nodes, making it possible to place selfpowered sensor nodes even in positions where other energy harvesting sources as solar or vibrational energy are not present. This opens up many new measurement data not available before.

46

47


Poster

Poster

GRØN DYST Super light structures

Pilot plant studies of post combustion capture of CO2 by using alkanolamine

M.S. Møller and B.A. Pedersen

T. L. Sønderby, and K. B. Carlsen

DTU Civil engineering, Technical University of Denmark S050782@student.dtu.dk, s052699@student.dtu.dk

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s072206@student.dtu.dk, s072202@student.dtu.dk,

ABSTRACT

The project is based on the Vejlefjord bridge, which is a cantilever concrete bridge, connecting Mølholm on the southern side of Vejlefjord with Nørremarken in north. The bridge functions as a part of the highway running from north to south in Jutland, running east of Vejle. It spans 1712m, is 26.7m wide and has 110m between the pillars. The main purpose of this project is to compare the original bridge with a similar bridge constructed in superlight concrete. The comparison is divided into two parts. First we have estimated the bearing capacity for the old bridge. Then we constructed the super light bridge using the same load. The second part is a comparison related to the price, CO2 and weight between the original bridge and the new superlight bridge.

Comparison

The overall comparison shows that the superlight concept in our case both has some advantages and concerns. Seen from an architectural point of view the super light bridge looks bigger and heavier. Some dimensions are nearly doubled. This is a concern. On the positive side we believe that the bridge looks more interesting when seen close up. On the other hand the price, the CO2 emission and the weight is very profitable. The super light bridge is advantageous because of the significant lower price (27,7%), lower CO2 emission(18,7%) and the lower weight(39,3%), compared to the original bridge. Table 1 includes also data for two other super light bridges, with double span and pillars as arches. Here it is very clear to see how important the correct use of the arches is, because the bridge, with pillars made as arches, is approximately 50% lower in all the data compared. The bridge with double span do not profit by the arches because of the small height of the arch in proportion to the length. The price of the foundation is a very significant influence, in the comparison between the bridge with single span and double span in relation to the price, because it is cheaper to 3 build the bridge with double span, if the unit price for the foundation is above 7000 DKK/m .

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

As great part of the world are going to use coal as their primary source of energy for decades, there is an increasing demand for finding solutions that can neutralize the emission from the power plants. One of the most promising methods is reversible absorption/desorption of CO2 by aqueous amine solutions, this should work as a sort of filter on the power plant. One of the advantages of the technology is that it can be retrofitted on already existing power plants. In this work comprehensive studies have been made on how the technology can be optimized based on pilot plant experiments and computer simulations with respect to costs of construction and operating expenses. The experiments are carried out on a 10meter high absorption column, with a diameter of 100mm, with structured Mellapak 250X as tower packing and a flue gas of 510 l/min with a concentration of 10% CO2. The absorption liquid used is a 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA). To make the necessary study the absorption height has been changed to see how it effect the absorption efficiency as this parameter is highly related to costs of construction. The technology has also been tested at numerous liquid flow rates to study the performance of the plant with respect to operation expenses. As there is some regeneration optimization as well, the lean load is another parameter that has been changed.

RESULTS

The experiments showed that with 6m absorption height and a liquid flow of just 2.1 l/min, 90% of the CO2 will be absorbed. 100% absorption can be archived by increasing the liquid flow to 4 l/min and an absorption height of 10m. The results show that by increasing the lean loading from 0.1 to 0.3 mole CO2/mole MEA the absorption efficiency decreases with 9%. It has furthermore been able to simulate the results with acceptable accuracy for more cost efficient optimization in the future.

The conclusion for the comparison between the bridges is that it is possible to build a greener and cheaper bridge when using super light concrete. The biggest advantage comes when optimizing the dimensions of the arches as makes it possible to build a bridge with only half the cost, half the CO2 emission and half the weight. Comparison of the different types of bridges Original bridge (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) Super light bridge (span=220m) Super light bridge (span=340m)

CO2 emission [ton] 17878 14542 20430 27843 8652

Price [mio.DDK] 90,5 65,4 95,31(WF) 138,18 (WF) 41,479 (WF)

weight [ton] 103040 62,592 100392 130529 41479

Table 1 The data for the four bridges, [WF]=without foundation

48

49


Poster

Poster

GRØN DYST Super light structures

Pilot plant studies of post combustion capture of CO2 by using alkanolamine

M.S. Møller and B.A. Pedersen

T. L. Sønderby, and K. B. Carlsen

DTU Civil engineering, Technical University of Denmark S050782@student.dtu.dk, s052699@student.dtu.dk

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s072206@student.dtu.dk, s072202@student.dtu.dk,

ABSTRACT

The project is based on the Vejlefjord bridge, which is a cantilever concrete bridge, connecting Mølholm on the southern side of Vejlefjord with Nørremarken in north. The bridge functions as a part of the highway running from north to south in Jutland, running east of Vejle. It spans 1712m, is 26.7m wide and has 110m between the pillars. The main purpose of this project is to compare the original bridge with a similar bridge constructed in superlight concrete. The comparison is divided into two parts. First we have estimated the bearing capacity for the old bridge. Then we constructed the super light bridge using the same load. The second part is a comparison related to the price, CO2 and weight between the original bridge and the new superlight bridge.

Comparison

The overall comparison shows that the superlight concept in our case both has some advantages and concerns. Seen from an architectural point of view the super light bridge looks bigger and heavier. Some dimensions are nearly doubled. This is a concern. On the positive side we believe that the bridge looks more interesting when seen close up. On the other hand the price, the CO2 emission and the weight is very profitable. The super light bridge is advantageous because of the significant lower price (27,7%), lower CO2 emission(18,7%) and the lower weight(39,3%), compared to the original bridge. Table 1 includes also data for two other super light bridges, with double span and pillars as arches. Here it is very clear to see how important the correct use of the arches is, because the bridge, with pillars made as arches, is approximately 50% lower in all the data compared. The bridge with double span do not profit by the arches because of the small height of the arch in proportion to the length. The price of the foundation is a very significant influence, in the comparison between the bridge with single span and double span in relation to the price, because it is cheaper to 3 build the bridge with double span, if the unit price for the foundation is above 7000 DKK/m .

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

As great part of the world are going to use coal as their primary source of energy for decades, there is an increasing demand for finding solutions that can neutralize the emission from the power plants. One of the most promising methods is reversible absorption/desorption of CO2 by aqueous amine solutions, this should work as a sort of filter on the power plant. One of the advantages of the technology is that it can be retrofitted on already existing power plants. In this work comprehensive studies have been made on how the technology can be optimized based on pilot plant experiments and computer simulations with respect to costs of construction and operating expenses. The experiments are carried out on a 10meter high absorption column, with a diameter of 100mm, with structured Mellapak 250X as tower packing and a flue gas of 510 l/min with a concentration of 10% CO2. The absorption liquid used is a 30wt% monoethanolamine (MEA). To make the necessary study the absorption height has been changed to see how it effect the absorption efficiency as this parameter is highly related to costs of construction. The technology has also been tested at numerous liquid flow rates to study the performance of the plant with respect to operation expenses. As there is some regeneration optimization as well, the lean load is another parameter that has been changed.

RESULTS

The experiments showed that with 6m absorption height and a liquid flow of just 2.1 l/min, 90% of the CO2 will be absorbed. 100% absorption can be archived by increasing the liquid flow to 4 l/min and an absorption height of 10m. The results show that by increasing the lean loading from 0.1 to 0.3 mole CO2/mole MEA the absorption efficiency decreases with 9%. It has furthermore been able to simulate the results with acceptable accuracy for more cost efficient optimization in the future.

The conclusion for the comparison between the bridges is that it is possible to build a greener and cheaper bridge when using super light concrete. The biggest advantage comes when optimizing the dimensions of the arches as makes it possible to build a bridge with only half the cost, half the CO2 emission and half the weight. Comparison of the different types of bridges Original bridge (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) (without pillars) Super light bridge (span=110m) Super light bridge (span=220m) Super light bridge (span=340m)

CO2 emission [ton] 17878 14542 20430 27843 8652

Price [mio.DDK] 90,5 65,4 95,31(WF) 138,18 (WF) 41,479 (WF)

weight [ton] 103040 62,592 100392 130529 41479

Table 1 The data for the four bridges, [WF]=without foundation

48

49


Poster

Poster

Development of a sustainable fermentation platform Stud M.Sc.Eng. Martin Malthe Borch DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark MMBorch@gmail.com - +4561713656 th Abstract for “Grøn dyst” DTU 25 of june 2010

Abstract A sustainable fermentation platform is presented that recycles nutrients from the agriculture. A case evaluation has been done by phototrophic growth of the fresh water micro algae Chlorella saccharophila on wet oxidized (WO) anaerobic digested manure. Further the effects of the WO treatment on the manure composition have been investigated. These results together with earlier bioethanol fermentations of WO straw, where manure is used as 1 process water and nitrogen source , demonstrates a large unexploded potential in nutrient recycling and lowering of cost of both phototrophic and heterotrophic industrial fermentations.

BACKGROUND Scientist in general agrees that we currently are registering a global warming, and that we will reach peak oil production within the next years, if not already reached. If the current living standards should be hold, new sustainable technologies need to be developed. A change from petrochemical production methods to biobased production, is seen as a mean to decrease the environmental pressure. To achieve this, sustainable biorefinery concepts and industrial fermentations needs to be developed. The Danish agriculture currently consumes energy in form of diesel and electricity. Further 42 % of the protein rich fodder used in 2008 was imported, in total 3,89 million fodder units. Also, the Danish agriculture imports fertilizers both nitrogen, phosphor and potassium fertilizers 189, 13 and 56 KTons respectively. Resources are needed in form of energy, protein fodder and nutrients, at the same time as there is a large production of 2 waste from livestock production . Thus there is room in the Danish agriculture for improved self-sufficiency regarding many potential biomass derived products. Anaerobic digestion is a well studied technology currently applied by the Danish agriculture to produce biogas, but there is currently only a production of 4PJ of an estimated biogas potential in Denmark of 40PJ. Due to this, the Danish government in the energy agreement from February 2008, raised the subsidy for biogas production. It is expected that many new biogas plants will be constructed the next years. Besides the nutrients from the manure the biogas plants will produce an excess of heat and CO2. Today many commercial fermentation processes is supplemented with complex medium components as yeast extract, tryptone mixtures or vitamins. By proper treatment of agricultural residues these nutrients could be easily available, thus, there are currently many prerequisites present for investigating biorefinery concepts designed for the Danish agriculture and industrial production.

1 “Fermentation media comprising wastewater and use hereof” Patent, Anne Belinda Thomsen, senior scientist ph.d 2 ”Dansk landbrug I tal 2008” at www.LF.dk.

50

RESULTS In the present study the growth characteristics of the micro algae Chlorella saccharophila was investigated when cultivated with different concentrations of WO anaerobic digested manure, treated at different temperatures. This was done to investigate the above described potentials and demonstrate proof of concept. It was found that: − The WO treatment successfully removed the malodor from the manure. − The WO treatment could degrade phenols completely from the medium, resulting in a clear medium suitable for phototrophic growth. − The WO manure could completely replace defined growth medium, and equivalent growth or better was seen with WO manure concentrations from 0,5 to 7%. − At concentrations of 15% equivalent or better growth rates was seen heterotrophic, but phototrophic growth was inhibited. − At a concentration of 25% WO manure, inhibition of heterotrophic growth was seen and completely inhibition under phototrophic growth.

Opportunities and Perspectives Different biorefinery concepts for production of biofuel, chemical building blocks or value added products have been suggested as sustainable replacement for fossil fuel derived st nd rd compounds. Regardless whether the biorefinery process is 1 2 or 3 generation the process should be designed with the local need for products and available resources in mind. Both the environment and the economy of industrial fermentation would benefit from an increased understanding of sustainable medium preparation by using different pretreatment methods and their ability to maintain and recycle nutrients from residues. Especially phosphorous have been pointed out as a resource that will be limited in the future. Here one process has been shown as a viable production of a sustainable phototrophic medium. The idea demonstrated here could further be transferred to the following processes: − Macroalgae growth in connection with livestock production for feed, increased biogas production or as soil conditioner. − 2nd generation bioethanol fermentations could be made more price competitive, if growth could be increased and no addition of nutrients would be needed. − When engineering E. coli to grow on glycerol the addition of tryptone or yeast 3 extract is needed to sustain growth, if not grown under microaerobic conditions. The project was defined by the student and a “part time” 5 point special course. The WO pretreatment and analysis have been conducted during fall 2009 at RISØ-Bio with Senior Researcher Anne Belinda Thomsen (abbj@risoe.dtu.dk) as supervisor. The algae growth experiments have been conducted at Aalborg University (AAU) Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, mainly during January 2010 with Associate Professor Niels T. Eriksen as supervisor (nte@bio.aau.dk). I express my gratitude to all the technicians and other that have helped me in the laboratory and by discussing the project.

3

Durnin, Guyton et. Al. ”Understanding and Harnessing the Microaerobic Metabolism of Glycerol in Escerichia coli” 2008.

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Poster

Poster

Development of a sustainable fermentation platform Stud M.Sc.Eng. Martin Malthe Borch DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark MMBorch@gmail.com - +4561713656 th Abstract for “Grøn dyst” DTU 25 of june 2010

Abstract A sustainable fermentation platform is presented that recycles nutrients from the agriculture. A case evaluation has been done by phototrophic growth of the fresh water micro algae Chlorella saccharophila on wet oxidized (WO) anaerobic digested manure. Further the effects of the WO treatment on the manure composition have been investigated. These results together with earlier bioethanol fermentations of WO straw, where manure is used as 1 process water and nitrogen source , demonstrates a large unexploded potential in nutrient recycling and lowering of cost of both phototrophic and heterotrophic industrial fermentations.

BACKGROUND Scientist in general agrees that we currently are registering a global warming, and that we will reach peak oil production within the next years, if not already reached. If the current living standards should be hold, new sustainable technologies need to be developed. A change from petrochemical production methods to biobased production, is seen as a mean to decrease the environmental pressure. To achieve this, sustainable biorefinery concepts and industrial fermentations needs to be developed. The Danish agriculture currently consumes energy in form of diesel and electricity. Further 42 % of the protein rich fodder used in 2008 was imported, in total 3,89 million fodder units. Also, the Danish agriculture imports fertilizers both nitrogen, phosphor and potassium fertilizers 189, 13 and 56 KTons respectively. Resources are needed in form of energy, protein fodder and nutrients, at the same time as there is a large production of 2 waste from livestock production . Thus there is room in the Danish agriculture for improved self-sufficiency regarding many potential biomass derived products. Anaerobic digestion is a well studied technology currently applied by the Danish agriculture to produce biogas, but there is currently only a production of 4PJ of an estimated biogas potential in Denmark of 40PJ. Due to this, the Danish government in the energy agreement from February 2008, raised the subsidy for biogas production. It is expected that many new biogas plants will be constructed the next years. Besides the nutrients from the manure the biogas plants will produce an excess of heat and CO2. Today many commercial fermentation processes is supplemented with complex medium components as yeast extract, tryptone mixtures or vitamins. By proper treatment of agricultural residues these nutrients could be easily available, thus, there are currently many prerequisites present for investigating biorefinery concepts designed for the Danish agriculture and industrial production.

1 “Fermentation media comprising wastewater and use hereof” Patent, Anne Belinda Thomsen, senior scientist ph.d 2 ”Dansk landbrug I tal 2008” at www.LF.dk.

50

RESULTS In the present study the growth characteristics of the micro algae Chlorella saccharophila was investigated when cultivated with different concentrations of WO anaerobic digested manure, treated at different temperatures. This was done to investigate the above described potentials and demonstrate proof of concept. It was found that: − The WO treatment successfully removed the malodor from the manure. − The WO treatment could degrade phenols completely from the medium, resulting in a clear medium suitable for phototrophic growth. − The WO manure could completely replace defined growth medium, and equivalent growth or better was seen with WO manure concentrations from 0,5 to 7%. − At concentrations of 15% equivalent or better growth rates was seen heterotrophic, but phototrophic growth was inhibited. − At a concentration of 25% WO manure, inhibition of heterotrophic growth was seen and completely inhibition under phototrophic growth.

Opportunities and Perspectives Different biorefinery concepts for production of biofuel, chemical building blocks or value added products have been suggested as sustainable replacement for fossil fuel derived st nd rd compounds. Regardless whether the biorefinery process is 1 2 or 3 generation the process should be designed with the local need for products and available resources in mind. Both the environment and the economy of industrial fermentation would benefit from an increased understanding of sustainable medium preparation by using different pretreatment methods and their ability to maintain and recycle nutrients from residues. Especially phosphorous have been pointed out as a resource that will be limited in the future. Here one process has been shown as a viable production of a sustainable phototrophic medium. The idea demonstrated here could further be transferred to the following processes: − Macroalgae growth in connection with livestock production for feed, increased biogas production or as soil conditioner. − 2nd generation bioethanol fermentations could be made more price competitive, if growth could be increased and no addition of nutrients would be needed. − When engineering E. coli to grow on glycerol the addition of tryptone or yeast 3 extract is needed to sustain growth, if not grown under microaerobic conditions. The project was defined by the student and a “part time” 5 point special course. The WO pretreatment and analysis have been conducted during fall 2009 at RISØ-Bio with Senior Researcher Anne Belinda Thomsen (abbj@risoe.dtu.dk) as supervisor. The algae growth experiments have been conducted at Aalborg University (AAU) Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, mainly during January 2010 with Associate Professor Niels T. Eriksen as supervisor (nte@bio.aau.dk). I express my gratitude to all the technicians and other that have helped me in the laboratory and by discussing the project.

3

Durnin, Guyton et. Al. ”Understanding and Harnessing the Microaerobic Metabolism of Glycerol in Escerichia coli” 2008.

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A VIRTUAL GREENTECH LABORATORY Mads Tvillinggaard Bonde DTU Systems Biology, Biotech Academy, Technical University of Denmark mab@bio.dtu.dk It is crucial for the development of tomorrows green technologies, to ensure a sufficient engineering work force in the future. However, application for engineering educations is low. Here I present an innovative virtual greentech laboratory that aims to educate and inspire young people to study greentech engineering. Furthermore, the project aims to directly reduce the use of chemicals and lab-equipment through replacement of some experiments with in silico simulations. In the virtual laboratory genetic engineering can be applied to develop novel enzymes for green biofuel production and washing at lower temperatures, to produce engineered bacteria that can detect and degrade heavy metals, to produce medicine and more. The procedures that can be applied are technically correct, and it is possible to use techniques such as 1) gene design and synthesis, 2) genetic engineering of bacteria and yeast, 3) fermentation of genetically engineered cells to produce e.g. enzymes and 4) testing of the produced protein and calculations of the resulting impact on the environment. The virtual laboratory is designed to give users an experience of being in a real lab through stylish 3D animations and interaction, and is expected to be extremely efficient for both e-learning and inspiration of young people, as well as in silico simulation of biotech experiments. It is recognized that “wet-lab” experiments cannot be totally replaced with in silico simulations. However, if the principle is applied wherever feasible, and especially where toxic or environmentally harmful chemicals are used, it can have a significant positive impact on the environment. The virtual laboratory are developed in Adobe Flash, to ensure that it can be used directly in any Internet browser without the need for installation, and will be made available free of charge online at www.biotechacademy.dk.

3D Nanoscale imaging with FIB-SEM Mikkel Jensen Supervisor: Kristian Mølhave, Rafal Wierzbicki DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark S051874@student.dtu.dk

Background 3D nanoscale imaging is essential for understanding numerous processes of high importance for society today. In this project I work on developing ways to use a focused ion beam as a cutting tool together with a scanning electron microscope to image the freshly cut surface, so a 3D model of the sample can be made by cutting and imaging slice by slice through the sample. The method can be used in several projects with Grøn Dyst angles and I here report on my work on imaging malaria infected blood cells which is essential for a deeper understanding of how the parasite might be targeted by medicine, and algae samples that are essential for ecotoxicologial studies and later will be used for algae species used in biomass and biofuel production

Methods The samples are prepared by fixing the the cells with a glutaraldehyde solution to immobilize the proteins. Then an osmium tetroxide solution is used to both stabilize the lipid membranes and stain the lipids, as the heavy osmium will scatter electrons more efficiently than the surrounding tissue. A uranyl acetate solution and other additional chemicals can also be used to enhance the staining process. Finally the sample is dehydrated in a series of ethanol solutions and at the end embedded in an epoxy and cured at elevated temperature. This process converts the hydrated cellular sample into a dehydrated plastic bock with heavy metals stains; that can be cut by the focused ion beam and images by the scanning electron microscope

Results & Conclusion We find that the FIB-SEM method is capable of providing high resolution approaching 10 nm in three dimensions, and very detailed 3D models can be made of the samples.

Screenshot of the Virtual Greentech Laboratory.

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A VIRTUAL GREENTECH LABORATORY Mads Tvillinggaard Bonde DTU Systems Biology, Biotech Academy, Technical University of Denmark mab@bio.dtu.dk It is crucial for the development of tomorrows green technologies, to ensure a sufficient engineering work force in the future. However, application for engineering educations is low. Here I present an innovative virtual greentech laboratory that aims to educate and inspire young people to study greentech engineering. Furthermore, the project aims to directly reduce the use of chemicals and lab-equipment through replacement of some experiments with in silico simulations. In the virtual laboratory genetic engineering can be applied to develop novel enzymes for green biofuel production and washing at lower temperatures, to produce engineered bacteria that can detect and degrade heavy metals, to produce medicine and more. The procedures that can be applied are technically correct, and it is possible to use techniques such as 1) gene design and synthesis, 2) genetic engineering of bacteria and yeast, 3) fermentation of genetically engineered cells to produce e.g. enzymes and 4) testing of the produced protein and calculations of the resulting impact on the environment. The virtual laboratory is designed to give users an experience of being in a real lab through stylish 3D animations and interaction, and is expected to be extremely efficient for both e-learning and inspiration of young people, as well as in silico simulation of biotech experiments. It is recognized that “wet-lab” experiments cannot be totally replaced with in silico simulations. However, if the principle is applied wherever feasible, and especially where toxic or environmentally harmful chemicals are used, it can have a significant positive impact on the environment. The virtual laboratory are developed in Adobe Flash, to ensure that it can be used directly in any Internet browser without the need for installation, and will be made available free of charge online at www.biotechacademy.dk.

3D Nanoscale imaging with FIB-SEM Mikkel Jensen Supervisor: Kristian Mølhave, Rafal Wierzbicki DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark S051874@student.dtu.dk

Background 3D nanoscale imaging is essential for understanding numerous processes of high importance for society today. In this project I work on developing ways to use a focused ion beam as a cutting tool together with a scanning electron microscope to image the freshly cut surface, so a 3D model of the sample can be made by cutting and imaging slice by slice through the sample. The method can be used in several projects with Grøn Dyst angles and I here report on my work on imaging malaria infected blood cells which is essential for a deeper understanding of how the parasite might be targeted by medicine, and algae samples that are essential for ecotoxicologial studies and later will be used for algae species used in biomass and biofuel production

Methods The samples are prepared by fixing the the cells with a glutaraldehyde solution to immobilize the proteins. Then an osmium tetroxide solution is used to both stabilize the lipid membranes and stain the lipids, as the heavy osmium will scatter electrons more efficiently than the surrounding tissue. A uranyl acetate solution and other additional chemicals can also be used to enhance the staining process. Finally the sample is dehydrated in a series of ethanol solutions and at the end embedded in an epoxy and cured at elevated temperature. This process converts the hydrated cellular sample into a dehydrated plastic bock with heavy metals stains; that can be cut by the focused ion beam and images by the scanning electron microscope

Results & Conclusion We find that the FIB-SEM method is capable of providing high resolution approaching 10 nm in three dimensions, and very detailed 3D models can be made of the samples.

Screenshot of the Virtual Greentech Laboratory.

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Laptop Today the transport sector is responsible for roughly 30% of the CO2 emissions in Denmark. A way to reduce this is to optimize the fuel efficiency of automobiles. In an average combustion engine automobile, more than half of the fuel energy released upon combustion, is lost through dissipated heat. By employing the principle of absorption cooling, our project aims to utilize this excess heat to provide the cooling needed for the car’s climate system. This would in turn increase the fuel efficiency of the average car with up to 10%, as the conventional cooling system in today’s cars is a compressor driven system, that uses mechanical power provided by the engine.

Laptop Abstract

There is a huge demand of hydrogen in the industry and the demand of hydrogen is expected to reach 900 billion cubic meters in the year 2011. 96% of all hydrogen is derived through reforming of fossil fuels. Oil-sands processing, gas-to-liquids and coal gasification projects which are ongoing, require huge amounts of hydrogen and is expected to boost the demand significantly within the next few years. Industrial fermentation of hydrogen recycle organic waste materials into hydrogen at little expense. The bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides catalyse the fission of water into hydrogen while feeding on volatile fatty acids and ultra-violent light, in a nitrogen deficient environment. The volatile fatty acids required in this catalysis can be derived by fermentation of any organic material from sewage waste waters or agricultural wastes. Industrial fermentation of hydrogen on agricultural wastes could provide farmers with an additional income of $2.557 to $11.073 for each ton of agricultural waste. Implementing this process as a part of the treatment of sewage waste waters could provide significant revenue to the process of waste treatment.

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Laptop Today the transport sector is responsible for roughly 30% of the CO2 emissions in Denmark. A way to reduce this is to optimize the fuel efficiency of automobiles. In an average combustion engine automobile, more than half of the fuel energy released upon combustion, is lost through dissipated heat. By employing the principle of absorption cooling, our project aims to utilize this excess heat to provide the cooling needed for the car’s climate system. This would in turn increase the fuel efficiency of the average car with up to 10%, as the conventional cooling system in today’s cars is a compressor driven system, that uses mechanical power provided by the engine.

Laptop Abstract

There is a huge demand of hydrogen in the industry and the demand of hydrogen is expected to reach 900 billion cubic meters in the year 2011. 96% of all hydrogen is derived through reforming of fossil fuels. Oil-sands processing, gas-to-liquids and coal gasification projects which are ongoing, require huge amounts of hydrogen and is expected to boost the demand significantly within the next few years. Industrial fermentation of hydrogen recycle organic waste materials into hydrogen at little expense. The bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides catalyse the fission of water into hydrogen while feeding on volatile fatty acids and ultra-violent light, in a nitrogen deficient environment. The volatile fatty acids required in this catalysis can be derived by fermentation of any organic material from sewage waste waters or agricultural wastes. Industrial fermentation of hydrogen on agricultural wastes could provide farmers with an additional income of $2.557 to $11.073 for each ton of agricultural waste. Implementing this process as a part of the treatment of sewage waste waters could provide significant revenue to the process of waste treatment.

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Single Cell Protein from Land Fill Gas

Abstract This master thesis presents results of energy performance for different ventilation strategies such as balanced ventilation, central exhaust ventilation, natural ventilation and hybrid ventilation. The results are attempted to be improved by implementing air flow windows to increase the indoor comfort, while decreasing energy consumption. Results for the report were derived from the programs: Be06, EES, IESVE and WIS. On basis of documented knowledge air flow windows were implemented by a series of heat balance calculations for each window pane and cavity in both; air flows window and 3 layer window. The results from this were used to further evaluate the validity and performance of air flow windows in connection to ventilation strategies such as natural ventilation, central exhaust systems and hybrid ventilation. From the results it could be concluded that only hybrid ventilation with heat recovery of 65% could perform at the same levels as balanced ventilation in the heating season, from which it is concluded that heat recovery is needed in order to implement an all year strategy to also perform well in heating season. The air flow windows proved to preheat the outdoor air between 0,27°C to 8,66°C with varying solar gains of 0-500 W/m2. Furthermore these windows proved to be part of a successful ventilation strategy in connection with central exhaust systems during 18,3% of the daytime in the transition months, April to October. Finally can be concluded that natural ventilation cannot alone maintain the minimum air change and therefore needs mechanical assistance such as a central exhaust system.

56

Price,Jason, and Babi,Deenesh 1

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s090428@student.dtu.dk, s090170@student.dtu.dk,

INTRODUCTION

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are one of the largest human-generated sources of methane emissions in the United States and other countries globally. Methane is believed to be a very potent greenhouse gas that is a key contributor to global climate change, over 21 times stronger than CO2. Methane also has a short (10-year) atmospheric life. Because methane is both potent and short-lived, reducing methane emissions from MSW landfills is one of the best ways to achieve a near-term beneficial impact in mitigating global climate change. The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that a landfill gas (LFG) project will capture roughly 60-90% of the methane emitted from the landfill, depending on system design and effectiveness. The captured methane can be then purified and used for industrial applications, as in this case the production of SCP. Utilizing methane in this way decreases its demand from fossil fuels which is its traditional source.

SUMMARY

It is likely that the world’s population will double in the next few decades, yet the United Nations estimate that about one thousand million people are already suffering protein deficiency. It is estimated that between 1980 and 2000 the annual demand for protein as 6 6 food for humans will increase from 50 x10 tons to 79x10 tons, and the demand for protein 6 6 as feed for animals will increase from 44 x10 tons to 108 x10 tons. Biotechnology is being applied to the rapid improvement of conventional food sources, both plant and animal, in an effort to meet the increased demand in food. However a limit will be reached on the extent of these technologies and new technologies compromising new and innovative methods to produce protein to meet the current and growing protein demand globally must be developed. One of these technologies is the production of protein from single cell microorganisms termed single cell protein (SCP) which provides promising activity in order to meet the growing protein demand especially for farm animals.

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Single Cell Protein from Land Fill Gas

Abstract This master thesis presents results of energy performance for different ventilation strategies such as balanced ventilation, central exhaust ventilation, natural ventilation and hybrid ventilation. The results are attempted to be improved by implementing air flow windows to increase the indoor comfort, while decreasing energy consumption. Results for the report were derived from the programs: Be06, EES, IESVE and WIS. On basis of documented knowledge air flow windows were implemented by a series of heat balance calculations for each window pane and cavity in both; air flows window and 3 layer window. The results from this were used to further evaluate the validity and performance of air flow windows in connection to ventilation strategies such as natural ventilation, central exhaust systems and hybrid ventilation. From the results it could be concluded that only hybrid ventilation with heat recovery of 65% could perform at the same levels as balanced ventilation in the heating season, from which it is concluded that heat recovery is needed in order to implement an all year strategy to also perform well in heating season. The air flow windows proved to preheat the outdoor air between 0,27°C to 8,66°C with varying solar gains of 0-500 W/m2. Furthermore these windows proved to be part of a successful ventilation strategy in connection with central exhaust systems during 18,3% of the daytime in the transition months, April to October. Finally can be concluded that natural ventilation cannot alone maintain the minimum air change and therefore needs mechanical assistance such as a central exhaust system.

56

Price,Jason, and Babi,Deenesh 1

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s090428@student.dtu.dk, s090170@student.dtu.dk,

INTRODUCTION

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are one of the largest human-generated sources of methane emissions in the United States and other countries globally. Methane is believed to be a very potent greenhouse gas that is a key contributor to global climate change, over 21 times stronger than CO2. Methane also has a short (10-year) atmospheric life. Because methane is both potent and short-lived, reducing methane emissions from MSW landfills is one of the best ways to achieve a near-term beneficial impact in mitigating global climate change. The United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates that a landfill gas (LFG) project will capture roughly 60-90% of the methane emitted from the landfill, depending on system design and effectiveness. The captured methane can be then purified and used for industrial applications, as in this case the production of SCP. Utilizing methane in this way decreases its demand from fossil fuels which is its traditional source.

SUMMARY

It is likely that the world’s population will double in the next few decades, yet the United Nations estimate that about one thousand million people are already suffering protein deficiency. It is estimated that between 1980 and 2000 the annual demand for protein as 6 6 food for humans will increase from 50 x10 tons to 79x10 tons, and the demand for protein 6 6 as feed for animals will increase from 44 x10 tons to 108 x10 tons. Biotechnology is being applied to the rapid improvement of conventional food sources, both plant and animal, in an effort to meet the increased demand in food. However a limit will be reached on the extent of these technologies and new technologies compromising new and innovative methods to produce protein to meet the current and growing protein demand globally must be developed. One of these technologies is the production of protein from single cell microorganisms termed single cell protein (SCP) which provides promising activity in order to meet the growing protein demand especially for farm animals.

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Avicore – A novel aviation bio-fuel 1

1

2

3

A.S.V. Hansen , B.Ø. Hansen ,T.B. Nannestad M. Luniewska and L. Pierre 1

4

Design and Process Development of Micro System for Pesticide Analysis 1

K Elkjær and C.M. Pedersen

2

Biotechnology and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Management of Innovation and Environment, Technical University of Denmark 4 Business Administration, Copenhagen Business School Contact e-mail: monikaluniewska@gmail.com, More info: www.avicore.dk 3

INTRODUCTION The fuel we propose is a composite one, where algae and biomass waste materials are used as the nutrient for a modified microorganism, which feeds on the biomass together with Accellerase™ or Cellic CTec2™ platforms which degrade plant-based biomasses to C5 and C6 sugars. The fermentation results in the production of longer chained alcohols. The alcohols are separated from the aqueous growth media, purified and transferred to the next step, where classical functional group transformation are used for the production of the aviation fuel. After the second step one has at hand a group of compounds that does not mix with, or absorb water, and that have physical chemical properties in compliance with the specifications laid down in the international aviation fuel standards. Algae provide a convenient source of carbon dioxide conversion into fuel, as these simple plants does not require significant investments in infrastructure to be grown.

OUR INVENTION The Avicore Fuel System is a novel high-value aviation bio-fuel solution, produced by a multiple biological-chemical process. The main steps can be divided into a syntheticbiological one (synthesizing the intermediate) and a catalytical one. The synthetic-biological step involves specific strains of microorganisms, which will be genetically engineered to produce the necessary intermediates for our fuel production. What we propose is a process where algae and agricultural- and slaughter wastes are used as the feedstock for a genetically modified organism. It will be modified to produce longer alcohols, both branched and linear, as required by the specific application. The alcohols derived from the fermentation process are thereafter chemically transformed into fuel with chemical and physical properties suitable for use in aviation. The functional group transformation is based on well established chemical unit operations, but alternative higher yielding catalytic procedures will also be investigated, and licences obtained, if this is economically favorable.

ENERGY DENSITY In aviation,the relevant metric is how much energy one can get from a given volume of fuel MJ/l, as a larger volume directly impacts the performance of the plane, by either imposing the need for larger airframes, or reduced operating range. For aviation the metric of interest is therefore the energy density of the fuel, where ordinary petrol has 32MJ/l, ethanol 19.6MJ/l and n butanol 29.2MJ/l. As can be seen, the butanol has an energy density approaching that of petrol. By extending the branching of the alcohol one can further improve on the performance of the fuel. It should be noted, that the problems exhibited by ethanol as to corrosion of engine components is not exhibited by the heavier alcohols or fuel derived from these. For aeroplane applications it can therefore be seen that ethanol, be that bio or not, is a rather poor choice when compared to fuels derived from the higher alcohols.

1

1

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062105@student.dtu.dk, s062119@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

Pesticides are widely used in agriculture around the world. Traces of pesticides can be found in the surrounding environment, streams, and groundwater and even in the agricultural products we purchase. Humans will inevitably come in contact with residual pesticides. The potential harm from pesticides is somewhat known, but not necessarily how it affects the human body. We want to study if pesticides can penetrate the cellular membrane, and if they can under which conditions.

IDEA

The idea is to have two fluidic flows separated by a cellular membrane. One flow simulates the internal environment of the cell and the other is the external environment of the cell. We use a lipid membrane, which allows small molecules to pass through the membrane. It has been shown in literature, that a lipid bilayer can be suspended over a nano sized hole (100nm<). We will design a biochip with a membrane on which the lipid bilayer can be suspended.

DESIGN

The biochip will consist of one channel with five membranes. Underneath this channel five other channels are made. These channels will intersect with the main channel at the membrane so a transfer can take place between the top channel and the bottom channels. Having several channels underneath allows us to test the transport trough the membrane under different conditions. (pH, buffer etc.) Detection is done electrochemically by placing electrodes at the five bottom channels.

CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK

In this project we designed the masks and the fabrications processes for fabricating a biochip, used to detect particle transport trough a membrane. In the future this chip could be used to measure under which conditions different pesticides enter the cells of the human body. Besides pesticides it could also be interesting to see if nano particles pass through.

Figure 1 - (left) Layout of the chip (right) Suspended membrane. 58

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Avicore – A novel aviation bio-fuel 1

1

2

3

A.S.V. Hansen , B.Ø. Hansen ,T.B. Nannestad M. Luniewska and L. Pierre 1

4

Design and Process Development of Micro System for Pesticide Analysis 1

K Elkjær and C.M. Pedersen

2

Biotechnology and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Management of Innovation and Environment, Technical University of Denmark 4 Business Administration, Copenhagen Business School Contact e-mail: monikaluniewska@gmail.com, More info: www.avicore.dk 3

INTRODUCTION The fuel we propose is a composite one, where algae and biomass waste materials are used as the nutrient for a modified microorganism, which feeds on the biomass together with Accellerase™ or Cellic CTec2™ platforms which degrade plant-based biomasses to C5 and C6 sugars. The fermentation results in the production of longer chained alcohols. The alcohols are separated from the aqueous growth media, purified and transferred to the next step, where classical functional group transformation are used for the production of the aviation fuel. After the second step one has at hand a group of compounds that does not mix with, or absorb water, and that have physical chemical properties in compliance with the specifications laid down in the international aviation fuel standards. Algae provide a convenient source of carbon dioxide conversion into fuel, as these simple plants does not require significant investments in infrastructure to be grown.

OUR INVENTION The Avicore Fuel System is a novel high-value aviation bio-fuel solution, produced by a multiple biological-chemical process. The main steps can be divided into a syntheticbiological one (synthesizing the intermediate) and a catalytical one. The synthetic-biological step involves specific strains of microorganisms, which will be genetically engineered to produce the necessary intermediates for our fuel production. What we propose is a process where algae and agricultural- and slaughter wastes are used as the feedstock for a genetically modified organism. It will be modified to produce longer alcohols, both branched and linear, as required by the specific application. The alcohols derived from the fermentation process are thereafter chemically transformed into fuel with chemical and physical properties suitable for use in aviation. The functional group transformation is based on well established chemical unit operations, but alternative higher yielding catalytic procedures will also be investigated, and licences obtained, if this is economically favorable.

ENERGY DENSITY In aviation,the relevant metric is how much energy one can get from a given volume of fuel MJ/l, as a larger volume directly impacts the performance of the plane, by either imposing the need for larger airframes, or reduced operating range. For aviation the metric of interest is therefore the energy density of the fuel, where ordinary petrol has 32MJ/l, ethanol 19.6MJ/l and n butanol 29.2MJ/l. As can be seen, the butanol has an energy density approaching that of petrol. By extending the branching of the alcohol one can further improve on the performance of the fuel. It should be noted, that the problems exhibited by ethanol as to corrosion of engine components is not exhibited by the heavier alcohols or fuel derived from these. For aeroplane applications it can therefore be seen that ethanol, be that bio or not, is a rather poor choice when compared to fuels derived from the higher alcohols.

1

1

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062105@student.dtu.dk, s062119@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

Pesticides are widely used in agriculture around the world. Traces of pesticides can be found in the surrounding environment, streams, and groundwater and even in the agricultural products we purchase. Humans will inevitably come in contact with residual pesticides. The potential harm from pesticides is somewhat known, but not necessarily how it affects the human body. We want to study if pesticides can penetrate the cellular membrane, and if they can under which conditions.

IDEA

The idea is to have two fluidic flows separated by a cellular membrane. One flow simulates the internal environment of the cell and the other is the external environment of the cell. We use a lipid membrane, which allows small molecules to pass through the membrane. It has been shown in literature, that a lipid bilayer can be suspended over a nano sized hole (100nm<). We will design a biochip with a membrane on which the lipid bilayer can be suspended.

DESIGN

The biochip will consist of one channel with five membranes. Underneath this channel five other channels are made. These channels will intersect with the main channel at the membrane so a transfer can take place between the top channel and the bottom channels. Having several channels underneath allows us to test the transport trough the membrane under different conditions. (pH, buffer etc.) Detection is done electrochemically by placing electrodes at the five bottom channels.

CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK

In this project we designed the masks and the fabrications processes for fabricating a biochip, used to detect particle transport trough a membrane. In the future this chip could be used to measure under which conditions different pesticides enter the cells of the human body. Besides pesticides it could also be interesting to see if nano particles pass through.

Figure 1 - (left) Layout of the chip (right) Suspended membrane. 58

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Efficiency and feasibility of biological grey wastewater treatment facilities in Virklund, Denmark

Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers N. Fisker-Bødker and N. A. Feidenhans’l

S. Hansen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s072366@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

Reuse of water from households is uncommon in Denmark, but in arid countries reuse of water have taken place for decades. The ways of reusing the water is many depending on the need. Denmark has some experiences with reusing grey wastewater from the baths to flushing the toilets after a simple biological treatment. Even with that experience many grey wastewater treatment facilities had so extensive problems that the facilities had to shut down. In the last 8 years two third of the treatment facilities have shut down mostly because of microbial growth in the toilet cistern. Experiments have been made on two grey wastewater treatment facilities in Virklund near Silkeborg in Denmark. The treatment facilities are situated in two blocks of flats with 30-35 occupants each. This experiment has been made in order to find out if those facilities have similar problems and how these problems can be solved. Also the economic benefits by saving water and reducing the volume discharged to the sewage system are evaluated. The bacteria indicators E. coli were found in concentrations much higher than the Danish law authorise in both grey wastewater treatment facilities. A lot of sludge can be seen in one of the toilet cisterns. Further, high amounts of particles can cause formation of sludge in the toilet. In the current design the treatment facilities are not ideal. Not enough water is cleaned in order to cover the water use for toilet flushes and a lot of drinking water must therefore be added to the clear water tank. Due to this high input of drinking water it seems that the facilities running not is economical favourable, but needs to be examined more before taking a final stand.

Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark s072175@student.dtu.dk, s072168@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION Over 200 million tons of plastic is manufactured every year but only 12 million is recycled, mostly because the rest is cluttered with food scraps etc. but cannot be composted since ordinary plastic often needs 100-1000 years to degrade. By using biodegradable bioplastic instead this huge amount of garbage can by composted and reused as topsoil in industrial farms and home gardens. Even with this obvious benefit of bioplastic the world market was only around 0.085 million tons in 2006, mainly because bioplastic is still a niche market and not price competitive with ordinary fossil fuel based plastics. One way to lower the cost of bioplastics is to lower the R&D expenses, this will also allow for the development of more different bioplastics with distinct properties e.g. it only will dissolve in specific environments. A big burden in today’s development of bioplastics is the measurement of the degradability, this is done by putting a bulk of your bioplastic in a compost heap, dig it up and weight it periodically throughout many months to measure how much have been decomposed.

THE SOLUTION With our novel production method biopolymer micro cantilevers can be manufactured cheap and easily, rendering the measurement of degradability a matter of a few days. Our micro cantilevers are made of the PLLA (poly-l-lactide), measure 100 x 500 x 10 µm (width, length, height) but are positioned on a supporting body chip to allow handling with tweezers. As biopolymers are to fragile to process with standard silicon techniques we developed a fabrication method using nanoimprint lithography, where the chip structure is defined by pressing a stamp into the biopolymer layer. This has previously only been done with ordinary plastics. The degradation is then evaluated by placing the chip in a solution and measuring its resonance frequency, which depend on the cantilever mass. As proof of concept this measurement was also performed.

Ways of assuring acceptable clean water to the toilets could be to make sure the disinfection in the end of the treatment facilities is maintained frequently in order to optimise removal of bacteria and to add a filter before the clean water tank to increase removal of particles. The technology is clearly most feasible if water prices are high, because then the facilities treat the grey wastewater cheaper than it is to buy drinking water. With the continuing raise of water and wastewater disposal prices the technology does have a future feasibility in Denmark.

Figure 1: SEM image of PLLA cantilevers after chip release. The support structure is visible to the right.

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Efficiency and feasibility of biological grey wastewater treatment facilities in Virklund, Denmark

Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers N. Fisker-Bødker and N. A. Feidenhans’l

S. Hansen DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s072366@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

Reuse of water from households is uncommon in Denmark, but in arid countries reuse of water have taken place for decades. The ways of reusing the water is many depending on the need. Denmark has some experiences with reusing grey wastewater from the baths to flushing the toilets after a simple biological treatment. Even with that experience many grey wastewater treatment facilities had so extensive problems that the facilities had to shut down. In the last 8 years two third of the treatment facilities have shut down mostly because of microbial growth in the toilet cistern. Experiments have been made on two grey wastewater treatment facilities in Virklund near Silkeborg in Denmark. The treatment facilities are situated in two blocks of flats with 30-35 occupants each. This experiment has been made in order to find out if those facilities have similar problems and how these problems can be solved. Also the economic benefits by saving water and reducing the volume discharged to the sewage system are evaluated. The bacteria indicators E. coli were found in concentrations much higher than the Danish law authorise in both grey wastewater treatment facilities. A lot of sludge can be seen in one of the toilet cisterns. Further, high amounts of particles can cause formation of sludge in the toilet. In the current design the treatment facilities are not ideal. Not enough water is cleaned in order to cover the water use for toilet flushes and a lot of drinking water must therefore be added to the clear water tank. Due to this high input of drinking water it seems that the facilities running not is economical favourable, but needs to be examined more before taking a final stand.

Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark s072175@student.dtu.dk, s072168@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION Over 200 million tons of plastic is manufactured every year but only 12 million is recycled, mostly because the rest is cluttered with food scraps etc. but cannot be composted since ordinary plastic often needs 100-1000 years to degrade. By using biodegradable bioplastic instead this huge amount of garbage can by composted and reused as topsoil in industrial farms and home gardens. Even with this obvious benefit of bioplastic the world market was only around 0.085 million tons in 2006, mainly because bioplastic is still a niche market and not price competitive with ordinary fossil fuel based plastics. One way to lower the cost of bioplastics is to lower the R&D expenses, this will also allow for the development of more different bioplastics with distinct properties e.g. it only will dissolve in specific environments. A big burden in today’s development of bioplastics is the measurement of the degradability, this is done by putting a bulk of your bioplastic in a compost heap, dig it up and weight it periodically throughout many months to measure how much have been decomposed.

THE SOLUTION With our novel production method biopolymer micro cantilevers can be manufactured cheap and easily, rendering the measurement of degradability a matter of a few days. Our micro cantilevers are made of the PLLA (poly-l-lactide), measure 100 x 500 x 10 µm (width, length, height) but are positioned on a supporting body chip to allow handling with tweezers. As biopolymers are to fragile to process with standard silicon techniques we developed a fabrication method using nanoimprint lithography, where the chip structure is defined by pressing a stamp into the biopolymer layer. This has previously only been done with ordinary plastics. The degradation is then evaluated by placing the chip in a solution and measuring its resonance frequency, which depend on the cantilever mass. As proof of concept this measurement was also performed.

Ways of assuring acceptable clean water to the toilets could be to make sure the disinfection in the end of the treatment facilities is maintained frequently in order to optimise removal of bacteria and to add a filter before the clean water tank to increase removal of particles. The technology is clearly most feasible if water prices are high, because then the facilities treat the grey wastewater cheaper than it is to buy drinking water. With the continuing raise of water and wastewater disposal prices the technology does have a future feasibility in Denmark.

Figure 1: SEM image of PLLA cantilevers after chip release. The support structure is visible to the right.

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Tietgenkollegiet

11982 - Integreret Projekt i Funktionsdesign

Resumé I kurset ”11982 - Integreret Projekt i Funktionsdesign” er der blevet stillet til opgave om at genskabe Tietgenkollegiet med nutidens krav om overholdelse af lavenergiklasse 1. I projektet vil processen af genskabelsen blive gennemarbejdet, og der vil blive taget udgangspunkt i en brainstorm kombineret med ”The Kyoto Pyramide”. - Brainstorm: Her vil der udarbejdes forslag/ideer og koncepter, der kan arbejdes med. - Reducer varmetabet: Her vil der blive arbejdet med kuldebroer, isolering og vinduesstørrelse. - Reducer elforbruget: Her vil der blive arbejdet med rumdybde, rumhøjde, solafskærmning, ventilationsform og virkningsgrad, belysning, varmesystem, adfærdsafhængigt forbrug, psykologiske aspekter, udnyttelse af intern varmeproduktion, køling, dagslys og grønt tag.

Hermed opnås en energiramme på 34,6 kWh/m2 pr. år, hvilket overholder kravene til lavenergiklasse 1. Der er arbejdet på at overholde kategori B for indeklimaet i bygningen. Dette overholdes, da ingen af rummene har temperaturer under 20 oC eller over 26 oC i mere end 3 % af tiden, samtidig med at alle rummene har en dagslysfaktor på mindst 3 % i midten af rummet. Kanalerne i ventilationsanlægget er overdimensioneret, for at opnå et lavere energiforbrug, da tryktabet i rørene reduceres jo større rørene er. Det endelige koncept vil blive viderebearbejdet under 3-ugers perioden i juni, hvor der vil blive arbejdet videre med nogle af de koncepter som indgår i denne rapport, men som ikke er en del af det endelige koncept.

- Udnytte solvarme: Her vil der blive set på jordvarme, solvarmesystem, solvægge, solceller samt energiproducerende facader. - Vis og kontroller energiforbrug: Her vil der blive set på energistyringsredskaber og CTS-styring. - Vælg energikilder: Her vil der blive set på hvilken energikilde der er bedst anvendelig i området. Yderligere vil der blive set på ressourcebesparende løsninger. Ud fra behandling af ovenstående koncepter er der benyttet nogle værktøjer til at beregne hvor meget hvert koncept vil reducere energiforbruget. For at overholde lavenergiklasse 1, er følgende tiltag taget: vinduesarealet er reduceret, således at hvert rum har en brystning på 90 cm. Isoleringstykkelsen i facaderne er forøget, vinduerne er udskiftet til nogle med bedre isoleringsevne. På kollegieværelserne og i køkkenet er der valgt mekanisk ventilation som der ����������������������������������������������������onsanlægget have en virkningsgrad på 80 %. Der an������� ����������� ���������� �� ������� ��� �����������

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Tietgenkollegiet

11982 - Integreret Projekt i Funktionsdesign

Resumé I kurset ”11982 - Integreret Projekt i Funktionsdesign” er der blevet stillet til opgave om at genskabe Tietgenkollegiet med nutidens krav om overholdelse af lavenergiklasse 1. I projektet vil processen af genskabelsen blive gennemarbejdet, og der vil blive taget udgangspunkt i en brainstorm kombineret med ”The Kyoto Pyramide”. - Brainstorm: Her vil der udarbejdes forslag/ideer og koncepter, der kan arbejdes med. - Reducer varmetabet: Her vil der blive arbejdet med kuldebroer, isolering og vinduesstørrelse. - Reducer elforbruget: Her vil der blive arbejdet med rumdybde, rumhøjde, solafskærmning, ventilationsform og virkningsgrad, belysning, varmesystem, adfærdsafhængigt forbrug, psykologiske aspekter, udnyttelse af intern varmeproduktion, køling, dagslys og grønt tag.

Hermed opnås en energiramme på 34,6 kWh/m2 pr. år, hvilket overholder kravene til lavenergiklasse 1. Der er arbejdet på at overholde kategori B for indeklimaet i bygningen. Dette overholdes, da ingen af rummene har temperaturer under 20 oC eller over 26 oC i mere end 3 % af tiden, samtidig med at alle rummene har en dagslysfaktor på mindst 3 % i midten af rummet. Kanalerne i ventilationsanlægget er overdimensioneret, for at opnå et lavere energiforbrug, da tryktabet i rørene reduceres jo større rørene er. Det endelige koncept vil blive viderebearbejdet under 3-ugers perioden i juni, hvor der vil blive arbejdet videre med nogle af de koncepter som indgår i denne rapport, men som ikke er en del af det endelige koncept.

- Udnytte solvarme: Her vil der blive set på jordvarme, solvarmesystem, solvægge, solceller samt energiproducerende facader. - Vis og kontroller energiforbrug: Her vil der blive set på energistyringsredskaber og CTS-styring. - Vælg energikilder: Her vil der blive set på hvilken energikilde der er bedst anvendelig i området. Yderligere vil der blive set på ressourcebesparende løsninger. Ud fra behandling af ovenstående koncepter er der benyttet nogle værktøjer til at beregne hvor meget hvert koncept vil reducere energiforbruget. For at overholde lavenergiklasse 1, er følgende tiltag taget: vinduesarealet er reduceret, således at hvert rum har en brystning på 90 cm. Isoleringstykkelsen i facaderne er forøget, vinduerne er udskiftet til nogle med bedre isoleringsevne. På kollegieværelserne og i køkkenet er der valgt mekanisk ventilation som der ����������������������������������������������������onsanlægget have en virkningsgrad på 80 %. Der an������� ����������� ���������� �� ������� ��� �����������

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GRØN DYST Abstract: Black Silicon Solar Cells 1

R. Schmidt Davidsen

1

Fabricating the most optimal kind of nanostructures on a Si surface Making a pn-junction in the BS-structure and adding metallic contacts such that the BS-wafer can in practice be used as a solar cell.  Measuring the IV-characteristics and the power conversion efficiency of the BSsolar cell to compare with the known results for the conventional solar cells and other BS solar cells. The fabrication technique of nanostructures applied in this project has advantages compared with competitors. The technique is a maskless etching, which makes the fabrication relatively simple, and potentially easy to mass produce.  

To summarize; the motivation in this project is to find out if BS is suitable as the absorbing material in solar cells and if it is, to optimize and actually produce a BS-solar cell. An important point is that this project has a “proof of concept” approach, meaning that the primary priority is to test, whether BS is suitable for solar cells rather than optimizing the actual efficiency of the produced solar cell.

Tester, Jefferson W.; et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4. [ii] "Energy - Consumption'!A1 Consumption by fuel, 1965 - 2008". Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. July 31 2006.

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J. Eriksen1, J. B. Jakobsen2 and N. A. Feidenhans’l1

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062099@student.dtu.dk

A renewable energy source basically needs to fulfill two demands: It needs to be found in abundant amounts and we need to be able to convert its energy to our desired type of energy, typically electrical. 5 [i] Solar energy definitely fulfills the demand of abundance. The Earth receives 1.7∙10 TW [ii] from the Sun, while the Earth has a total consumption of only 15 TW . Thus the Sun is able to provide all the energy we need, if only we are able to collect this energy, which irradiates our planet constantly. A solar cell is the device that fulfills the demand of us being able to convert the solar energy to electrical power. Therefore the optimization of solar cells, making them a cost-efficient alternative energy source, is a very important research topic. As part of this research topic, this project aims to optimize the solar cell by applying a new kind of material in order to optimize the absorption of the solar radiation. By changing the surface of the conventional solar cell absorption-material, silicon, on nanoscale, the absorption can possibly and hopefully be improved. If this is the case the next challenge in this project is to incorporate the material in a functioning solar cell, which can actually transform sunlight into electrical power. The purpose of this project is to make a solar cell of black silicon (BS), or rather to investigate if BS can be used as a photovoltaic and if it can, how efficient it is compared to a conventional solar cell. BS is silicon, which has been structured on the surface on nanoscale. The created nanopeaks make the silicon black. When creating the peaks on the Si-wafer the surface area is radically increased. It is assumed that this will increase the absorption of sunlight. Thus we have reasons to believe that BS-structures have the potential to become competitive, efficient photovoltaics. The intention is to investigate this following these main steps in the disposition:

[i]

Life cycle check of LED street lighting

1

Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark s072149@student.dtu.dk, s072168@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s042913@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

With the present debate on the climate and the effects man made products have on the environment, the new products made possible by the currently emerging nano-technologies give raise to questions on their safety, their potential new environmental impacts, and the legitimacy of the problems for which they offer solutions. A light-application area, whose history to some extent document the development in lighting technologies, is the lighting facilities that illuminate our infrastructures. In Denmark, it is up to each local municipality to decide which type of street lamps they need for their streets and many are considering light-emitting diode (LED) lamps as an alternative to ordinary metal halogen lamps. In this report, the subject of LED street lighting is investigated from two angles; the current path of LED street lighting in Denmark and the impact it may have on the environment. To investigate the path, the network and actors influencing the role of LED street lighting in Denmark is investigated with Actor-Network Theory (ANT), to trace if there are any emerging irreversibility, and if there are signs of stabilization in the network. Through interviews with a few municipalities and Dong Energy, it is found that there is an increasing incitement to make room and use of LED street lighting, both on a local scale and on a national scale. On a local scale it is found that an increasing amount of municipalities are taking their own initiatives to experiment with usage of LED street lighting and with recent national legislation on phasing out inefficient lighting technologies, this tendency is further incited. To investigate the environmental impact that the choice of street lamp may have, we have conducted a life cycle check (LCC) on an LED street lighting solution called Cobra Medium and compared it to a metal halogen lamp. Our LCC reveals that the bulb is the optimal part to optimize in street lighting, since the electricity used for lighting accounts for 95% of the total energy consumption in its lifespan of 40 years, also considering the production of the pole and housing. The total energy consumption of LED street lighting is determined to be 37% lower than for a standard metal halogen lamp. This project comes to the conclusion that though there are some forces in the Actor Network that might postpone the stabilization of LED street lighting in Denmark, there is good reason to believe that it will happen eventually. As the LED street lamp investigated in the project proved to be environmentally superior to a standard metal halogen lamp in especially the use phase, the authors behind this project feels that LED street lighting is on the path to becoming a ‘good’ product group on the street lighting market.

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GRØN DYST Abstract: Black Silicon Solar Cells 1

R. Schmidt Davidsen

1

Fabricating the most optimal kind of nanostructures on a Si surface Making a pn-junction in the BS-structure and adding metallic contacts such that the BS-wafer can in practice be used as a solar cell.  Measuring the IV-characteristics and the power conversion efficiency of the BSsolar cell to compare with the known results for the conventional solar cells and other BS solar cells. The fabrication technique of nanostructures applied in this project has advantages compared with competitors. The technique is a maskless etching, which makes the fabrication relatively simple, and potentially easy to mass produce.  

To summarize; the motivation in this project is to find out if BS is suitable as the absorbing material in solar cells and if it is, to optimize and actually produce a BS-solar cell. An important point is that this project has a “proof of concept” approach, meaning that the primary priority is to test, whether BS is suitable for solar cells rather than optimizing the actual efficiency of the produced solar cell.

Tester, Jefferson W.; et al. (2005). Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4. [ii] "Energy - Consumption'!A1 Consumption by fuel, 1965 - 2008". Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, BP. July 31 2006.

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J. Eriksen1, J. B. Jakobsen2 and N. A. Feidenhans’l1

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s062099@student.dtu.dk

A renewable energy source basically needs to fulfill two demands: It needs to be found in abundant amounts and we need to be able to convert its energy to our desired type of energy, typically electrical. 5 [i] Solar energy definitely fulfills the demand of abundance. The Earth receives 1.7∙10 TW [ii] from the Sun, while the Earth has a total consumption of only 15 TW . Thus the Sun is able to provide all the energy we need, if only we are able to collect this energy, which irradiates our planet constantly. A solar cell is the device that fulfills the demand of us being able to convert the solar energy to electrical power. Therefore the optimization of solar cells, making them a cost-efficient alternative energy source, is a very important research topic. As part of this research topic, this project aims to optimize the solar cell by applying a new kind of material in order to optimize the absorption of the solar radiation. By changing the surface of the conventional solar cell absorption-material, silicon, on nanoscale, the absorption can possibly and hopefully be improved. If this is the case the next challenge in this project is to incorporate the material in a functioning solar cell, which can actually transform sunlight into electrical power. The purpose of this project is to make a solar cell of black silicon (BS), or rather to investigate if BS can be used as a photovoltaic and if it can, how efficient it is compared to a conventional solar cell. BS is silicon, which has been structured on the surface on nanoscale. The created nanopeaks make the silicon black. When creating the peaks on the Si-wafer the surface area is radically increased. It is assumed that this will increase the absorption of sunlight. Thus we have reasons to believe that BS-structures have the potential to become competitive, efficient photovoltaics. The intention is to investigate this following these main steps in the disposition:

[i]

Life cycle check of LED street lighting

1

Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark s072149@student.dtu.dk, s072168@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s042913@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

With the present debate on the climate and the effects man made products have on the environment, the new products made possible by the currently emerging nano-technologies give raise to questions on their safety, their potential new environmental impacts, and the legitimacy of the problems for which they offer solutions. A light-application area, whose history to some extent document the development in lighting technologies, is the lighting facilities that illuminate our infrastructures. In Denmark, it is up to each local municipality to decide which type of street lamps they need for their streets and many are considering light-emitting diode (LED) lamps as an alternative to ordinary metal halogen lamps. In this report, the subject of LED street lighting is investigated from two angles; the current path of LED street lighting in Denmark and the impact it may have on the environment. To investigate the path, the network and actors influencing the role of LED street lighting in Denmark is investigated with Actor-Network Theory (ANT), to trace if there are any emerging irreversibility, and if there are signs of stabilization in the network. Through interviews with a few municipalities and Dong Energy, it is found that there is an increasing incitement to make room and use of LED street lighting, both on a local scale and on a national scale. On a local scale it is found that an increasing amount of municipalities are taking their own initiatives to experiment with usage of LED street lighting and with recent national legislation on phasing out inefficient lighting technologies, this tendency is further incited. To investigate the environmental impact that the choice of street lamp may have, we have conducted a life cycle check (LCC) on an LED street lighting solution called Cobra Medium and compared it to a metal halogen lamp. Our LCC reveals that the bulb is the optimal part to optimize in street lighting, since the electricity used for lighting accounts for 95% of the total energy consumption in its lifespan of 40 years, also considering the production of the pole and housing. The total energy consumption of LED street lighting is determined to be 37% lower than for a standard metal halogen lamp. This project comes to the conclusion that though there are some forces in the Actor Network that might postpone the stabilization of LED street lighting in Denmark, there is good reason to believe that it will happen eventually. As the LED street lamp investigated in the project proved to be environmentally superior to a standard metal halogen lamp in especially the use phase, the authors behind this project feels that LED street lighting is on the path to becoming a ‘good’ product group on the street lighting market.

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Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance in Arctic Bacteria related to Environmental Antibiotic Exposure and Human Fecal Contamination

Oil pollution at sea and the effect on fauna A. Elvis1 1

1

M. Gómez Lozano and R. Saltini

2

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark S972168@student.dtu.dk

1

DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark maria.gomez.lozano@gmail.com, 2 DTU Food National Institute, Technical University of Denmark r.saltini@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10000 tones of antibiotics are administered to humans and animals each year in Europe, and 30-90% is excreted in feces and urine as intact substances. Sewage treatment plants are lacking in Sisimiut (Greenland), and municipal wastewater is discharged directly into the sea. Thus, untreated wastewater containing active antibiotics from Sisimiut´s hospital is discharged into the bay Ulkebugten. The presence of antibiotics in marine environment might promote bacterial antibiotic resistance which represents a problem for both the marine ecosystem and human health, as well as a threat for the consumers of Greenlandic fish and, therefore, for the Greenlandic economy. This project investigates the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria in relation to environmental antibiotic exposure and human fecal contamination, as well as the presence of mammalian enterobacteria in mussels and stationary fish in relation to waste water exposure. Mussels and sculpins were collected from a contaminated site (bay Ulkebugten, by the hospital) and a reference site (uninhabited island Frederik VII´s Ø). Bacteria from mussel´s hepatopancreas and sculpin´s gut were extracted and tested for antibiotic resistance by plate culturing on antibiotic substrates. Bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin were only found in the contaminated site, suggesting that resistance towards this antibiotic has been acquired there. Resistance towards ampicillin and amoxicillin may also have been acquired at the contaminated site. E. coli was found in the contaminated site, which suggests the existence of fecal contamination. Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio fluvialis, both potential human pathogens, resistant to ampicillin was also found in the contaminated site. Different composition between the bacterial communities from the contaminated and reference sites was also observed, and this may be due to the selective pressure exerted by antibiotics in the contaminated site.

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INTRODUCTION Petroleum or crude oil is a natural resource that is built up of mainly hydrocarbons of different kinds and minor amount of non-hydrocarbons. The major differences between different oil types include their percentage of the various hydrocarbon content, boiling points, viscosity and solubility in water. These properties help to understand the nature and behaviour of petroleum when it is spilled out. Understanding of these characteristics enables people responsible for cleaning up or removal of oil slick to decide the appropriate method for disposal of the slick. Some of these techniques are burning, dispersion, gelling, skimming, sinking and sorption. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages are their contribution as pollutant during the removal of the spilled oil. The use of oil has become increasingly with the years and it has lead to the design of bigger tankers and more transportation of oil from the production area to consumers. This has increased the trafficking of vessels in sailing the petroleum products and as a result creating collisions. Collision together with grounding is the major causes of oil spills. Among other reasons is illegal dumping, hull failure, fire explosion, bunkering and loading/unloading. When oil is spilled on water it affected the life in the sea changing the natural balance in the ecosystem. Animals with furs and feathers are more susceptible to adherence of the oil than those with smooth skin. Birds are more vulnerable to oil spill and suffer a lot in contact with the oil slick. The oil adheres on their feathers and makes them to lose body temperature. In struggling to fly leads to quick disappearance of fat reserves and muscular energy resources and at last lead to death. Fishes suffer from petroleum and its product due to clogging of the gills for instance. Crude oil, toluene and phenol reduce bacteria’s positive chemotactic behaviour which is an ability to attract other organisms. This attractive characteristic helps the bacteria to clean up impurities in the sea water. Different measures and procedures are available to prevent the discharge of oil into the marine environment. These are of governmental rules, new design of facilities and involvement of personals dealing with loading and unloading activities and risk assessment. Navigational systems such as the GPS are installed in tankers to give precise and safer calculations in dealing with all aspects of the journey. These measures help reducing the loss of oil at sea thus reducing the effects on organisms and ecosystems.

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Laptop

Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic Resistance in Arctic Bacteria related to Environmental Antibiotic Exposure and Human Fecal Contamination

Oil pollution at sea and the effect on fauna A. Elvis1 1

1

M. Gómez Lozano and R. Saltini

2

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark S972168@student.dtu.dk

1

DTU Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark maria.gomez.lozano@gmail.com, 2 DTU Food National Institute, Technical University of Denmark r.saltini@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Approximately 10000 tones of antibiotics are administered to humans and animals each year in Europe, and 30-90% is excreted in feces and urine as intact substances. Sewage treatment plants are lacking in Sisimiut (Greenland), and municipal wastewater is discharged directly into the sea. Thus, untreated wastewater containing active antibiotics from Sisimiut´s hospital is discharged into the bay Ulkebugten. The presence of antibiotics in marine environment might promote bacterial antibiotic resistance which represents a problem for both the marine ecosystem and human health, as well as a threat for the consumers of Greenlandic fish and, therefore, for the Greenlandic economy. This project investigates the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria in relation to environmental antibiotic exposure and human fecal contamination, as well as the presence of mammalian enterobacteria in mussels and stationary fish in relation to waste water exposure. Mussels and sculpins were collected from a contaminated site (bay Ulkebugten, by the hospital) and a reference site (uninhabited island Frederik VII´s Ø). Bacteria from mussel´s hepatopancreas and sculpin´s gut were extracted and tested for antibiotic resistance by plate culturing on antibiotic substrates. Bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin were only found in the contaminated site, suggesting that resistance towards this antibiotic has been acquired there. Resistance towards ampicillin and amoxicillin may also have been acquired at the contaminated site. E. coli was found in the contaminated site, which suggests the existence of fecal contamination. Aeromonas hydrophila or Vibrio fluvialis, both potential human pathogens, resistant to ampicillin was also found in the contaminated site. Different composition between the bacterial communities from the contaminated and reference sites was also observed, and this may be due to the selective pressure exerted by antibiotics in the contaminated site.

66

INTRODUCTION Petroleum or crude oil is a natural resource that is built up of mainly hydrocarbons of different kinds and minor amount of non-hydrocarbons. The major differences between different oil types include their percentage of the various hydrocarbon content, boiling points, viscosity and solubility in water. These properties help to understand the nature and behaviour of petroleum when it is spilled out. Understanding of these characteristics enables people responsible for cleaning up or removal of oil slick to decide the appropriate method for disposal of the slick. Some of these techniques are burning, dispersion, gelling, skimming, sinking and sorption. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages are their contribution as pollutant during the removal of the spilled oil. The use of oil has become increasingly with the years and it has lead to the design of bigger tankers and more transportation of oil from the production area to consumers. This has increased the trafficking of vessels in sailing the petroleum products and as a result creating collisions. Collision together with grounding is the major causes of oil spills. Among other reasons is illegal dumping, hull failure, fire explosion, bunkering and loading/unloading. When oil is spilled on water it affected the life in the sea changing the natural balance in the ecosystem. Animals with furs and feathers are more susceptible to adherence of the oil than those with smooth skin. Birds are more vulnerable to oil spill and suffer a lot in contact with the oil slick. The oil adheres on their feathers and makes them to lose body temperature. In struggling to fly leads to quick disappearance of fat reserves and muscular energy resources and at last lead to death. Fishes suffer from petroleum and its product due to clogging of the gills for instance. Crude oil, toluene and phenol reduce bacteria’s positive chemotactic behaviour which is an ability to attract other organisms. This attractive characteristic helps the bacteria to clean up impurities in the sea water. Different measures and procedures are available to prevent the discharge of oil into the marine environment. These are of governmental rules, new design of facilities and involvement of personals dealing with loading and unloading activities and risk assessment. Navigational systems such as the GPS are installed in tankers to give precise and safer calculations in dealing with all aspects of the journey. These measures help reducing the loss of oil at sea thus reducing the effects on organisms and ecosystems.

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OroClean

Optimised Energy Harvesting using Polypower Lasse Emil Korff 1

1

DTU Elektro, Technical University of Denmark s061985@student.dtu.dk

In the recent years - and not at least the days around COP15 in December 2009 - the discussion of global warming has been emphasised. Politicians are looking in all directions for a solution, and this may fully or partly be sustainable energy. The technologies of sun power and wind power energy are getting more and more developed, where the wave power energy only seems to draw few people’s attention. Today we find a huge amount of unused energy along our shores all over the world. The Dielectric Electro Active Polymer technology may possibly help to solve some of the problems, such as storm protection and very expensive prototypes, which seem to be the reason for this lack of interest. Research shows that a mass production of DEAPs possibly may result in wave power generators which are even cheaper than atomic power generators. The DEAP technology "Polypower" has a wide range of opportunities. This project illustrates some of the potential for energy harvest using DEAPs and the issues concerning the design of a converter to extract the generated energy by using Polypower as a testing material. Dielectric electro active polymers change capacitance when stretched. By using the change in capacitance it is possible to harvest energy. Investigation of the Polypower material combined with an analysis of different converter topologies has proved that the buck-boost approach with a bidirectional power flow is the optimal choice of topology. Components for the circuit were chosen based on the losses they would dissipate in the circuit. To do this the current tailing phenomena of the IGBT in use was modelled and several Matlab scripts have been made. In order to control the charging and discharging of the Polypower material a DSP was programmed with input from a feedback circuit and capacitance measurement system that was also constructed. By measuring the capacitance of a smaller piece of film insulated from the rest of the film, it was possible to sense the stretching of the Polypower material. Magnetic design of an inductor and a transformer to insulate one of the gate drivers used, was designed and constructed. The full system was constructed and tested on 1 m2 of Polypower film, first at low voltages and then at high voltages. Due to losses it was not possible to harvest energy at low voltages. This was most likely caused by the current tailing phenomena of the IGBT in use. At high voltages a short circuit occurred that destroyed the circuit and the ability to test any further. Due to time issues, the circuit could not be rebuilt and it has therefore not been possible to measure the efficiency of the converter.

68

L.S. Holstebroe, J.M. Lønstrup, J.F. Parslov, T.D. Torstved DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark laerkeholstebroe@gmail.com, jmlonstrup@gmail.com, jakobparslov@gmail.com, duelund24@hotmail.com

THE PROBLEM Mercury pollution is on the list of the top ten pollution problems of the world. Mercury travels the atmosphere, gets into the food chain and is the most toxic of non radioactive materials that exist. Surprisingly 30% of all mercury pollution comes from artisanal small scale gold mining in rural areas such as South America, Africa and Asia. In these areas the miners use mercury to extract gold. 95% of all the mercury used in small-scale mining is disposed right back into the environment. In the world there are approximately 15-20 million miners; this including about 4.5 million women and 1 million children – all at risk of suffering from kidney problems, memory loss, learning disabilities, miscarriage, deformities of children, psychic reactions, neurological damage etc. Their core blood mercury levels are up to 50 times higher than the level recommended by WHO. High levels of mercury are not only found in the bodies of the miners and their families that are in direct contact with mercury but occur all over the world and affect billions of people. In the US, more than half of the mercury pollution comes from outside the country. Calculations show that the US alone spends $ 8.7 billion each year due to the lifetime loss in productivities of children born with learning 1 disabilities. Roughly 300,000-600,000 children are born each year in the US with a high concentration of mercury. The UN believes that small-scale mining is “the single largest intentional-release of mercury in the world.”

THE SOLUTION To accommodate this need, we have created OroClean, a centrifuge that builds on wellknown, and proven technology. The centrifuge is intended to be used by the small-scale miner as a replacement for using mercury in the gold extraction process and thereby potentially eliminating 30% of all mercury pollution in the world. The centrifuge will be human-powered, more effective than existing technologies, easy to use and will be made by combining already existing methods. The centrifuge is a small-scale device that due to difference in densities will make the heavy gold particles separate from the lighter silt particles. To heighten the efficiency fluidizational principles are integrated in the centrifuge. It can be produced at a very low cost, which makes it feasible to set up a sustainable business model that will generate profit throughout the value chain. With OroClean we will be able to eliminate 30% of one of the top ten pollution problems in the world.

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Laptop

Laptop

OroClean

Optimised Energy Harvesting using Polypower Lasse Emil Korff 1

1

DTU Elektro, Technical University of Denmark s061985@student.dtu.dk

In the recent years - and not at least the days around COP15 in December 2009 - the discussion of global warming has been emphasised. Politicians are looking in all directions for a solution, and this may fully or partly be sustainable energy. The technologies of sun power and wind power energy are getting more and more developed, where the wave power energy only seems to draw few people’s attention. Today we find a huge amount of unused energy along our shores all over the world. The Dielectric Electro Active Polymer technology may possibly help to solve some of the problems, such as storm protection and very expensive prototypes, which seem to be the reason for this lack of interest. Research shows that a mass production of DEAPs possibly may result in wave power generators which are even cheaper than atomic power generators. The DEAP technology "Polypower" has a wide range of opportunities. This project illustrates some of the potential for energy harvest using DEAPs and the issues concerning the design of a converter to extract the generated energy by using Polypower as a testing material. Dielectric electro active polymers change capacitance when stretched. By using the change in capacitance it is possible to harvest energy. Investigation of the Polypower material combined with an analysis of different converter topologies has proved that the buck-boost approach with a bidirectional power flow is the optimal choice of topology. Components for the circuit were chosen based on the losses they would dissipate in the circuit. To do this the current tailing phenomena of the IGBT in use was modelled and several Matlab scripts have been made. In order to control the charging and discharging of the Polypower material a DSP was programmed with input from a feedback circuit and capacitance measurement system that was also constructed. By measuring the capacitance of a smaller piece of film insulated from the rest of the film, it was possible to sense the stretching of the Polypower material. Magnetic design of an inductor and a transformer to insulate one of the gate drivers used, was designed and constructed. The full system was constructed and tested on 1 m2 of Polypower film, first at low voltages and then at high voltages. Due to losses it was not possible to harvest energy at low voltages. This was most likely caused by the current tailing phenomena of the IGBT in use. At high voltages a short circuit occurred that destroyed the circuit and the ability to test any further. Due to time issues, the circuit could not be rebuilt and it has therefore not been possible to measure the efficiency of the converter.

68

L.S. Holstebroe, J.M. Lønstrup, J.F. Parslov, T.D. Torstved DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark laerkeholstebroe@gmail.com, jmlonstrup@gmail.com, jakobparslov@gmail.com, duelund24@hotmail.com

THE PROBLEM Mercury pollution is on the list of the top ten pollution problems of the world. Mercury travels the atmosphere, gets into the food chain and is the most toxic of non radioactive materials that exist. Surprisingly 30% of all mercury pollution comes from artisanal small scale gold mining in rural areas such as South America, Africa and Asia. In these areas the miners use mercury to extract gold. 95% of all the mercury used in small-scale mining is disposed right back into the environment. In the world there are approximately 15-20 million miners; this including about 4.5 million women and 1 million children – all at risk of suffering from kidney problems, memory loss, learning disabilities, miscarriage, deformities of children, psychic reactions, neurological damage etc. Their core blood mercury levels are up to 50 times higher than the level recommended by WHO. High levels of mercury are not only found in the bodies of the miners and their families that are in direct contact with mercury but occur all over the world and affect billions of people. In the US, more than half of the mercury pollution comes from outside the country. Calculations show that the US alone spends $ 8.7 billion each year due to the lifetime loss in productivities of children born with learning 1 disabilities. Roughly 300,000-600,000 children are born each year in the US with a high concentration of mercury. The UN believes that small-scale mining is “the single largest intentional-release of mercury in the world.”

THE SOLUTION To accommodate this need, we have created OroClean, a centrifuge that builds on wellknown, and proven technology. The centrifuge is intended to be used by the small-scale miner as a replacement for using mercury in the gold extraction process and thereby potentially eliminating 30% of all mercury pollution in the world. The centrifuge will be human-powered, more effective than existing technologies, easy to use and will be made by combining already existing methods. The centrifuge is a small-scale device that due to difference in densities will make the heavy gold particles separate from the lighter silt particles. To heighten the efficiency fluidizational principles are integrated in the centrifuge. It can be produced at a very low cost, which makes it feasible to set up a sustainable business model that will generate profit throughout the value chain. With OroClean we will be able to eliminate 30% of one of the top ten pollution problems in the world.

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Laptop

Photo-electro Catalytic Water Splitting over Pure and Modified Iron Oxide Thin Films 1

Martin Hangaard Hansen , Mathias Kjærgaard Christensen

1

Poly Power Wave Energy Converter 1

2

1

DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark

1

s072171@student.dtu.dk, s061681@student.dtu.dk

2

1

Supervisors: Søren Dahl , Alan Kleiman-Shwarsctein

4

5

DTU MEK, s082906@student.dtu.dk DTU MEK, s082860@student.dtu.dk 3 DTU MEK, s082969@student.dtu.dk 4 DTU MEK, s082902@student.dtu.dk 5 DTU MEK, s082897@student.dtu.dk

1

ABSTRACT Photo-catalytic water splitting offers the possibility of creating a clean renewable energy source by synthesizing H2 from water and sunlight, therefore reducing society usage of fossil fuels. However it is a great challenge to synthesize a material with the right electronic and chemical properties for efficiently driving the process, while being sustainable in terms of both stability and costs.

3

S. Frøland , N. Purup , M. Nylykke , J. Henckel , and B. Larsen

INTRODUCTION

Converting the energy of the ocean has been a challenge for decades. In this project we have been working with this problem in a whole new way. The goal of the project has been to implement the Danfoss Poly Power elastomer in one of the existing wave energy converting systems. During the project several setups have been tested in the wave tank on our 1:60 model. We have optimized the utilization of the waves and tried to give a rough estimate on the energy output of a real-size Wave Energy Converter.

Figure 1: A semiconductor absorbing a photon, thereby enabling photo-catalysis. Illustration: Søren Dahl

The semiconductor properties of iron oxide enables it to split water when submerged in an aqueous solution while irradiated by sunlight. Unfortunately it also needs an external applied voltage, which reduces the overall efficiency of the system. Iron Oxide is stable in non-acidic aqueous solutions and it is both abundant and cheap making it a great candidate for world wide application if its efficiency could be increased. Through various surface treatments and modification of iron oxide thin film compositions, research previously has shown, that the properties of this material can be improved significantly. This thesis focusses on improving the bulk properties of the material by adding a dopant and improving the surface properties by adding catalysts. The results have so far shown, that doping the thin films with titanium has improved some parameters including the saturated photocurrent. The surface treatments and tests has likewise yielded successful results in reducing losses occurring at the water to iron oxide interface.

70

Wave testing 1:60 model of the Wave Energy Converter

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Photo-electro Catalytic Water Splitting over Pure and Modified Iron Oxide Thin Films 1

Martin Hangaard Hansen , Mathias Kjærgaard Christensen

1

Poly Power Wave Energy Converter 1

2

1

DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark

1

s072171@student.dtu.dk, s061681@student.dtu.dk

2

1

Supervisors: Søren Dahl , Alan Kleiman-Shwarsctein

4

5

DTU MEK, s082906@student.dtu.dk DTU MEK, s082860@student.dtu.dk 3 DTU MEK, s082969@student.dtu.dk 4 DTU MEK, s082902@student.dtu.dk 5 DTU MEK, s082897@student.dtu.dk

1

ABSTRACT Photo-catalytic water splitting offers the possibility of creating a clean renewable energy source by synthesizing H2 from water and sunlight, therefore reducing society usage of fossil fuels. However it is a great challenge to synthesize a material with the right electronic and chemical properties for efficiently driving the process, while being sustainable in terms of both stability and costs.

3

S. Frøland , N. Purup , M. Nylykke , J. Henckel , and B. Larsen

INTRODUCTION

Converting the energy of the ocean has been a challenge for decades. In this project we have been working with this problem in a whole new way. The goal of the project has been to implement the Danfoss Poly Power elastomer in one of the existing wave energy converting systems. During the project several setups have been tested in the wave tank on our 1:60 model. We have optimized the utilization of the waves and tried to give a rough estimate on the energy output of a real-size Wave Energy Converter.

Figure 1: A semiconductor absorbing a photon, thereby enabling photo-catalysis. Illustration: Søren Dahl

The semiconductor properties of iron oxide enables it to split water when submerged in an aqueous solution while irradiated by sunlight. Unfortunately it also needs an external applied voltage, which reduces the overall efficiency of the system. Iron Oxide is stable in non-acidic aqueous solutions and it is both abundant and cheap making it a great candidate for world wide application if its efficiency could be increased. Through various surface treatments and modification of iron oxide thin film compositions, research previously has shown, that the properties of this material can be improved significantly. This thesis focusses on improving the bulk properties of the material by adding a dopant and improving the surface properties by adding catalysts. The results have so far shown, that doping the thin films with titanium has improved some parameters including the saturated photocurrent. The surface treatments and tests has likewise yielded successful results in reducing losses occurring at the water to iron oxide interface.

70

Wave testing 1:60 model of the Wave Energy Converter

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Laptop Spaceborne Laser Bathymetry

Topology Optimization of Ammonia Synthesis in Microfluidic Reactors

Andreas Härstedt Jørgensen and Mathias Brassøe DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark S072083@student.dtu.dk, s072076@student.dtu.dk

Bathymetry and depth mapping of coastal areas play an important role in the safety of navigating ships. It has also implication for areas as diverse as reproductive potential for marine life, sediment transport, shore line erosion and flood hazards. Mapping of these areas has previously been done by sonar from smaller ships. This method has proven to be extremely expensive for countries with large coastal areas. The coverage of these areas is therefore often quite poor and will rarely contain any information on dynamic aspects. This issue has been partially solved by airborne measurement systems like SHOALS, which have been able to use airborne laser bathymetry and thereby reducing the costs between 50% to 80%. The cost are, despite this, still high and requires a team to be available for flying and operating the equipment as well as suitable weather and water conditions to be present. The implementation of bathymetry instrumentation in a satellite system could cover practically any shallow water region present on Earth. It could also give rise to another interesting issue; it could measure the depth changes over time in for example coral reefs, which is of great interest for marine biologists etc. Furthermore, the system could be able to measure the amount of chlorofyl in the seawater. Information about this is very interesting for biologists as well. Another reason, which makes this project interesting, is because 90% of all life in the sea is created in the shallow water areas, and therefore it could be interesting to get more information about these areas. A third reason could be for transport. When large ships are sailing in shallow water areas, it happens that it ran aground and causes huge natural disasters. This could be avoided with our new technology. Laser Bathymetry is based on firing a short laser pulse towards the water surface. The differential time between the arrival of reflections from the surface (Air/water reflection) and from the bottom (Water/Bottom reflection) can then be used to measure the depth. A typical laser bathymetry system consist consequently of a pulsed laser transmitter, a scanning mirror, a transmitter/receiver telescope, narrowband optical filters. Furthermore it needs a fast and very sensitive electronic circuit including a pulse waveform analyser and a computer system to control the sampling, and store the received data. This is problems we would like to investigate in our project.

A. Münther1, A. F. A. Azawi2, M. G. Bjørner3 and L. L. Laursen4 1

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Chemistry , Technical University of Denmark 3 DTU Nanotech , Technical University of Denmark 4 Technical University of Denmark and University of Copenhagen In order to produce food for the world’s population, around 160 million tonnes of ammonia is synthesized annually solely for production of fertilizers, with an additional 30 million tonnes produced annually for other purposes. The ammonia synthesis is very energy consuming, and in fact 1 % of the total energy consumption worldwide is used for ammonia synthesis alone. Based on this, even small improvements in the energy efficiency of this synthesis will result in significant energy reduction and thereby decrease its environmental impact. In our new innovative approach, where the reaction takes place within a micro scale system, we aim at improving the process by highlighting the importance of the geometric distribution of the catalytic material. This is in contrast to the classical approach, which has mainly focused on adjusting the different operating conditions or catalysts. By taking advantage of state-of-the-art optimization method – topology optimization – we intend to utilize the catalytic material in the best possible way, and thus enhance the efficiency of the synthesis reactor. The synthesis reactor has been modelled by taking into account the mass, momentum and energy balance, and the model is solved numerically using the commercial software Comsol. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time the ammonia synthesis, and indeed any synthesis of this complexity, has been improved by the use of topology optimization. Finally, we will investigate if the combined yield from several million optimized microfluidic reactors can match or even exceed that of an industrial chemical plant. It is our hope that microreactors, and specifically topology optimizations thereof, in the future will replace many classical chemical reactors.

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Laptop Spaceborne Laser Bathymetry

Topology Optimization of Ammonia Synthesis in Microfluidic Reactors

Andreas Härstedt Jørgensen and Mathias Brassøe DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark S072083@student.dtu.dk, s072076@student.dtu.dk

Bathymetry and depth mapping of coastal areas play an important role in the safety of navigating ships. It has also implication for areas as diverse as reproductive potential for marine life, sediment transport, shore line erosion and flood hazards. Mapping of these areas has previously been done by sonar from smaller ships. This method has proven to be extremely expensive for countries with large coastal areas. The coverage of these areas is therefore often quite poor and will rarely contain any information on dynamic aspects. This issue has been partially solved by airborne measurement systems like SHOALS, which have been able to use airborne laser bathymetry and thereby reducing the costs between 50% to 80%. The cost are, despite this, still high and requires a team to be available for flying and operating the equipment as well as suitable weather and water conditions to be present. The implementation of bathymetry instrumentation in a satellite system could cover practically any shallow water region present on Earth. It could also give rise to another interesting issue; it could measure the depth changes over time in for example coral reefs, which is of great interest for marine biologists etc. Furthermore, the system could be able to measure the amount of chlorofyl in the seawater. Information about this is very interesting for biologists as well. Another reason, which makes this project interesting, is because 90% of all life in the sea is created in the shallow water areas, and therefore it could be interesting to get more information about these areas. A third reason could be for transport. When large ships are sailing in shallow water areas, it happens that it ran aground and causes huge natural disasters. This could be avoided with our new technology. Laser Bathymetry is based on firing a short laser pulse towards the water surface. The differential time between the arrival of reflections from the surface (Air/water reflection) and from the bottom (Water/Bottom reflection) can then be used to measure the depth. A typical laser bathymetry system consist consequently of a pulsed laser transmitter, a scanning mirror, a transmitter/receiver telescope, narrowband optical filters. Furthermore it needs a fast and very sensitive electronic circuit including a pulse waveform analyser and a computer system to control the sampling, and store the received data. This is problems we would like to investigate in our project.

A. Münther1, A. F. A. Azawi2, M. G. Bjørner3 and L. L. Laursen4 1

DTU Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark 2 DTU Chemistry , Technical University of Denmark 3 DTU Nanotech , Technical University of Denmark 4 Technical University of Denmark and University of Copenhagen In order to produce food for the world’s population, around 160 million tonnes of ammonia is synthesized annually solely for production of fertilizers, with an additional 30 million tonnes produced annually for other purposes. The ammonia synthesis is very energy consuming, and in fact 1 % of the total energy consumption worldwide is used for ammonia synthesis alone. Based on this, even small improvements in the energy efficiency of this synthesis will result in significant energy reduction and thereby decrease its environmental impact. In our new innovative approach, where the reaction takes place within a micro scale system, we aim at improving the process by highlighting the importance of the geometric distribution of the catalytic material. This is in contrast to the classical approach, which has mainly focused on adjusting the different operating conditions or catalysts. By taking advantage of state-of-the-art optimization method – topology optimization – we intend to utilize the catalytic material in the best possible way, and thus enhance the efficiency of the synthesis reactor. The synthesis reactor has been modelled by taking into account the mass, momentum and energy balance, and the model is solved numerically using the commercial software Comsol. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time the ammonia synthesis, and indeed any synthesis of this complexity, has been improved by the use of topology optimization. Finally, we will investigate if the combined yield from several million optimized microfluidic reactors can match or even exceed that of an industrial chemical plant. It is our hope that microreactors, and specifically topology optimizations thereof, in the future will replace many classical chemical reactors.

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Trade-offs between irrigation and ecosystem water use

Wind Farm Control

- agricultural development scenarios for the Okavango River Basin

Master Thesis, June 2010

C. Davidsen and H.K. Davidsen

Baldur Bjarnason & Ă–rvar Sveinsson Department of Electrical Engineering, Automation Technical University of Denmark

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s052891@student.dtu.dk, s052495@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT The Okavango Delta is a unique and fragile wetland situated in the Kalahari Desert in Botswana, Southern Africa. The annual precipitation is low, yet the area is green and rich in animal life. This is due to the Okavango River which transports huge volumes of water from the mountainous regions in central Angola and is a vital lifeline for the Okavango Delta. With a size of 172,000 square kilometres the catchment area is 4 times the size of Denmark, but currently only 600,000 people live here. This part of Angola is still very poor and full of traces from the long and devastating civil war which ended in 2002. The war slowed the development and left the country with an under developed agricultural sector. Today, 8 years after the end of the civil war, the Angolan government has realised that investment in irrigation agriculture is an important step on the way to become self-sufficient and to fight poverty. However, those investments put pressure on the Okavango Delta as they reduce the inflow of water. Water is a scarce resource and history shows that the natural ecosystems suffer first. Recent advances in water resources simulation tools and remote sensing techniques enable a detailed assessment of the impact of large development projects such as Angolan agricultural development. How much water can be used for irrigation in Angola and at the same time ensure a sustainable future of the Okavango Delta? And what is the extend of the area suitable for irrigated agriculture in the catchment?

External supervisors: Mikkel Buur BĂŚkgaard (DONG Energy) & Peter F. Odgaard (KK-Electronics) (KK Electronics)

Abstract A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines which are all placed within a limited geographical area and with a common coupling to the power grid. The farm is usually intended to be controlled externally as one unit, i.e. a single set point is given to the farm controller which will distribute the individual set point to the turbines. At present most farm controllers simply distribute power set point to the turbines evenly or set each turbine to produce the maximum possible power.

Figure 1 Overview of the catchment

In this project, a combination of remote sensing and advanced modelling tools are used in order to deal with those questions. First satellite images are classified in a 30m grid and the current irrigated agricultural area in the Okavango basin is extracted. This provides an estimate of the current agricultural development in the region. Secondly, several layers of spatially resolved information (terrain slope, soil type, etc.) are combined into a map showing the potential areas of irrigated agriculture. The local surface gradient, the surface geology and the distance to the nearest river all affect the suitability of a piece of land for irrigation agriculture. As a final step the new knowledge is integrated in a water balance model of the entire catchment. With this tool, it is possible to predict the amount of water that different irrigation scenarios will remove from the Okavango Delta. The output from the model can be used in integrated policy advice and decision support in the region. Water regulative and transboundary agreements can be realised even before any serious impacts on the ecosystems occur.

74

Supervisors: Hans Henrik Niemann (AU) & Niels Kjølstad Poulsen (IMM)

The performance of the farm controller can be improved by utilizing the on-line on measurements from each turbine in the farm.. By reducing the power set point for the first rows of turbines rbines in the up wind direction and thereby letting more wind through for the following turbines the wind can be utilized better. Such a control scheme could improve the overall power output from a wind farm.. This would also result in improved lifetime of the wind turbine as the load on the first rows (in the up wind direction) would be lowered and distributed more evenly throughout wind farm. farm Preliminary analysis show a production gain of up to 4.5% for certain wind directions and an annual gain of 0.65%. For the Horns Rev wind farms this corresponds to an annual gain of 9100MWh which is enough to cover the annual electricity consumption of approximately 2300 households in Denmark. This approach is very desirable as the implementation is mainly software and an cost is therefore low compared to the reward.

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Trade-offs between irrigation and ecosystem water use

Wind Farm Control

- agricultural development scenarios for the Okavango River Basin

Master Thesis, June 2010

C. Davidsen and H.K. Davidsen

Baldur Bjarnason & Ă–rvar Sveinsson Department of Electrical Engineering, Automation Technical University of Denmark

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s052891@student.dtu.dk, s052495@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT The Okavango Delta is a unique and fragile wetland situated in the Kalahari Desert in Botswana, Southern Africa. The annual precipitation is low, yet the area is green and rich in animal life. This is due to the Okavango River which transports huge volumes of water from the mountainous regions in central Angola and is a vital lifeline for the Okavango Delta. With a size of 172,000 square kilometres the catchment area is 4 times the size of Denmark, but currently only 600,000 people live here. This part of Angola is still very poor and full of traces from the long and devastating civil war which ended in 2002. The war slowed the development and left the country with an under developed agricultural sector. Today, 8 years after the end of the civil war, the Angolan government has realised that investment in irrigation agriculture is an important step on the way to become self-sufficient and to fight poverty. However, those investments put pressure on the Okavango Delta as they reduce the inflow of water. Water is a scarce resource and history shows that the natural ecosystems suffer first. Recent advances in water resources simulation tools and remote sensing techniques enable a detailed assessment of the impact of large development projects such as Angolan agricultural development. How much water can be used for irrigation in Angola and at the same time ensure a sustainable future of the Okavango Delta? And what is the extend of the area suitable for irrigated agriculture in the catchment?

External supervisors: Mikkel Buur BĂŚkgaard (DONG Energy) & Peter F. Odgaard (KK-Electronics) (KK Electronics)

Abstract A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines which are all placed within a limited geographical area and with a common coupling to the power grid. The farm is usually intended to be controlled externally as one unit, i.e. a single set point is given to the farm controller which will distribute the individual set point to the turbines. At present most farm controllers simply distribute power set point to the turbines evenly or set each turbine to produce the maximum possible power.

Figure 1 Overview of the catchment

In this project, a combination of remote sensing and advanced modelling tools are used in order to deal with those questions. First satellite images are classified in a 30m grid and the current irrigated agricultural area in the Okavango basin is extracted. This provides an estimate of the current agricultural development in the region. Secondly, several layers of spatially resolved information (terrain slope, soil type, etc.) are combined into a map showing the potential areas of irrigated agriculture. The local surface gradient, the surface geology and the distance to the nearest river all affect the suitability of a piece of land for irrigation agriculture. As a final step the new knowledge is integrated in a water balance model of the entire catchment. With this tool, it is possible to predict the amount of water that different irrigation scenarios will remove from the Okavango Delta. The output from the model can be used in integrated policy advice and decision support in the region. Water regulative and transboundary agreements can be realised even before any serious impacts on the ecosystems occur.

74

Supervisors: Hans Henrik Niemann (AU) & Niels Kjølstad Poulsen (IMM)

The performance of the farm controller can be improved by utilizing the on-line on measurements from each turbine in the farm.. By reducing the power set point for the first rows of turbines rbines in the up wind direction and thereby letting more wind through for the following turbines the wind can be utilized better. Such a control scheme could improve the overall power output from a wind farm.. This would also result in improved lifetime of the wind turbine as the load on the first rows (in the up wind direction) would be lowered and distributed more evenly throughout wind farm. farm Preliminary analysis show a production gain of up to 4.5% for certain wind directions and an annual gain of 0.65%. For the Horns Rev wind farms this corresponds to an annual gain of 9100MWh which is enough to cover the annual electricity consumption of approximately 2300 households in Denmark. This approach is very desirable as the implementation is mainly software and an cost is therefore low compared to the reward.

75


Laptop

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GRØN DYST

GRØN DYST Abstract for the Smart Electric Socket System

’Satellite Monitoring of Water Movement Across the Earth’ 1

2

P. L. Svendsen , M.R Nielsen and B.L. Larsen

2

1

DTU IMM, Technical University of Denmark s042453@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s04237@student.dtu.dk, s960728@student.dtu.dk

Introduction We have all heard about it but how critical is the global warming to sea level rising? By use of up to date satellite radar and gravitational data which, for the past eight years, have monitored the Earth. We have built models showing the water movement over land and sea masses, more specifically a model for the Greenland ice sheet and a model for the global sea level. Greenland ice sheet melting is one of the key contributors to sea level change. With global satellite data coverage since 1993, we get an interesting picture of the development. Preliminary findings

R. Dahl1, B. O. Lundsgaard2, and O. T. Petersen2 (originally also P. M. Falk3 and P. Mygind3) 1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s052400@student.dtu.dk, 2 DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s042190@student.dtu.dk, otope@student.dtu.dk 3 DTU Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark s042289@student.dtu.dk, s042267@student.dtu.dk

"What?" - The Vision The idea behind the Smart Electric Socket System is to equip consumers with Smart Electric Sockets enabling them to save energy while increasing their comfort of living. This is done by providing precise energy consumption data as well as the ability to have a central unit controlling the Sockets. The consumption data will enable consumers to be more aware of their energy consumption as well as take measures to adjust and/or replace high-consuming appliances like old pumps, computers, climate control units etc or disable standby appliances during night. Controlling each Socket from a central unit opens a world of opportunities for increasing consumers comfort of living by assisting them in their daily lives especially when input devices like sensors are used.

"How?" - Technical Strategy

Figure1. Black dots are Greenland melting. Blue line is water level for the rest of the world.

76

Figure2. Water level world vide over the last 18 years.

The System is based on a product series consisting of smart electric sockets and a piece of software. The Sockets will function as the socket outlets known today. On top, the Smart Electric Sockets can: 1. Register the amount of electricity running through each individual Socket 2. Be switched on and off by a central unit 3. Be dimmed by a central unit These functions will enable the System to sustain the vision. Apart from controlling the sockets, the central unit collects and stores the electricity consumption data registered by each Socket. The central unit may simply be a conventional PC with a dedicated software program installed. The unit will be connected to the Sockets through electricity cords or wirelessly through a simple router making it no harder to setup than a television set. A dashboard will provide information on electricity consumption (current and historic). Furthermore, a control panel will enable the consumer to control the Sockets live or by programmering the behavior of each individual Socket. The Sockets will exist in two forms: 1) In-wall socket outlets being interchangeable with conventional socket outlets in function and dimensions, and 2) Extension cord "plug-and-play" sockets to stick into conventional wall socket outlets (like e.g. a transformer). Thus, consumers may replace or simply extend their existing socket outlets. Data and commands are transmitted through the existing electricity cords or via a wireless protocol, reducing installation barriers including costs.

77


Laptop

Laptop

GRØN DYST

GRØN DYST Abstract for the Smart Electric Socket System

’Satellite Monitoring of Water Movement Across the Earth’ 1

2

P. L. Svendsen , M.R Nielsen and B.L. Larsen

2

1

DTU IMM, Technical University of Denmark s042453@student.dtu.dk 2 DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s04237@student.dtu.dk, s960728@student.dtu.dk

Introduction We have all heard about it but how critical is the global warming to sea level rising? By use of up to date satellite radar and gravitational data which, for the past eight years, have monitored the Earth. We have built models showing the water movement over land and sea masses, more specifically a model for the Greenland ice sheet and a model for the global sea level. Greenland ice sheet melting is one of the key contributors to sea level change. With global satellite data coverage since 1993, we get an interesting picture of the development. Preliminary findings

R. Dahl1, B. O. Lundsgaard2, and O. T. Petersen2 (originally also P. M. Falk3 and P. Mygind3) 1

DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark s052400@student.dtu.dk, 2 DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s042190@student.dtu.dk, otope@student.dtu.dk 3 DTU Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark s042289@student.dtu.dk, s042267@student.dtu.dk

"What?" - The Vision The idea behind the Smart Electric Socket System is to equip consumers with Smart Electric Sockets enabling them to save energy while increasing their comfort of living. This is done by providing precise energy consumption data as well as the ability to have a central unit controlling the Sockets. The consumption data will enable consumers to be more aware of their energy consumption as well as take measures to adjust and/or replace high-consuming appliances like old pumps, computers, climate control units etc or disable standby appliances during night. Controlling each Socket from a central unit opens a world of opportunities for increasing consumers comfort of living by assisting them in their daily lives especially when input devices like sensors are used.

"How?" - Technical Strategy

Figure1. Black dots are Greenland melting. Blue line is water level for the rest of the world.

76

Figure2. Water level world vide over the last 18 years.

The System is based on a product series consisting of smart electric sockets and a piece of software. The Sockets will function as the socket outlets known today. On top, the Smart Electric Sockets can: 1. Register the amount of electricity running through each individual Socket 2. Be switched on and off by a central unit 3. Be dimmed by a central unit These functions will enable the System to sustain the vision. Apart from controlling the sockets, the central unit collects and stores the electricity consumption data registered by each Socket. The central unit may simply be a conventional PC with a dedicated software program installed. The unit will be connected to the Sockets through electricity cords or wirelessly through a simple router making it no harder to setup than a television set. A dashboard will provide information on electricity consumption (current and historic). Furthermore, a control panel will enable the consumer to control the Sockets live or by programmering the behavior of each individual Socket. The Sockets will exist in two forms: 1) In-wall socket outlets being interchangeable with conventional socket outlets in function and dimensions, and 2) Extension cord "plug-and-play" sockets to stick into conventional wall socket outlets (like e.g. a transformer). Thus, consumers may replace or simply extend their existing socket outlets. Data and commands are transmitted through the existing electricity cords or via a wireless protocol, reducing installation barriers including costs.

77


Laptop

Laptop

New generation green packaging materials: from masterbatches to bionanocomposite films Anna Kaminska1, Frederikke Bahrt1, Vimal Katiyar2 and David Plackett2 1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark ania.kam123@gmail.com, s091913@student.dtu.dk 2 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark vimk@risoe.dtu.dk, dapl@risoe.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION A new generation of plant-derived bioplastics is now commercially available and is of increasing interest for use in biodegradable food packaging materials. Developments in this field have significant potential to reduce the carbon footprint of packaging and may also eventually contribute to a global reduction in the plastic wastes which contaminate both land and marine environments. Arguably the most significant of these bioplastics is polylactide (PLA), currently manufactured from corn starch but which will, in the future, be produced from biomass residues. PLA is already in use for some types of food packaging but for wider adoption its properties (e.g., barrier, thermal) require improvement and, for that reason, nanocomposite films are of great interest. This project addresses the production of PLA masterbatches using a non-toxic organoclay nanofiller as a first step towards optimized PLA nanocomposite films for use in packaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A set of four PLA-clay masterbatches were prepared by in-situ polymerization of lactide dimer in the presence of 50 wt% chitosan-modified montmorillonite clay. Since such masterbatches would be diluted with commercial PLA by a factor of 1:10 for practical use, a high molecular weight is not essential. Reactions were carried out using a tin-based catalyst in either solution-or solid-state and under inert atmosphere or vacuum. The solid reaction products were then characterized using four techniques. FTIR spectroscopy was employed to assess any chemical interactions between PLA and the nanofiller and X-ray diffraction was used to explore the clay distribution in the polymer matrix. Polymer molecular weight in the presence of nanofiller was determined by gel permeation chromatography and compared with that of PLA synthesized without the nanofiller. Thermal analyses provided information on polymer melting point, crystallinity and other properties. In addition, film strips were extruded from one previously prepared PLA-clay combination and subsequently characterized.

ABSTRACT
 This report will be prepared thorough optimization of a standard house from Lind and Risør to a house in low-class 0. The original house from Lind and Risør is built by the requirements of BR08, which means that the house has a relatively high energy, which must be reduced so that it is consistent with the requirements for a low-class 0 house. That means an energy consumption of only 25% of the energy the original house has.
 The aim is to demonstrate for the standard house companies that it is possible to build a standard house in low energy class 0. This is done by increasing the insulation thickness in the different structural parts, and use windows with better U-value. But in addition to that the indoor environment it also has to be comfortable living in the house, which is difficult when the building has problems with getting reed of the heat because there is more insulation in construction. Therefore examines the feasibility of other changes to make the thermal comfort in the house better. 
 Thermal comfort is defined by, how much heat there is in the rooms and how the daylight inters the rooms, because it is not optimal work zone to sit in a room where there are too much heat and on light, which contributes to poor working conditions for the users, and thereby makes that difficult to carry out a job when the circumstances are not right. Furthermore the lack of daylight gives a need for extra electric lighting when daylight conditions are poor, and thereby increases the contribution to energy consumption. The methods that have been chosen to solve the problems of the poor indoor environment, is to analyze the compartments in calculation programs, such as WinDesign which counts on indoor energy use and temperatures over 26 degrees on a hourly basis and FABA Light which calculates and simulates daylight in the rooms. For these calculations, there are charts, tables and graphs of the results that indicate whether it is possible to create a good indoor climate.
 It is possible to create a low-class 0 house. It's just important to ensure that the comfort of the house is maintained in each compartment and not just in the house when it is seen as a complete unit. This means that conditions in all areas must be optimal and therefore not have too many hours over temperature or poor daylight conditions.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The presentation will highlight the most important findings from the PLA nanocomposite masterbatch syntheses and characterization as well as the evaluation of the pre-prepared PLA film strips. These findings will be explained in terms of their significance for the further development of PLA nanocomposite films in food packaging applications.

78

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New generation green packaging materials: from masterbatches to bionanocomposite films Anna Kaminska1, Frederikke Bahrt1, Vimal Katiyar2 and David Plackett2 1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark ania.kam123@gmail.com, s091913@student.dtu.dk 2 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark vimk@risoe.dtu.dk, dapl@risoe.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION A new generation of plant-derived bioplastics is now commercially available and is of increasing interest for use in biodegradable food packaging materials. Developments in this field have significant potential to reduce the carbon footprint of packaging and may also eventually contribute to a global reduction in the plastic wastes which contaminate both land and marine environments. Arguably the most significant of these bioplastics is polylactide (PLA), currently manufactured from corn starch but which will, in the future, be produced from biomass residues. PLA is already in use for some types of food packaging but for wider adoption its properties (e.g., barrier, thermal) require improvement and, for that reason, nanocomposite films are of great interest. This project addresses the production of PLA masterbatches using a non-toxic organoclay nanofiller as a first step towards optimized PLA nanocomposite films for use in packaging.

MATERIALS AND METHODS A set of four PLA-clay masterbatches were prepared by in-situ polymerization of lactide dimer in the presence of 50 wt% chitosan-modified montmorillonite clay. Since such masterbatches would be diluted with commercial PLA by a factor of 1:10 for practical use, a high molecular weight is not essential. Reactions were carried out using a tin-based catalyst in either solution-or solid-state and under inert atmosphere or vacuum. The solid reaction products were then characterized using four techniques. FTIR spectroscopy was employed to assess any chemical interactions between PLA and the nanofiller and X-ray diffraction was used to explore the clay distribution in the polymer matrix. Polymer molecular weight in the presence of nanofiller was determined by gel permeation chromatography and compared with that of PLA synthesized without the nanofiller. Thermal analyses provided information on polymer melting point, crystallinity and other properties. In addition, film strips were extruded from one previously prepared PLA-clay combination and subsequently characterized.

ABSTRACT
 This report will be prepared thorough optimization of a standard house from Lind and Risør to a house in low-class 0. The original house from Lind and Risør is built by the requirements of BR08, which means that the house has a relatively high energy, which must be reduced so that it is consistent with the requirements for a low-class 0 house. That means an energy consumption of only 25% of the energy the original house has.
 The aim is to demonstrate for the standard house companies that it is possible to build a standard house in low energy class 0. This is done by increasing the insulation thickness in the different structural parts, and use windows with better U-value. But in addition to that the indoor environment it also has to be comfortable living in the house, which is difficult when the building has problems with getting reed of the heat because there is more insulation in construction. Therefore examines the feasibility of other changes to make the thermal comfort in the house better. 
 Thermal comfort is defined by, how much heat there is in the rooms and how the daylight inters the rooms, because it is not optimal work zone to sit in a room where there are too much heat and on light, which contributes to poor working conditions for the users, and thereby makes that difficult to carry out a job when the circumstances are not right. Furthermore the lack of daylight gives a need for extra electric lighting when daylight conditions are poor, and thereby increases the contribution to energy consumption. The methods that have been chosen to solve the problems of the poor indoor environment, is to analyze the compartments in calculation programs, such as WinDesign which counts on indoor energy use and temperatures over 26 degrees on a hourly basis and FABA Light which calculates and simulates daylight in the rooms. For these calculations, there are charts, tables and graphs of the results that indicate whether it is possible to create a good indoor climate.
 It is possible to create a low-class 0 house. It's just important to ensure that the comfort of the house is maintained in each compartment and not just in the house when it is seen as a complete unit. This means that conditions in all areas must be optimal and therefore not have too many hours over temperature or poor daylight conditions.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The presentation will highlight the most important findings from the PLA nanocomposite masterbatch syntheses and characterization as well as the evaluation of the pre-prepared PLA film strips. These findings will be explained in terms of their significance for the further development of PLA nanocomposite films in food packaging applications.

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Scheduling Home-Appliances to Reduce Energy Consumption Ana Rosselló-Busquet 1

DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark aros@fotonik.dtu.dk

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances cannot exceed the maximum kWh. This will imply managing what appliances can use this electricity and which ones cannot. This project will analyze the consequences of setting this energy consumption limit in terms of performance characteristics.

Abstract
 The
project
is
about
reengineering
of
the
Tietgen
dormitory
with
focus
on
meeting
the
requirements
for
Low
 Energy
Class
1
in
the
Danish
Building
Regulations
(50
%
lower
than
the
current
standard
Building
Regulation)
 while
maintaining
a
comfortable
indoor
climate.
In
order
to
meet
the
requirements
the
design
of
the
building
 has
been
changed
so
the
functionality
and
architecture
interacts
with
each
other
to
make
a
positive
impact
on
 the
energy
consumption
of
the
building.
The
new
more
compact
design
decreases
the
transmission
area
of
the
 façade
by
15
%
compared
to
the
original
design,
which
minimizes
the
heat
loss
through
the
façade
while
 maintaining
the
same
heated
floor
are.
The
daylight
conditions
has
been
optimized
both
for
the
sake
of
 comfort
and
energy
consumption
and
the
ventilation
system
is
changed
to
a
much
more
energy
efficient
one
 with
80
%
heat
recovery
on
the
exhaust
air.

 The
dormitory
uses
rainwater
harvesting
for
the
water
used
for
toilet
flush
in
the
tenant
rooms
and
for
the
 intake
water
in
the
washing
machines.
The
roof
tops
is
covered
with
green
roof
which
emphasis
the
buildings
 green
and
environmental
profile.

APPROACH

The problematic presented here can be analyzed by using teletraffic theory. In a communication network there are nodes requesting to use the resources to transmit their information, and there is a maximum bandwidth that these nodes can use. In this project, the appliances request kWh instead of kbps, and the bandwidth is the maximum electricity usage per household.

METHODOLOGY

The home appliances have been divided into three main load groups in order to simplify the problem: active appliances, constant appliances, and stand-by appliances. We assume that the active appliances are the appliances turned on by the user and should not be blocked or delayed as we have to comply with the user’s request. Constant appliances include appliances that are always on, such as fridge/freezer and Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Stand-by appliances are described as all household appliances that are not being used but still consume energy as they have not been turned off, such as multimedia devices. We consider active appliances should have a very low probability of being delayed or cancelled as that would have a negative impact on the user. So these appliances are categorized as high priority. However constant appliances and stand-by appliances can be delayed or paused from consuming energy, as having them turned off for a short period of time will not affect the user. We have decided that constant appliances will have medium priority and stand-by appliances will have low priority. In addition to the above short-term scheduling of appliances, a scheduling can also take place based on the cost of power with a home-scale of hours or days.

FURTHER WORK

The work presented in this project is just an initial approach to use teletraffic theory to control energy usage. This work opens the window to use well accepted and validated teletraffic theories to energy management.

80

81


Laptop

Laptop

Scheduling Home-Appliances to Reduce Energy Consumption Ana Rosselló-Busquet 1

DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark aros@fotonik.dtu.dk

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances cannot exceed the maximum kWh. This will imply managing what appliances can use this electricity and which ones cannot. This project will analyze the consequences of setting this energy consumption limit in terms of performance characteristics.

Abstract
 The
project
is
about
reengineering
of
the
Tietgen
dormitory
with
focus
on
meeting
the
requirements
for
Low
 Energy
Class
1
in
the
Danish
Building
Regulations
(50
%
lower
than
the
current
standard
Building
Regulation)
 while
maintaining
a
comfortable
indoor
climate.
In
order
to
meet
the
requirements
the
design
of
the
building
 has
been
changed
so
the
functionality
and
architecture
interacts
with
each
other
to
make
a
positive
impact
on
 the
energy
consumption
of
the
building.
The
new
more
compact
design
decreases
the
transmission
area
of
the
 façade
by
15
%
compared
to
the
original
design,
which
minimizes
the
heat
loss
through
the
façade
while
 maintaining
the
same
heated
floor
are.
The
daylight
conditions
has
been
optimized
both
for
the
sake
of
 comfort
and
energy
consumption
and
the
ventilation
system
is
changed
to
a
much
more
energy
efficient
one
 with
80
%
heat
recovery
on
the
exhaust
air.

 The
dormitory
uses
rainwater
harvesting
for
the
water
used
for
toilet
flush
in
the
tenant
rooms
and
for
the
 intake
water
in
the
washing
machines.
The
roof
tops
is
covered
with
green
roof
which
emphasis
the
buildings
 green
and
environmental
profile.

APPROACH

The problematic presented here can be analyzed by using teletraffic theory. In a communication network there are nodes requesting to use the resources to transmit their information, and there is a maximum bandwidth that these nodes can use. In this project, the appliances request kWh instead of kbps, and the bandwidth is the maximum electricity usage per household.

METHODOLOGY

The home appliances have been divided into three main load groups in order to simplify the problem: active appliances, constant appliances, and stand-by appliances. We assume that the active appliances are the appliances turned on by the user and should not be blocked or delayed as we have to comply with the user’s request. Constant appliances include appliances that are always on, such as fridge/freezer and Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Stand-by appliances are described as all household appliances that are not being used but still consume energy as they have not been turned off, such as multimedia devices. We consider active appliances should have a very low probability of being delayed or cancelled as that would have a negative impact on the user. So these appliances are categorized as high priority. However constant appliances and stand-by appliances can be delayed or paused from consuming energy, as having them turned off for a short period of time will not affect the user. We have decided that constant appliances will have medium priority and stand-by appliances will have low priority. In addition to the above short-term scheduling of appliances, a scheduling can also take place based on the cost of power with a home-scale of hours or days.

FURTHER WORK

The work presented in this project is just an initial approach to use teletraffic theory to control energy usage. This work opens the window to use well accepted and validated teletraffic theories to energy management.

80

81


Laptop

Free style

TIETGENKOLLEGIET INTEGRATED FUNCTIONAL PROJECT

Algae Microculture System Søren Matthias Goldschmidt Supervisors: Maciej Skolimowski, Kristian Mølhave

Fadi Castronovo, Matteo Novati, Nicola Rigoni DTU Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s090477@student.dtu.dk, s091006@student.dtu.dk, s090736@student.dtu.dk

The world of building construction has been recently taking a turn towards sustainability and energy conservation. This change of methodology and mentality is not new to the world of construction. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, when the world saw the first oil crisis, the civil engineering and the architectural discipline and businesses started looking into the development of low energy buildings, and to set standards in order to achieve this. Currently, residential and commercial buildings are responsible for the generation of 40% of the world’s total greenhouse gases emission. Buildings are also responsible for 30% of the world’s energy consumption. Because of the growing effect of global warming and the pending energy crises, the two disciplines have started striving for sustainability. With this goal, the class of Integrated Functional Project decided to taking on the task of redesigning the Tietgenkollegiet in order to satisfy these environmental issues. This year for the Integrated Functional Project the class was assigned to conduct the energy modeling of the Tietgenkollegiet. The class was scheduled to first study the current design of the dormitory. After the team studied thoroughly the present design, new concepts had to be generated. In order to have a design that accounted for every environmental impact, the team used the Environmental Improvement Through Product Development guide. This guide allowed the team to understand where to focus in the design of the possible concepts. The major impacts were found to be in the use of building. Therefore the majority of the study was focused on the reduction of impacts in that area. Two concepts were generated, one where the majority of the focus was set on the simplification of the architecture and the enhancement of the indoor environment. The other proposed a new architectural solution, together with an improvement of the indoor environment. After a study of the energy impact with BSim, and the daylight quality using EcoTect, the second solution was chosen as the best solution. This solution included a new architectural solution, new building elements, and ventilation system that would ventilate every room in the building, which was not present in the current design.

82

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s072172@student.dtu.dk

Background Algae cultures is reported to offer the highest possible growth rates of biomass, and the study of algae for use in production of biofuels, bio mass and neutraceuticals is of great interest for sustainable engineering of production methods. This project develops a micro fluidic system, in which algae can be trapped in microchambers for study of growth rate and behavior under a variety of culture conditions. The system comprises multiple identical chambers, valve systems with a membrane as lock mechanism for injecting and harvesting algae from the chambers, and filter systems that will provide a fresh supply culture growth medium to the algae. The filter prevents the algae from escaping the chip with the medium flow. Here our focus is on the filter system, the valve system and testing the chambers on live algae.

Methods In the development of the valve system two kind of valves is used: A normally open valve and a normally closed valve each operated by adjusting pressure on a control channel blocked by a membrane pressing down in the channel to be open or closed. The normally open valve is open at ambient pressure, while the normally closed valve is closed. For both valves, the strength and stability of the membrane is studied. The membrane deflection and thickness as a function of the applied pressure in the normally open valve is studied as well. In the research of the filter system, a hydrophilic filter and a hydrophobic filter is tested. Different methods of isolating the filter to each chamber-filter-valve systems are also tested. Finally we have tested algae culturing in the system.

Results When the membrane deflection increases, the membrane thickness decreases due to tensile stress. The membrane stability tests reveal, that an applied pressure from a fixed volume container decreases exponentially with time to a certain pressure above ambient pressure. There is a linear relation between the pressure where the growth medium start to leak through the valve system and the pressure of the membrane control channel. The hydrophilic filter and the hydrophobic filter both absorbs liquid and can cause diffusive mixing of liquids between chambers. This is avoided by making a PDMS-stamping process that fills certain regions of the filter with a PDMS-polymer blocking any diffusion of liquids. We also report on our tests to see whether algae can be reliably trapped by the system

Conclusion Although the valve system still have some issues and need optimization, it is still possible to make a functional valve system. Using the PDMS-stamp method, it is possible to make a fine functional filter system.

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TIETGENKOLLEGIET INTEGRATED FUNCTIONAL PROJECT

Algae Microculture System Søren Matthias Goldschmidt Supervisors: Maciej Skolimowski, Kristian Mølhave

Fadi Castronovo, Matteo Novati, Nicola Rigoni DTU Architectural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s090477@student.dtu.dk, s091006@student.dtu.dk, s090736@student.dtu.dk

The world of building construction has been recently taking a turn towards sustainability and energy conservation. This change of methodology and mentality is not new to the world of construction. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, when the world saw the first oil crisis, the civil engineering and the architectural discipline and businesses started looking into the development of low energy buildings, and to set standards in order to achieve this. Currently, residential and commercial buildings are responsible for the generation of 40% of the world’s total greenhouse gases emission. Buildings are also responsible for 30% of the world’s energy consumption. Because of the growing effect of global warming and the pending energy crises, the two disciplines have started striving for sustainability. With this goal, the class of Integrated Functional Project decided to taking on the task of redesigning the Tietgenkollegiet in order to satisfy these environmental issues. This year for the Integrated Functional Project the class was assigned to conduct the energy modeling of the Tietgenkollegiet. The class was scheduled to first study the current design of the dormitory. After the team studied thoroughly the present design, new concepts had to be generated. In order to have a design that accounted for every environmental impact, the team used the Environmental Improvement Through Product Development guide. This guide allowed the team to understand where to focus in the design of the possible concepts. The major impacts were found to be in the use of building. Therefore the majority of the study was focused on the reduction of impacts in that area. Two concepts were generated, one where the majority of the focus was set on the simplification of the architecture and the enhancement of the indoor environment. The other proposed a new architectural solution, together with an improvement of the indoor environment. After a study of the energy impact with BSim, and the daylight quality using EcoTect, the second solution was chosen as the best solution. This solution included a new architectural solution, new building elements, and ventilation system that would ventilate every room in the building, which was not present in the current design.

82

DTU Nanotech, Technical University of Denmark s072172@student.dtu.dk

Background Algae cultures is reported to offer the highest possible growth rates of biomass, and the study of algae for use in production of biofuels, bio mass and neutraceuticals is of great interest for sustainable engineering of production methods. This project develops a micro fluidic system, in which algae can be trapped in microchambers for study of growth rate and behavior under a variety of culture conditions. The system comprises multiple identical chambers, valve systems with a membrane as lock mechanism for injecting and harvesting algae from the chambers, and filter systems that will provide a fresh supply culture growth medium to the algae. The filter prevents the algae from escaping the chip with the medium flow. Here our focus is on the filter system, the valve system and testing the chambers on live algae.

Methods In the development of the valve system two kind of valves is used: A normally open valve and a normally closed valve each operated by adjusting pressure on a control channel blocked by a membrane pressing down in the channel to be open or closed. The normally open valve is open at ambient pressure, while the normally closed valve is closed. For both valves, the strength and stability of the membrane is studied. The membrane deflection and thickness as a function of the applied pressure in the normally open valve is studied as well. In the research of the filter system, a hydrophilic filter and a hydrophobic filter is tested. Different methods of isolating the filter to each chamber-filter-valve systems are also tested. Finally we have tested algae culturing in the system.

Results When the membrane deflection increases, the membrane thickness decreases due to tensile stress. The membrane stability tests reveal, that an applied pressure from a fixed volume container decreases exponentially with time to a certain pressure above ambient pressure. There is a linear relation between the pressure where the growth medium start to leak through the valve system and the pressure of the membrane control channel. The hydrophilic filter and the hydrophobic filter both absorbs liquid and can cause diffusive mixing of liquids between chambers. This is avoided by making a PDMS-stamping process that fills certain regions of the filter with a PDMS-polymer blocking any diffusion of liquids. We also report on our tests to see whether algae can be reliably trapped by the system

Conclusion Although the valve system still have some issues and need optimization, it is still possible to make a functional valve system. Using the PDMS-stamp method, it is possible to make a fine functional filter system.

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Building Intelligence Into Intelligent Buildings

CO2 Capture via Carbonate Looping

Andreas Møller, and David Emil Lemvigh

J. Christensen

1

DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark

Most modern "Intelligent" buildings is focused on enhancing the users control when interacting with the building, and simplifying this interaction. BIIIB is different because it analyses its users and then take over the control of the building based on this analysis. First the system monitors its users normal interactions with the building, and once it has enough information it will begin to take over various tasks like for example controlling the lights. We have implemented a simple AI which controls the lighting in the the ground floor hallway of building 322. This simplified implementation is made with a network of motion sensors along the hallway, and wireless lights switches, which allow our server, to control the lights. We have managed to cut the time the lamps are turned on in half, compared to the normal system, and this is done while actually increasing the comfort of the users*. *that is excluding the entire development phases, and the endless amount of system crashes.

DTU Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark jonrunechristensen@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Coal fired power plants account for 40% of worldwide CO2 emissions. For many decades to come, burying the CO2 deep under ground or under water through a concept known as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be the only CO2 mitigation option. However, CCS is still too expensive for broad implementation (30-70$ per ton CO2). The largest cost component in CCS is the capture of CO2 from flue gases. Capture is to create a concentrated CO2 stream, necessary for subsequent transportation and storage of the CO2. To reduce CCS costs, new capture technologies are being proposed and demonstrated. One of the most promising is termed the “Carbonate Looping” process, illustrated in Fig. 1. CO2 is captured by reaction with CaO to form limestone (CaCO3) and is released in a pure stream by decomposing the limestone through the reverse reaction: CaO + CO 2 ⇌ CaCO 3 ∆Hr = -178 kJ / mol

The 3 main advantages of the Carbonate Looping process are: 1. The large amount of heat produced by capturing CO2 is used for significant electricity production. 2. The limestone sorbent is cheap and can be re-used in the cement industry. This would cut more than half of the CO2 emissions from cement production, the second most CO2 emitting industry in the world after the utilities industry. 3. SO2 is automatically captured, removing the need for separate desulfurization units.

Figure 1. Flowsheet illustrating the Carbonate Looping process.

Using state-of-the art equipment, the central reactions of the process have been investigated and many new findings of great importance to assessing the overall viability of the Carbonate Looping technology have been obtained.

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Building Intelligence Into Intelligent Buildings

CO2 Capture via Carbonate Looping

Andreas Møller, and David Emil Lemvigh

J. Christensen

1

DTU Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark

Most modern "Intelligent" buildings is focused on enhancing the users control when interacting with the building, and simplifying this interaction. BIIIB is different because it analyses its users and then take over the control of the building based on this analysis. First the system monitors its users normal interactions with the building, and once it has enough information it will begin to take over various tasks like for example controlling the lights. We have implemented a simple AI which controls the lighting in the the ground floor hallway of building 322. This simplified implementation is made with a network of motion sensors along the hallway, and wireless lights switches, which allow our server, to control the lights. We have managed to cut the time the lamps are turned on in half, compared to the normal system, and this is done while actually increasing the comfort of the users*. *that is excluding the entire development phases, and the endless amount of system crashes.

DTU Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark jonrunechristensen@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Coal fired power plants account for 40% of worldwide CO2 emissions. For many decades to come, burying the CO2 deep under ground or under water through a concept known as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be the only CO2 mitigation option. However, CCS is still too expensive for broad implementation (30-70$ per ton CO2). The largest cost component in CCS is the capture of CO2 from flue gases. Capture is to create a concentrated CO2 stream, necessary for subsequent transportation and storage of the CO2. To reduce CCS costs, new capture technologies are being proposed and demonstrated. One of the most promising is termed the “Carbonate Looping” process, illustrated in Fig. 1. CO2 is captured by reaction with CaO to form limestone (CaCO3) and is released in a pure stream by decomposing the limestone through the reverse reaction: CaO + CO 2 ⇌ CaCO 3 ∆Hr = -178 kJ / mol

The 3 main advantages of the Carbonate Looping process are: 1. The large amount of heat produced by capturing CO2 is used for significant electricity production. 2. The limestone sorbent is cheap and can be re-used in the cement industry. This would cut more than half of the CO2 emissions from cement production, the second most CO2 emitting industry in the world after the utilities industry. 3. SO2 is automatically captured, removing the need for separate desulfurization units.

Figure 1. Flowsheet illustrating the Carbonate Looping process.

Using state-of-the art equipment, the central reactions of the process have been investigated and many new findings of great importance to assessing the overall viability of the Carbonate Looping technology have been obtained.

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Free style Intelligent energy regulation Mirjana Tasevska Morten Heebøll Christian Salmony Olsen

Almost everyone has experienced a power blackout, which occurs when the power grid is overloaded. The overall power usage is forecasted a day ahead. When the forecast does not meet the actually energy consumption the power grid is overloaded, which will cause a frequency drop from the normal 50Hz in Europe. In this case the energy companies need to buy energy from a backup network, but if the extra power isn't enough it can result in a blackout. Also the backup energy is much more expensive than the normal day price, therefore it is preferable for the consumer to avoid any peek situation at any time of the day. At this moment no solution to avoid this problem has been implemented, but it has become a great focus area to develop and implement a solution. We wish to propose a solution for this problem that is as efficient, inexpensive for the consumer and easy to rollout. We have created a unit to be implemented in homes, which monitors the frequency on the power grid. When peak situations occur it will turn off certain utilities (e.g. tumble driers, refrigerators, Laptops) for an appropriate amount of time or as long as possible for the power grid to retain a normal level. Thereafter it will turn the utility back on again. The idea is to let the consumer choose which utilities that are to be connected to our unit in the rollout phase. Later it should be integrated into all electrical utilities used in the home. Thereby the consumer will become aware of the current fluctuation electricity prices and give them an opportunity to avoid using unnecessary power when the price is high. In the long run this should make space for more wind, wave and sun energy (which are inherently unstable energy sources) and ultimately lower CO2 emissions. At the same time the consumer can save money on their electrical bill.

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iPhone application to support commuters J.v. Beusekom, P.G. Poulsen, and L.L. Pedersen DTU Software technology, Technical University of Denmark s093251@student.dtu.dk, s093263@student.dtu.dk, s093278@student.dtu.dk

The burning of fossil fuels has always had a great influence on the environment, but the true consequences of the problem have not been recognized until a few decades ago. In recent years a lot of the greatest nations have worked together in search of solutions to the problems caused by CO2 emissions. A lot of attention has been given to the burning of oil and how it would be possible to reduce the use of fossil fuels. In Denmark, the transport sector is responsible for about 30% of all CO2 emissions, which is something the government, among others, is trying to reduce. One way of reducing the CO2 emissions made by cars, is by getting new types of cars on the market that do not use gasoline as their primary source of fuel, namely electric cars and hybrid-cars. Although this would help to reduce CO2 emissions, another part of the problem lies with peoples’ driving mentality. Often you see people taking the car over long distances alone, which is both uneconomic and unnecessarily damaging to the environment. It is obvious that it would be preferable if you could make people drive together. The greatest challenge about making people do this is to create a network for people to use when finding driving partners, without it becoming a burden or taking a lot of time. In recent years a new kind of technology has emerged, smartphones, which allow users to browse the Internet, visit Facebook, Twitter and other social networks, using GPS along with a large amount of other functions. Among the socalled smartphones, Apple’s iPhone is one of the most common. Our solution to the earlier mentioned problem with making people drive together is making an iPhone application that helps commuters find driving partners based upon their routes. The application is going to be implemented with Facebook and Twitter so that upon creating or requesting a ride it is possible to announce it, so that it is possible to find driving partners outside of the application as well. Our vision with the application is to create a large network of users and make carpooling more common than it is now, which ultimately would protect the environment. We have focused on making the application very user-friendly and easy-touse, because it is important that people do not feel it is a burden to use it.

87


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Free style Intelligent energy regulation Mirjana Tasevska Morten Heebøll Christian Salmony Olsen

Almost everyone has experienced a power blackout, which occurs when the power grid is overloaded. The overall power usage is forecasted a day ahead. When the forecast does not meet the actually energy consumption the power grid is overloaded, which will cause a frequency drop from the normal 50Hz in Europe. In this case the energy companies need to buy energy from a backup network, but if the extra power isn't enough it can result in a blackout. Also the backup energy is much more expensive than the normal day price, therefore it is preferable for the consumer to avoid any peek situation at any time of the day. At this moment no solution to avoid this problem has been implemented, but it has become a great focus area to develop and implement a solution. We wish to propose a solution for this problem that is as efficient, inexpensive for the consumer and easy to rollout. We have created a unit to be implemented in homes, which monitors the frequency on the power grid. When peak situations occur it will turn off certain utilities (e.g. tumble driers, refrigerators, Laptops) for an appropriate amount of time or as long as possible for the power grid to retain a normal level. Thereafter it will turn the utility back on again. The idea is to let the consumer choose which utilities that are to be connected to our unit in the rollout phase. Later it should be integrated into all electrical utilities used in the home. Thereby the consumer will become aware of the current fluctuation electricity prices and give them an opportunity to avoid using unnecessary power when the price is high. In the long run this should make space for more wind, wave and sun energy (which are inherently unstable energy sources) and ultimately lower CO2 emissions. At the same time the consumer can save money on their electrical bill.

86

iPhone application to support commuters J.v. Beusekom, P.G. Poulsen, and L.L. Pedersen DTU Software technology, Technical University of Denmark s093251@student.dtu.dk, s093263@student.dtu.dk, s093278@student.dtu.dk

The burning of fossil fuels has always had a great influence on the environment, but the true consequences of the problem have not been recognized until a few decades ago. In recent years a lot of the greatest nations have worked together in search of solutions to the problems caused by CO2 emissions. A lot of attention has been given to the burning of oil and how it would be possible to reduce the use of fossil fuels. In Denmark, the transport sector is responsible for about 30% of all CO2 emissions, which is something the government, among others, is trying to reduce. One way of reducing the CO2 emissions made by cars, is by getting new types of cars on the market that do not use gasoline as their primary source of fuel, namely electric cars and hybrid-cars. Although this would help to reduce CO2 emissions, another part of the problem lies with peoples’ driving mentality. Often you see people taking the car over long distances alone, which is both uneconomic and unnecessarily damaging to the environment. It is obvious that it would be preferable if you could make people drive together. The greatest challenge about making people do this is to create a network for people to use when finding driving partners, without it becoming a burden or taking a lot of time. In recent years a new kind of technology has emerged, smartphones, which allow users to browse the Internet, visit Facebook, Twitter and other social networks, using GPS along with a large amount of other functions. Among the socalled smartphones, Apple’s iPhone is one of the most common. Our solution to the earlier mentioned problem with making people drive together is making an iPhone application that helps commuters find driving partners based upon their routes. The application is going to be implemented with Facebook and Twitter so that upon creating or requesting a ride it is possible to announce it, so that it is possible to find driving partners outside of the application as well. Our vision with the application is to create a large network of users and make carpooling more common than it is now, which ultimately would protect the environment. We have focused on making the application very user-friendly and easy-touse, because it is important that people do not feel it is a burden to use it.

87


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Linear Wind Power Plant

Magnetic Room Temperature Cooling Using Stacks of Gadolinium Plates

M. R. Hansen1, and S.S.W. Sørensen1

Kasper Wigh Lipsø

1

DTU Electro, Technical University of Denmark S081927@student.dtu.dk and s080247@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

Through time there have been numerous ideas in which we can harvest wind energy. Today the most widespread method is the horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). 50 years ago a patent was made for the first linear wind power plant (LWPP). Since then the LWPP has been subject to many improvements. No ideas have been commercially realized yet, but this project will prove if the concept is technologically possible. A possible implementation of a LWPP could consist of a 10km long closed track with 180 degree turns at each end. Along the rail several carriages, each carrying a 100m vertical wing, are able to move freely. The distance between the carriages and the maximum speed should be around 100m and 100km/h on the straight parts and less in the turns. A linear generator/motor is split between the rail and carriage, where the linear stator is integrated in the rail track and each carriage contains a part of the rotor. After each turn the carriage needs to be accelerated to nearly 100km/h and before a turn the carriage needs to be decelerated to around 40km/h. The acceleration/deceleration of each carriage is controlled by adjusting the electrical power input/output of the converters related to the carriage. When the system is fully build the theoretical output is 100MW, which corresponds to around 40-50 average sized onshore HAWTs.

DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark s062075@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

Refrigeration is estimated to take up 15-20% of the energy consumption in western countries. Thus massive energy savings can be obtained from an optimization of the cooling process, resulting in reduction of the global carbon dioxide emission and the economic expenses in households and the industry. It is estimated that magnetic refrigeration can yield an energy efficiency 20-40% higher than conventional refrigeration that make use of the vapor compression cycle. It has several other advantages compared to conventional refrigeration, for instance a lower noise level.

MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION

The cooling process is based on the magnetocaloric effect, i.e. the property of magnetic materials to change temperature when exposed to a changing magnetic field. The magnetocaloric effect can be described by thermodynamic considerations. When magnetic materials are magnetized in a field, the individual spins in the material are aligned with the direction of the field. Thus the entropy of the system is decreased. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that the entropy of a closed system tends to increase over time. This is obtained by a drop in the temperature. Magnetic refrigeration is now being used to low temperature cooling, where a powder of magnetic material is demagnetized and hence cooled down. A fluid is then pushed through the powder after which the fluid is used to cool the sample. A lot of power is required to push the fluid through the powder. This process can be optimized by substituting the powder with stacks of plates of magnetic materials.

IMPLEMENTING STACKS OF MAGNETIC PLATES

Figure 1 Bird's eye view of the linear wind power plant. The vertical lines are the carriages with wings.

88

When a magnetic material is inserted in a magnetic field, it changes the field around it. By finding the right configuration of the magnetic plates, the demagnetizing field of one plate can intensify the field at the sites of the other plates, thus reducing the amount of magnetic material required. This project aims to describe the effect of stacking magnetic plates. It is experimentally measured how the magnetocaloric effect changes when the following 3 parameters are changed: Number of plates: The temperature change is measured for stacks of 1 to 11 plates. Plate spacing: The temperature changed is measured for 3 different spacings between the plates in a stack. Angle of field: The temperature change is measured for plates parallel and perpendicular to the field. The experimental results are compared to a simulation model based on the mean field theory. The optimal configuration for a prototype is determined from the results.

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Linear Wind Power Plant

Magnetic Room Temperature Cooling Using Stacks of Gadolinium Plates

M. R. Hansen1, and S.S.W. Sørensen1

Kasper Wigh Lipsø

1

DTU Electro, Technical University of Denmark S081927@student.dtu.dk and s080247@student.dtu.dk

ABSTRACT

Through time there have been numerous ideas in which we can harvest wind energy. Today the most widespread method is the horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). 50 years ago a patent was made for the first linear wind power plant (LWPP). Since then the LWPP has been subject to many improvements. No ideas have been commercially realized yet, but this project will prove if the concept is technologically possible. A possible implementation of a LWPP could consist of a 10km long closed track with 180 degree turns at each end. Along the rail several carriages, each carrying a 100m vertical wing, are able to move freely. The distance between the carriages and the maximum speed should be around 100m and 100km/h on the straight parts and less in the turns. A linear generator/motor is split between the rail and carriage, where the linear stator is integrated in the rail track and each carriage contains a part of the rotor. After each turn the carriage needs to be accelerated to nearly 100km/h and before a turn the carriage needs to be decelerated to around 40km/h. The acceleration/deceleration of each carriage is controlled by adjusting the electrical power input/output of the converters related to the carriage. When the system is fully build the theoretical output is 100MW, which corresponds to around 40-50 average sized onshore HAWTs.

DTU Physics, Technical University of Denmark s062075@student.dtu.dk

INTRODUCTION

Refrigeration is estimated to take up 15-20% of the energy consumption in western countries. Thus massive energy savings can be obtained from an optimization of the cooling process, resulting in reduction of the global carbon dioxide emission and the economic expenses in households and the industry. It is estimated that magnetic refrigeration can yield an energy efficiency 20-40% higher than conventional refrigeration that make use of the vapor compression cycle. It has several other advantages compared to conventional refrigeration, for instance a lower noise level.

MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION

The cooling process is based on the magnetocaloric effect, i.e. the property of magnetic materials to change temperature when exposed to a changing magnetic field. The magnetocaloric effect can be described by thermodynamic considerations. When magnetic materials are magnetized in a field, the individual spins in the material are aligned with the direction of the field. Thus the entropy of the system is decreased. The second law of thermodynamics tells us that the entropy of a closed system tends to increase over time. This is obtained by a drop in the temperature. Magnetic refrigeration is now being used to low temperature cooling, where a powder of magnetic material is demagnetized and hence cooled down. A fluid is then pushed through the powder after which the fluid is used to cool the sample. A lot of power is required to push the fluid through the powder. This process can be optimized by substituting the powder with stacks of plates of magnetic materials.

IMPLEMENTING STACKS OF MAGNETIC PLATES

Figure 1 Bird's eye view of the linear wind power plant. The vertical lines are the carriages with wings.

88

When a magnetic material is inserted in a magnetic field, it changes the field around it. By finding the right configuration of the magnetic plates, the demagnetizing field of one plate can intensify the field at the sites of the other plates, thus reducing the amount of magnetic material required. This project aims to describe the effect of stacking magnetic plates. It is experimentally measured how the magnetocaloric effect changes when the following 3 parameters are changed: Number of plates: The temperature change is measured for stacks of 1 to 11 plates. Plate spacing: The temperature changed is measured for 3 different spacings between the plates in a stack. Angle of field: The temperature change is measured for plates parallel and perpendicular to the field. The experimental results are compared to a simulation model based on the mean field theory. The optimal configuration for a prototype is determined from the results.

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Redesign of Pavilion

Modifications of a windscanner Author: Emil Holm Knudsen DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Emil_hk@hotmail.com

This project deal with the first step in designing a new type of wind scanner. The new type of scanner is supposed to be place inside the hub of a wind turbine. By analyzing the wind in front of the mille we will be able to adjust the mille correct and therefore increase the power output. The presentation will be based on my bachelor project there is in progress to be written this semester in cooperation with DTU Risø and IPU. Through the presentation I will speech about the following subjects: -

A short presentation of the technical principle in a common windscanner Application and perspective fore scanning the wind The problematic in the existing system Finding the optimal pattern Concept ideas Choosing the right concept Optimizing the final concept if possible some test of the system

1

2

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J. B. Andersen , S. Ellermann , J.B. Jakobsen , P. Michelsen , L.K. 1 1 Svenstrup and M.R. Wulff 1

DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s052672@student.dtu.dk, s062001@student.dtu.dk, s061974@student.dtu.dk, s032690@student.dtu.dk 2 Risø DTU, Technical University of Denmark s061999@student.dtu.dk, s062097@student.dtu.dk

STATE OF THE ART The opportunities and technology within material utilization and recycling has made large progress through the last couple of years. Especially composite materials and the recycling of these have been marked by almost revolutionary changes. This development is nowhere to be found, when looking at the range of garden pavilions that are used by the participants at Roskilde Festival. They primarily consist of metal and plastic. The participants often leave the pavilions at the end of the festival which results in a garbage problem. This has a negative impact on the environment because of the choice of material, the problems connected to collecting of the pavilions and at last processing of the waste.

CONTENT OF THE PROJECT The purpose of the project is to investigate the preconditions and the challenges connected to a successful development and implementation of an alternative to the garden pavilions used in large extend at Roskilde Festival. This project tries to apply the scientific progress that has taken place within material utilization and recycling to create an environmentally friendly alternative to the pavilions. The projects vision is to make an alternative to the traditional pavilion in a material that can be recycled as 100% raw material from one year to another or that can easily enter into nature again. Therefore the project focus will be the choice of both material and development of design. Since material and design make demands to one another the project will focus on both of these from the start to avoid that one of the factors end up dictating the other. The way the project wishes to investigate the preconditions and the challenges connected to a successful development and implementation of an alternative pavilion has its basis in an iterative way of thinking. By giving concrete suggestions for a solution, based on an analysis of function and sustainability, the project wishes to serve as a first iteration of a long term design process. If the project is continued later the outcome will be able to serve as a starting point and enhance the design process as well as give rise to adjust shortcomings disclosed in this first iteration.

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Redesign of Pavilion

Modifications of a windscanner Author: Emil Holm Knudsen DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark Emil_hk@hotmail.com

This project deal with the first step in designing a new type of wind scanner. The new type of scanner is supposed to be place inside the hub of a wind turbine. By analyzing the wind in front of the mille we will be able to adjust the mille correct and therefore increase the power output. The presentation will be based on my bachelor project there is in progress to be written this semester in cooperation with DTU Risø and IPU. Through the presentation I will speech about the following subjects: -

A short presentation of the technical principle in a common windscanner Application and perspective fore scanning the wind The problematic in the existing system Finding the optimal pattern Concept ideas Choosing the right concept Optimizing the final concept if possible some test of the system

1

2

2

1

J. B. Andersen , S. Ellermann , J.B. Jakobsen , P. Michelsen , L.K. 1 1 Svenstrup and M.R. Wulff 1

DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark s052672@student.dtu.dk, s062001@student.dtu.dk, s061974@student.dtu.dk, s032690@student.dtu.dk 2 Risø DTU, Technical University of Denmark s061999@student.dtu.dk, s062097@student.dtu.dk

STATE OF THE ART The opportunities and technology within material utilization and recycling has made large progress through the last couple of years. Especially composite materials and the recycling of these have been marked by almost revolutionary changes. This development is nowhere to be found, when looking at the range of garden pavilions that are used by the participants at Roskilde Festival. They primarily consist of metal and plastic. The participants often leave the pavilions at the end of the festival which results in a garbage problem. This has a negative impact on the environment because of the choice of material, the problems connected to collecting of the pavilions and at last processing of the waste.

CONTENT OF THE PROJECT The purpose of the project is to investigate the preconditions and the challenges connected to a successful development and implementation of an alternative to the garden pavilions used in large extend at Roskilde Festival. This project tries to apply the scientific progress that has taken place within material utilization and recycling to create an environmentally friendly alternative to the pavilions. The projects vision is to make an alternative to the traditional pavilion in a material that can be recycled as 100% raw material from one year to another or that can easily enter into nature again. Therefore the project focus will be the choice of both material and development of design. Since material and design make demands to one another the project will focus on both of these from the start to avoid that one of the factors end up dictating the other. The way the project wishes to investigate the preconditions and the challenges connected to a successful development and implementation of an alternative pavilion has its basis in an iterative way of thinking. By giving concrete suggestions for a solution, based on an analysis of function and sustainability, the project wishes to serve as a first iteration of a long term design process. If the project is continued later the outcome will be able to serve as a starting point and enhance the design process as well as give rise to adjust shortcomings disclosed in this first iteration.

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Solar Powered Stirling Engine Thor Thorup, Jesper Oxbøl, Niels Hvid, Stefan Høngaard Andersen, and Jesper Hyldig DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s082866@student.dtu.dk, s082883@student.dtu.dk, s082875@student.dtu.dk, s082878@student.dtu.dk, s072110@student.dtu.dk

WHY STIRLING? A Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that can run on any external heat source, as long as the source is hot enough. Stirling Engines can run on anything from a blowtorch to the rays of the sun. The Stirling Engine can utilize the effect of an internal regenerative heat exchanger, thus enabling the thermal efficiency of the engine to approach the maximum achievable efficiency, the Carnot efficiency. The Stirling Engine has the capability to produce power from both bio-fuels and focused sun rays, thus making it a viable green technology. THE SOLAR POWERED GAMMA-TYPE STIRLING ENGINE A gamma-type Stirling engine consists of two different pistons, the displacer piston and the power piston, in two different cylinders, connected to the same crankshaft. The hot cylinder, which contains the displacer piston is connected to the cold cylinder by a tube. A Fresnel lens is utilized to direct the rays of the sun onto the heat exchanger of the Stirling Engine. The Fresnel lens is advantageous to a standard lens as it, due to its unique design, is lightweight and transportable, just like a simple sheet of plastic.

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Solar Powered Stirling Engine Thor Thorup, Jesper Oxbøl, Niels Hvid, Stefan Høngaard Andersen, and Jesper Hyldig DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s082866@student.dtu.dk, s082883@student.dtu.dk, s082875@student.dtu.dk, s082878@student.dtu.dk, s072110@student.dtu.dk

WHY STIRLING? A Stirling Engine is an external combustion engine that can run on any external heat source, as long as the source is hot enough. Stirling Engines can run on anything from a blowtorch to the rays of the sun. The Stirling Engine can utilize the effect of an internal regenerative heat exchanger, thus enabling the thermal efficiency of the engine to approach the maximum achievable efficiency, the Carnot efficiency. The Stirling Engine has the capability to produce power from both bio-fuels and focused sun rays, thus making it a viable green technology. THE SOLAR POWERED GAMMA-TYPE STIRLING ENGINE A gamma-type Stirling engine consists of two different pistons, the displacer piston and the power piston, in two different cylinders, connected to the same crankshaft. The hot cylinder, which contains the displacer piston is connected to the cold cylinder by a tube. A Fresnel lens is utilized to direct the rays of the sun onto the heat exchanger of the Stirling Engine. The Fresnel lens is advantageous to a standard lens as it, due to its unique design, is lightweight and transportable, just like a simple sheet of plastic.

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Communicating sustainability through interactive design and prototyping of solar cooker

Power Take-Off system for Ocean Wave Energy Keld Lundgaard 1

Rasmus Funk1-s072715, Nikolaj Scledermann2-s062342, Christian Mebus2 -s090250

1

DTU physics, Technical University of Denmark S052856@student.dtu.dk

1

DTU Mechanical engineering 2 DTU Design & Innovation

In the current world situation the use of fossil fuels is inhibiting modern life in several ways. Fossil fuels are not renewable and the resources are steadily declining making it less possible for future generations to sustain and develop our way of life. Currently there are many existing technologies to prevent the scenario where all our fossil fuels are used but the success of these technologies are highly dependent on politically determined factors communicative aspects. Industrialized countries have the resources and know how to invest in sustainable technology but in many third world countries incoherent infrastructures and unstable political situations prevent such investments. On the other hand third world countries are often located in places of high solar radiation. Using this resource is thus an obvious opportunity to produce energy for the everyday use of the population. Cooking and producing clean drinking water is essential in third world countries. Using solar energy for these applications seems obvious and this project focuses on achieving this. It contains design and prototyping of a solar grill using accessible materials in many regards considered garbage after designated use. We build the solar grill from a parabolic shape and a reflective foil. This could be a trashed satellite dish and the wrapping of potato chips. Thus “up cycling� what otherwise would be considered garbage. The design incorporates the goal of simplicity and user friendliness. The product requires minimal instructions, safety precautions, installations and maintenance. Therefore making it suitable for less educated communities. Designing and producing this solar grill contains aspects of using renewable energy for preparing food, communicating a sustainable message and introducing focus and creating a hype around using solar energy as an alternative to using fossil fuels. The product will be tested at a musical festival representing the infrastructural aspects of the intended use situation.

INTRODUCTION In this project I have been looking at a new Power Take-Off (PTO) system for ocean wave energy, using an elastic capacitor. The project has taken form as the coordination of a multidisciplinary study of the system, with student projects running across three departments with 16 students participating, and with formulation of a business plan at the department of Management Engineering for Blue Power Technologies over the spring of 2010.

GENERATOR FOR OCEAN WAVE ENERGY Ocean wave energy is one of the alternatives to wind and solar energy, with its large potential and availability when there is no wind or sun. However, still large boundaries need to be crossed to make a breakthrough. One is better generators to convert the mechanical energy to electricity, which is the problem this project addresses.

PROJECT In the fall of 2009 the project begun with the use of an elastic capacitor which was found fitted for the demands seen in ocean wave power utilization with up to 90% conversion efficiency. An investigation of the possibilities of the technology was initialized with a proof of concept made by end of 2009. The project was continued in the spring of 2010, with the announcements of the projects at three departments at DTU, namely Department of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Physics. 16 bachelor students started working on the project as part of their studies and with the coordination of me and a follow student, in the constellation of Blue Power Technologies.

Proof of concept

Future concept illustration

Currently the development of a proof of principle prototype is finalized which will generate energy directly from waves in a wave pool using the elastically capacitor. The results will give a clear indication of the viability of the technology and the issues involved in using it for ocean wave energy utilization.

CONCLUSION By starting a multidisciplinary project at DTU it is possible to develop a proof of principle prototype for a technology that can make the breakthrough in ocean wave energy.

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Communicating sustainability through interactive design and prototyping of solar cooker

Power Take-Off system for Ocean Wave Energy Keld Lundgaard 1

Rasmus Funk1-s072715, Nikolaj Scledermann2-s062342, Christian Mebus2 -s090250

1

DTU physics, Technical University of Denmark S052856@student.dtu.dk

1

DTU Mechanical engineering 2 DTU Design & Innovation

In the current world situation the use of fossil fuels is inhibiting modern life in several ways. Fossil fuels are not renewable and the resources are steadily declining making it less possible for future generations to sustain and develop our way of life. Currently there are many existing technologies to prevent the scenario where all our fossil fuels are used but the success of these technologies are highly dependent on politically determined factors communicative aspects. Industrialized countries have the resources and know how to invest in sustainable technology but in many third world countries incoherent infrastructures and unstable political situations prevent such investments. On the other hand third world countries are often located in places of high solar radiation. Using this resource is thus an obvious opportunity to produce energy for the everyday use of the population. Cooking and producing clean drinking water is essential in third world countries. Using solar energy for these applications seems obvious and this project focuses on achieving this. It contains design and prototyping of a solar grill using accessible materials in many regards considered garbage after designated use. We build the solar grill from a parabolic shape and a reflective foil. This could be a trashed satellite dish and the wrapping of potato chips. Thus “up cycling� what otherwise would be considered garbage. The design incorporates the goal of simplicity and user friendliness. The product requires minimal instructions, safety precautions, installations and maintenance. Therefore making it suitable for less educated communities. Designing and producing this solar grill contains aspects of using renewable energy for preparing food, communicating a sustainable message and introducing focus and creating a hype around using solar energy as an alternative to using fossil fuels. The product will be tested at a musical festival representing the infrastructural aspects of the intended use situation.

INTRODUCTION In this project I have been looking at a new Power Take-Off (PTO) system for ocean wave energy, using an elastic capacitor. The project has taken form as the coordination of a multidisciplinary study of the system, with student projects running across three departments with 16 students participating, and with formulation of a business plan at the department of Management Engineering for Blue Power Technologies over the spring of 2010.

GENERATOR FOR OCEAN WAVE ENERGY Ocean wave energy is one of the alternatives to wind and solar energy, with its large potential and availability when there is no wind or sun. However, still large boundaries need to be crossed to make a breakthrough. One is better generators to convert the mechanical energy to electricity, which is the problem this project addresses.

PROJECT In the fall of 2009 the project begun with the use of an elastic capacitor which was found fitted for the demands seen in ocean wave power utilization with up to 90% conversion efficiency. An investigation of the possibilities of the technology was initialized with a proof of concept made by end of 2009. The project was continued in the spring of 2010, with the announcements of the projects at three departments at DTU, namely Department of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Physics. 16 bachelor students started working on the project as part of their studies and with the coordination of me and a follow student, in the constellation of Blue Power Technologies.

Proof of concept

Future concept illustration

Currently the development of a proof of principle prototype is finalized which will generate energy directly from waves in a wave pool using the elastically capacitor. The results will give a clear indication of the viability of the technology and the issues involved in using it for ocean wave energy utilization.

CONCLUSION By starting a multidisciplinary project at DTU it is possible to develop a proof of principle prototype for a technology that can make the breakthrough in ocean wave energy.

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Heat Driven Cooling 1

Jakob Berg Amondsen and Simon Stubkier 1

Mathematical analysis of solar collectors 1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s062360@student.dtu.dk and s052888@student.dtu.dk

PERSPECTIVE OF HEAT DRIVEN COOLING

Cooling and air-conditioning are among the most energy consuming thermal processes in today’s world. Solar driven cooling has the potential to lower the primary energy (electricity) used for residential air-conditioning since the production and the need for cooling is in phase over the yearly cycle. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibility of constructing a heat driven cooling cycle, with evacuated tubes solar collectors as the heat source in combination with an absorption refrigeration cycle to convert the heat to cooling. By using solar driven air-conditioning systems, the total electricity consumption will be lowered (ideally lowered to zero) and thereby there will also be a reduction in CO2 emissions. There may be an economic incentive too. By utilizing thermosyphoning it is possible to construct a cooling system that does not consume any electricity at all, running only on solar energy, thereby being completely CO2 neutral.

TECHNOLOGY

The key technologies in this project are the absorption cycle, with ammonia and water as refrigerant pair, and a specific type of solar collector known as evacuated tubes solar collectors (heat pipes). The most simple absorption cycle consist of five elements, these are: Boiler (Sets the high pressure and separates the ammonia from the water) Condenser (condenses the ammonia) Expansion valve (lowers the pressure of the ammonia) Evaporator (Evaporates the ammonia ) Absorber (Mixes the ammonia and water) When the absorption system is used for cooling the energy is supplied to the boiler and as the ammonia evaporates energy is removed from the surroundings. The absorption cycle has the capability of converting heat into cooling with a coefficient of performance (COP) of 1 (based on the heat input). The evacuated tubes solar collector can approximately convert half of the solar radiation to warm water. The main advantage of such a collector is that it is able to absorb both direct and indirect (diffuse) radiation, which increases the usage time of the combined system as a direct result.

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Lasse Tidemann, Casper Nissen, Jacob Nørregaard, Søren Wrang, Andreas Sørensen and Jens Steemann DTU Math, Technical University of Denmark S092831@student.dtu.dk, s092803@student.dtu.dk, s092834@student.dtu.dk, s092829@student.dtu.dk, s092800@student.dtu.dk, s092808@student.dtu.dk

Introduction In this project there has been used some mathematical assumptions to model the sun’s radiation. With these assumptions in hand geometrical objects are modeled and then the flux through the objects can be analyzed. The flux is a model of the sun’s radiation and the objects are models of solar collectors or buildings and therefore the flux into the object is the energy consumption of the object. With this in hand the project can be used to “real world” problems.

Use of method With use of mathematical vector calculus and the use of Stokes and Gauss’ sentences the calculation of energy consumptions is made easier. The mathematical part of the project is one thing though and the use of the general method that is developed in the project is another. In the end of the project one particular general method is made up, and this method makes it particular easy to calculate the energy consumption. With the methods developed there are a lot of possibilities for the use. The method can of course be used to calculate the energy consumption in solar collectors to make electricity from the sun rays. But the method can also be used to analyze how much energy is transmitted from the sun into buildings – including analysis of what time of the day the energy consumption is largest. This can be very useful for engineers who are to make thermal systems of buildings including systems to control what time of the day radiators and heaters should be heating and how much. The method developed is also efficient in the design face of buildings. When new buildings are designed architects have in mind what it is used for both in its aesthetic expression but also in its internal design of offices etc. With this in mind it can be very useful to have an idea of how much energy is consumed by the building – for instance it would be nice to have large energy consumption if a tropical zoo is built like Randers Regnskov. In the project there have been done calculations on an object shaped just like the hemispheres of Randers Regnskov. With the method it is also easy to calculate how much energy is consumed per area. This can also be very useful – e.g. a farmer wants to build a silo with a given volume. He wants this silo covered in a solar collector of a particular shape and given the shape of the silo the largest energy consumption per area can be calculated. Besides from all this the analysis of the solar collectors with help from the method developed in the project can be extended to optimize regular solar collectors. The method makes it possible to analyze which geometrical shape that will consume the most energy at any given time and therefore it seems as a very good opportunity to think of new kinds solar collectors. E.g. it would be possible with the method developed in this project to use some of the other projects in the competition in an even better way. It could be possible to reshape solar panels on solar collectors so the total shape of the solar collector will change – and with this option it would be possible to change the energy consumption of the solar collector as it changes shape. This could finally lead into the most optimal solar collector during an entire day as it would make the best possible solar collector during each moment of the day.

Conclusion This project has produced a method to analyze the energy consumption in solar collectors such as solar cells, buildings and in fact any given object that is exposed to the sun. The method is based on mathematical vector analysis and is very useful for a lot of purposes – though it is most useful when combined with other “green” projects. Hopefully the method developed in this project will be used by all kinds of the industry from architecture to thermal analysis of buildings to building, controlling and optimizing solar collectors – at least a combination of these has the possibility to make the grass greener on this side to.

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Heat Driven Cooling 1

Jakob Berg Amondsen and Simon Stubkier 1

Mathematical analysis of solar collectors 1

DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark s062360@student.dtu.dk and s052888@student.dtu.dk

PERSPECTIVE OF HEAT DRIVEN COOLING

Cooling and air-conditioning are among the most energy consuming thermal processes in today’s world. Solar driven cooling has the potential to lower the primary energy (electricity) used for residential air-conditioning since the production and the need for cooling is in phase over the yearly cycle. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibility of constructing a heat driven cooling cycle, with evacuated tubes solar collectors as the heat source in combination with an absorption refrigeration cycle to convert the heat to cooling. By using solar driven air-conditioning systems, the total electricity consumption will be lowered (ideally lowered to zero) and thereby there will also be a reduction in CO2 emissions. There may be an economic incentive too. By utilizing thermosyphoning it is possible to construct a cooling system that does not consume any electricity at all, running only on solar energy, thereby being completely CO2 neutral.

TECHNOLOGY

The key technologies in this project are the absorption cycle, with ammonia and water as refrigerant pair, and a specific type of solar collector known as evacuated tubes solar collectors (heat pipes). The most simple absorption cycle consist of five elements, these are: Boiler (Sets the high pressure and separates the ammonia from the water) Condenser (condenses the ammonia) Expansion valve (lowers the pressure of the ammonia) Evaporator (Evaporates the ammonia ) Absorber (Mixes the ammonia and water) When the absorption system is used for cooling the energy is supplied to the boiler and as the ammonia evaporates energy is removed from the surroundings. The absorption cycle has the capability of converting heat into cooling with a coefficient of performance (COP) of 1 (based on the heat input). The evacuated tubes solar collector can approximately convert half of the solar radiation to warm water. The main advantage of such a collector is that it is able to absorb both direct and indirect (diffuse) radiation, which increases the usage time of the combined system as a direct result.

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Lasse Tidemann, Casper Nissen, Jacob Nørregaard, Søren Wrang, Andreas Sørensen and Jens Steemann DTU Math, Technical University of Denmark S092831@student.dtu.dk, s092803@student.dtu.dk, s092834@student.dtu.dk, s092829@student.dtu.dk, s092800@student.dtu.dk, s092808@student.dtu.dk

Introduction In this project there has been used some mathematical assumptions to model the sun’s radiation. With these assumptions in hand geometrical objects are modeled and then the flux through the objects can be analyzed. The flux is a model of the sun’s radiation and the objects are models of solar collectors or buildings and therefore the flux into the object is the energy consumption of the object. With this in hand the project can be used to “real world” problems.

Use of method With use of mathematical vector calculus and the use of Stokes and Gauss’ sentences the calculation of energy consumptions is made easier. The mathematical part of the project is one thing though and the use of the general method that is developed in the project is another. In the end of the project one particular general method is made up, and this method makes it particular easy to calculate the energy consumption. With the methods developed there are a lot of possibilities for the use. The method can of course be used to calculate the energy consumption in solar collectors to make electricity from the sun rays. But the method can also be used to analyze how much energy is transmitted from the sun into buildings – including analysis of what time of the day the energy consumption is largest. This can be very useful for engineers who are to make thermal systems of buildings including systems to control what time of the day radiators and heaters should be heating and how much. The method developed is also efficient in the design face of buildings. When new buildings are designed architects have in mind what it is used for both in its aesthetic expression but also in its internal design of offices etc. With this in mind it can be very useful to have an idea of how much energy is consumed by the building – for instance it would be nice to have large energy consumption if a tropical zoo is built like Randers Regnskov. In the project there have been done calculations on an object shaped just like the hemispheres of Randers Regnskov. With the method it is also easy to calculate how much energy is consumed per area. This can also be very useful – e.g. a farmer wants to build a silo with a given volume. He wants this silo covered in a solar collector of a particular shape and given the shape of the silo the largest energy consumption per area can be calculated. Besides from all this the analysis of the solar collectors with help from the method developed in the project can be extended to optimize regular solar collectors. The method makes it possible to analyze which geometrical shape that will consume the most energy at any given time and therefore it seems as a very good opportunity to think of new kinds solar collectors. E.g. it would be possible with the method developed in this project to use some of the other projects in the competition in an even better way. It could be possible to reshape solar panels on solar collectors so the total shape of the solar collector will change – and with this option it would be possible to change the energy consumption of the solar collector as it changes shape. This could finally lead into the most optimal solar collector during an entire day as it would make the best possible solar collector during each moment of the day.

Conclusion This project has produced a method to analyze the energy consumption in solar collectors such as solar cells, buildings and in fact any given object that is exposed to the sun. The method is based on mathematical vector analysis and is very useful for a lot of purposes – though it is most useful when combined with other “green” projects. Hopefully the method developed in this project will be used by all kinds of the industry from architecture to thermal analysis of buildings to building, controlling and optimizing solar collectors – at least a combination of these has the possibility to make the grass greener on this side to.

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Sustainability and climate change are high on the global agenda. Engineers play a central part in a sustainable development of society. Engineers from DTU can and must continue to contribute to the development of technological solutions that respond to the global challenges. Therefore DTU is now launching GRĂ˜N DYST. groendyst.dtu.dk

100 Technical University of Denmark, Anker Engelunds Vej 1, Tel. 45 25 25 25, E-mail: dtu@dtu.dk, www.dtu.dk