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PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

All Work and No Play Child Labor in the Progressive Era

April 2013

RESOURCE BOOK Compiled by

Shelagh A. Gallagher

Royal Fireworks Press Unionville, New York


Copyright Š 2012, Royal Fireworks Publishing Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Royal Fireworks Press First Avenue, PO Box 399 Unionville, NY 10988-0399 (845) 726-4444 fax: (845) 726-3824 email: mail@rfwp.com website: rfwp.com ISBN: 978-0-89824-461-8 Printed and bound in the United States of America using vegetable-based inks on acid-free, recycled paper and environmentally friendly cover coatings by the Royal Fireworks Printing Co. of Unionville, New York.


Table of Contents Resources for Problem Engagement................................................................................2 Photos by Lewis Hine......................................................................................................3 Excerpt from The Bitter Cry of the Children, by John Spargo........................................8 Inquiry and Investigation: Classroom Materials..........................................................12 What’s in the Numbers?.................................................................................................13

Children in American Street Trades, by Myron Adams.......................................13

Kicker.............................................................................................................................22

Why Children Work; The Children’s Answer, by Helen Todd..............................22

Inquiry and Investigation: Research Materials............................................................37

Child Labor in the United States and Its Great Attendant Evils..........................38

Wage-Earning Children.......................................................................................46

Child Labor from the Employer’s Point of View..................................................49

Poverty and Parental Dependence as an Obstacle to Child Labor Reform........56

The Immigrant Child............................................................................................64

Child Labor and Compulsory Education.............................................................73

The Public School and the Immigrant Child........................................................94

Child Labor and the Juvenile Court....................................................................98

National Protection for Children.......................................................................103


Resources for Problem Engagement

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Photos by Lewis Hine

Boy working in a shoe-shining parlor, Indianapolis, IN, August 1908

Source: www.archives.gov/education/lessons/hine-photos/images/shoe-shine-parlor.gif 3

All Work and No Play Resource Book


Boys in a cigar factory, Indianapolis, IN, August 1908

Boy running “trip rope” in a mine, Welch, WV, September 1908

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Children working in a bottle factory, Indianapolis, IN, August 1908

A glass blower and mold boy, Grafton, WV, October 1908 Source: www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/hine.htm 5

All Work and No Play Resource Book


Girls at weaving machines, Evansville, IN, October 1908

Young boys schucking oysters, Apalachicola, FL, January 25, 1909 Source: www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/hine.htm All Work and No Play Resource Book

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Girls working in a box factory, Tampa, FL, January 28, 1909

Workers stringing beans, Baltimore, MD, June 7, 1909 Source: www.kentlaw.edu/ilhs/hine.htm 7

All Work and No Play Resource Book


Excerpt from The Bitter Cry of the Children by John Spargo

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All Work and No Play Resource Book sample pages