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In Sherman’s Path Teacher Manual

J. F. Spieles

Royal Fireworks Press Unionville, New York


Copyright Š 2012, Royal Fireworks Publishing Co., Inc. All Rights Reserved. Royal Fireworks Press 41 First Avenue, PO Box 399 Unionville, NY 10988-0399 (845) 726-4444 FAX: (845) 726-3824 email: mail@rfwp.com website: rfwp.com ISBN: 978-0-89824-858-6 Printed and bound in the United States of America on acid-free, recycled paper using vegetable-based inks and environmentally-friendly cover coatings by the Royal Fireworks Printing Co. of Unionville, New York.


Table of Contents How This Book is Organized..................................................................................... 1 Some Thoughts on Writing ....................................................................................... 4 Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation............................................................................... 6 Section One (Chapters 1 – 3) Vocabulary.......................................................................................................... 10 Context-Building Framework: Exploring Allatoona Pass................................. 14 Journal Framework: Character Evolution......................................................... 16 Writing Framework: The Missing Dialogue..................................................... 18 Reading Comprehension Questions................................................................... 20 Section Two (Chapters 4 - 6) Vocabulary.......................................................................................................... 22 Context-Building Framework: Virtual Tour of a Southern Plantation.............. 26 Problem-Based Framework: Examining the Roots of Prejudice...................... 27 Analysis Framework: Rise and Fall of the Plantation Economy...................... 28 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 30 Section Three (Chapters 7 - 9) Vocabulary.......................................................................................................... 33 Evaluation Framework: March to the Sea: Risk Assessment............................ 37 Writing Framework: A Letter from Mrs. Graves............................................... 40 Writing Framework: Songs of the Civil War .................................................... 41 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 42


Table of Contents Section Four (Chapters 10 - 12) Vocabulary ......................................................................................................... 44 Research Framework: Causes of the Civil War................................................. 48 Problem-Based Framework: The Boys’ War .................................................... 50 Story Element Framework: Character Interactions .......................................... 52 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 56 Section Five (Chapters 13 - 15) Vocabulary ......................................................................................................... 58 Drama & Writing Framework: Character Interviews........................................ 62 Evaluation Framework: Clinical Diagnosis: PTSD ......................................... 64 Problem Solving & Creative Writing Framework: Write Your Way Out........... 65 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 66 Vocabulary Mixed Review, Chapter 1 – 15, List #1 .............................................. 68 Vocabulary Mixed Review, Chapter 1 – 15, List #2 .............................................. 69 Word Stem Review, Chapter 1 – 15 ....................................................................... 70 Section Six (Chapters 16 - 18) Vocabulary ......................................................................................................... 71 Reflection Framework: What Does it Mean to be a Slave?.............................. 75 Primary Source & Writing Framework: Reports from the Front ..................... 78 Analysis Framework: Dramatic Tension .......................................................... 80 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 83


Table of Contents Section Seven (Chapters 19 - 21) Vocabulary ......................................................................................................... 85 Investigation Framework: How Much Destruction Really Happened?............. 89 Self-Reflection Framework: What is the “Whip” in Your Life? ...................... 93 Research Framework: Leeches and Ox-Eye Daisy .......................................... 96 Reading Comprehension Questions ................................................................. 98 Section Eight (Chapters 22 - 24) Vocabulary ....................................................................................................... 100 Design Framework: Creating Historical Markers........................................... 104 Writing Framework: Gal’s Diary .................................................................... 106 Argumentative Essay Framework: Is Total War Justifiable or Not?............... 107 Reading Comprehension Questions ............................................................... 109 Section Nine (Chapters 25 - 27) Vocabulary ........................................................................................................112 Philosophy Framework: What is Equality?......................................................116 Analysis Framework: Decoding Negro Spirituals ......................................... 121 Design Framework: Create a Board Game .................................................... 124 Reading Comprehension Questions ............................................................... 126 Section Ten (Chapters 28 - 30) Vocabulary ....................................................................................................... 128 Journal Framework: Character Evolution Revisited....................................... 132 Debate Framework: Is Henry a Hero? ............................................................ 134 Prediction & Writing Framework: A Glimpse into the Future ....................... 135 Reading Comprehension Questions ............................................................... 137


Table of Contents Vocabulary Mixed Review, Chapter 16 – 30, List #1 .......................................... 140 Vocabulary Mixed Review, Chapter 16 – 30, List #2 .......................................... 141 Word Stem Review, Chapter 16 – 30 …............................................................... 142 Post-Reading Concept Evaluation ........................................................................ 143 Answers to Selected Exercises ............................................................................ 144


How this Book is Organized This manual is designed to provide a structure through which students and teachers can more richly and meaningfully experience In Sherman’s Path. What follows is a brief overview of the manual’s content and organization. Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation The first feature in this manual is the Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation. This tool is based on the pedagogical theory that effective teaching and learning takes into account the students’ pre-existing knowledge of concepts and then seeks to advance them to higher levels of sophistication. The evaluation is comprised of fifteen questions on concepts that are woven into the fabric of the novel. By using the feedback that this evaluation generates, the teacher can gain a snapshot view of what students already know about concepts that will be addressed in the teaching frameworks. Here are some points to remember about the Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation: • Keep in mind that this is not an evaluation of reading skills. It is an evaluation of concept knowledge. • Emphasis should be placed on what the students do know rather than what they haven’t learned yet. • After administering the evaluation, do not simply file it away and forget about it. Make sets of copies that are easily accessible by students and teachers alike. Frequently refer to the evaluation as a way to gauge the construction of new knowledge. Many of the teaching frameworks require students to refer to the Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation, so they need to keep it handy! Vocabulary Component This manual is mainly divided into ten sections. Since there are 30 chapters in the novel, each section in the manual covers three chapters. Section One covers chapters 1 – 3, Section Two covers chapters 4 – 6, and so on. Each section of the manual contains a vocabulary component for the corresponding chapters. The vocabulary exercises are based on pre-determined word lists and are intended to engage students in the following learning activities: • Using context clues • Writing definitions • Recognizing word stems and their meanings • Identifying synonyms • Solving analogies • Using vocabulary words in writing applications

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At both the mid-point and the end of the manual, there are mixed review exercises for the vocabulary terms and word stems that the students have learned. These could be used for review purposes only, or they could be used as assessment tools. The vocabulary pages are formatted with answer spaces, so they can be copied for student use. Teaching Frameworks A teaching framework is a written plan meant to facilitate the implementation of effective instructional strategies. It is intended to create conditions in the classroom under which effective teaching and learning can occur. Unlike a lesson plan which may be limited to one or two objectives, a teaching framework is a way of conceptualizing how instructional strategies might be enacted. The framework, therefore, might give rise to lesson plans; it is the crossover point between theory and practice. Each section in this manual offers three teaching frameworks. Most are interdisciplinary in nature. All of them address concepts that are relevant to the novel, and all of them are based on effective instructional strategies. They are founded on pedagogical principles such as: • Context-Building • Journaling • Creative Writing • Essay Writing • Argumentative Writing • Problem-Based Learning • Analysis • Evaluation • Research and Investigation • Creative Design • Process Drama • Personal Reflection • Philosophy • Debate • Prediction-Making Think of the frameworks as skeletons of ideas that you, the educator, can flesh out in whatever way is most appropriate for meeting your intended learning outcomes and your students’ needs. You might find yourself closely following the frameworks as they are presented within these pages. Or you might find yourself taking bits and pieces of the frameworks and blending them with your own ideas. All of the above are okay! You are the educator. You have the expertise. Take these foundational ideas and make them work for you.

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It should also be noted that the frameworks were not designed with the intent that every framework would be used in every section. This would be overwhelming for teachers and students alike. Rather, think of the frameworks as a smorgasbord of ideas. You select as many or as few as you want to implement. echnology Connection: Embedded within the teaching frameworks are numerous suggestions for T using technology in your classroom. More than 30 web sites are referenced to help you quickly and efficiently tap into the vast archives of information available online. Reading Comprehension Component Each section of the manual contains a set of reading comprehension questions that correspond with the novel chapters. The comprehension questions are written specifically to engage the students in higher levels of thinking within the cognitive domain. As with the vocabulary pages, the reading comprehension questions are formatted with answer spaces so that they can be copied. Nearly all of the comprehension questions require written responses. However, this does not preclude other methods of eliciting responses from the students. Here are some alternative ways to make use of the reading comprehension questions: • Have the students address the questions in an oral discussion, similar to a book club. • Divide the class into small groups and assign each team the responsibility of responding to one or two of the questions. • Allow the students to select the one (or two, or three) questions that are most interesting to them. Students love having the power of choice! Academic rigor is important. But we must also remember that insisting on the same mode of response, time after time, becomes tedious for students. Feel free to experiment with new and different ways to implement the reading comprehension questions contained in this manual. Your students will appreciate the variety!

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Some Thoughts on Writing If we want our students to become good writers, then we must ask them to write and write often. Unfortunately, many students get turned off by writing at a very young age. Why is this so? Perhaps their instructors dwell so much on spelling, mechanics, and the like that children begin to think of writing as a perfunctory skill that is detached from, rather than connected to, the use of their imaginations. Or maybe writing gets “squeezed out” as a result of the tightly scheduled school day and students are denied the exposure necessary to appreciate writing for the beautiful form that it is. After all, writing takes time and effort. In our world today, it seems anything that takes too long is immediately cast aside. Whatever the cause may be, it is rather challenging to engage students with writing if they have already developed a strong distaste for it. I believe it is possible to wash away such distaste. I do not claim to have a magic formula, nor am I quite so naïve as to think that students will run home from school to write essays instead of texting their friends or playing video games. However, I do believe if writing is taught under the right conditions, if proper time and attention are given to the most important factors that influence young writers’ development, then students will be more willing to engage in it. And who knows, after a while they might even begin to enjoy it. In some form or another, writing pervades nearly every framework that is set forth in this manual. In each case, the writing assignments are based on the following tenets that I believe are essential to sound writing instruction. • To Think is to Write, to Write is to Think Too many students feel that writing happens where the tip of the pencil hits the paper or where the fingers contact the keyboard. We must teach them that writing originates as thought and that the craft of writing happens more in our minds than on the paper. To write well is to manipulate, extend, and clarify our thinking. Then we communicate it to others. We must teach our students that their thoughts have value. • Writers Construct Meaning from Social Contexts If one were to gather a group of writers and have them compile a list of questions that readers most frequently ask of them, I’d wager that the following question would make the list: How do you get your ideas? I’d further wager that almost every writer’s answer to that question would share a common thread: ideas tend to grow from personal experiences and events in our lives. In other words, writers draw from social context, both past and present, when they write. If social context is so critical to the writing process, then why do we isolate children from social context when we are teaching them to write? We must use social context to help students construct meaning [that is, develop their thoughts] when they write.

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• Writers Develop a Method of Capture Thoughts are not always predictable. Sometimes they are profound. Sometimes they are nonsensical. Sometimes one thought gives rise to another that seems totally unrelated. (Ever have something just “pop” into your mind?) But above all, thoughts are fleeting. Writers find ways to capture their thoughts. The methods are many and varied. Some keep a jumbled notebook that would never make sense to another person. Others develop highly organized outlines. Still others speak into tape recorders and play back their thoughts at a later time. The method does not really matter. What matters is that the thoughts get captured. After this happens, writers can begin the process of evaluating, organizing, refining, and tweaking. We must teach our students methods for capturing their thoughts. • Writers Manipulate Language to Organize, Clarify, and Express Their Thoughts Language is a medium. Its ultimate purpose is to convey thought. Without a firm command of language, a writer will struggle to express his thoughts with the organization and clarity necessary to be understood by others. Does spelling count? Yes. Does grammar matter? Yes. Should we get so hung up on spelling and grammar that we no longer value the student’s own thinking? No. We must remember that writing, at its core, is thought. This is this most essential part. We must also honor the fact that it takes time for students to learn how to manipulate language. It is a developmental process. Spelling, grammar, punctuation and the like can be honed over time. But if a student becomes so preoccupied with the mechanics of writing that she stops attempting, or is not given an opportunity, to express her thoughts, then she is cut off from the very purpose that language is meant to serve. We must teach our students to manipulate language without deemphasizing the importance of their own thinking. • Writers Share Their Work with Others For this one, I’ll start by recognizing the exceptions to the rule. It is true that some writing is not meant to be shared. Many people write diaries, private letters, or therapeutic exercises without any intention of sharing their thoughts with others. However, most writing is intended for some type of audience. It is through the process of sharing their writing and receiving feedback that writers gain insight into their own work. It is a reflective process that is essential for growth. What a shame it is when students create pieces of writing and the only feedback they receive is a letter grade on the top of the page. That does not foster any reflection at all. We must provide our students with a platform for sharing their work and a system for receiving constructive feedback. Please take a moment to review the operative words in each of the bullet points: think, construct, develop, manipulate, share. These are action verbs. They are behaviors. If we as educators can lead our students to internalize these thoughtful behaviors and become conscious of them, then we will do much to help our students develop as writers. As you survey this manual and the writing exercises contained within, it is my hope that you will tailor your lesson plans to reflect the principles outlined above.

- J. F. Spieles

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Pre-Reading Concept Evaluation Read each question below. Consider how much you know about the concept each question raises. Indicate your knowledge level by circling a number on the scale of 0 – 5 where 0 means that you know nothing and 5 means that you know the concept extremely well. Remember that knowing about something isn’t always “all or nothing.” Sometimes you might be familiar with some aspects, but you might also need further learning before you fully understand it. If this is the case, you might want to circle mid-range numbers on the scale. Don’t be discouraged if there are some concepts that you don’t know about yet. This is not a test! It is simply a way to help measure your learning as you read the novel. If you circle a 1 or higher on the scale, write a brief description of what you do know. Here is an example: How long did the Civil War last? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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Here is what I know: The war started in 1861, but I can’t remember when it ended. I think it lasted 3 years

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1. What does it mean to be a slave? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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2. What caused the Civil War? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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3. What is equality? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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4. What became of the slaves after the Civil War? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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5. What is the concept of total war? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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6. How were southern women and children affected by the Civil War? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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7. Who was General William T. Sherman? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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8. Where and when did Sherman’s March to the Sea take place? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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9. What effect did Sherman’s March to the Sea have on the outcome of the Civil War? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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10. Did smuggling take place during the Civil War? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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11. Why did the southern plantation economy collapse? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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12. How/why do people develop prejudiced attitudes and beliefs? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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13. Were all slaves unskilled laborers? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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14. How did some slaves resist their masters? I don’t know I know exactly 0

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15. Why is the Civil War sometimes called “The Boys’ War?” I don’t know I know exactly 0

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In Sherman's Path Teacher Manual sample pages