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Dr. Dave’s Science Teaching Manuals

Hands-on, inquiry-based science How to teach, interest and excite elementary and middle school children in science.

PRACTICAL

INNOVATIVE

CHILD-CENTERED

Each unit has: • experiments, projects, and artwork to enable children to discover and construct knowledge for themselves • visual and eye-catching activities to impart simple scientific concepts • jokes that appeal to children and help them remember • safety, clean-up, and how-to-save-money tips • suggestions for further study for gifted or more advanced students • advice on how to deal with potential disruptions and diversions Each heavily illustrated, full-color manual comes with a CD with stunning pictures and diagrams to project for visual learners. Reproducible worksheets The activities are easily adaptable for homeschoolers, giving parents a practical guide and simple explanation of important scientific principles, and natural phenomena. These guides will enliven and clarify teaching and inspire students for real academic success.

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Dr. David Purvis “Teaching science to children can be the most wonderful and exciting experience. But having content knowledge is not enough for success at upper elementary-middle school level; what a teacher really needs to know is how-to-teach, how to engage students in hands-on, inquiry-based science.” —Dr. David Purvis, Assistant Professor of Education, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, New York ‘Dr. Dave’ is a university academic and a classroom teacher dedicated to improving and energizing science teaching for children. After obtaining his doctorate in Microbiology and conducting postdoctoral research at the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology, Dr. Purvis decided to become certified to teach in the New Jersey public school system. During twenty years of teaching science at elementary, middle, secondary and college levels, he has developed the innovative activities and approach practiced in these books. Dr. Purvis has been Visiting Professor, Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey, a consultant for the Columbia University School, and continues to volunteer as a guest teacher in the classrooms of local schools. As well as being the author of Dr. Dave’s Science Teaching Manuals, he gives workshops for teachers about Hands-on Science.

To book Dr. Purvis for a workshop or seminar, contact: Dr. T. M. Kemnitz, Royal Fireworks Press Box 399 Unionville, NY 10988 tel: 845 726 4444 or email: mail@rfwp.com

Based on his years of experience as a classroom science teacher and now as a mentor and instructor to budding science teachers, Dr. Purvis has written one of the most comprehensive, creative and useful manuals for teaching science it has been my pleasure to read. His devotion to constructivist pedagogies and love of science as a way of knowing and understanding the world is evinced on every page. All science teachers, whether just beginning their careers or seasoned educators, will derive great benefit from Dr. Purvis’s meticulous and innovative approach to a wide range of topics. —Marc A. Meyer, M.Phil., Ph.D, Associate Head of School, Brown School, Schenectady, New York

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The Digestive System

Everything you need to teach a unit on the Digestive System em is here, with full-color illustrations, hints and tips and detailed activivities. There are diagrams and colorful images for classroom presenentations on the accompanying CD. The aim of the manual is to enable children to discover and construct knowledge for themselves and to give teachers the resources and information to make the learning exciting. There are dozens of activities and topics to choose from at various levels and a wonderful ‘end-of-it-all’ class demonstration to simulate how the digestive system works. The easy lesson demonstrations use basic materials such as crackers, construction paper, oil, and marshmallows. There are reproducible worksheets rksheets to offer as homework or inclass assignments; safety tips, advice on how to keep students focused; enrichment extensions, vocabulary word lists, and puzzles reinforce the learning of them. 7756 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: Digestive System $40.00 Special Price $30.00 Topic:

ce quen TopicestSe m ive Syste Dig

Topic: Esophagus and the Stomach Student Activity – The Human Digestive System Page 1 ............... .................. .................. ....... 8 uth ............ .................. in the Mo .................. Digestion 12 mach ............ ................. and the Sto .................. ...... Esophagus ...... Lactase ............ 18 Intestine and .................. The Small e .................. ......... 24 all Intestin in the Sm .................. Proteases .................. 26 .................. ............... on of Fats ) .................. all! The Digesti it of the end Intestine (or ge Lar The ....... 31 ...... ...... ...... .................. ES ............ RESOURC TEACHER

• The assignment can be given at any grade level, and it can be made to any size.

In general, students glue construction paper cutouts of the various organs onto a human body outline. The size of the human body outline can range from actual student size to a standard piece of construction paper. Older students are able to construct smaller, more precise models.

Topic

Materials: glue construction paper scissors human body template markers

Give directions to your class on how to cut out and glue the human body outline onto a black piece of construction paper. If you use white glue, it’s handy to have small plates and toothpicks available. Teaching tip: It may be difficult for students with motor difficulties to cut out the outline.

• Students draw and cut out the organs of the digestive system from dif-

ferent colored construction paper. After gluing them on, the organs are labeled to finish the assignment. Tell your students to be sure to leave enough room for a title if desired. Teaching tip: Consider running this activity as an in-class assignment (instead of a homework assignment). For students who may not finish in one class—have small envelopes for them to store unglued pieces. Larger scale models can be made, although these are more cumbersome for classroom construction and storage. As before, construction paper can be used to cut out and labeled with the various organs of the digestive system. The cutouts are then glued on. Students can also label the lungs, heart, and brain to gain a more thorough perspective of the human body. Teaching tip: Both diagrams are excellent examples of integrating art into your science curriculum. Students whose academic strength lies within the visual realm of multiple intelligence will enjoy completing this assignment and others like it.

• These projects are very large, so if you don’t have the wall space for

them, they might make good decorations for the hallway. Pairing your students or placing them into groups reduces the number of “bodies” to hang up. These posters have some weight, so use pushpins or small pins to attach them to the wall.

Student Activity – Word Searches

all Inte st

Topic: The Small Intestine and Lactase 2. Enzym Enzyme at Different Temperatures

If you hav e visuals to one, human mo del show to placement your clas s of the digesti ve system s; these mo body. You of the digestive organs wit dels help stud are excellent ent tem, sho can use the mo del as you hin the scale of s visualize the win the these mo g the respecti progress ve del through whole human be purcha s are very exp organs as you cov the digesti ens sed er the ve sysive, model from som Digesti s that are m. While ma e supplie ve Enzy ny of more eco rs. nomical • The important mes in the Sm can point to all curs in the Intestin teach e to finish small intestine. about the small the chemic inte Tell you r class tha stine is that the intestine food is comal digestion of the t the sma ma jority of the majori ll intestin food slur chemical ty of nut pletely broken e digestion below to down into ry that comes fromsecretes many rients from ocdigesti introduce sma food are the the nam absorbed ll molecules. The stomach. Her ve enzymes es of enz your class to the e in the into the small inte ymes and se small bloods stine is their sub enzymes. Tak also wh e this opp tream. Project strates. ere or ortunity to review write the notes with you Most fou r student nd in the s small inte stine Lactase Digesti – breaks ve down lact Enzyme ose in dai s ry produc ts Proteases – break down pro teins Lipases – break down lipi ds, fats, Fact: The oils supplemen human body pro duc ts by cer tain com es over 20 diff ere panies to treat dig nt digestive enz Unit: The ymes. Som estive diso Digestive rders. e of these System are sold as

Students can test the activity of the enzyme in an ice water-bath, at room temperature and in a water-bath. Add the same amount of enzyme to each tube, and let them sit for 5 minutes boiling w temperature before dipping in the glucose test strip. at the te

Materials:

Be sure students understand that the milk itself should be at the correct temperatures before the enzyme is added. The tubes of milk should already be in the ice and hot water-bath when the enzyme is added. Otherwise, the enzyme will have a chance to work until the temperature is reached.

test tubes, tub ice, hot water milk lactase pipettes glucose test strips

tip: Keep the boiling water-bath secure and be sure stuSafety ti dents use caution when removing the tubes. If you don’t have any test tube holders, use cups. Only one student per group should be at this station. Safety goggles are recommended.

Varying the Concentration of the Enzyme 3. Varyi Students prepare several cups, and vary the amount of enzyme added to each one. The materials used in tthis variation are the same as those listed in the previous experiment.

Comparing Different Brands 4. Compa Students add the same amount of enzyme from different manufacturers, and test each sample at the same time.

5. What is the Effect of pH? This is ssimple to run if you already have bottles of the pH buffers available. Simply add the amount of each buffer to the respective cups, then add the enzyme. Wait 5 minutes and same amou check for the production of glucose with the test strips. then chec

Materials: 13

Quick description: Students complete a word search using unit vocabulary words; some of which will be covered later in the unit. Three puzzles are provided: two contain words that are written backwards, while one does not. Choose the ones that are appropriate for your students. See pages 3–8 in the Teacher Resources for reproducible student pages and the answer keys. Unit: The Digestive System

The Sm

Extension : ine and three sec The small inte Lactase stine tions: the Think of duodenum is sub-divided a into rememb mnemonic for DJI , jejunum, and er this seq ileum. to help you uence. r student s Project this ima ge of the pathway sma actually is. Point ll intestine and testines are. Ob serve the out how folded reiterate how lon and tell and g the sha you spending r class that foo rp turns in som convoluted the e par d moves inanywhere slowly thro ts of the pathw your stud ents acc from two to six ay, ountable hours. On ugh the intestin e, for this ce again, fact. don’t hol d

cups or test tubes milk lactase glucose test strips

pH 4 buffer pH 7 buffer pH 10 buffer pipettes

11

Unit: The The Digestive Digesti System

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Electricity

If you have h ever struggled to understand and teach basic electricity, thi this book and CD will provide you with the fundamentals of circuits, insulators, conductors, batteries, resistance, magnetism, circuits and ho how to make an electromagnet and a battery from lemon juice. Ther are dozens of practical experiments, pertinent jokes, There and ideas for taking the lesson further for gifted students. In Included throughout the instructor will find safety advice and an budget tips, quizzes and wordgames, and an awareness of likely student reactions to the material being taught.

7763 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: Electricity

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• The batter

Topic: Insulators and Conductors • It is interesting to see how the students identify the pencil.

Many will test the wood and conclude ude that it is an insulator. It takes a fine hand to touch the wires to both ends of the graphite and see that the graphite is indeed a conductor of electricity—any student that achieves this really ly deserves praise! After the activity is complete, discuss the results as a class and demonstrate this for alll the students. The pencil really makes a good analogy to a wire.

ce

quen TopicEleSe ctricity

The graphite is a conductor

Page

Teache r

The wood is an insulator of electricity

............. 1 ..................... ..................... to Circuits ....... ................ 7 Introduction ..................... ..................... .. 11 Conductors ..................... Insulators and ..................... ....... ....... ....... 14 uits .............. ..................... Parallel Circ ..................... ..................... ......... 20 ....... ....... ....... ....... Batteries .............. ..................... ......... 25 ..................... ..................... Current ....... ..................... .... 30 stance.............. ..................... Electrical Resi ..................... netism.......... ........ 33 Mag ....... and ty ....... Electrici .............. ..................... 39 ty .............. ................... Static Electrici ..................... ....... ....... urces .............. Teacher Reso

Topic

“What do all conducctors in this experiment have in common?” The answer, of course, is that they are all metals. This is an important concept in the study of electricity, and if you can guide your class to discover this, then you’ve had a successful lesson! Project or write these notes.

Copper Aluminum

De

• It is relativ monstratio

• During your class discussion, ask the culminating critical thinking question:

Common Conductors

Topi

c: Batt again and ies that studen eries voltage read out 1.5 ts are most fam Vo is two bat additive, me lts on the lab iliar with are teries wil ani el. the l be mu ng that two 1.5 Some studen common Dch bright cel ts may Material Volt bat know or l. Show the er ter s tha tip ies n a light : If you m wil are als are o bulb hoo l yield 3 vol have discovere the battery a bunch cheap. In add serious abo ts. A lig d ked up ut teachi ition, all to just ht bulb that the of them. one. ng hooked igator clips are electricity, up to batter very han dy and y holders are make con inv blee.. nections aluabl e a snap. They When Order does a battery When go sho it runs pping? out of juice.

Common Insulators

Iron

Rubber

Glass

Silver

Plastic

Wood

n or St electroly ely simple ud to metals tic connectio make a batter ent Activ . Some n ity – Le y from possib between the mon Ba le com two me a lemon. Th binatio e ttery ns are tals. Like all citric acid in listed bel batteries the ow. , all you lemon serves Mater strips of need are as ia ls: zinc and two dif the ferent cop a penny and a dim per a galvan e ized nai l and a magne piece of sium and copper copper

• The best nai

Student Activity – Crazy Circuit Quick description: Now that students have discovered what materials are conductors, have them make a crazy circuit with as many different materials as possible. An example of a small “crazy” circuit is shown at left. Teaching tip: Students demonstrate creativity and originality when they combine ideas or materials in unusual ways. What city has no people? Electricity

Student Activity – Crazy Conductors Quick description: Students complete a graphic organizer on conductors. See pages 12–14 in the Teacher Resources, located in the back of this manual, for two student versions of the reproducible diagram, as well as the answer key for this assignment.

10

Unit: Electricity

l to use are eith is a er of pure Canadian pen common gal vanize copper nies or d nail (co . the pen ny and All you have US pennies ated wit mi nail do to not tou do is to stic nted before 198h zinc), and the k the nai ch. l and the 2. Both kinds best pennies to of penny into the pennies are use ma lemon, being sur de e that • Don’t get tery wil too excited and thi l be abl nk battery e doesn’ to light a typ that the lem on batt produc might ical lig be ht e with 3 able to light a lot of electr bulb—this or 4 lem a low vol icity. Yo way to ons hoo tage LE u prove ked up D light tha to hoo k up you t electricity in series. Th e is measu re the curr lemon batter being produc best Unit: Ele y to an ed is ctricity rent bei am ng pro duced. meter to

etism

y and Magn

ctricit s and citTopic: Ele whole town electricity for key concept. Big a uce enough r plants prod generators is generator rators in powe ets spin in big nes turn, the class that gene makes the coils or magn blades. When the turbi • Tell your ding what ally big fan rstan basic ng waare Unde boili ies. turbines; these produced from to boil wad by steam . used generators have nes are turne reactions is uces electricity s are fuels, the turbi produced from nuclear spins and prod all power plant burn fossil nes water is why s, the heat r plants that need to boil of making turbi es. power plant • In powe other ways , in nuclear turbine. The of sourc the larly y think Simi turns can ter. that ting energ uces steam students if they renewable, non-pollu ter which prod r. Ask your sent body of wate ples and repre located on a would be exam wind and r spin. Wate ry. magnet wire and a batte g an Electro an iron nail, ivity – Makin gnet using insulated copnail with an Student Actto make a working electroma same to wrap the wire all in the first step is to wrap the • It’s simple not • The wire . Just be sure wise or clockwise, but nail, per around the counter clock this direction— are wrapped als: that teri coils be (although Ma both. The more temporary magnet will ry). the nail batte ger iron the stron gth of the er wire on the stren also depends insulated copp battery paper clips off) to the ation stripped (with the insul work! Touch the tip the wire ends should now then dis• Hookry.up The some up and electromagnet fall off r clips. Pick batte a pile of pape paperclips will that the of the nail to battery. The demonstrating wire from the ing, the ect flow conn if you use a electricity stops can get hot as soon as the a temporary magnet. extended sulated wires is ected for an Thin, un-in electromagnet Safety tip: the wires conn ry and leave strong batte the time. romagnet is gth of an elect stren rate way the uring A more elabo way of meas it can pick up. the nail with the nail • One ber of paper clips suspend to a num strength is to light cup or platform the uring start of meas h a very romagnet and down. Attac head facing this to the elect nail. Attach much lighter until the cup drops. hts adding weig , the placement number of coils n’t work well). nting with the inum core does try experime (e.g. an alum Students can of core used Extension: vary the type of coils, and Unit: Electricity

17

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Our Solar System

Teach the structure of the Sun, show the planets, asteroids and meteors, and demonstrate revolution and rotation. This is a visually stunning book with accompanying CD for the projection of images. It will inspire teachers and students and enable them to better understand our Solar System. The series hallmark of simple explanations enhanced with engaging class activities using readily available materials, is beautifully presented.

7787 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: Our Solar System

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Topic: • If you choose

Syste

Our Solar System

Page Topic: ar System

n to Our Sol

Introductio General

The Sun......

..................

..................

Sun cture of the

and Revolution

Rotation......

........... 1

... 4 ..................

......... 9 .................. ..... 14 ..................

..................

..................

17 .................

.... 22 ..................

..................

31 ............... ..................

Planets ......

Asteroids,

TEACHER

Students will identify the eight planets within our Solar System Students will order the eight planets from the Sun

Key Points The Sun is at the center of the Solar System There are eight planets in the Solar System, and many smaller dwarf planets Pluto has been reclassified as a dwarf planet The Sun is the only star in our Solar System Stars seen in the night sky are not part of our Solar System

...... ..................

...... ..... 36 .................. s and Craters oting Star Meteors, Sho .. 42 .................. .................. ...... tem ar Sys of Our Sol ..... 46 Scale Model .................. ivities ...... Act t den Stu Solar System Additional

The Outer

Objectives

..................

..................

ets ............ Inner Plan

Topic: Introduction to Our Solar System

..................

..................

..................

..................

The Stru

The

..................

ar System

Our Sol Features of

ES ............

RESOURC

..................

....... 49 ..................

Vocabulary Words Solar System Neptune Pluto

Planets Dwarf planet Mars

Asteroids Mercury Jupiter

Sun Venus Saturn

Introdu ct

ion to Ou

r Solar to do a KW there are System L several misconcep worksheet to star As you hav t this uni tions tha t, be awa followed e your class disc t childre n hav re with a pos uss esting— itive com ion, incorrect stat e about space. tha studies” t is one of the thin ment such as, “W ements should . be ell, that gs that we is inter• One of the firs want to find out t things the planet from our your stud s ents sho have stud from the Sun. uld lear Lis ents ma ke up the t them using the n is the order of planet of ir s, images. (although or you can sim own mnemonic It is fun ply use to to Pluto is lear n the seq the famous to mentio included) uence mn n . Actual sure to wri how Pluto has ly, this mig emonic below bee te your class mn n “demoted” to ht be a good tim emonic on the boa a dwarf planet. e Be rd. NASA/JP L My Ver y Educate d Mothe r Just Sol Writing d Us Nin inte e Pizzas notebooks gration: Have the stud or journa ents wri l. te the mn emonic Teaching in their tip: Non tance from e of these ima the Sun or the rela ges is to scale wit tive size of the pla h respect to dis• Take the time nets. to project System—t multiple images the order he more images of the Sol you sho of planet ar w, also sho s by pro ws jecting the the better. Rei nforce ered to dat the three dwarf image bel pla last ima e in the Solar Sys nets that have ow, which ge bee tem. Tel (but not is to scale in resp l your clas n discovin distanc ect to the s e to the size of the that this Sun). planets

ence Topic Sequ m Our Solar

Special Price $30.00

http://cha

Star Earth Uranus

ndra.harv

ard.edu

Start the Class

• There are several ways of starting a unit on the Solar System.

In general, the first class is an introductory class where you want present the general features of the Solar System—the planets and asteroids—and get the class interested in the topic. There are several ways of achieving this, depending on what is available to you and what you prefer. You should definitely show beautiful pictures of the entire Solar System to target all those visual learners. Project the images found in this manual’s accompanying disc.

Internatio nal

Astronom ical Unio

n - Wikiped

2

When displaying the image to the right, be sure to tell your students to observe the presence of an asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. For now, you can mention that the asteroid belt contains more than 40,000 rocks of various sizes and shapes. Be aware that not all images of our Solar System show the asteroid belt. Also note the presence of a comet in this particular image.

ia

Extension : One of why Plu to was dem the reasons “dwarf oted to planet” was the a of Eris, discovery whi than Plu ch is actually bigger to (see ima There are ge to the thre recognized e dwarf pla left). net tually disc , and many mo s that are curren re will pro tly overed. is suspec bably be The Kui ted of hav per belt even(be planets. ing over 200 pos yond Pluto) sible dwa rf

Topic: The Structure of the Sun Corona – A hot layer of gases that forms the outer atmosphere of the Sun. The corona is only visible during an eclipse. Remind the students that tha the Earth has an atmosphere, and so does the sun. Show the image of the Sun with the Moon in front of it (eclipse) for a vivid illustrat illustration of the corona.

Core – The center of the Sun where the nuclear reactions that generate all of the sun’s energy occur. Project the image at left and review the structural names. An optional demonstration is to take an apple and slice it in half in front of your class to show them the core of the apple. Wikipedia

Sunspots – These dark spots on the surface of the Sun are very “cool” “coo and their presence is related to the appearance lights, or aurora borealis on Earth. Use a of the Northern No marker and an put some spots on the orange. Actually, these spots are cooler than the rest of the Sun and turn out to be storms that send out lots of solar enhuge electromagnetic elec Project the images shown. For mysterious reasons, the ergy. Pr number of sunspots peaks on an 11-year cycle.

NASA

Technology integration: Search the internet for “sunspots” and “animation” to produce a list of sites that show how the sunspots move along with the rotation of the Sun.

pho below is a NASA ultraviolet image that shows glowing loops of gas erupting around a • The photo sunspot. The mechanism of how this occurs in sunspots is not well understood. You can mention to your class that ancient cultures were aware of the existence of sunspots, as under the right conditions, sunspots can be observed with the naked eye. The earliest written record of sunspots was made in 28 BC by Chinese astronomers. Other cultures such as the Aztecs and Greeks also appeared to be aware of their existence. In 1610, Galileo was the first western astronomer to observe sunspots through a telescope.

Unit: Ou r Solar Sys

tem

Fact: In peak conditions, sunspots and solar storms interfere with satellite and cell phone communications. NASA

NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Unit: Our Solar System

1

Unit: Our Ou Solar System

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The Oceans

This is a visually attractive and empowering teacher manual and com CD combination in which Dr. Dave covers salinity, waves, tides currents, the different layers of the Oceans, food chains, and cu plankt plankton, fish, mammals, and other life. The unit is enlivened with ccontent-based jokes and with hands-on activities that all can join jo in. Students will learn the answers to such questions as: How do Stud whales measure distance by echolocation? What is a tsunawh mi mi? They will learn how to demonstrate the different types of waves and measure wavelength…and more.

7770 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: The Oceans

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The O

Topic: Where Are The Oceans?

quence TopicTheSe Oceans

Topic:

Teacher Demonstration – Pie Chart Earth

• Another very simple demonstration is to take a circular piece of construction paper and fold it

in half two times. Show the equal 25% segments and cut off about a 30% piece (slightly more than ¼). Hold both pieces in your hands to illustrate how much more ocean there is than land. and. A simple student activity is for students to make this themselves using blue and brown construction ruction paper. This concept could also be integrated into a math lesson where students explore thee ideas of percentages using concrete manipulatives.

Page .............. 1 ..................... ..................... Oceans? ....... ............. 6 ..................... Where are the ..................... ..................... ............. 13 Salt Water ....... ..................... ....... ....... .............. .............. 18 es .............. ....... Wav an ....... Oce ....... ..................... ............ 23 ..................... ..................... Currents ....... ..................... ..................... ............... 28 Tides .............. ..................... ..................... ............. 32 r ..................... ....... Floo ....... an Oce ....... ..................... ..................... .............. 35 Ocean Layers ..................... ..................... .......... 39 ..................... ..................... Fish .............. ....... ....... .............. the Oceans ................ 45 Mammals in ..................... ..................... ans Oce ...... 49 the ....... in Other Life ..................... ..................... in the Oceans Food Chains ............. 55 ....... ....... ....... ..................... RESOURCES TEACHER

Topic

Names of the Oceans

• Project the image below to show students the names and locations of the oceans. Teaching tip: A blank image is provided on the he accompanying CD. If you choose, you may project this image and have students come up to the he screen and label the oceans as well as the contintinents. What do you use to cut the ocean? A seasaw.

Class Activity – Catch the Earth

• Another way to give young students a sense of the proportion of

land and ocean is to play a catch game with an inflatable blow-up ball of the Earth. These balls usually cost less than $10. Pass the Earth around the class like a beach ball. Each time a student catches the ball, the student makes note if his or her right thumb is on land or the ocean. Teaching tip: The catching activity also helps primary grade students to learn their right from their left. The ball is passed around the class and each time, the position of the thumb is noted and record-ed—a student can make a record of these numbers. If you were to do this 100 times, the number mber of “thumbs on ocean” and “thumbs on land” would be around 70/30. Ask your students why “thumbs on water” happened so many more times than “thumbs on land.”

Unit: The Oceans

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3

ns?? ans Ocea ntsOce The Curre re Are eic: Topere ic: Wh Topic: r. rents in warm wate naturally sinks – Density Cur cold water onstration shows how Teacher Dem lest demonstration that ice cubes.

ceans

Ocean Waves

simp

the n, freeze some • This tisbefo re your lesso

The

blue

cubes, the blue ice forget to make food colortip: If you of drops of Demonstration cube and add a couple a just crush up ediately a ing. water. Imm warm s of a glass as the ice melt ice cube in r will sink down this is an example • Floatma blue colored wate that strea of blueyour students er than the er water. Tell r sinks because it is dens es toin the warm cold wate poles mov The from r nt. wate curre cold of a the Sun. In the ocean, warmed by warm water. tor, where the water is ity if you have a student activ The activwards the Equa nstration as your class. run this demo ice cubes for nts that the • You can h of colored t tell the stude nts make denser. if you don’ frozen a bunc r sinks: it is the stude inquiry-based the cold wate a labeled diagram of water. Let er warm ity becomes rstand why the them to unde be to have them to draw will sink in then guide cold water d rvations and activity woul their own obse s the students for this asses to One way ons. their observati bakre Currents to run. Fill a clear glass of ice iner – Temperatu more time end and a conta onstrationinvolved to set up and takescand difference le under one Teacher Dem temperature is more can put a so until the it so that you demonstration minutes or and elevate • Thisdish wait fifteen with water tes of blue You need to ing several pipet ontally, other end. and the r side, unde horiz warm cubes spreads out water to the lished. is an bottom and tes of hot red has been estab sinks to the surface. This several pipet ar way, cold water out across the carefully add that in a simil . size. The blue and spreads • Now wate your students again r to the cold water rises cold water rises rences. Tell the hot red erature diffe cally, while tor, where the red by temp but not verti warm Equa a current powe and moves toward the of ple exam sinks at the poles cold water nigh

Objectiv es

Studen ts will explain Studen how win ts will relate wa d produc Studen es waves ve size ts will unders to win d strengt tand how h energy Key Po is transf ints erred by Waves a wave are sim ply cau In gen sed by eral, the win stronge ds Water r the win does not d, rea A wave the lly flow can be forward bigger the wa though Hurric ve in a t as mo anes can ving ene wave pro Tsunam rgy is are pro duce huge wa ves duced by earthq uakes, Vocabu not win lary Wo d Wave rds Trough Energy Wavel ength Crest Start th by Japa Great Wave off of e as nese artis Ampli t Katsush Kanagawa s tude • Do a quiCl ika Hok usai Tsunam teach abock review abo i ut what your des ut waves is that the your class has k in front of y Studen the stu are caused by already learne ts dents, made by will be able the d about win tak to see blowin some sm e a big breath d. Place any the oceans. g harder Th lar , all and e first thi ge , which sur is exactly face waves blow out ove clear contain ng to what hap that are gen r the surfac er of water on e to illu pens in era Techno strate thi nature. ted. Bigger log waves tion” and y integration: can be s. animatio “wind speed” Search the internet sites all ns that you can to produce for “w a list ave ow you height. to adjust project for you of sites tha animaYou t show r class. the win strength. r students wa will enj d speed to see Some of the ve Wave blows, oy settin se as well size also dep g wind the effects on Unit: Th end as the e Ocea distance s on the len speeds at hur wave ns gth ricane that the wind blo of time the win ws ove r open d water.

13

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ns Unit: The Ocea


Phases of Matter

This is the perfect introduction to teaching and learning chemistry istry at the elementary level: it is all about liquids, solids, and gases and includes lots about slime! Student activities include making crystals and experiencing thee processes of evaporation and condensation. Teachers are guided to teaching the molecular differences between solids, liquids, and gases in depth. Experiments call for readily available materials. Support resources are a CD, safety advice and budget tips, quizzes and wordgames and advice about real classroom situations and potential hazards. The unit provides an excellent grounding for students in using the scientific method and performing accurate experiments..

7794 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: Phases of Matter

$40.00 • This is a goo

Phase

Topic: More About Water and Ice Student Activity – Does the Mass of Ice Change as it Melts?

........ 1 .................. Gases........ Liquids and ............. 7 n to Solids, .................. Introductio .................. . 11 .................. .................. ...... .................. ...... ...... e Slim ............ .................. ...... 14 .................. e .................. More Slim e .................. . 17 More Slim .................. ic – Even .................. Optional Top ...... ...... Ice ...... .......... 23 ut Water and .................. More Abo .................. ....... 28 .................. ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... Solids ...... .................. .................. .......... 31 .................. .................. Crystals ...... Liquids ...... ........ 38 Solids and .................. Volume of Mass and .................. .................. .......... 43 ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... ...... Liquids ...... .................. .. 50 .................. .................. .................. .................. Gases ...... ...... ...... ............ es ............ ..... 54 More on Gas .................. nce ...... fere ...... Dif ...... lar and Gases The Molecu ...... 57 ids, Liquids .................. .................. Between Sol .................. .......... 63 n .................. .................. Evaporatio .................. .................. on ............ sati den Con ....... 69 .................. .................. ES ............ RESOURC TEACHER

Topic

• Most children have no idea if the mass of ice will change as it melts into a liquid.

Have your students make their hypothesis, and then measure the mass of an ice cube (or snow if available) on a double pan balance. This experiment can be performed in cups or in ziplock bags. The ice can be kept right on the balance, and after the ice completely melts, have the students re-measure and record the mass.

Materials: cups or ziplock bags snow or ice double pan balances with weighing chips

Activity tip: If you crush the ice cubes, the ice will melt much quicker. Placing the cups on a sunny windowsill also will speed up the melting.

• Give the students an assignment during the time it takes the ice to melt. One possibility is simply to make up a result table like the one below using a ruler or the computer. Activity tip: If too much time passes and the room is especially warm, and the activity is done in open cups, the liquid water will start to evaporate, and then the mass will decrease.

Will the Mass Change? Substance Ice Melted ice

More Ab

es Salt

Mass 15 g 15 g

Sample Ice Ice + salt (NaCl) Ice + salt (CaCl)

• To incorporate some art into the activity, students can make the decorated poster as shown below.

This assignment is more visual, and children enjoy making it—not to mention they make attractive additions to the walls of your classroom or bulletin boards.

Show an example or project the poster to the left for your students to see. There is nothing like showing students an examplar to set your high expectations for the assignment; just make sure you cover up the results so the students can’t see them. Use construction paper for the background and students can decorate the poster as they see fit. The table is made on white paper and then cut and pasted onto the background. See see page 16 in the Teacher Resources for a copy of the grading rubric.

• Afterwards, be sure to have a class discussion so that everyone realizes that the mass of ice does

not change as water melts from a solid to a liquid. Don’t be surprised if you have few students whose results do change; either the mass decreases or increases. As a class, try to explain these results, without making the students feel bad, so that everyone learns that the mass of melting ice should stay the same.

Unit: Phases of Matter

Topic:

out W

ater an though the d time to talk d Ice about safe would nev salt is safe, the y have to ty. Tell the stud er touch ent practice the pow good scie s not to taste or der. Activity nce skil touch the tip: ls. Tell salt, and which are Cubes of stor them tha e-b thicker. t a real scie even Check to ought bags of ice ntist see if you are easier r cafeter ia has an to crush than hom ice machi emade ice ne that ma cubes, kes these cubes. Measurem demons ent tip: It’s an tration to exc show you ellent teaching sure the ma r mess. The ss of 20g of salt class how to mea without easiest way cups on making is to put bot two identic a a 20g chi h sides of the bal al p to one cup trul side. Now ance, and then y represe add the salt nts 20 g. • Table salt (Na that you add Cl) will to the oth compare work er the two different fine. You can also cups can types of be use the salt versus the measured in a commercia graduated . After around 30–40 min l ice-melting salt on depicti cup that contain cylinder. s the ng the resu utes the Compar as those amount (CaCl) and e the lts in a sim salt. While you sho of liquid are waiting amount of liqu ple table, 17–18 in wn below. Tw in the id in the or if tim for the o ver the Teache control cup r Resour sions of a reprod e permits, into melting, student a bar ces. s can wo ucible bla rk nk graph graph or small pos paper can be found ter such on pages Do

quenr ce Topic Se s of Matte

Page

Special Price $30.00

make Ice Volume

Topic: Crystals There are several variations to this recipe. Most sources give direction directions that approximate the following:

Day 1 – Mix six tablespoons of water, six tablespoons of salt, and six tablespoons of the liquid bluing in a small bowl. Add a cou couple tablespoons of ammonia, and place the piece of charcoal or sponge into the bowl. Day 2–3 – Pour into the bottom of the container (not directly on the ch charcoal or sponge) a fresh solution of water, salt, bluing, aand ammonia. In addition, add a few drops of food coloring directly on top of each piece of sponge or charcoal that you have. To maintain the crystals, replenish the bowl with a fr fresh solution of water, salt, bluing, and ammonia as needed.

Materials: liquid bluing container piece of charcoal or sponge salt water ammonia food coloring

com science behind the crystallization really isn’t • The complete

Melt?

for eleme elementary students. Keep it simple by explaining that bluing co contains small blue particles that the salt crystallizes upon as tthe liquid evaporates. Over time, the liquid continues to mo move up into the sponge where it eventually evaporates, le leaving behind more and more salt crystals. The bluing solut solution itself is relatively harmless, but you wouldn’t want the liquid to spatter into students’ eyes or onto their clothes, so safety goggles are recommended. The picture to the ri right shows crystals after 3 days.

of melt-w ater 5 ml 10 ml 14 ml

Student Activity – Salt Crystals Unit: Pha ses

of Matter

21

Quick description: des Fill a jar halfway with very warm water and dissolve as much salt as you can (the teacher could do this as a batch for the class and then distribute the salt water). Point out that solid salt is being dissolved dis into the liquid water. Tie a paper clip or bead to the end of a thread or thin string, and then tie the thread to a pencil and suspend iit in the solution, being careful not to let the string touch the bottom of the container. Canning jars are good, as are any tall skinny That’s all there is to it! It takes about a day for the crystals to jars. Th visible, and then they will get progressively bigger as the days become vi You could have the students make a labeled diagram of the appass. Yo paratus aas well as their observations.

19

Unit: Phases Ph of Matter

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The Cell

This uni unit is about plant and animal cells, their similarities and their differences. Students will learn about cell parts and funcdi tions including the cell membrane, lipids, diffusion, osmosis, in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, organelles, the genetic code, and prokar viruses. viruse This thorough and detailed manual introduces complex subjects ject through simple yet dramatic experiments. Students will learn lear the parts of the microscope and how to use it. They will wi learn about laboratory reports and how to write one.

7818 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: The Cell

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Studen t Activ

• After 24 hou ity – The Eg rs

Topic: Cell Theory

Sequl ence Topic The Cel

Eggcellent Experiment Laboratory Report

• There is a lot of flexibility with running this particular activity.

Page 1 .................. ..................... ..................... ............. 7 ..................... ..................... Cell Theory ..................... ..................... .............. 12 ....... ....... Lipids .............. ....... ..................... and Proteins ............. 17 Lipid Bilayer ..................... ..................... ..................... .............. 25 Diffusion ....... ..................... ..................... 31 ..................... .................. ....... ....... Osmosis ....... ....... tes .............. and Eukaryo ................. 36 Prokaryotes ..................... ..................... ............. 42 les .............. Cell Organel ..................... ....... ....... ....... ..................... ............. 45 Plant Cells..... ..................... ..................... ......... 48 gi and Protists etic Code ....... Cells of Fun A and the Gen ......... 54 somes, mRN ..................... Nucleus, Ribo ....... ....... .............. ............. 61 ..................... ....... ....... ses ....... Viru .............. ses.............. Viru enza Cold and Influ ............. 64 ..................... ..................... RESOURCES TEACHER

You could have students write up the procedure of the experiment, or simply record their results and observations in the result sult table. Alternatively, the eggcellent experiment is a good choice for students to write up as a full-scale ll-scale scientific report, complete with an introduction, materials, procedures, results, and conclusion. ion. Students can start making the result table, and then add to the report as the activity progresses sses through the week. Below is the grading rubric for the assignment, which can be found on page 1 of the Teacher Resources in the back of this manual. Teaching tip: Don’t make this seem like a huge major writing project. Create a relaxed learning earning environment by telling students they will have plenty of class time to work on this write-up up (as long as they take advantage of this time).

Topic

Parts of Report Introduction

Materials Procedure

Criteria

• One paragraph • States the purpose of the experiment • Includes a hypothesis • One or two other related sentences • Lists all the materials used in the experiment • Treats the eggs carefully • Writes the steps of the experiment in numerical fashion as

Ca +2 +

• Students me

shown below Step 1 Measure circumference of egg Step 2 Remove eggshell by soaking egg in vinegar Step 3 etc…

Results

Conclusion

Lipids

H2 O + CO 2

asure and ing the stri record the cir remove ng again. cum Th d and vin from the vin e egg is notice ference of the ega egar int abl this ma o the egg r. This is due y larger aft egg usnua er being to the dif solution: l. Instruct , which is a fus you wa r studen topic covere ion of water ter. Us water wo ts to pla d on pag Eggcel e dis rks jus e 25 lent Ex t fine. tilled water if ce the egg in the nex of you hav • Since there perimen e it; if t are fiv Labora not, tap t and con tory Re clusion), e parts to a conclu ful studen l lab po sion). Tips on ts can work oratory report rt on writing (in the pro any one of the troduction, ma cedure s and res se as they pre terials, pro 10 cedure ults are fer described (with the exc s, results, ept on the next pag ion of the e.

• Measurements are accurate • Correct use of metric units • Uses a ruler or the computer for the table • One or two paragraph discussion of the experiment - What did you learn? - Explain the results - What could you do differently? - Did you have any problems? - Was your hypothesis correct?

Other

Topic:

gcelle how to mo carefully st of the egg nt Expe and dis she remove rimen cus the me ll will be dis t (Day while the s how this solved mbran 2) e-b in membran membrane studen norma ound eggs fro the vinegar. e is ts Demo m the cup ter, the the purpose pretty tough, lly isn’t seen s. Show nstrate to you of a me n the egg studen when ts mbran urr stu your stu would e: to hol have to be an egg is cra dentss the dents just fal gen d l apart. tle when cked open. a cell tog egg Obbse handling ether. serrve ve If this membran the eggs. Re that • There probab mind e was sol ly will Most of uble in stil wabing you the remaining l be traces of the wh shell can ite stream r finger on the of water. se areas be removed shell on the eggs; if egg by carefu as the There so egg is lly rub . solution these eggs may be solid rinsed in a gen can pieces Activity of egg tle egg has of vinegar. On be soaked she tip: Th for a yellow ce lll e egg wo ish col the shell is another day in on some n’t smell • As previousl comple or. tely rem a fresh becaus y menti the egg e the vin oved, the one she egar pre come fro ll, which is d, the eggshe serves ll is made of the egg base rea m the vinega calcium dissolved by by “pick r. ctio the che ling.” make the n. A good Interested stu carbonate. mi cal In the critical dents can reactio reactio answer: calcium bec thi n add a bas ome a sol nking questio learn more abo n below, the between vinega id again? n to hydrog r and ut e. en ” or, “H ask is “What this reactio n, which ions (H +) ow can could be the sol is id calciu added to the an acidm be rec vin Vineg overed egar to ar and ?” The Eggshe CaCO ll Equa tion 3 + 2H +

• Spelling and grammar • Neatness and professionalism

ns and Protei id Bilayer Topic: Lip e Tea

tration cher Demons

that first s of cons membran Tell your class kers” of the a couple piece membrane. are the “wor now, tape on the proteins the cell. For vironment, us jobs for ins form that do vario plastic wrap. of these prote in membrane ion that some tein” onto the could ment e, and let certa bran You labeled “pro mem • nels through the way to simu chan the cell. One in a few holes in and out of substances pin and poke membrane take a push the to is that this class late nels . Tell your but rather chan glus,” the plastic wrap “hole that y contain h pointing out doesn’t reall ated solely ins. It is wort protein dedic made of prote ial transport cose has a spec of this crucial nutrient. port to the trans

appropriate

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to your students ories of mem

l mem learn ins. Periphera ly to the surface of the brane prote attached loose proteins are those that are e integral membrane of whil the interior membrane, imbedded in through permanently form channels those more Proteins that integral membrane . layer of the lipid e are examples the membran proteins.

de the inside and outsi Permeability – Selective l through the membrane to getrtant feature of membranes sentation impo . State wrap. A very Teacher Pre tances need to be able to trave through them e the plastic tances pass subs brane is unlik ey only let certain subs • VarioInus this gh. way, the mem eable—th will let throu

they cell. y perm h gives stuy” as to what are selectivel diagram, whic is that they are very “pick tive permein channels • Projecta this of what selec that the prote le: the red dents sense s. Keep it simp fit through ability mean to small enough e, while the molecule is the membran in ing cannot pass the open is too big and formed by is blue molecule itself opening through. The proteins. e two membran 15

Unit: The Cell

5

for some of

be general categ • It maythat ins are there are two brane prote

Unit: Th e Cell

Unit: The Cell

ran is the in the Membcontain many proteins. If this also tances in the membranes important subs outside enyour class that that proteins are very and its in the een the cell mention

– Proteins

rtunity to teach

er betw this oppo proteins of them, just • Takeyour r hundreds of form the barri class has heard truction pape while lipids e—there are


Chemistry

Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual for Chemistry is accompanied by a CD that contains vivid images and diagrams which you may want ant to project for your visual learners as you proceed through your instructional presentation. The CD also includes “notes” for your students to copy. Reproducible worksheets are provided. Topics covered include solutions, balancing chemical equations, ns, the pH scale, chromatography and the separation of colored substances. Because the chemistry unit is naturally rich in Physical Science topics, while students are learning about the reaction between vinegar and baking soda, they will also be engaging in learning about the Law of Conservation of Mass. As Dr. Dave guides your teaching, you will be enabling your students to discover and construct knowledge for themselves by using inquirybased real science. 7801 Dr. Dave’s Teaching Manual: Chemistry

$40.00

Special Price $30.00 Topic: Combu r De stion nstratio • It’s easy to mo n – Co sho

Teache

quence TopicChSe emistry Topic: Physical and Chemical Changes • Use this demonstration to attract interest not only to the topic of chemistry, but also as a lead-in to Page ......... 1 .................. .................. Changes.... .............. 6 Chemical .................. Physical and .................. 11 .................. .................. Equations .................. ...... Chemical ...... ............ ..... 17 .................. .................. .................. Combustion .................. ..... 26 ...... ...... ...... ...... nish ............ Rust and Tar .................. .................. ........... 32 mistry ...... .................. Fizzy Che .................. ..... 37 Solutions .................. ubility, and .................. Water, Sol .................. ...... ...... y aph Chromatogr ................. .................. ...... ...... ES ............ RESOURC TEACHER

Topic

the activity described on the next page. Bromothymol blue (BTB) is an excellent chemical indicator that changes colors—either yellow, green, or blue. Have a beaker of water ready that contains some bromothymol blue. The solution will be blue. Now take a single effervescent tablet, and add it to the beaker. Your students will be excited to observe a beautiful color change. Use this reaction as another example of a chemical change.

• The tablet produces bubbles of CO , which turns the solution 2

yellow. BTB can be safely used for simple experiments. See the next page for more information on BTB, including ordering tips and further explanations regarding the science behind the color changes.

• Baking is another example of a chemical change that children will understand.

Describe how sugar, flour and other ingredients are mixed together and then baked at high temperatures. The heat of the oven causes the ingredients to chemically react with each other. The baked product is a new substance, and none of the original ingredients can be recovered. Project or write the notes below for your students. No new substances are produced The change can often be reversed

Physical Changes

Melting ice Shaping clay

Examples

Ripping paper New substances are produced

Chemical Changes

The change often cannot be reversed

Examples

w the com mbustio candle flam bus n of Iro reminiscen e. As the sma tion of iron filin n Filing ll pie gs s that iron t of a Forth of July ces of iron bur by sprinkling them filings are n, they pro of metal on sparke sparkler. Actual duce a spa over a wit rk that chemical h iron (and oth rs! Sparklers are ly, you can tell your stud is er property made by ents of this me metals). The fac coating a thin t tal. that iron Fact: Spa sparks like piece wire wit rklers that produc this is a h other chemicals, e colored spa rks are such as copper and made by coa ting the barium. thin

Topic: Rust and Tarnish

Teache

r De

• Trick birthdamonstration – Tri

• Rusting is an example of a corrosion reaction.

y candle ck Birth candle as s are ver day Cand if the candle it were a ordina y interesting to les children. ry candle . see the re-i Act surprised . Say a Don’t spil wh few l the bea fact, the gnition of the can en the candle re-l words to rev ns, inst iew com y may dire ights! Blo dle. Chi bustion, ead just light the ctly ask ldren are w it out and then you “Ho blow out w do the genuinely interest a few times to let your y work? ed in lear stud ” ning wh • Tell your stud y this hap ents pens; in ent s that “re trick can gul dle magnesium s have another ar” candles are ma sub ture than . Describe how stance in them. de of only wax , while the candle the magne Identify of the red this sub stance as -hot wic wax. When you sium has a low er k is too enough low to re-i blow out the can ignition temper to aspark is re-ignite the ma dle gnite the hot enough gnesium wax, but , the temperatu . Once the wick re is more the than hot is smokin to re-ignite the wax and magnesium ligh g but not Teaching ts, this the candle red hot, tip: Stu then the bur den ture and candle wil ns again. If the Period ts will recogn l not ize magne Mg. re-ignite. ic table. sium if the Review how ma y hav e previo gnesium usly is a met al, and tha studied Atomic Teache Stru t its elem r De ental sym c• Another visumonstration – Co bol is ally attr lored Fla day can active dem dle me Birth inexpensiv s that produce col onstration is da to y ore e ligh Ca and can d flames. t ndles novelty These can birthitems. The be purchased dle thro burn in s are wax of the ugh com diff property erent colors. The candles contain panies that sell of the che s chemic color of one can als that dle contain mical imbedded the flame is a che in burned. s Not only lithium, which the wax. For exa mical pro combus can you tion show the duces a red flam mple, blue, red , but cakes can che e be decora mical properties when and orange ted with of flames! Unit: Che purple, green, mistry

Define corrosion as the breakdown of metal over time due to chemical reactions with oxygen. Describe how rust weakens the metal over time. A simple demonstration to reinforce this concept is to flick the rusted steel wool with your finger and de h flakes of rust (Fe2O3) fall off. State how this is showing how rust is weakening the observe how metal. Show or project the image below of purified rust. S Art integration: Pure iron oxide (rust) is widely used as a pigment in paints, ceramics, plastics, concrete, and many other materials. Painters such as Rembrandt, da Vinci, and Michelangelo all used iron oxide paints. Iron oxide was also used by early man in primitive cave drawings. If you have iron-oxide paint, students could create their own paintings that mimic actual cave paintings.

Economic Impact of Rust Economi rus commonly corrodes the iron and steel present in metal structures, it is often associated • Since rust

with the breakdown of these structures over time. Some of your students probably will have seen old automobiles rusting in a junkyard, as shown in the image below. Rusting of iron is also a seriautom problem on railroads and bridges; particularly old bridges. ous probl

• The steels used to make modern cars are more resistant to

rust because they are coated with zinc, a process known as galvanizing. Zinc provides a protective coat, and prevents water, salt and oxygen from coming into direct contact with the steel.

• Whenever a bridge collapses, rusting is a prime suspect for

the cause cause. The collapse of the Silver Bridge over the Ohio River in 1967 in Point Pleasant, Ohio was attributed to the corrosion of steel and the gradual weakening of the structure over time time. Corrosion was also first thought to play a role in the colla collapse of the I35 Bridge over the Mississippi River in Minneapol Minneapolis in 2007. Project the image to the right to give students a sense of this disaster.

Vinegar and baking soda

• However, sometimes the obvious answer isn’t the correct

Burning wax

answer. The image to the left shows a corroded piece of steel from the I35 Bridge. The release of this image early in the investigation of this collapse led many people to believe that corrosion was the cause, although this was ultimately attributed to a design flaw in the bridge. This shows students the importance of not jumping to conclusions before all of the evidence in an investigation is considered.

15

Student Activity – Identify Chemical and Physical Changes Quick Description: Students identify various chemical and physical changes on this worksheet. See pages 1-2 in the Teacher Resources for a reproducible student copy and the answer key for this assignment. Unit: Chemistry

3

Unit: Chemistry Ch

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Dr Dave's Science Teaching Manuals