Issuu on Google+

Section 4 • 1

2 • Section 4

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Cubism • • • • • • 4 Pablo Picasso Juan Gris Fernand Léger

Futurism • • • • • • 9

Filippo Marinetti Stéphane Mallarmé Guillaume Apolinaire Antonio Sant’Elia Fortunato Depero

Dada • • • • • • 14 John Heartfield Marcel Duchamp Kurt Schwitter

Surrealism • • • • • • 18 Giorgio de Chirico Max Ernst Salvador Dali

Expressionism • • • • • • 22

Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz Wassily Kandinsky Paul Klee

Section 4 • 3

What is included? This is a study manual is meant to be used with Meggs’ History of Graphic Design. The study manual covers section 4 “The Modernist Era” chapter 13 The Influence of Modern Art. The chapter is broken into different sections. These sections are then broken down to the most influential artists of that section. Not all artists or terms are covered. Additional artists and terms can be found in the pullout study guides found between the pages. The pullout study guides help the study stay organized and review the information after it has already been taught. This study set also includes a group of study questions, which are available in a flash card layout to make it easier to study a way from the book. Please enjoy this chapter’s information.

4 • Section 4

Cubisim In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism’s distinct characteristics. Analytical Cubism (1910-1912) Synthetic Cubism (1913-1920)

Artists Pablo Picasso Paul Cézanne George Brague Juan Gris Fernand Léger

Section 4 • 5

Pablo Picasso 1881-1973

6 • Section 4



Juan Gris 1887–1927

Section 4 • 7

Fernand Léger 1881–1955



8 • Section 4

Futurism Futurism, Italian Futurismo, Russian Futurism, an early 20thcentury artistic movement that centred in Italy and emphasized the dynamism, speed, energy, and power of the machine and the vitality, change, and restlessness of modern life in general. The most significant results of the movement were in the visual arts and poetry. Futurism was first announced on Feb. 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (q.v.). The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. Movement in art, music, and literature begun in Italy about 1910 and marked esp. by an effort to give formal expression to the dynamic energy and movement of mechanical processes.

Artists Filippo Marinetti


Giacomo Balla

Giovanni Papini


Gino Severini

Arno Holz

Umberto Boccioni

Antonio Sant’Elia

Lewis Carroll

Carlo Carrá

Furtunato Depero

Stéphane Mallarmé

Luigi Russolo

Section 4 • 9

Filippo Marinetti 1876–1944

10 • Section 4


Stéphane Mallarmé 1842–1898

Section 4 • 11

Guillaume Apolinaire 1880–1918

12 • Section 4


Antonio Sant’Elia 1888–1916

Section 4 • 13

Fortunato Depero 1892–1960

14 • Section 4

Dada Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922. [1] The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature— poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. In addition to being antiwar, dada was also anti-bourgeois and anarchistic in nature. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. The movement influenced later styles like the avant-garde and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau réalisme, pop art, Fluxus and punk rock. Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism.

—Marc Lowenthal, translator’s introduction to Francis Picabia’s I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, And Provocation

Artists Hugo Ball

Marcel Duchamp

John Heartsfield

Tristan Tzara

Raoul Hausmann

Wieland Herzfelde

Jean Arp

Kurt Schwitters

George Grosz

Richard Huelsenbeck

Théo van Doesburg

André Breton

Section 4 • 15

John Heartfield 1891–1968


16 • Section 4



Marcel Duchamp 1887–1968

Section 4 • 17

Kurt Schwitter 1887–1948


18 • Section 4

Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

Artists André Breton

Giorgio de Chirico

Tristan Tzara

Max Ernst

Louis Aragon

René Magritte

Paul Eluard

Salvador Dali

Section 4 • 19

Giorgio de Chirico 1888–1978


20 • Section 4



Max Ernst 1891–1965

Section 4 • 21

Salvador Dali 1904–1989


22 • Section 4

Expressionism Expressionism’ was a cultural movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the start of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world in an utterly subjective perspective, radically distorting it for emotional effect, to evoke moods or ideas.[1][2] Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of “being alive”and emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism emerged as an ‘avant-garde movement’ in poetry and painting before the First World War. It remained popular during the Weimar years,[1] particularly in Berlin. The movement was embodied in various art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, dance, film, architecture and music.

Artists Die Brücke

Henri Matisse

Blaue Reiter

Georges Rouault

Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz

Paul Klee

Wassily Kandinsky

Section 4 • 23

Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz 1867–1945


24 • Section 4


Wassily Kandinsky 1866–1944

Section 4 • 25

Paul Klee 1879–1940


The Influence of Modern Art Section 4, Chapter 13