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Royal Fireworks

Language Arts

by Michael Clay Thompson

PRACTICE TOWN One Hundred Four-Level Analysis Practice Sentences A Supplement to Grammar Town, Paragraph Town, and Caesar’s English I

Second Edition

Michael Clay Thompson Royal Fireworks Press Unionville, New York


GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

8 Parts of Speech

noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, interjection

n

actio

SUBJ

PRED

D.O.

I.O.

5 Parts of Sentence

subject, predicate, direct object, indirect object, subject complement

link

ing S.C.

Phrases

prepositional phrase, appositive phrase, verbal phrases

S

4

P

Clauses

independent clause, dependent clause

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

Notes to Students Grammar is a way of thinking about language, and when we think like this, we look at our sentences in four different ways. We look at each word to see what kind of word it is, we look at the two sides of the idea in the sentence, we look for little word groups called phrases, and we look to see if the sentence has one clause or more than one clause. This book will give you practice thinking this way. The method in this book is called four-level analysis, after the four levels we just mentioned. Their names are parts of speech (the eight kinds of words), parts of the sentence, phrases, and clauses. On each page there is a sentence with four lines below it. As you solve each detail in the sentence, write its abbreviation directly below it in the appropriate line. At the bottom there is a place to write a comment about anything you think is interesting or fun about the sentence.

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

For example, if the sentence were “We walked away, but two birds sang songs about us,” one could write the abbreviations of the parts of speech directly below each word in the first line, the parts of sentence in the second, phrases in the third, and clauses in the fourth. For phrases and clauses, you would make little lines to show where the phrase or clause begins and ends. Notice that every word is a part of speech, but only some words are a part of sentence. The abbreviations used here are: Parts of Speech Parts of Sentence n. noun subj. subject pron. pronoun AVP action verb predicate adj. adjective LVP linking verb predicate v. verb D.O. direct object adv. adverb I.O. indirect object prep. preposition S.C. subject complement conj. conjunction interj. interjection Clauses indep. independent (clause) Phrases dep. dependent (clause) prep. prepositional (phrase) app. appositive (phrase) ger. gerund (phrase) par. participial (phrase) inf. infinitive (phrase) 6

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

Example Sentence

We

walked

away,

but

two

birds sang songs

about

us.

pron. v. adv. conj. adj. n. v. n. prep. pron. ______________________________________________________________________________________ subj. AVP subj. AVP D.O. ______________________________________________________________________________________ ----prep. phrase-- ______________________________________________________________________________________ -----------indep. clause----------

---------------------independent clause---------------------a compound declarative sentence ______________________________________________________________________________________ Comment: This is a compound sentence made of two independent clauses. Each clause has an action verb, but only the second action verb passes the action to a direct object.

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

Sentence 10

In the long summer days we prep. adj.

adj.

adj.

n.

pron.

sank v.

slowly into a sleepy languor. adv.

prep. adj.

adj.

n.

______________________________________________________________________________________ subj.

AVP

______________________________________________________________________________________ ------------------prep. phrase-------------

------------prep. phrase-------------

______________________________________________________________________________________ ---------------------------------------one independent clause----------------------------------------------a simple declarative sentence

______________________________________________________________________________________ Comment: The noun languor is a classic word that we see in many great novels; it refers to the lazy weakness of limbs that we feel when we are sleepy or tired, or just overcome by the heat of a summer day.

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

n

actio

SUBJ

PRED

D.O.

I.O.

link

ing S.C.

Sentence 30

We adv.

felt

a v.

singular, adj.

adj.

silent

serenity adj.

in

n.

the prep.

snowy adj.

streets.

adj.

n.

______________________________________________________________________________________ LVP

subj.

______________________________________________________________________________________ -----------prep. phrase-------------

______________________________________________________________________________________ ---------------------------------------one independent clause----------------------------------------------a simple declarative sentence

______________________________________________________________________________________ Comment: In this sentence the word there is an adverb used to indicate the presence of something in sentences where the verb precedes the noun. We also see strong alliteration in the sentence; alliteration is the repetition of initial sounds in words, as in singular-silent-serenity-snowy-streets, where the s sound is the beginning sound of the words. The adjective singular means unique.

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

Sentence 60

His adj.

sonorous adj.

voice n.

encouraged v.

you and me pron. conj. pron.

to act

immediately.

n.

adv.

______________________________________________________________________________________ subj.

AVP

-----------I.O.--------

----------------D.O.-----------

______________________________________________________________________________________ ------infinitive phrase-----

______________________________________________________________________________________ ------------------------------------------------------------independent clause--------------------------------------------------a simple declarative sentence

______________________________________________________________________________________ Comment: Here we see an infinitive phrase to act immediately used as the direct object. The indirect object is a pair of compound object pronouns joined by a coordinating conjunction; as usual, what is called an object is made of object pronouns. In the adjective sonorous the stem son means sound; a sonorous voice is a deep rich voice.

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GRAMMAR IS A WAY OF THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE.

S

P

Sentence 80

The acrid smoke adj.

adj.

n.

pervaded v.

everything; pron.

we pron.

had

to leave the city. v.

n.

adj.

n.

______________________________________________________________________________________ subj

AVP

D.O.

subj

AVP

----------D.O.-----------

______________________________________________________________________________________ ---infinitive phrase---

______________________________________________________________________________________ ------------------------independent clause---------------------------------------indep. clause---------------a compound declarative sentence

______________________________________________________________________________________ Comment: Here we see a compound sentence in which the second clause has an infinitive phrase to leave the city as the direct object of the action verb. The verb pervade means spread throughout. If we let I stand for independent clause, we could say this is an I;I compound sentence. If we were to put a comma in this sentence instead of a semicolon, it would be an error called a comma splice.

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