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Table of Contents Engagement

Part I: Introduction to Fit to Print.......................................................2 Elements of Problem-Based Learning...................................................3 Assessment: The Problem Log and Performance Rubrics....................4 Summary of Unit Activities, Assessments, and Generalizations..........6 Alignment of Fit to Print with National Curriculum Standards...........7 Sample Schedules..................................................................................7

Inquiry and Investigation

Part II: Preparing for Fit to Print.......................................................10 The Flow of the Problem..................................................................... 11 Content Background for Teachers.......................................................12 Problem Narrative: The Storyline for Fit to Print...............................16 Preparing to Teach the Unit.................................................................21

Definition

Classroom Engagement Rubric...........................................................23 Part III: Lesson Plans for Fit to Print................................................24 Problem Engagement..........................................................................25

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead............................................................................27

Cuba’s Flower...............................................................................43 Inquiry and Investigation....................................................................55

Resolution

Preparing for the Unexpected.......................................................57

Dealing with the Unexpected........................................................79 Problem Definition..............................................................................90

de Lôme’s Disaster........................................................................92 Problem Resolution...........................................................................122

Reaching Consensus...................................................................123

The Maine!..................................................................................134 Problem Debriefing...........................................................................138

Debriefing

News, Journalism, Media, and Infotainment..............................139

Appendix A: Website and Supplemental Literature.......................143 Appendix B: Classroom Guides for Problem-Based Learning......147


Part I: Introduction to Fit to Print

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Elements of Problem-Based Learning The Ill–Structured Problem Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an inquiry-based model of curriculum and instruction that initiates learning with an ill-structured problem that has been carefully constructed to guide students to a specific topic in the core curriculum. The ill-structured problem engages students’ natural curiosity by drawing on the power of storytelling. Intrigued by the problem, students ask questions that lead them into the study of the core content area. Because the ill-structured problem is designed to encourage students to ask questions about important curricular content, teachers can focus on helping students acquire skills of gathering and analyzing information. When used in integrated language arts and social studies curricula, the ill-structured problem presents a pivotal example of how words can affect the actions of a nation.

The Stakeholder Role During PBL, students are asked to consider the problem, as a class, from the perspective of a central stakeholder. When properly handled, the stakeholder role helps students experience the habits of mind used by people in different professions or living in different circumstances. In Fit to Print, students are required to think like newspaper editors, using the values and priorities that represent concern for the public good. Teachers play an instrumental role in making the problem come alive by encouraging students to stay in their role and requiring them to treat the role more seriously than surface play acting. Evidence suggests that this immersion into learning experiences can enhance academic performance (Langer, 1990).

Teacher as Coach Becoming an effective PBL coach takes time, support, and practice. This unit has been designed to provide enough structure for novice PBL teachers to feel comfortable experimenting with PBL and to provide experienced PBL teachers with tools to use according to their classroom needs. Teachers are given a Content Background for the problem, which provides a historical context for the unit, including a description of the era, the evolution of newspapers in the 1800s, and conditions in Cuba prior to the Spanish-American War. A Problem Narrative is included to help teachers understand the storyline of the problem from the first day to the final discussion. Lesson plans are included that will ensure that students think analytically and reflectively. A specific emphasis is placed on conceptual reasoning to encourage discussion of universal ideas and to aid in content acquisition and retention. Teachers new to PBL can use these resources as a way to create a scope and sequence of events and can take comfort knowing that students will have a rich learning experience while engaging with core content. Teachers who are comfortable with PBL are encouraged to use the resources as flexible tools rather than as a prescribed course of instruction.

Embedded Instruction in Fit to Print The ill-structured problem leads students to content required in the core curriculum. This allows teachers to use the students’ questions as the basis of instruction, empowering the students’ sense of inquiry. Because the core content emerges naturally through the problem, teachers are free to bring greater depth and breadth to their study by helping students acquire the tools needed to become self-directed learners. Self-directed learning encompasses an enormous variety of skills, attitudes, and behaviors, so it is important that teachers learn to become selective, making specific choices about which skills and tools 3

Fit to Print Teacher Manual


to work on with students in a given problem. The teachers who helped develop and pilot test Fit to Print helped guide the selection of skills and tools embedded in this unit. Because this was the first PBL experience for both teachers and students, they made the following requests: (1) enhance the engagement value of the story by providing multiple “chapters,” (2) vary the reading level of newspaper articles, and (3) emphasize higher-order thinking. Conceptual Reasoning. The central concept in Fit to Print is responsibility. This concept is first introduced as students compare and contrast two newspaper articles, one from The New York Times and one from the New York Journal, each reporting the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz. As the unit progresses, students are asked to consider whether it is responsible for newspapers to enhance the news, and also to consider the costs and benefits of staying the course of responsible journalism while others are not. Throughout the unit, activities guide students to understand the following generalizations about responsibility: 1. Responsibility involves being trustworthy, accountable, and ethical/moral. 2. Responsibility is an intentional choice to follow internal and external standards. 3. Responsibilities to self, others, and the public sometimes seem different. 4. Both producers and consumers (individuals) can have an impact on responsible reporting.

Assessment: The Problem Log and Performance Rubrics A number of assessments are used to gather evidence of students’ understanding, analysis, and reflection about the problem. These are gathered in the Problem Log, a portfolio that shows students’ progress through the problem. Assignments in the Problem Log take a variety of forms, including: • Summaries. Summaries are used to gather knowledge about what students have learned or value most about the information they are learning. The simple questions “What do you know about the problem right now?” or “Summarize what we have learned in the problem today” give students a chance to put diverse pieces of information together and provide a quick impression of whether or not they are attending to important information. • Critical Thinking Activities in Context. Students complete a series of writing assignments that guide them through the process of creating a newspaper article. The pages of the assignments include information about different elements of a newspaper article, the reasoning behind the inverted triangle organization of articles, and information about how to write headlines, deks, and the article itself. • Graphic Organizers. Graphic organizers are included to help students synthesize and draw deeper meaning from information. In Fit to Print, students use a variety of organizers, including timelines, webs, and a cast of characters as they organize and compare their information. At the end of the unit, they use an inverted triangle graphic as they plan their article. • R  eflective Moments. Students’ growing awareness of the nature of the problem, their skills as problem solvers, and their ability to remain flexible as the problem shifts and changes are all assessed through “Reflective Moments,” quick writing exercises that encourage students to contemplate the nature of their learning during PBL.

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Performance Rubrics Rubrics are valuable tools, but they are most helpful when used conservatively. Ideally, rubrics introduce students to meaningful criteria for quality work. As students and teachers work with rubrics, students begin to internalize the criteria, which should ultimately make the rubric obsolete. Overuse of rubrics makes students dependent rather than independent. Self-directed learning is integral to PBL. Assessment of written work is not adequate to capture the development of this essential life skill, yet it is sometimes hard to communicate to students expectations for behaviors associated with self-directed learning. The Classroom Engagement Rubric (p. 23) is a tool designed to: (1) communicate expectations to students, (2) help students set their own goals for classroom performance, and (3) assess students’ progress toward some dimensions of self-directed learning. The Developing Perspectives Rubric (p. 130) prompts students to consider alternate points of view as they come to consensus on which article they think is best. Writing is an integral part of this unit, and a Newspaper Article Rubric (p. 113) is included to define the standards of high-quality writing for newspapers. This rubric combines standards for journalism and writing expectations outlined in the Common Core and other state and national standards.

Unit Summary The Summary of Unit Activities, Assessments, and Generalizations on the following page provides a synthesis of the activities, assessments, and conceptual generalizations in each lesson of the unit. The Activities column shows whether students are building their knowledge base by actively working with information, analyzing information using in-context activities or graphic organizers, extending their understanding by drawing conclusions about the situation they are facing, or making inferences about what might work. The Assessment column indicates the level and type of thinking required for different assessment assignments. The Generalization column indicates which generalization(s) are the focus of each lesson. Frequently, key questions for the lessons will lead directly to discussion of the generalization(s).

Langer, E. J. (1990). Mindfulness. Reading, PA: DaCapo Books. 5

Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Analysis

x

Reflective Moment

Classroom Engagement Rubric

Performance Rubrics

x

1

x

2

x

x

x

3

x

4

x

x

x

x

Generalizations

Thinking in Context

x

Student Assessments

Active Analysis

x

Class Activities Building Knowledge x

Extending Understanding

x

Newspaper Article Rubric

x x

Developing Perspectives Rubric

Classroom Engagement Rubric

x

x

x

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead (Optional)

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Cuba’s Flower x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Preparing for the Unexpected

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Dealing with the Unexpected

x

x

x

x

x

Reaching Consensus x

News, Journalism, Media, and Infotainment

The Maine!

de Lôme’s Disaster

Research/ Summaries

Summary of Unit Activities, Assessments, and Generalizations

Problem Engagement

Inquiry and Investigation Problem Definition Problem Resolution

Problem Debriefing

Generalizations: 1. Responsibility involves being trustworthy, accountable, and ethical/moral. 2. Responsibility is an intentional choice to follow internal and external standards. 3. Responsibilities to self, others, and the public sometimes seem different. 4. Both producers and consumers (individuals) can have an impact on responsible reporting.

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Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Alignment of Fit to Print with National Curriculum Standards This PBL unit was designed for middle school and was pilot tested in several eighth-grade classrooms in St. Charles, IL. The unit was developed to meet regional and national middle school language arts objectives. Charts that show the alignment to the Common Core State Standards for Reading, Writing, and Speaking and Listening are available as free downloads from rfwp.com. Fit to Print can easily be adapted to meet Common Core standards for middle school or high school social studies and high school language arts. Standards for both subjects are covered as students read primary documents, compare differing perspectives on the problem, discuss issues with each other, collaborate to write an article, and write a final article on their own.

Sample Schedules The sample schedules presented on the following pages outline two and a half-week and three-week plans for Fit to Print. First-time PBL teachers are encouraged to select one of the schedules and use it as a guide. Teachers who have some experience with PBL should feel free to make modifications according to their students’ needs or to accommodate further self-direction. The two and a half-week schedule is most practical for teachers who are following a tight pacing schedule. This may seem like a long time for many teachers, but experience has shown that students benefit from the depth provided in units like Fit to Print. Students learn more content and have the added benefit of increased engagement. Skipping the introductory lesson (Dr. Ruiz Is Dead) could shorten this schedule. Teachers who choose to begin the unit with the second lesson (Cuba’s Flower) should try to incorporate the earlier Problem Log activities, especially the journalism guidelines, elsewhere in the unit. The three-week schedule incorporates a little more time for in-depth immersion into the unit content, for discussion of research findings, and for preparation of the final product. This schedule may be appealing to interdisciplinary programs, homeschool instructors, and summer or weekend programs. Language arts and social studies teachers could find time for the three-week schedule by team teaching or sharing responsibilities across the two subject areas. Homeschool instructors tend to have more flexible schedules and should follow the three-week schedule. Fit to Print is an ideal unit for weekend or summer programs, which often can spend more time exploring a single topic in depth. This unit benefits from many primary resources available on the internet, including firsthand accounts and artwork in the form of political cartoons. Many of these are in the accompanying Resource Book. Guest speakers such as historians or journalists could present different perspectives on the problem. Motivated students could follow the unit with independent study projects investigating various branches of the problem, including the Spanish-American War, parallels with contemporary media, or the aftermath of yellow journalism.

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Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Sample Two and a Half-Week Schedule Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Problem Engagement

Problem Engagement

Problem Engagement

Inquiry and Investigation

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

Cuba’s Flower

Preparing for the Unexpected

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Problem Definition

Problem Definition

Preparing for the Unexpected

Dealing with the Unexpected

Dealing with the Unexpected

de Lôme’s Disaster

de Lôme’s Disaster

Problem Resolution

Problem Resolution

Problem Debriefing

Reaching Consensus

The Maine!

News, Journalism, Media, and Infotainment

Begin The Maine!

Begin Preparing for the Unexpected

Sample Three-Week Schedule Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Problem Engagement

Problem Engagement

Problem Engagement

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

Cuba’s Flower

Preparing for the Unexpected

Preparing for the Unexpected

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Inquiry and Investigation

Preparing for the Unexpected

Preparing for the Unexpected

Dealing with the Unexpected

Dealing with the Unexpected

Dealing with the Unexpected Begin de Lôme’s Disaster

Problem Definition

Problem Resolution

Problem Resolution

Problem Resolution

Problem Debriefing

de Lôme’s Disaster

Reaching Consensus

The Maine!

The Maine!

News, Journalism, Media, and Infotainment

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Fit to Print Planning Schedule Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

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Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Part II: Preparing for Fit to Print

JOURNALISM “the activity of gathering, assessing, creating, and presenting news and information� * * Definition from the American Press Institute

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The Flow of the Problem Engagement

Inquiry and Investigation

Definition

PBL progresses in phases: Problem Engagement, Inquiry and Investigation (with Problem Definition embedded), Problem Resolution, and Problem Debriefing. Some units begin with an orientation lesson, which is presented as the first lesson in Problem Engagement. Problem Engagement. Students “meet” the problem with the presentation of the opening scenario. By the end of their exploration of the opening scenario, students will have completed the Learning Issues Board and will be prepared to engage in research. Inquiry and Investigation. Students gather answers to their questions on the Learning Issues Board using a variety of methods and resources. After completing their research, they analyze their data and make connections between their research and the problem. Problem Definition. Eventually, students will have acquired a clearer understanding about the real nature of the problem. At this point, they are ready to prepare a careful definition of their problem, including both the issues they need to resolve and the constraints that limit their options.

Resolution

Problem Resolution. Students develop options to solve the problem, or at least improve the situation. Often at this phase, students find that there are several possible good ideas, but they aren’t all useful. This helps students make an important transition from seeing solutions as “right or wrong” to evaluating which are “better or worse” in the current circumstances. Problem Debriefing. Once the problem is resolved, students review their pathway through the problem, including the content they learned and the way they came to think about various issues in the actual historical situation. As students reflect on what happened, they reinforce their content knowledge and also identify what practices helped or hindered their progress.

Debriefing

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Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Content Background for Teachers Journalism in the 1890s Before the 1800s, newspapers served as the voices of political parties, and as a result, they were decidedly partisan. But the world of journalism changed dramatically with the advent of the penny press in 1830. In the new penny-apiece paper paradigm, news was a business venture, the goal of which was to attract the highest readership without necessarily providing accurate information or insightful analysis. To accommodate the need for more readers, many papers shifted their loyalties from promoting the views of political parties to providing the public with informative entertainment. Before long, a line was drawn between these inexpensive popular newspapers and papers that retained both high prices and journalistic high-mindedness. The Civil War also introduced changes in journalism, especially a new emphasis on being the first to report breaking news. Many papers had more than one daily edition. The pressure for fast news increased competitiveness within the industry and the tendency to exaggerate the news in order to hold readership. Hearst and Pulitzer Two masters of entertainment-style journalism were William Randolph Hearst, owner of the New York Journal, and Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World. Both papers sensationalized the news, with large, histrionic headlines, photographs, cartoons, and front-page ads. Both were also activist newspapers that did not hesitate to broadcast opinions about what positions readers should take on social and political issues. Chief among the cartoon characters of the era was a bald-headed boy in a yellow nightshirt. The invention of cartoonist Richard Outcault, the yellow boy represented and/or pointed out the foibles of urban life. The yellow ink used to print the boy’s nightshirt was a new technology, and its use became associated with the sensational techniques used by its newspapers—hence the term “yellow journalism.” Adolph Ochs While Hearst and Pulitzer competed for the lowest level of journalism, someone else was working to re-establish the high ground. Adolph Ochs purchased the struggling New York Times in 1896. A man of integrity and high moral standards, Ochs rejected the tactics of the city’s yellow papers; he was convinced that he could create a successful and popular newspaper built on journalistic integrity. The Times had no color print, no pictures, and no ads on the front page (and few ads anywhere). Instead of being adorned with blazing headlines, the front page of The New York Times was packed with news. Because The New York Times was cash-poor, it could not afford to have international reporters. Instead, the paper relied on the Associated Press or reporters from other papers for its news content, which included the increasingly complex news from Cuba. Cuba in the Days Before the Spanish-American War Even though they were physically much closer to the United States than to Spain, Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish rule in the late 1800s. Relationships had been tense between Spain and native Cubans. The two countries had engaged in hostilities in a “Ten Years” War, which was ultimately a war with no winner. At the end of that war, Spain promised to create a more inclusive government and to practice more egalitarian treatment of the Cuban people. In the period following the war, there was a sizable migration of Spanish citizens to Cuba—more than 700,000 people. At the same time, Fit to Print Teacher Manual

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Cuba’s economy became more dependent on the U.S., especially the sugar market. Cuba was politically dependent on Spain and economically and logistically dependent on the United States, but it did not want to be dominated by either country. This created a perfect breeding ground for international tension. Hostilities between Cubans and their Spanish rulers reignited in 1895 and continued for many years, despite the imposition of a large Spanish army (more than 220,000 men—the largest army to cross the Atlantic until WWII). The Cuban revolutionaries formed their own government, with prominent Cuban politician Salvador Cisneros Betancourt as president (the name figures prominently in Fit to Print, although the person does not). The Spanish government appointed a ruthless general, Valeriano Weyler, to put down the Cuban revolutionaries. Weyler instituted a reconcentrado policy in which native Cubans were rounded up and forced to live in concentration-camp conditions. Although Weyler intended the camps as holding grounds, not extermination centers, they were filled with famine and disease, earning the general the nickname “Butcher Weyler.” As many as 300,000 Cuban natives were moved to the camps; thousands died, but the revolutionaries were not defeated. The relationship between Spain and Cuba became a catch-22, in which the Cubans would not yield and the Spanish would not leave. Soon Cuban society was in shambles, its economy decimated. Twenty percent of the population had been killed in the conflict, and most of the remainder were illiterate and impoverished. The Cubans clearly needed help to escape Spanish rule. The United States had substantial economic and military interests in Cuba, an island only 90 miles from Florida. The U.S. had just re-established democratic ideals at home by emancipating the slaves after the Civil War. Some leaders in the U.S. were being driven by Monroe Doctrine protectionist rhetoric. It was undeniable to the U.S. that oppression was taking place in Cuba, and many wanted to come to Cuba’s aid. And, importantly, the U.S. had a growing newspaper industry looking for a captivating story. Yellow Journalism, Ricardo Ruiz, Evangelina Cisneros, Dupuy de Lôme, and a Battleship So-called “yellow” newspapers were staffed by activist-journalists who saw the tension between the U.S. and Spain over Cuba as an opportunity to build interest in and circulation of the papers. Both the Journal and the World regularly ran articles that graphically depicted the horrors facing the Cubans and the atrocities of the Spanish military. Those newspaper articles often contained a core of truth that was inflated with excessive rhetoric and dramatic drawings. The sinking of the battleship USS Maine is often presented in history books as a singular catalytic event leading the U.S. to war with Spain. In truth, that event was a culmination of a series of incidents that were treated with varying degrees of objectivity by the newspapers. The Journal was a particularly heated source of inflated anger at Spain. Four major stories, all occurring within the span of a single year, influenced American attitudes toward war with Spain as manipulated by the newspapers: the death of Dr. Ricardo Ruiz, the imprisonment of Evangelina Cisneros, the firing of Spain’s American Consul Dupuy de Lôme, and the sinking of the battleship USS Maine. All four of these stories create the context in which students consider the problems facing responsible journalists. February 4-17, 1897: The Death of Ricardo Ruiz Ricardo Ruiz was the son of Spanish immigrants living in Cuba. He grew up in Cuba but came to the United States to receive training as a dentist. During his schooling, he became an American citizen, but he returned to Cuba to practice dentistry. He was arrested at his home by Spanish police in Cuba, accused of participating in a train robbery, and imprisoned. Despite the fact that he was an American citizen and should have been accorded special treatment under an agreement between the U.S. and Spain, Dr. Ruiz was held in an isolation cell for almost two weeks. Three other American citizens were also held along with him. 13

Fit to Print Teacher Manual


Shortly after his incarceration, Dr. Ruiz was found dead in his cell, and controversy ensued as to whether he committed suicide (the position held by the Spanish police in Cuba) or was murdered (the position held by the U.S. doctors who conducted his autopsy). Key in the autopsy evidence was the cause of death: a cerebral contusion on the top of his head. The attending doctor said that the contusion was probably due to a blow. The Spanish doctors in attendance described the contusion as an abrasion. This event added considerable political tension between the U.S. and Spain and increased the already strained relations between the two countries regarding Cuba. The Journal and the World took advantage of the event by publishing sensational stories and exaggerated accounts of it designed to increase public sentiment against Spain and for military intervention in Cuba. A timeline of events leading to the Spanish-American War can be found at www.historyofcuba.com/ history/time/timetbl2b.htm. Additional reading about Ricardo Ruiz is available at www.historyofcuba. com/history/ruiz1.htm. August – October 1897: The Rescue of Evangelina Cisneros Evangelina Cisneros was the daughter of a Cuban revolutionary. When her father was arrested and incarcerated on the Isle of Pines, Evangelina and her siblings voluntarily accompanied him. This is where her history becomes murky. It was there that she either resisted unwanted advances from a military official, or—depending on the account—seduced and then trapped the officer. Regardless, in the scuffle that ensued, the official was captured by rebels but quickly rescued by the military. In the end, Evangelina was arrested and moved to a jail in Havana under the jurisdiction of “Butcher Weyler.” Evangelina’s story was picked up by the American papers in August 1897, when she was discovered in the Havana jail. It attracted the attention of William Randolph Hearst, editor of the New York Journal. Hearst saw Evangelina’s imprisonment as a perfect foil for his efforts to galvanize public sentiment against Spain. He published highly florid articles about Evangelina, recasting the young revolutionary as “Cuba’s Flower,” the delicate heroine of a real-life melodrama. The articles called upon the women of America to write to the Queen Regent of Spain and the Pope, entreating them for her release. The Queen reportedly did write to Weyler, asking that Evangelina be moved to a convent and suggesting that she should be given clemency, but according to the historical record, Weyler was so angered by the interference of U.S. newspapers that he ignored the Queen’s request. Spain’s Consul to the U.S., Dupuy de Lôme, was left to assure the women of America that Evangelina would be treated well, especially if the newspapers would balance their reporting. Having failed to achieve his goal through the letter-writing campaign, Hearst sent reporters to Havana, staged a jailbreak, and smuggled Evangelina onto a boat to America. She was welcomed into New York society with great ceremony, traveled to Washington to meet President McKinley, and enjoyed a short season in which she was the “toast of the town.” The Journal took full credit for these events, claiming that the paper represented “Journalism that Does Things.” While Evangelina’s power as a symbol of Spanish oppression waned once she was in America, some historians have claimed that this event was as important as the sinking of the Maine in stirring American sentiments in favor of war with Spain. February 9, 1898: Dupuy de Lôme’s Diplomatic Scandal U.S. news stories of Ricardo Ruiz, Evangelina Cisneros, and Spanish atrocities toward Cubans resulted in widespread negative sentiment toward Spain. In the midst of this tension, a letter from Spain’s Consul to America, Dupuy de Lôme, was intercepted and sent to the New York Journal. In the letter, de Lôme insulted President McKinley, suggesting that he was a weak leader. The letter was printed in the Journal, and de Lôme, who had been an influential player in the events involving Ricardo Ruiz and Evangelina Cisneros, was fired and sent back to Spain. The public shaming by the newspapers further inflamed Spanish-American relations. Fit to Print Teacher Manual

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February 15, 1898: The Sinking of the Maine Amid growing tensions, the battleship USS Maine was sent to Cuba (reported in The New York Times on January 25, 1898) to protect American interests following an uprising of Cuban rebels against Spanish rule. On February 15, six days after the de Lôme letter was published in the Journal and one year after Ricardo Ruiz’s murder/suicide, the USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor. Two hundred sixty men were killed in the explosion—more than half of the crew. Controversy remains to this day as to whether the ship was attacked or whether there was a tragic malfunction that caused the explosion; however, there is no doubt that the yellow newspapers used the event to sway public opinion against the Spanish yet again. Calls for retribution escalated tension, and Spain declared war on the U.S. two months later in April.

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Fit to Print Teacher Manual


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