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Royal Fireworks

Language Arts

by Michael Clay Thompson

CAESAR’S ENGLISH II CLASSICAL EDUCATION EDITION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL

PART 1 OCTOBER 2013

Michael Clay Thompson Myriam Borges Thompson Thomas Milton Kemnitz

Royal Fireworks Press Unionville, New York


CAESAR’S WORD SEARCH In the puzzle, find the Latin-based English words that you see below. They might be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. Always notice the stems that are in the words.

R I L A R U M A R T N I

N E N E T A C O V D A

O E F I T N R A D

T N A I L R

intramural commandeer combine intravenous 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

D N R R O A

E S C E N D I B M O C

E U C C R V A N R N N I F E A D A

E T D N E T E L I F

P T

advocate descend compound centennial

D N U O P M O C

S U C O E N E A C M L M I U O U L C Q A A R infer ad infinitum conifer centurion

Which of these words is the most interesting? Which of these words will you use most often? Which two words are related to each other in some way? Which word sounds most scholarly or academic? Which word has the most precise meaning?

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I N F I N I T U M

aquifer intracellular adapt

AD and INFINITUM show up separately in the puzzle.


Read the story aloud together, and then work out its meaning together, too.

CAESAR’S SESQUIPEDALIAN STORY A manifest determination clouded Caesar’s vivacious countenance as he pondered the prodigious problems of the attack against the Gauls. He would have to procure supplies for the legions, and he would have to placate the angry Senate, which was growing profoundly weary of his extended campaigns. Cicero, with his lightning retorts, was making a mockery of Caesar’s missives when they were read to the Senate. Even in the streets, Caesar was being held in derision by Romans who could not understand how formidable the tribes of Gauls were. The Gauls, though barbarians by Roman standards, were good fighters—not easy enemies weakened by languor. Time would tell. Ask students to find the vocabulary words and identify their parts of speech.

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CAESAR’S ESSAY The more we study the essay form, the more we are impressed with its clarity and unity. It is a high-precision intellectual design, isolating a single idea and communicating it from one person to another. Every feature of the essay is bent toward that purpose, of presenting the one idea. The essay is the perfect structure for writing what the Common Core standards refer to as informational text and what we think of traditionally as nonfiction writing. The sharp edge of the essay is its thesis, its main point, which ties all of the pieces of the essay together. This idea is typically captured in the title, presented in the introduction, supported with facts and reasons in the body, and then brought to a concentrated form in the conclusion, which shows how all of the body’s information leads to the inexorable conclusion. If we write an essay on a computer, t? we can follow the format of the c Modern Language Association, also t1 known as MLA. Look at the example c on the facing page. An MLA paper t2 has a one-inch margin all around. c The text is double-spaced. The t3 paragraphs are indented five spaces, c and long quotations are indented ten spaces. The right margin is ragged, t! not justified. An MLA paper does not have a separate title page; it presents the title information at the top of the first page. At the end of the essay, any source used is listed in Works Cited. The MLA format is famous for its simplicity and clarity. It is the most widely used research paper format in the world and is in use from upper elementary grades through graduate school. There are other standards, such as APA, Turabian, or the Chicago style, but MLA is the most frequently used. For detailed instructions on writing an MLA paper, see Advanced Academic Writing, Volume One. Quis Mihi Dabit Adquiescere in Te

Quis mihi dabit adquiescere in te? quis dabit mihi, ut venias in cor meum et inebries illud, ut obliviscar mala mea et unum bonum meum amplectar, te? quid mihi es? miserere, ut loquar. quid tibi sum ipse, ut amari te iubeas a me et, nisi faciam, irascaris mihi et mineris ingentes miserias? parvane ipsa est, si non amem te? ei mihi! dic mihi N mihi. RODUC ONsalus tua ego sum. sic dic, ut audiam. per miserationes tuas, domine deus meus,INTRODUCTION quid sis dic animae meae: ecce aures cordis mei ante te, domine; aperi eas et dic animae meae: salus tua ego sum. curram post vocem hanc et adprehendam te. noli abscondere a me faciem tuam: moriar, ne moriar, ut eam videam. Magnus es, domine, et laudabilis valde: magna virtus tua, et sapientiae tuae non est numerus. et laudare su te vult homo, aliqua portio creaturae tuae, et homo circumferens mortalitem suam, circumferens testimonium peccati sui et testimonium, quia superbis resistis: et tamen laudare te vult homo, aliqua portio creaturae tuae.tu excitas, ut laudare te delectet, quia fecisti nos ad te et inquietum est cor nostrum, donec requiescat in te. da mihi, domine, scire et intellegere, utrum sit prius invocareBODY te an laudare te, et scire te prius sit an invocare te. sed quis te BODY invocat nesciens te? aliud enim pro alio potest invocare nesciens. an potius invocaris, ut sciaris? quomodo autem invocabunt, in quem non crediderunt? aut quomodo credent sine praedicante? et laudabunt dominum qui requirunt eum. quaerentes enim inveniunt eum et invenientes laudabunt eum. quaeram te, domine, invocans te, et invocem te credens in te: praedicatus enim es nobis. invocat te, domine, fides mea, quam dedisti mihi, quam inspirasti mihi per humanitatem filii tui, per ministerium praedicatoris tui. Quid est ergo deus meus? quid, rogo, nisi dominus deus? quis enim dominus praeter dominum? aut quis deus praeter deum nostrum? summe, optime, potentissime, omnipotentissime, misericordissime et iustissime, secretissime et praesentissime, pulcherrime et fortissime,stabilis et inconprehensibilis, inmutabilis, mutans omnia, numquam novus, numquam vetus, innovans omnia; in vetustatem perducens superboset nesciunt; semper agens, semper quietus, colligens et non egens, portans et implens et protegens, creans et nutriens, perficiens, quaerens, BODY BODY cum nihil desit tibi. amas nec aestuas, zelas et securus es; paenitet te et non doles, irasceris et tranquillus es, opera mutasnec mutas consilium; recipis quod invenis et numquam amisisti; numquaminops et gaudes lucris, numquam avarus et usuras exigis. supererogaturtibi, ut debeas, et quis habet quicquam non tuum? reddens debita nullidebens, donans debita nihil perdens. et quid diximus, deus meus, vita mea, dulcedo mea sancta, aut quid dicit aliquis, cum de te dicit? et vae tacentibus de te, quoniam loquaces muti sunt. Sed tamen sine me loqui apud misericordiam tuam, me terram et cinerem,sine tamen loqui, quoniam ecce misericordia tua est, non homo, inrisormeus, cui loquor. et tu fortasse inrides me, sed conversus misereberismei. quid enim est quod volo dicere, domine, nisi quia nescio, unde venerim huc, in istam, dico vitam mortalem, an mortalem vitalem? nescio. et susceperunt me consolationes miserationum tuarum, sicut audivi a parentibus carnis meae, ex quo et in qua me formasti in tempore; non enim ego memini. exceperunt ergo me consolationes tactis BODY BODY humani, nec mater mea vel nutrices meae sibi ubera implebant, sed ut mihi per eas dabes alimentum infantiae, secundum institutionem tuam, et divitias usque ad fundum rerum dispositas. tu etiam mihi dabas nolle amplius, quam dabas, et nutrientibus me dare mihi velle quod eisdabas: dare enim mihi per ordinatum affectum volebant quo abundabant ex te. nam bonum erat eis bonum meum ex eis, quod ex eis non, sed per eas erat: ex te quippe bona omnia, deus, et ex deo meo salus mihi universa. quod animadverti postmodum clamante te mihi per haec ipsa, quae tribuis intus et fori. Vel potius ipsa in me venit et successit infantiae? nec discessit illa: quo enim abiit? et tamen iam non erat. non enim eram infans, qui non farer, sed iam puer loquens eram. et memini hoc, et unde loqui didiceram, post adverti. non enim docebant me maiores homines, praebentes mihi verba certo aliquo ordine doctrinae sicut paulo post litteras, sed ego ipse mente, quam dedisti mihi, deus meus, cum gemitibus et vocibus variis et variis membrorum motibus edere vellem sensa cordis mei, ut voluntati pareretur, nec valerem quae volebam omnia nec quibus ON et cum secundum eam vocem corpus ipsiCONC appellabant US rem aliquam volebam omnibus. pensebam memoria: cumCONCLUSION ad aliquid movebant, videbam et tenebam hoc ab eis vocari rem illam, quod sonabant, cum eam vellent ostendere. hoc autem eos velle, ex motu corporis aperiebatur, tamquam verbis naturalibus omnium gentium, quae fiunt vultu et nutu oculorum certerorumque membrorum actu et sonitu vocis indicante affectionem anim in petendis, habendis, reiciendis fugiendisve rebus. ita verba in variis sententiis locis suis posita et crebro audita quarum rerum signa essent paulatim colligebam measque iam voluntates, edomito in eis signis ore, per haec enuntiabam. sic cum his, inter quos eram, voluntatum enuntiandarum signa conmunicavi; et vitae humanae procellosam societatem altius ingressus sum, pendens ex parentum auctoritate nutuque maiorum hominum.

1

2

3

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Monphish 1

Sal Monphish Mr. Thompson English 121 6 September 2013

The Grain of Roman Power The Roman Empire might appear to have been the simple product of military superiority, but the underlying basis for Rome’s success was food. At its peak the city of Rome alone had a population of a million inhabitants, and Rome typically maintained dozens of legions—as many as fifty—in order to defend and expand its empire, and everyone had to eat. Without profuse daily shipments of grain, Rome could not have become a great city, much less an empire, and the Romans were not able to grow enough grain for themselves. They had to import it. Domestic grain production in the land surrounding the city of Rome, for example, was not possible because the lands: . . . adjacent to the city were the equivalent of wealthy suburbs, occupied by the villas and parks of the Roman elite. The region of Campania, on the west coast of the Italian Peninsula, produced grain, but it was only a fraction of what the Empire needed. Only by importing massive amounts grain could the Romans maintain their power, and the demand for grain was an emormous challenge that had to be met and repeated every day. The legions alone required an enormous supply of grain. (Eldur 87) There were up to 5,000 Roman soldiers per legion, and each soldier consumed three pounds of grain per day, “making Roman military supply operations a great triumph of ancient logistics” (152). It was a triumph indeed; an army of only three legions might consume 45,000 pounds of grain per day. The primary sources of imported grain were Hispania, Sicily, Egypt, and North Africa, and these overseas sources, accordingly, “had to be protected at all costs” (103). The protection of the sources of grain and the grain fleets demanded that Rome control the Mediterranean Sea. It could not allow any foreign power, viz. Carthage, to dominate the sea lanes or the ports where grain was shipped. The continuous delivery of grain was essential to the vitality of the Empire. No civilization can outgrow its food supply. Roman military might was a reality, and the populous city of Rome was a triumph of ancient architecture and planning, but it was the “vast daily system of grain importation that made it possible for Rome to conquer the ancient world” (174). Without enormous grain fleets and skillful mariners, a navy to protect them, efficient and secure ports in Hispania, Sicily, and Africa, excellent harbors near Rome, and a system of roads that permitted the rapid overland distribution of grain to Roman cities and legions fighting in distant lands, Rome could not have emerged as the greatest power in the ancient world. Works Cited Eldur, Barry. The Secret Triumph of Roman Grain. Boston: Lighthouse UP, 2003. Print. 95


3.

Caesar n. subj.

vexed when his generals arrived

was

v. LVP

adj. S.C.

conj.

adj.

n. subj.

v. AVP

at the tent.

prep.

adj.

n.

----prep. phrase------------------independent clause---------------------------------------dependent clause------------------------------Note: This is an ID complex sentence. We do not use a comma to separate the clauses in an ID structure. _________________________________________________________________________________________

4.

Vexing adj.

Caesar, Brutus objected n.

n. subj.

v. AVP

as

conj.

the adj.

debate n. subj.

began. v. AVP

-----participial phrase-----------------------------independent clause----------------------------------dependent clause--------------Note: This is an ID complex sentence. _________________________________________________________________________________________

5.

Because

6.

The order

conj.

he

was v. LVP

malevolent malevolent,, Cassius gave Brutus a look.

adj. n. v. n. adj. n. S.C. subj. AVP I.O. D.O. ---------no phrase--------------------------------dependent clause--------------------------------------independent clause----------------Note: This is a D,I complex sentence. The comma between clauses is required in this structure. _________________________________________________________________________________________

adj.

pron. subj.

was

n. subj.

v. LVP

irrevocable because

his

legions invaded.

adj. conj. adj. n. v. S.C. subj. AVP ---------no phrase----------------------------independent clause-----------------------------------dependent clause------------------------Note: This is an ID complex sentence. We do not use a comma to separate the clauses in an ID structure. _________________________________________________________________________________________

7.

Invading Carthage was risky if the incongruous omen was true.

8.

Because

n. n. v. adj. conj. adj. adj. n. v. adj. ---------------subj.------------LVP S.C. subj. LVP S.C. --------gerund phrase-------------------------independent clause-------------------------------------dependent clause-------------------------Note: This is an ID complex sentence. _________________________________________________________________________________________

conj.

he

pron. subj.

was v. LVP

articulate articulate,, adj. S.C.

he enjoyed hearing himself.

pron. subj.

v. AVP

n. pron. --------------D.O.----------------------gerund phrase------------------------------dependent clause----------------------------------------independent clause------------------Note: This is a D,I complex sentence. The comma between clauses is required in this structure.

Each clause _________________________________________________________________________________________ has a subject/ predicate nucleus.

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will do them no harm to become acquainted with famous names and with many excellent sentences that illustrate great vocabulary used well. Sesquipedalian Stories: Read and Discuss Some lessons contain a Sesquipedalian Story, which combines all of the big words that the students have learned into a single story. The word sesquipedalian means a-foot-and-a-half-long and refers to BIG words. This story should be read aloud in the class, two or three students taking turns, and then the teacher should go back through the story, sentence by sentence, having the students explain the meaning of each sentence. When this is done, one student should volunteer to retell the whole story in ordinary English. Part of the secret plan in the Sesquipedalian Story component is that if students can read these stories, they can read anything. Photographs by Dr. Thomas M. Kemnitz This revised classical edition of Caesar’s English II includes an extraordinary collection of photographs taken by Dr. Thomas Kemnitz. He went to Italy, Greece, England, and other locations and took more than 100,000 photographs with a twenty-megapixel camera, giving me a seemingly endless selection of photographs from which to choose. Because of the quality of the images, I was able to expand, focus, and crop without loss of clarity. What I have tried to do in choosing the photographs for this text is to feature photographs that reveal the reality and humanity of ancient Romans. You will find many photographs of faces of sculpture, as well as many architectural ruins that demonstrate the impressive, even astonishing, scale of Roman civilization. A photograph makes a beautiful activity; you can look at the photograph together, commenting on what you notice about it. It would make an excellent warm-up activity to discuss how any of the words in the lesson could be applied to one of the photographs. Many of these Roman sculptures have realistic faces that look like real people, in contrast to the idealized Greek sculptures that preceded them. As these sculptures show, the Romans were a tough lot, and they look it. Caesar’s Math Problem This text contains special math problems. They are word problems that incorporate the vocabulary into the language, and they use Roman numerals rather than Arabic numerals. These math problems will give students an additional

360


encounter with the vocabulary while also teaching them Roman numerals. Poems Most lessons contain poems. The poems focus on details of Roman life and history and are loaded with the vocabulary. They are designed to move students forward in their understanding of what poetry is and how it works. The poems deliberately avoid the stereotypes of poetry, such as that poems should be pretty or that they are more for girls. Nothing could be clearer from great poetry than that those stereotypes are not true. Some poems are pretty, but poetry is a rich and complete approach to existence, just like every other major art form. Some of the poems employ classical stanza forms and rhymes, such as sonnets and ballads, and other poems are written in a modern voice, emphasizing less obvious poetic devices such as assonance and consonance. I recommend first reading the poem aloud together, then studying the poem silently for a few minutes, then discussing the poetic devices that are detected, with an emphasis on how the sounds of the poem might support the meaning of the poem. Poetry tends to be a neglected element of language arts, but it deserves to be a core component. Most great writers also wrote poetry, and they incorporated poetic devices into the paragraphs of their novels. It is important that students are poetically aware if they are to be great readers of prose. Ask students to find the vocabulary in the poems and to identify the part of speech of each word they find. Geography: Maps and Photgraphs from Space One of the key components of this text is geography. All of the great events occurred a measurable number of miles from where we are right now. We could get in airplanes and cars and go to where they happened. To be geographically aware is to understand the history of our language better. Also, all of the locations of ancient history are still there: the waters are still filled with boats and ships, and the valleys are still filled with people. The ancient empires are still present as modern countries. A good study of the English language is a perfect opportunity to become acquainted with the features of today’s planet. Essay Assignments The writing text that goes with Caesar’s English II is Essay Voyage. Accordingly, Caesar’s English II includes essay assignments that allow students to practice the essay form. Students are invited to read about Rome and to write a short

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