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Table of Contents Problem Engagement: Articles (Dr. Ruiz Is Dead).........................................................1 Problem Engagement: Cartoons for Differentiation (Dr. Ruiz Is Dead)........................5 Problem Engagement: The New York Times Articles (Cuba’s Flower).........................10 Problem Engagement: New York Journal Articles (Cuba’s Flower).............................16 Inquiry and Investigation: Supplemental Materials (Preparing for the Unexpected)............................................................................31 Inquiry and Investigation: The New York Times Articles (Dealing with the Unexpected)............................................................................37 Problem Definition: Supplemental Materials (de Lôme’s Disaster).............................43 Problem Resolution: Breaking News! (The Maine!)....................................................45 Problem Debriefing: Supplemental Materials (News, Journalism, Media, and Infotainment).....................................................56 The Hearst Monologues................................................................................................59

Note: This Resource Book contains several articles from The New York Times and the New York Journal. Sometimes these articles are split between pages. You can download an electronic version of this book and print out the pages. You can then cut out those articles and tape them together so that they look like authentic versions of the original articles. If you do that, you may wish to write the name of the newspaper from which the article came on the back of the article so that students will be able to identify it. Copies of some of the original articles appear in this book so that you will be able to assemble the pieces correctly.


Problem Engagement: Articles Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

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The New York Times Article reparation that this country undoubtedly will assert and maintain if it shall be proved that Dr. Ruiz was a citizen of the United States. It is impossible to escape the impression that the department is disturbed about some of the reports attributing to Consul General Lee a feeling of dissatisfaction because the Administration has not been more urgent in pushing its demands upon Spain to treat American citizens with respect. While he was here on leave, Gen. Lee was credited with having discussed the situation in Cuba with a strong leaning for the insurgents, and with having suggested a course of action much more radical than that to which the Administration has adhered. It is understood he has talked in a similar vein since his return to Havana. The State Department does not find, by looking back over the events of the year, that it would have been justified if it had followed the advice of those who would have sent ships to Havana to compel prompt settlement of half a dozen cases that have been alluded to as sufficiently aggravated to call for resentment involving a resort to arms. Secretary Olney is inclined to believe that many of the prisoners now held by Spain, and who claim to be citizens of the United States, are more fortunate in being detained in prison than they might be if brought to trial. The delay in trying some cases is attributed to a desire to avert American excitement and hostility to Spain.

LEE AND THE RUIZ CASE Denial of the Rumor that Consul General at Havana Has Threatened to Send in His Resignation THE DEPARTMENT DISTURBED. Secretary Olney Not Disposed to Act upon Sensational Newspaper Reports—Doubt that Dr. Ruiz Was a Citizen of the United States at the Time of His Death. WASHINGTON, Feb. 23. – Consul General Lee appears to have denied effectually the sensational reports about his alleged demand for a warship at Havana and his intention to resign if the Government should not support him in his efforts to protect American citizens, but until his denial was published, the State Department was beset by inquirers who desired to learn what response Secretary Olney would make to Lee’s reported demand for extreme action to compel reparation for the death of Dr. Ruiz and the other report that he had resigned because of the refusal of the Administration to fully support him. Secretary Olney had heard all these reports with natural vexation, and had adopted the plan of disregarding them as reports that would be discredited soon, and would not require elaborate denial to get rid of them. It appeared altogether improbable that Gen. Lee had made the threats ascribed to him. He had reported the arrest of Dr. Ruiz. He had made inquiries concerning Ruiz’s citizenship, which was not so clearly established as to be beyond dispute, and apparently had lost sight of him until he learned of his death Feb. 13.

No Ill Advised Action to be Taken. Although the cases as reported have a bad look for the prisoners, Secretary Olney will not make any attempt to keep pace with that journalism that contrives for publication to-day statements of alleged facts that almost invariably are contradicted tomorrow, and he does not think it necessary to say seriously that an Administration that would attempt to shape its policy to meet the demands provoked by that sort of journalistic “enterprise” would bring itself speedily into contempt, and possibly involve the country in an expensive, bloody, and criminally useless war. Until the details about the imprisonment and death of Dr. Ruiz are better understood, the State Department will not think of sending warships to Havana to provoke, on account of that case, a war with Spain.

Facts in the Ruiz Case. Guanabacoa, where Dr. Ruiz was imprisoned, is only three miles from Havana, just across the harbor, and it is assumed that if the condition of the prisoner was one of great danger the Cuban sympathizers who abound in Havana and the neighborhood would have alarmed the Consul General and urged him to recommend vigorous measures for his relief while he was alive. To demand that ships of war be sent to Havana now to enforce reparation for injuries to Dr. Ruiz strikes the Secretary of State as likely to prove a rather hard and clumsy way of pressing a demand for Fit to Print Resource Book

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New York Journal Article

AMERICAN SLAIN IN SPANISH JAIL -------------------------------General Lee Indignant and Demands Full Investigation of Ricardo Ruiz’s Death. --------------------------------

Strong Evidence to Show That the Hapless Man Was Murdered by Spanish Policeman in His Cell By George Eugene Bryson.

(Copyright, 1897, by W. R. Hearst) Havana, Feb. 18, via Key West, Feb. 19. – The story of another outrage reached Counsel-General Lee this morning from Guanabacoa. Ricardo Ruiz, the American dentist, arrested by the notorious military commandant, Fondesviela, a fortnight ago, is dead. His body was found this morning in the foul, gloomy little cell where he had been kept thirteen days. He had not been permitted to communicate with his family or counsel. Prisoners confined in adjoining cells were released at noon, and managed, through others, to convey the news to the Consulate.

notify him of the prisoner’s death. He visited the palace this afternoon and saw Acting Governor-General Ahumada and insisted on an investigation. He demanded that Fondesviela be instructed to deliver up the body. General Lee will go to Guanabacoa, accompanied by Dr. Burgess and an interpreter. Spaniards here are circulating the story that Ruiz was half-crazed by solitary confinement and committed suicide. General Lee’s repeated communications to the palace since Ruiz’s first detention, requesting a statement of the charges against him, have been either ignored or evasively answered. I understand that Ruiz was accused of being a rebel sympathizer, and charged with complicity in Aranguren’s attack on the Guanabacoa train when the Spanish officers were seized.

No advice of his death has been officially received by General Lee from the Spanish authorities. Did Police Kill Him? During the night the prisoner was visited by policemen accompanied by an officer. They stopped in front of Ruiz’s cell. High words were shortly heard; then followed a struggle, and a heavy body was heard to fall upon the floor.

The story of the death of the Cuban chief, Raoul Arango, has not been confirmed.

Consul-General Lee is indignant and surprised at the Government’s failure to

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Copies of Original Articles The New York Times New York Journal

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Problem Engagement: Cartoons for Differentiation Dr. Ruiz Is Dead

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Note: One flag says “Insurgents,” and the other says “Autonomists.”

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The olives say “Cuba,” “Manila,” and “Puerto Rico.” The ribbon says “Peace, Compliments of Sagasta.” The wine bottle says “Spanish Colonies.” The napkin says “Columbia.” The waiter’s button says “Cuban.” (?)

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Problem Engagement: The New York Times Articles Cuba’s Flower

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PLEA FOR SENORITA CISNEROS DENIALS FROM HAVANA

Red Cross Women Appeal to the Queen Regent on Her Behalf.

Weyler’s Resignation Not Forwarded to Madrid.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 21. – The following cablegram has been sent to the Queen Regent of Spain: “Washington, DC, U.S.A. Queen Regent, Madrid: We appeal to your Majesty, in humanity’s name, to interpose for Señorita Cisneros in Cuba. Mrs. J. C. BURROWS President. Mrs. J. ELLEN FOSTER, Advocate General. Mrs. Emily C. KILVERT, Secretary. National Relief Association for Cuba. In aid of American Red Cross.”

HAVANA, Aug. 14. – Rumors which have recently been put in circulation to the effect that Capt. Gen. Wyler had forwarded his resignation to Madrid are entirely without foundation. Neither Capt. Gen. Wyler nor any of the other Government officials have resigned, and all of them have the support of the Government. The report that Evangelina Cisneros, the niece of Pres. Cisneros, of the socalled Republic of Cuba, was sentenced to-day to 20 years at the penal colony on the coast of Northern Africa, is untrue. The telegram sent from here containing the statement is probably based upon the fact that Evangelina Cosio has for some time past been imprisoned in the Casa de Recojidas. The latter, however, is not related in any way to the so-called President, nor has she been sentenced to penal servitude.

SENORITA CISNEROS’S ARREST MADRID, Aug. 23. – The official explanation offered of the arrest of Señorita Cisneros on the Isle of Pines is that by a ruse she had induced Col. Berriz, Commander in the island, to come to her house, where she had two men concealed ready to murder him. The official dispatch says also that the examination of the prisoner is proceeding and that meanwhile she is treated with all consideration.

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admiration the swarthy faces of the patriots, and with enthusiasm that knew no bounds, for each throat burst, “Viva Cuba Libre!” “Viva Evangelina!” Someone of her band betrayed her into the hands of the Spaniards, and she was sent to join her father in the Isle of Pines on July 27, 1896. She had been but a few days on the island when Gov. Berriz became infatuated with her, but the little Cuban deigned not to smile on the Governor. This so enraged him that he swore to have her, and set about to carry his resolution into effect, but his plans miscarried.

SENORITA CISNEROS’S TALE She Led the Cubans After Her Father Was Taken and Was Betrayed to Spain. A GOVERNOR IN LOVE WITH HER She Took Advantage of His Infatuation to Liberate the Cubans on the Isle of Pines – Now in Havana for Trial. ATLANTA, Aug. 28. – The fate of the little Cuban patriot, Evangelina Cosio y Cisneros, now confined in the Casa de Recojidas, (House of the Scrapings,) in Havana, and whose trial by court-martial is exciting the interest and sympathy of the Cuban sympathizers in the United States, is told by the writer exactly as he heard it from her lips. The Military Judge, under whose jurisdiction the case is to be called, said that it was one of the most serious on record, and the fact that her being a woman with youth and beauty would in no wise protect her. As a political prisoner, if found guilty of the charges preferred, she must expiate the sentence pronounced upon her, which, said the Judge, will be from 10 to 20 years of banishment or something worse. Evangelina was born in the Province of Puerto Principe, near the city of that name, nearly 19 years ago. Her mother died when she was but three years old, and her training and that of three sisters was left with their father. Señor Cosio had been an officer on the Cuban side in the 10 years’ conflict, and when the war clouds again began to gather he again took sides with the Patriots. He was suspected, arrested and sent to the Isle of Pines.

Her Father Prepares a Trap. Señor Cosio observed the infatuation his daughter possessed over the Governor, and he determined to put it to good account. So it was agreed that she was to soften her manner to the Governor, and permit him to call upon her in a social way. At a sign from her, Cubans who were to be in hiding were to rush upon him, bind him hand and foot, then attack the garrison, and capture the castle. The plan worked well. The Governor called. Evangelina for the first time was civil and invited him into the house. Scarcely had he passed the threshold than he seized her in his arms. Evangelina screamed, but her cries were smothered almost as soon as they began. Suddenly the door burst open, and Señor Cosio, followed by his Cuban Confederates, rushed into the room to find Evangelina struggling to free herself from the Governor. The girl wept hysterically. The Cubans gesticulated, and the governor swore vengeance on them all. He was quickly overpowered and bound. In the meantime the garrison had been taken by surprise and beaten back into the fort, where it managed to hold out two days until reinforcements arrived. After some hard fighting the Cubans were forced to surrender and Cosio was again taken prisoner, but his daughter escaped.

Evangelina Headed the Troops. He had been at the head of a small band of Cubans who were only waiting for a suitable opportunity to join the increasing armies of Gomez and Maceo. The Cubans, left without a leader, were about to disorganize, when Evangelina appeared on the scene. “Is there not one among you who can take my father’s place?” She asked, and they answered, “No, not one.” “Then,” she exclaimed, springing up on a casque nearby, “I will lead you.” Picturesquely beautiful was this delicate girl, as her face was animated with the glow of patriotism. Above her head gracefully waved branches of the wild palms, and through their long and slender leaves fell the shimmering moon rays, as around her gathered in Fit to Print Resource Book

Hid in an Oven and Betrayed. She hid herself in a large oven, where she remained for a day and night, then, almost famished, crawled out and made her way to the house of a supposed friend, who surrendered her to the Governor. To his presence she was brought bound hand and foot. The Governor made an insulting proposition to her. Continues on the next page 12

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