INMI Symposium Discussion ICMPC 2012
Andrea Halpern Bucknell University Pennsylvania, USA
INMI and Memory
Similarities to “Flashbulb Memories” Generate… Vivid Autobiographical Extend in time Affective component Social aspects
◦ Memories include others ◦ Discussed with others
Compelling memory experience
Dissimilar Flashbulbs Single retrieval Limited number
INMI End cues beginning Many and variable
â—Ś Shared in a culture
Distinctive trigger Associated with trauma
â—Ś Across and within people
Triggers variable By and large pleasant
Less Well Understoodâ€Ś
Most report high incidence Halpern & Bartlett (2011) â—Ś 41 diarists over 2 weeks 780 reports â—Ś Range = 2-57 â—Ś Median = 1.7 per day
But do methods select for respondents and reports? Embed in other tasks to reduce salience and social desirability
Verification? Difficult to verify Voluntary imagery
◦ Control stimuli ◦ Objective task Does third note of Happy Birthday rise or fall?
Need correlates with INMI Need to induce. How?
◦ Idiosyncratic, but… ◦ Exposure ◦ Musical characteristics
Behavioral ◦ Effect on a second task ◦ Continuous measurement
Physiological ◦ Neural or peripheral ◦ Neural correlates of voluntary imagery ◦ Indices of repetition crucial
Long time spans will be a challenge
Rubin & Talarico (Psychological Sci, 2003)
FBs no more accurate or durable than other memories â—Ś Conflicts in memories among participants
How to measure veridicality in INMI? External pitch or tempo measure Consistency over repetitions Congruence with recorded version
â—Ś Even NMs can match to recordings and be somewhat consistent over time â—Ś Production or choose pitch/tempo
Unique to Music?
Other temporally extended memories ◦ Verbal or experiential
H&B (2012) ◦ 9/20 surveyed reported word earworms But only a few diary entries
◦ Did not repeat ◦ Sayings, movie quotes, cheer, advertisement ◦ None unpleasant
Design survey/diary to elicit these
Relationship to Pathology? Hallucinations vs. imagery Possible intermediate states
◦ Relation to aural and psychological issues
Important to distinguish wanted from unwanted For latter, behavioral and pharmacological intervention
◦ Yellow Submarine #2: “This song is starting to annoy me and I think I should memorize more words of it”. ◦ #4: “I like the song but I don't know the lyrics and it keeps appearing in my head.”
Age and Cohort?
Priming ◦ Can increase with age ◦ Decline of inhibition ◦ So possible increase with age?
Cohort/Generation ◦ Continuous vs. periodic exposure to music
Published on Aug 4, 2012