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Mapping Tibetan Forestry Perception Š John Studley 2002

Summary Research was conducted in the Hengduan Mountain region of China , between 1995 and 2002 using multidimensional scaling (MDS) as a method for understanding Tibetan environmental perception in response to the exogenous introduction of large-scale forestation, forest protection, nature conservation and tourism. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was used to provide background information, free listing was used to identify domain themes related to forest importance, and MDS & HCA were used to ascertain proximity between themes [Likert dissimilarity between 1 and 5]. To date the data suggests a much closer proximity between conservation & Nature worship, B lessing and Tibetan Buddhism, than socialism , and that industrial forestry & conservation has poor “cultural fit�, especially in Zongdian (Shangri-la)* County From an advocacy perspective this would suggest that conservation strategies should be built on Nature worship & Tibetan Buddhism [rather than socialism] and that more consultation is required in order that Industrial Forestation will gain the acceptance and cooperation of local Tibetan peoples, especially in Zhongdian. Perceptual mapping appears to offer natural resource managers a tool to; better understand all forest actors (stakeholders or clients) , the potential impact of any new innovation, to develop apposite extension strategies, to update their own cognitive domain models , and to develop synergy between local and non-local models of cognition sustainability , biodiversity and development.

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1.00 Introduction From the mid 1990's China introduced a very ambitious programme of forestation, forest protection, nature conservation & ecotourism in the Hengduan Mountain Region. As a result of serious flooding in 1998 and the logging ban introduced in the Yangtze and Yellow river catchment, this initiative took on a new urgency (Studley 99a 99d). However well intentioned the programme was , little or no attempt was made to assess the role and importance of trees , forests or conservation for the majority Tibetan population or the socio-cultural or psychological impact of programme. This research aims to address this knowledge gap and will hopefully lead to a better understanding of the Tibetan people and forestry initiatives that are predicated on normative pluriformity rather than social engineering (Wiersum 2000 Howard 1994) 1.01 Environmental Perception Theory & Research Humankind does not react to the real world in real time, but to a cognised environment filtered through traditional expectations and worldviews. We depend on mental maps or cognitive models to understand our world and sociocultural factors influence the congruence of our maps with our actual environments (Kaplan & Kaplan 1982, McGovern et al 1988) If forest managers or forestry project managers are unable to acquire & process local knowledge this seemingly will lead to a flawed or inappropriate cognitive model and an incomplete understanding of that environment or of the local people. Lee (1992) believes that our inability to acquire and process ecological knowledge may result in humankind's inability to develop sustainable resource management systems. Although ethnoscientific research has examined many aspects of humankinds understanding of the natural environment, including, for example, folk taxonomies, comparatively little research has systematically sought to examine environmental or ecological cognition (Richardson et al 1996, Conklin 1980). As a result of the recent interest in indigenous knowledge & biodiversity, however, some steps have been taken to address this research gap (Posey 89) Studies in agriculture, agroforestry & silvicultural systems have recognised, for some time an indigenous understanding of interactions among soils, plants, insects, natural processes and human management practices but have seemingly failed to develop cross site or cross cultural cognitive models (Alcorn 1981, Chandler 1990, Conklin 1954, Hunn 1989, Johnson 1974). Researchers continue to discovered new “cultural landscapes� that demonstrate, an environmental ethic, sophisticated indigenous systems that enhance biodiversity, and a co-evolutionary relationship between humankind and the environment. Many, however, still fail to perceive the anthropogenic nature of these landscapes, because they appear to lack an appropriate mental map, and as a result underestimate or misinterpret the role of indigenous people (IUCN, 1997 Richardson et al 1996, Posey nd, UNESCO 1994) 1.02

Perceptual mapping and Forestry

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Perceptual mapping, (based on Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) & Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA)) seemingly provides a basis to better understand the importance, assumptions and constituent parts of any cognitive model (or perceptual domain) held by any given population. It has been widely used for brand mapping, market analysis and for research and only very recently for forestry. Richardson et al (1996) was able to differentiate between US Forest Managers ecological cognition, within & across different institutions. This contradicted previous research suggesting that managers in the same institutions became homogenized in their thoughts. Cary’s (1995) experimental study of landscape perception among students from the University of Melbourne has potential for resource management decision making, but the study was limited to addressing the measurement process. The stud y by Colfer et al (1996) seemingly goes the furthest in establishing the suitability of forest perceptual mapping, in a study of the peoples of West Kalimantan. For cross site & cross cultural comparison it does, however highlight the need for threshold values, a core set of concepts that are valid in all forests, concept contextualization along a continuum of sustainable forest management, more diverse stakeholders, and a greater range of variation. In spite of these weaknesses this technique has enabled researchers to identify key conservation concepts and strategies for conservation extension. This researcher will keep in close contact with CIFOR and others conducting similar research in order to compare and contrast results.The purpose of this study is to explore means and methods of assessing forest perception and conservation ethics among forest actors in China in order to provide an apposite model for the development of forest resources that compliment the vernacular practices & values of the Khamba Tibetans of the Hengduan Mountain region of China In particular the study will seek to address:1) The ability of forest actors; to identify the constituent parts of a research domain (the forest), to identify “themes” expressing the importance of the domain (the importance of retaining forest), and to qua ntify proximity between themes. 2)The suitability of MDS & HCA for producing perceptual maps, showing forest themes that exhibit close or distant proximity, proximity comparisons between forest actors , and showing the perceptual impact of proposed new innovations (eg ecotourism, large scale reforestation 3) The presence or absence of a “conservation ethic” or paradigm in Khamba Tibetan society 4) The perceptual impact of external NR intervention or land use change on Khamba society 5) Extension strategies that compliment local culture

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2.00 Methods 2.01 PRA Essential to the process of planning for agriculture forestry and natural resources is the need for reliable and relevant information about the socio-economic and cultural context. By context I mean the particular physical and social environment in which people, trees, farming systems, natural resources and land are linked, related and independent. Traditionally this type of baseline information has been collected by large surveys and has consisted of mostly quantified data. Recently however, donors, planners, researchers and implementers have recognized the limitations of both such data and survey methods and have begun to explore other methods (Freudenthal & Narrowe 1991) Three new methods include Rural Rapid Appraisal (RRA), Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). and Participatory Learning Appraisal (PLA) .RRA emerged in the late 1970’s as an approach and method of enquiry about rural life and conditions which tried to offset the anti-poverty biases of “rural development tourism” (a very brief rural visit by an urban-based professional), to avoid the many defects of large questionnaire surveys, and to better capture indigenous knowledge. PRA is a continuing outgrowth from RRA. Whereas RRA is extractive, with outsiders appropriating and processing the information, PRA is participatory, with ownership and analysis more by peoples themselves. With PRA it is less outsiders, and more local people themselves, who map, model diagram, rank, score, observe, interview, analyse and plan. PLA is an outgrowth of PRA but can be used in rural or urban settings (Chambers 1994 Moris & Copestake 1993). PLA is a cost-effective approach because much can be accomplished in a few days, including writing up of the final results and recommendations. This stands in contrast to many traditional methods of field research which require months of data analysis and writing before final conclusions can be reached. (Martin 1995) .PLA allows and requires a high degree of flexibility and therefore is well suited for exploring many unknowns. It is an iterative process approach which allows for adjustment and change in the light of problems or opportunities. It offers a range of inquiry tools and methods including: -semi-structured interviewing, observation, sketch mapping, transects, walk-abouts and diagramming. It allows a multi-disciplinary team to take full advantage of a ll the respective backgrounds by sharing, exchanging and reflecting on ideas. It encourages different players to participate in the process to varying degrees (government officers, officials, leaders, community members 2.02 The Galileo Technique The “Galileo” technique will be used as a means for testing for a conservation ethic and for cognitive mapping (Woelfel and Fink 1980). This technique draws heavily on theory and research primarily from sociology, psychometrics, and physics as well as communications and is predicated on the work of Emile Durkheim, George H Mead A.O Haller and William H Sewell. The Galileo technique defines cognitive and cultural processes as changes in the relations among sets of cultural “objects” or concepts. The interrelationship among these objects is themselves measured by magnitude estimation pair comparison and the resulting dissimilarities matrices are entered into metric multidimensional scaling programs. The result of this work is such that each of the cultural objects is represented as a point (See Fig 1) in a multidimensional Riemann or Metric space. (Woelfel & Barnett 1982).Cognitive and cultural processes may be defined

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within this framework as motions of these objects relative to the other objects within the space.

A “Galileo” study begins with the identification of locally appropriate concepts pertaining to the domain of study . These concepts are then paired in a questionnaire format (in the local language). Respondents are asked to “distance” each of the study concepts (paired on the form). The results of this procedure make it possible to represent the respondents’ attitudes and beliefs in a three dimensional graph or space. This space provides a precise and holistic picture of the respondent's beliefs and attitudes. Concepts which go together in this space are close, while those that don’t go together are far apart. One advantage of this model is that dozens or even hundreds of activities and beliefs can be pictured simultaneously in a single picture, which makes it possible to see the interrelationships among beliefs and attitudes. This in turn is important since changing one attitude or belief often changes others. 3.00

Study Areas

The study begun with a PRA study in Dengke District (1995), and domain themes & MDS methods were field tested in the New Forest, UK (1999) and Bengda District, China (1999). Following field testing cognitive mapping studies were conducted in Bengda (1999), Zongdian (2001) a nd Yajiang Districts (2002) 3.01 The PRA Study The PRA study was conducted in Luuoxu Township [Shiqu County, Ganzi TAP, Sichuan Province] among officials in Luoxu [Dengke], the district administrative centre (32.493889 98.005000) and among community members in:Lhadza village 32.462500 98.027167 Wuntu village 32.482 97.973333 Nomad camp 1 (Obala) 32.645167 98.0644167 Nomad camp 2 32.491667 98.0145 Dengke District comprises 8 villages, with a total population of 10,600 (1991)

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Table 1 : Dengke IK & RM detail Date

Total

Male

Female

Lhadza

Wuntu

Nomad Camp 1

Nomad Camp 2

4/9-11/9 1995

8

6

2

3

3

1

1

3.02 Cognitive Mapping Field Testing Field Testing was conducted in the UK (New Forest) and in Bengda District (Shiqu County) in China UK - New Forest The surveys were conducted in the New Forest in the Bolderwood car park, located at National Grid 424179 108605: OS Ref SU 2417908605: Lat/Long N50:52:33.19 W1:39:22.70 : Post Code SO43 7GQ and the following people were interviewed Table 2: Field Testing - UK details Date

Total

Male

Female

Interview 1

3/4/99

30

19

11

Interview 2

17/4/99

10

5

5

Interview 1 identified themes related to the importance of forest, Interview 2 address proximity between themes Bengda District {Shiqu County] Table 3: Forest theme identification Date

Total

31/7/99 8

%*

Honze

Beiyu

Razhi

Male

Female

19%

3

5

0

5

3

* % of Families in Deka Township Cognitive mapping Having identified apposite themes and the suitability of MDS cognitive mapping was conducted in the following places. A number of themes were added to the original list collected from Benga these included Men, Women, Self, Conservation, Industrial Forestation [IF], & Socialism, Shiqu County Honze

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32.653611

97.515278

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559km from Chengdu


Beiyu

32.655278

97.505556

660km from Chengdu

Razhi

32.666667

97.508889

661km from Chengdu

Dabao

27.9600

99.9900

420km from Kunming

Dala

27.9800

99.9800

422km from Kunming

Bending

28.1044255

99.381181

472km from Kunming

Shanchoutao

28.1340

99.3362235

478km from Kunming

Benzilan

28.2000

99.2300

490km from Kunming

Tondu

27.967730

99.491502

454km from Kunming

Chongor

28.0900

99.7700

445km from Kunming

Pushan

28.1730

99.7400

454km from Kunming

Gornor

27.6150

99.7570

408km from Kunming

Orlong

30.048009

101.2800

276.6km from Chengdu

Pamaling

30.1100

101.1850

283.5km from Chengdu

Meera dromba

30.077283

101.1455455

288.9km from Chengdu

Rakuti

29.973068

101.011688

302.9km from Chengdu

Jacku domba

29.973068

101.011688

302.9km from Chengdu

Zongdian County

Yajiang County

Table 4: Cognitive mapping Date

Province

County

Town

Total

Male

Female

1/8/99

Sichuan

Shiqu

Honze

3

1

2

1/8/99

Sichuan

Shiqu

Beiyu

2

1/8/99

Sichuan

Shiqu

Radhzi

5

4

1

13/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Dabao

2

1

1

13/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Dala

1

1

14/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Bending

1

1

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2


14/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Shanchoutao

1

14/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Benzilan

2

14/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Tondu

1

15/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Chongor

2

2

15/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Pushan

2

1

1

16/12/01 Yunnan

Zongdian Gornor

2

1

1

5/6/02

Sichuan

Yajiang

Orlong

1

6/6/02

Sichuan

Yajiang

Pamaling

2

7/6/02

Sichuan

Yajiang

Meera dromba

2

8/6/02

Sichuan

Yajiang

Rakuti

1

1

8/6/02

Sichuan

Yajiang

Jacku domba

4

2

2

34

18

16

TOTAL

1 2 1

1 2 2

4.00 Results 4.01 The PRA study – Luoxu Township [old name Dengke] - Each respondent identified a forest area their village used for collecting forest products [nomads used the nearest forest to their tents - usually moving three times a year] -The average time taken for a return visit to “their” forest was 5.5 hrs (sd 2.27 range 2 -7) - Trips per year to “their” forest = 15 (sd 16.86 range 3-40) - 37.5% of respondents collected firewood from forest & non-forest areas - Respondents reported the following goods and services from the forest [other than firewood] Timber (100%), Fungi (75%), Fruits & Nuts (62.5%), Fodder (0%), Medicinal Herbs (87.5%), Wild vegetables (12.5%), Compost (0%), Forage (37.5%), Water conservation (12.5%) - 18.75% of respondents obtained Timber (See Table 5 ) from TAR & Dengke - The most important tree/plant species are Bolo (100%), Shugpa (100%), Sasoo (12.5%) and Baysoo (12.5%) - 50% of respondents (excluding nomads) had planted on average 15.6 trees (apples & willow) - 87% of respondents knew of special trees and/or groves and/or mountains, which were protected from cutting although grazing and planting were allowed. -12.5% of respondents knew of tree stories embedded in their culture -12.5% of respondents collected forest products all year round and 25% seasonally -37.5% of respondents reported food shortages during the year. Table 5 Dengke Species Used John Studley

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Timber Species Used

Bolo (100%), Shugpa (87.5%), Baysoo (12.5%)

Firewood Species Used

Shugpa (100%), Dajong (50%), Baysoo (25%), Nayshing, Wanbow, Naray, Glang ma, Bayma, Tsegar, Sasoo, Wayjo, Oogna, Nyerai, Luna, Siera & Bolo (12.5%)

Medicinal Herbs collected

Baymoo (75%), Worm grass (37.5%), Zion, Yitsohoi, Juneyhoi, Bashaka (12.5%)

Fruit & vegetables collected/snacked on

Shin, Seedo (25%)

Forage species (for Yak)

Deri, Glang ma

bolo is Spruce (either Picea likiangensis var rubescens or Picea brachytyla) and Fir (Abies squamata) (See Farjon 1990) shug-pa [ ] is Juniper (Juniperus spp) baymoo is Fritillaria roylei

b^e-a! Worm grass [ [dXc-ch-[e^]-d$! ] (dbyar rtsha dgun bu)] is usually the

ghost moth caterpiller (Hepialidae thitarodes) infested with a fungus (Cordyceps sinensis) lang-ma [ ] (phaglang-ma) is Willow (Salix spp) ? bashaka [

sev-r f!

d-

b-!q ] is Phlogacanthus pubinervius 4.02 Cognitive Mapping – Bengda District & New Forest The importance of Forests Text analysis was used (Scott 1997) from Interview 1, which provided both frequency data and collocates [associated themes] – which were recoded for cognitive mapping Table 6: Bengda & New Forest comparisons UK (New Forest)

CHINA (Bengda District)*

For wildlife conservation [Wildlife ]

To provide a habitat for Wildlife [Wildlife]

For Timber production [Timber]

To provide forest products [FP]

To support local ecosystems [Ecosys ]

For environmental “protection” [NEF]

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To provide Escape, freedom & stress relief (for urban dwellers) [Escape]

To ensure “blessing”** [Blessing] 1

For climate regulation [Climate]

Because of “link” with Buddhism [Buddhism]

For local jobs [Jobs]

For water “regulation” [NHF]

Beauty [Beauty]

Income *

For local economy [Economy]

Beauty *

For future generations [Future]

To enhance the local economy* (mostly livestock)

For education * For local people* *excluded from cognitive mapping 2 ** Blessing from the local deity (folk religious being) [-----] = recoded themes NEF= Natural Environmental Function NHF= Natural Hydrological Function A number of themes were added for cognitive mapping these included:- Men, Women, Self, Forest, Conservation, Hunting, Socialism, Industrial Forestation, Nature Worship, & Bon. Bon was later excluded because of its localised nature. Cognitive mapping A HCA dendrogram and a MDS plot were constructed, on the basis of the mean distances between all themes

1

Respondents mentioned that a) the local gods would be happy and bless the people if they protected the flowers, trees, forest, wildlife and water. b) If they failed to protect them, however this would result in environmental disaster and crop failure. c) The killing of wolves or bears was justified only in life threatening situations, and other game in situations of extreme poverty

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Dendrogram Hunt If Wildlife Fp Forest Conservation Nef Nhf Bless Nw Men Wom Self TB Soc

Fig 2 Cluster analysis of China data (all themes, all sites & all actors)

Fig 3 MDS plot of China data (all themes all sites & all actors) 5.00 Discussion 5.01 Interviewing

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4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00

Dissimilarity


The importance of Forests Respondents in the New Forest & Bengda were able to answer the questions in interview 1 with relative ease, and describe why forests were important. In the New Forest the interview typically took about 7 mins to complete, but in Bengda typically 1 hour, due to the novelty of being visited by a Westerner and the questions and answers had to be double translated [English-Chinese-Tibetan] In the New Forest a few people mentioned that they would never welcome being charged for entry

Theme distancing Even after the concept of “theme distancing” had been explained, some people had difficulty deciding measures of proximity between themes. In the UK some respondents (often women) appeared to use personal likes and dislikes as the basis of proximity, and others (often men) tried to attribute all themes with a close proximity. About 33% of people asked responded in the New Forest and ca 95% in Bengda. Typically the interview took 20 mins in UK and an hour in Bengda. 20% of the UK respondents considered the interview was too long and about 30% of the respondents begin to lose “focus” after ca 15 mins. 10% of UK respondents considered that a proximity scale of 10 was too much and that 5 would be adequate. One interview in Yajiang had to be abandoned because the respondent had no idea what was required. 5.02 Perceptual mapping Given the small sample size and the emphasis on method as much as perception, the conclusions reached are mostly illustrative and only a larger scale study will deliver conclusive results. For the purpose of analysis the data was disaggregated on the basis of:-gender, age, county, distance from Provincial Capital, Frequency of Forest Visits, Clusters, poles & partitions From the UK data there appear to be four clusters of proximity. Human, Natural, Personal & Societal On the basis of all the China data there appears to be four clusters: Human, Natural, and Cultural & Socio-economic. Human [Men, Women, Self] Natural [Forest, Wildlife, Nef, Nhf] Cultural [Conservation, Blessing, NW, TB] Socio-Econ [Socialism, IF, FP, Hunting] There appear to be the following dimension

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1) Natural-Human 2) Cultural-Socio-economic 3) Ethical?? Other poles or partitions, may also be possible, and while the data may not be inconsistent with the identified groups their existence is by no means unequivocal Conservation [See Appdx 1.1-1.12] “Conservation” appears (in the New Forest & Kham) to have a close proximity to “forest”, & “wildlife” [Dim 1-2, 2-3 & 1-3], and respondents appear to be aware of the global importance of forest retention. In the UK this was expressed by some in terms of “greenhouse Gas production & Ozone depletion” and in China in terms of preventing downstream flooding. Conservation, in the UK appears to be rather distant from “men”, “women” & “self” but on the basis of the Khamba data it ranges from close in Yajiang to very distant in Zongdian. [See External Natural Resource Interventions ] Further research is required to discover the impact of land/forest nationalization on Tibet (ca 1950) and collectivization (ca 1968-78) on proximity between conservation and men, women & self. It might be necessary to contact researchers working among Tibetans in Dolpo (NW Nepal) to assess conservation in an environment relatively free from the influence of modernity and/or communism. Environmental Ethics

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Khamba respondents appear to be similar to some other indigenous people (see Callicott 1982) , in that they are not deliberate conservationists or ecologists, but they manifest an ethical attitude 2 in both their beliefs (“men” & “women”) and attitudes (“self”) on the basis of close proximity [in Dimension 1-3 Appdx 1.11]] between them and conservation, blessing, Nature Worship and Tibetan Buddhism. These findings are supported both in their views of the “importance of forests” and their treatment of sacred areas (no gathering, hunting, wood chopping or cultivation). For many indigenous people an ethical attitude to nature (especially the non-human world) is ancient terrain, and can be contrasted with the Lockean and/or anthropomorphized views of mainstream Western & “Global” societies3. Indigenous cultural practices define politics and ethics as existing in the realm of ecosystems, and would argue that it makes no sense to limit politics and ethics only to human beings. Indigenous peoples recognize the connectedness and the meaningfulness of the non-human world, although this does not mean that animals or plants should not be taken or used for food or clothing. They understand that the taking of life represents loss of life to a fellow being that exist on its own terms, and has value independent of any that human beings place on it. Often the taking of life has to be negotiated between human society and the larger society of beings, and the offices (e.g. permission seeking, rituals, propitiation) of an intermediary (e.g. shaman) are used to ensure balance and reciprocity (Reichel 1992 Adams 1999 Castro 1991 Dove 1993b). More research is required comparing the degree of conservation consciousness (and ethical attitudes) between sacred sites and non-sacred sites and the relevance of the four indigenous environmental paradigms4

The spiritual & Sacred Dimension

2

Normative guidelines governing man’s attitudes, behaviour, and action toward the natural environment 3

For more on alternative “ethics” see Paterson 1999, Pierotti & Wildcat 1999, Gollicher 1999, McLaughlin 1985, Callicott 1982, Ip Po Keung 1983 4

a giving environment, a reciprocating environment, a disposable environment & a prohibiting environment suggested by Umans (1992)]

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From a western perspective as a result of John Locke and his successors, nature has been de-souled and this view was largely supported from the UK data. Although 33% of UK respondents included a spiritual dimension in Interview 1 as a basis for conservation check list, no one mentioned it in Question 8 (The importance of forests). In contrast 95% of respondents in Kham included a spiritual dimension when questioned about the importance of forests, and placed “blessing”, and “nature worship” close to “forest” ,”wildlife” and “conservation”. In discussion with the respondents in Bengda, the link between mi chos (nature worship), which was expressed in “blessing”, and the natural world appeared to be much more dynamic and personal than with Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism was more associated with what the monks or monasteries did. Further research is required in terms of proximity between the three Tibetan religious traditions 5 and the natural environmental. Sacred forest land mountains 6, plants & animals 7 exists all over Kham as part of their cultural landscape and it is known from research in nearby Dengke (Studley et al 1995), and other indigenous areas that sacred sites provide very good examples of conservation & bio-diversity, backed by religious sanction (Laird 1995 Pei Shengji 1993 Martin 1999). Typically access is restricted by “social fencing” affected by taboos, codes and custom to particular activities and members of a community (Kothari & Das 1999). Gathering, hunting, wood chopping and cultivation are strictly prohibited in many societies. The people of Kham in common with other indigenous people in SW China (e.g The Dai people) believe that these activities will make the local gods angry and bring misfortune and disaster upon the community (Pei Shengji 1993 & 1999). While access to sacred areas is restricted, the same sanctions do not apply to non-sacred areas. The Sherpas (who are of Tibetan ethnic origin) do not extend the same degree of conservation consciousness to non-sacred forest. Some of these forests are carefully managed to provide sustainable sources of highly valued products such as house beams, but most timber and fuel-wood was obtained from unprotected unmanaged local forests and woodlands. Oral traditions of historical degradation and clearing of these heavily used areas contrast sharply with the extraordinary respect with which sacred forests were protected (Stevens 1993). Sacred sites and their religious sanctions might provide an alternative and innovative approach to environmental conservation that is not predicated on alien Western legal jurisprudence, but on local values that have direct cultural relevance (Schaaf 1999)

5

Tibetans commonly draw a distinction between three religious traditions, Tibetan Buddhism [? ? ? ? ? (lha chos)], Bon [? ? ? ? ? ? ? (bon chos)] and folk religion [?????? (mi chos)]. There are three phases of Bon, although modern Bon can be regarded as the fifth school of Tibetan Buddhism, with certain differences of vocabulary, but no major difference in content (Samuel 1993) 6

In Bengda District there are three sacred mountains :- Nyowyee, Nyaji Drawgu, Sawara 7

In the area around Gongga Shan the serow (Capricornis sumatraensis) are rarely hunted because they are sacred to the lord of the mountain (Bleisch & Wong 1990)

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Recreation The recreational role of Forests has been recognized for some time (Collings & Grayson 1977) and the UK respondents in this study support this view both in the cognitive mapping study where they recognized its relative close proximity to forest and in Interview 1 where the role of forests for: - recreation (23.3%) escape, freedom & stress relief (26.6%) space (16.6%) and “therapeutic” value (25%) was identified, especially for city dwellers. This has implications if the UK Forest authority is considering charging an entry fee, and should be included in any Cost-Benefit Analysis. Although the recreational role of China’s forests is recognized (Newby & Hong Tao 1991, Tisdell 1996, Liu Jihan & Dowling 1991, Yiping Li & Hinch 1998, Sofield & Li 1998) it was not mentioned by the Khamba respondents, although it might be assumed that some forest based spiritual activity might have an element of recreation. Tourism Most of the UK respondents did not place tourism in close proximity to themselves or to the “natural” cluster but they recognized its proximity to Jobs & the Economy. The Khambas were not asked to distance tourism (because they did not mention it in Interview 1 and have little experience of it yet), but they did express concern about its possible impact on their language, culture and religion. Socialism In Kham, although Socialism appears to be close to the human cluster, it is quite distant from the cultural and natural cluster. It is quite distant from conservation and does not provide the optimum platform for conservation advocacy Hunting The government are planning to introduce controlled hunting (blue sheep & White lipped deer) in parts of the Hengduan Mountain region, mostly for foreign exchange. One aim of this study was to ascertain the potential impact of hunting in terms of local perception. Hunting appears to be very distant from all themes but much closer to “men” , “forest”, “wildlife”, “blessing” and “nature worship” in dimension 2/3 [Appdx 1.12] . Many of the respondents indicated that hunting should only take place under the following conditions a) Only predatory animals (Wolves & Bears) b) only when life is endangered c) as a survival strategy for the very poor d ) only in certain locations (not on sacred land or near monaste ries) Respondents mentioned the role of monks in preventing hunting in site specific locations. It would appear that there might be some conditions under which the local people might allow hunting, providing the government discuss in detail aspects such as species, locations, times & eco-spiritual propitiation (for personal karma & to appease local divinities). Given that blue sheep constitutes the main food source of the endangered snow leopard some sort of status study appears to be required, to ascertain cull size.

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Hunting appears to be a paradox because on the one hand the Buddhist purgatory includes a special cold hell for souls who have killed animals, but hunting is a strong tradition, especially among Tibetan nomads with deep roots. Not only do hunters request local gods to bless their hunting, but ancient dramas [such as “Dunyudunju”] are still performed depicting the hero's learning the art of hunting. (Bleisch & Wong 1990) Gender [Appendx 1.21 &1.22] Some studies have suggested that women are particularly environmentally sensitive (e.g Diamond & Orenstein 1990, Gomes & Kanner 1995, Roszak 1995), but this study (dimension 1/3) and work by Colfer et al (1996) does not support this. “Women” (China & UK) do not appear to be more “environmentally sensitive” than men in terms of their proximity to “conservation”. Or “forest” In this study the perceptual maps appear to show a fairly uniform closeness with which men and women are perceived and the data does not support the distance some American studies suggest (e.g. Newton 1977, Newton, Buck & Woelfel 1984). The lack of gender stereotyping in Sarawak (Davison & Sutlive 1991, Drake 1991, Mashman 1991) Borneo (Sutlive & Appell eds 1991) and Kalimantan (Colfer 1981, 1983, 1996, Tsing 1993) has been documented and this data appears to support these previous conclusions. [Other major differences that require further research: Women place Forest-NW close together and men at a distance and Men place Wildlife-Conservation close together and women at a distance] External Natural Resource Interventions [Appdx 1.25 &1.26] The distances between both industrial forestation and conservation and the natural, cultural & human clusters range from close in Yajiang to distant in Zongdian. Further research is required, but there appear to be a number of reasons for this.The Tibetan population in Zongdian is (41%) much smaller on a % basis than Yajiang (89%) and it is on the southern periphery of ethnographic Tibet. It fares poorly economically in comparison to other Tibetan areas, to other counties in Yunnan and to China as a whole. Tree felling has been conducted [until very recently] on the basis of the same unequal dynamic as seen in other lumber-rich Tibetan areas; the removal of timber out of the region with few benefits accruing to the local Tibetans. As a result of the tree felling ban in 1998 the emphasis changed to nature conservation and “ecotourism”, but these were imposed on the local Tibetan population without adequate consultation often ignoring their sacred and anthropogenic landscape. Chinese development and profound levels of sinicization has changed the economic pattern of the region but the main beneficiaries are the Chinese state and Chinese immigrants, which leaves the Tibetans as secondary players in the economic cultural and political fields. The amalgamation of this multi-ethnic area into a single administrative unit leaves the Tibetans as a demographic minority within their supposedly “autonomous” prefecture. It is not known what role China’s first environmental NGO [Friends of Nature] had in shaping views of Conservation or Industrial Forestation in Zhongdian in their advocacy over Yunnan’s endangered golden monkeys (Marshall & Cooke 1997) John Studley

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In contrast although Yajiang has been heavily deforested it is surrounded by other Tibetan counties, it has been less sinicized, outside the county town the population is almost entirely Tibetan, and there has been both a “successful” large scale state reforestation programme and local reforestation projects [eg Pamaling Monastery]. There has not been the same levels of infrastructure development as counties further east, and consequently Chinese immigration is low, and there is still a strong regional Tibetan identity (Marshall & Cooke 1997) Further research should address both identity and place attachment Age

[Appdx 1.30 & 1.31]

On the basis of the data it is difficult to draw conclusions about environmental perception by age group. The old may have been subject to “struggle sessions” and the Cultural Revolution and the young to Chinese politicized education [even if the medium was Tibetan] “Old” respondents placed Conservation-Men and Conservation-IF close compared to distant by “young” respondents, and young respondents place Forest-TB and TB-IF close together compared to distant by old respondents Sinicization [Appdx 1.23 &1, 24] The data does suggest that sinicization [on the basis of distance from provincial capital] is impacting environmental values Respondents who lived “Far” from the Provincial capital placed Forest-TB and Forest-Blessing close together compared to distant by “close” respondents. Respondents who lived “close” to the Provincial capital placed TB-IF close together compared to “distant” respondents... This suggests the presence of “traditional” Tibetan values far from the Provincial capital and the degree of sinicization taking place Forest Familiarity [Appdx 1.28 & 1.29] Familiarity with the forest [based on frequency of forest visits] does appear to have some impact on environmental values. Respondents who visited the forest frequently placed Forest-Men, Wildlife Conservation, & Conservation-Self close together compared to those who visited infrequently who placed them distantly 5.03 Statistical Model Although the MDS theory is general in its application to individuals or groups and cultures, most researchers concerned with cultural processes find that averaged dissimilarity matrices usually produce very high precision and reliability, and shun nonmetric multidimensional scaling routines. Most researchers prefer the classical or metric forms of multidimensional scaling developed by Young & Householder (1938) and Torgerson (1952) and the results of this study support their conclusions. An advantage of using CMDS for perceptual mapping is that it does not suffer from some difficulties experienced with other methods (i.e. artefacts due to local minima, incomplete convergence, singular solutions and the effects of outliers)

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Proximity Sample size In this study where the number of themes is 20 or 15 and either 2, 3 or 4 dimensions were used the minimum sample size according to Davison (1983) [on the basis of 40 x number of dimension/ (Number of themes-1) should have been a] For 2/3 dimensions in UK: 40 x 2/(20-1) = 4.2 or 40 x 3/(20-1) = 6.3. b] For 2/3 dimensions in China : 40 x 2/(15-1) = 5.7 or 40 x /(15-1) = 8.6 Because a] 3 dimensions were required in order to include most of the data b] of the need to desegregate respondents by gender, age, wealth, education etc and c] of the high stress of 0.160 d) variation between Khamba people groups more samples are suggested 5.04 Further research ID & place attachment The introduction of natural resource interventions and environmental transformation [to say nothing of land occupation] affect not only local attitudes but levels of place identity & place attachment. This is caused because of strong "territorial" implications when interventions are imposed by "outsiders" and a perceived lack of local "control" and "discontinuity" (Fried 2000). Local people respond in a number of different ways, some will manifest negative attitudes and opposition towards the authorities, especially if there is a perceived political threat to local identity, which may lead to violence or the break down of society (Camboni 1991 Turnbull 1972). Others, however are able to react (as a coping strategy) by increasing their level of identification with their own group and by increasing group cohesion and place attachment (Brewer & Brown 1998). In order to gauge the response of the local Khamba people to NR intervention further studies should measure local identity and attachment and a means of monitoring them over time 6 Conclusions In Khamba society there appears to be much closer proximity between conservation & Nature worship, Blessing and Tibetan Buddhism, than socialism, and that industrial forestry & conservation has poor “cultural fit�, especially in Zongdian County. From an advocacy perspective this would suggest that conservation strategies should be built on Nature worship & Tibetan Buddhism [rather than socialism] and that more consultation is required in order that Industrial Forestation will gain the acceptance and cooperation of local Tibetan peoples, especially in Zhongdian. Further research is required in Yajiang & Zhongdian to understand the very disparate views on conservation & industrial forestation The Khambas do appear to possess ethical attitudes towards the environment in specific locales based on a matrix of Tibetan Buddhist and animistic beliefs.

John Studley

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Sacred mountains, forests and animals and birds are an important part of Khamba Tibetan landscape, and their stewardship is predicated on an explicit conservation paradigm not found in Buddhism or Socialism. Hunting appears to be a paradox, but requires further research to better understand the nomad's perspective On the basis of this study Khamba men and women appear to have similar "sensitivity" to the environment, are perceived with similar uniform closeness and lack gender stereotyping. The Han Chinese value system appears to be making inroads into Tibetan society, and as a result undermining their traditional views of the environment and "conservation ethic" This study did not address identity & place attachment, but further work on this subject area should include it, along with a means of monitoring it in the face of external intervention Perceptual mapping appears to offer forest managers a tool to; better understand all forest actors (stakeholders or clients), the potential impact of any new innovation, to develop apposite extension strategies, to update their own cognitive domain models, and to develop global cognitive models for sustainability, biodiversity and development.

John Studley

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7 Bibliography ALCOM J, 1981, Factors Influencing Botanical Resource Perception Among The Huastec: Suggestions for Future Ethnobotanical Inquiry in Journal of Ethnobiology 1 pp 221-230 BLEISCH B & WONG H 1990, Global Markets and Sacred Mountains , China Exploration & Research Society BREWER M & BROWN R 1998 Intergroup Relations in The Handbook of Social Psychology 9eds Gilbert et al) pp 554-594 Boston Mcgraw-Hill CALLICOTT JB, 1982, Traditional American Indian And Western European Attitudes Toward Nature: An Overview ; Environmental Ethics 4 293-318 CAMBONI G 1991 Gennargentu, Cagliari, Editice Sardegna

CARY J 1995 An Analysis of Perceptions of High Country Landscapes: A Test of Comparative Quantitative Methods & an Artificial Neural Network Technique Landcare Research NZ Ltd CASTRO A. PETER, 1991, Indigenous Kikuyu Agroforestry: A Case Study of Kirinyaga, Kenya in Human Ecology 19(1) pp 1-18 CHAMBERS R., 1994, Challenging The Professions :Frontiers for Rural Development, London, Intermediate Technology Publications for ODI CHANDLER P 1990, Ecological Knowledge in A Traditional Agro-Forest Management System Among Peasants in China Phd Dissertation, Seattle, University of Washington COLFER CJP et al 1996 Assessing People’s Perceptions of Forests in Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, Working Paper No. 13, Bogor, Cifor COLFER CJP 1981 Women Bulletin 13 (2) pp 75-85

Men & Time in the Forests of Kalimantan in Borneo Research

COLFER CJP 1983 Change & Indigenous Agroforestry in East Kalimantan in Borneo Research Bulletin 15(1&2) pp 3-30 & 70-86 COLFER C 1995 Who Counts Most in Sustainable Forest Management , CIFOR Working Paper 7, Indonesia Centre for International Forestry Research COLLINGS P & GRAYSON A, 1977, Monitoring Day Visitor use of recreational Areas FC Forest Record 112, London, HMSO CONKLIN, H, 1954, An Ethnoecological Approach to Shifting Agriculture in Transactions of The New York Academy of Sciences 17 pp 133-142 CONKLIN H, 1980, Folk Classification: A Topically Arranged Bibliography of Contemporary And Bckground References Through 1971, New Haven CT, Yale University COOPER LG 1973, A Multivariate Investigation of Research 8 pp 253-272

Preferences in Multivariate Behavioural

DAVISON J & SUTLIVE V 1991 The Children of Nising: Images of Head hunting and Male Sexuality in Iban Ritual & Oral Literature in Female & Male in Borneo..(eds Sutlive & Appell) MS 1 pp 153-230 DAVISON M L 1983 Multidimensional Scaling New York Wiley

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DIAMOND I & ORENSTEIN G eds, 1990, Ecofeminism, San Fransisco, Sierra Club Books

Reweaving The World: The Emergence of

DOVE M, 1993, Uncertainty, Humility And Adaption in The Tropical Forest: The Agricultural Augury of The Kantu in Ethnology 32(2) pp 145-167 DRAKE RA 1991 The Cultural Logic of Textile Weaving Practices Among the Ibanic People in Female & Male in Borneo: Contributions.(eds Sutlive & Appell) Mon. Ser. 1 pp 271-294 FARJON, A, 1990, A Bibliography of Conifers. Regnum Vegetabile Vol 122, Koeltz Scientific Books

Koenigstein,

FRIED M 2000, Continuities and Discontinuities of Place in Journal of Environmental Psychology 20 pp 193-205 FREUDENTHHAL S & NARROWE J, 1991, Focus on People And Trees :A Guide to Designing And Conducting Community Baseline Studies for Community Forestry; Working Paper 178, Uppsala, Swedish University of Ag. Science IRDC GOLLICHER J, 1999, Ethical, Moral & Religious Concerns : Introduction in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) P 440, London, ITP GOMES ME & KANNER AD 1995, The Rape of the Well-maidens: Feminist Psychology and the Environmental Crisis in Ecopsychology (eds Roszak et al) pp 111-121 San Fransisco Sierra Club Books HINTZE J 1999 NCSS 2000 Statistical Utah NCSS Statistical HUNN, E, 1989, Ethnoecology: The Relevance of Cognitive Anthropology for Human Ecology in The Relevance of Culture (ed M Freilich) pp 143-160, New York, Bergin & Garvey IP PO-KEUNG, 1983, Taoism (Daoism) and The Foundations of Environmental Ethics: Environmental Ethics 5 335-43 IUCN, 1997, Indigenous Peoples And Sustainability: Cases And Actions, International Books

Netherlands,

JOHNSON, A, 1974, Ethnoecology And Planting Practices in A Swidden Agricultural System in American Ethnologist 1 pp 87-101 KAPLAN S & KAPLAN R, 1982, Cognition And Environment: Functioning in An Uncertain World, New York, Praeger Publishers KOTHARI A & DAS P, 1999, Local Community Knowledge & Practices in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) pp 180-184, London, ITP & UNEP LAIRD, S, 1999, Forests, Culture & Conservation in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) pp 347-362, London, ITP & UNEP LEE, R, 1992, Ecologically Effective Social Organization As A Requirement for Sustaining Watershed Ecosystems in Watershed Management:... (ed R Naiman) pp 73-90, New York, Spinger-Verlag LI FMS & SOFIELD THM, 1994, Tourism And Socio-Cultural Change in Rural China in Tourism: The State of The Art (ed A Seaton et al) pp 854-867, Chichester, Wiley LIU JIHAN & ROSS DOWLING, 1991, Integrating Tourism Development & Environmental Conservation in China in "Ecotourism:Incorporating The Global Classroom" (Conf. 9/91)Brisbane, Canberra, Bureau of Tourism Research

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MARSHALL S & COOKE S 1997, Tibet Outside the TAR, The Alliance for Research in Tibet MARTIN, G, 1995, Ethnobotany :Volume 1, London, Chapman & Hall,

MASHMAN V 1991, Warriors & Weavers: A Study of Gender Relations Among the Iban of Sarawak in Female & Male in Borneo (eds Sutlive & Appell) Mon. Series 1 pp 231-270 MCGOVERN T, et al 1988, Northern Islands, Human Error And Environmental Degradation: A View of Social & Ecological Change in The Medieval North Atlantic in Human Ecology 16 pp 225270 MCLAUGHLIN, A, 1985, Images And Ethics of Nature; in Environmental Ethics 7 293-319 MESSERSCHMIDT, D, 1976, Ecological Change and Adaption Among The Gurungs of The Nepal Himalaya in Human Ecology 4 pp 167-85 MESSERSCHMIDT, D, 1976, The Gurungs of Nepal : Conflict & Change in A Village Society, Warminster UK, Aris & Phillips MESSERSCHMIDT, D.A., 1991, Rapid Appraisal for Community Forestry : The RA Process & Rapid Diagnostic Tools: Technical Paper TP 91/2, Pokhara Nepal, Institute of Forestry MORIS J & COPESTAKE J, London, ITP for ODI

1993,

Qualitative Enquiry for Rural Development :A Review,

NEWBY FL & TAO H, 1993, The Sleeping Giant Awakens: Forest Parks for Tourism in China in Leisure & Tourism: Social & Environmental Change pp 641-645

NEWTON B 1977 "Perceptions of Sex Roles at the University of Hawaii".(Paper Presented at Women in Communication Convention) Honolulu Hawaii NEWTON B et al 1984, Metric Multidimensional Scaling of Viewer’s Perceptions of TV in Five Countries, , Human Organisation PATERSON, R, 1999, Central African Voices on Human-Environment Relationship in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) pp 95-98, London, ITP & UNEP PEI SHENGJI, 1993, Managing for Biological Diversity Conservation in Temple Yards And Holy Hills... in Ethics, Religion & Biodiversity (ed Hamilton) pp 118-132 PEI SHENGJI, 1999, The Holy Hills of The Dai in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) pp 381, London, ITP & UNEP PIEROTTI R & WILDCAT D, 1999, Traditional Knowledge, Culturally Based World Views, & Western Science in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) P 192-199, London, ITP POSEY, D, 1989, Alternatives to Forest Destruction: Lessons From The Mebengokre Indians in The Ecologist 19 pp 241-244 REICHEL, E, 1992, "Shamanistic Modes for Envi ronmental Accounting in The Colombian Amazon: Lessons from Indigenous Ethno-Ecology for Sustainable Development" (Paper: Int Sym on IK & SD, Phillipines, ISIK&SD

RICHARDSON CW et al 1996, Thinking About Ecology: Cognition of Pacific Northwest Forest Managers Across Diverse Institutions in Human Organization 55(3) 314-323

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ROSZAK B 1995 The Spirit of the Goddess in Ecopsychology (eds Roszak et al) pp 288-300 San Fransisco Sierra Club Books SAMUEL, G, 1993, Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies, , Smithsonian Institute Press SCHAAF, T, 1999, Environmental Conservation Based on Sacred Sites in Cultural & Spiritual Values of Biodiversity (ed Posey) pp 341-342, London, ITP & UNEP STEVENS, S, 1993, Claiming The High Ground: Sherpas, Subsistence And Environmental Change in The Highest Himalaya, Berkeley, University of California Press

SCOTT M 1997, Wordsmith V 2.0 Oxford Oxford University Press STUDLEY J EVANS R STEENDAM DE VRIES P 1995 Natural Resource Use and Livelihood Strategies in Dengke Township: An Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Baseline Study Loughborough CSF SUTLIVE V, et al 1991 Female and Male in Borneo: Contributions & Challenges to Gender Studies Virginia, Borneo Research Council TISDELL, C, 1996, Ecotourism, Economics, And The Environment: Observations From China in Journal of Travel Research Vol 34 (4) pp 11-19

TORGENSON WS 1952, Multidimensional Scaling 1 : Theory and Method in Psychometrika 17 pp 401-419 TSING AL 1993, In the Realm of the Diamond Queen, Princeton Princeton University Press TURNBULL C, 1972, The Mountain People, London, Triad Granada UMANS, L, 1992, Analysis And Typology of Indigenous Forest Management in The Humid Tropics of Asia, Wageningen, ICK-NBLF & BOS Foundation UNESCO, 1994, Operational Guidelines for The Implementation of The World Heritage Convention., Paris, UNESCO WOELFEL J & BARNETT G, 1982, Multidimentional Scaling in Riemann Space in Quality & Quantity 16 pp 461-491

WOELFEL J & FINK EL 1980, The Measurement of Communication Processes: Galileo Theory & Method New York, Academic Press YIPING LI & TOM HINCH, 1998, Ethnic Tourism Attractions & Their Prospect for Sustainable Development at 2 Sites in China & Canada in Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research 2(1)5-18

YOUNG G & HOUSEHOLDER A 1938 Discussion of a Set of Points in Terms of Their Mutual Distances in Psychometrika 3 pp 19-22 Š John Studley London Nov 2002

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APPENDIX 1 Survey SITES

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APPENDIX 1.1 All actors All themes All Sites All dimension Appendix 1.1 All actors: All themes

2

Wom 1.5

Self 1

Soc

If

Men TB 0.5

--Dim2-->

0 Nef -2

-1.5 Bless

-1

Nw

-0.5

Nhf 0.5

0

1

Fp 1.5

2

2.5

-0.5 Conservation Forest -1

-1.5 Wildlife

-2 Hunt -2.5 -- Dim1 -->

XLSTAT version 5.2 - Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) - 10/22/02 at 3:05:35 PM Dissimilarity matrix: workbook = Hengduan MDS.xls / sheet = Sheet1 / range = $B$96:$P$110 / 15 rows and 15 columns Uniform weighting (default) No missing values Metric Multidimensional Scaling Multidimensional Scaling model: absolute Stress used for the results: Kruskal’s stress-1 Dimension of the representation space: from 2 to 5 Number of repetitions: 10 Seed of the pseudo-random numbers generator: 3147522652 Maximum number of iterations : 50 Precision for the convergence: 0.0001 Best stress value for each dimension: Dimension 2 3 4 5 Stress 0.243 0.160 0.117 0.091 Best stress value obtained for the representation space with 5 dimensions

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APPENDIX 1.11

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APPENDIX 1.12

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APPENDIX 1.13 Dissimilarity chart PROX

THEMES

ALL

RANK

MALE

FEM

FAR

NEAR

YAJ

ZONG

BENG

FREQ

SELD

YOUNG

OLD

VERY

Forest - Conservation

1.265

1

1.211

1.333

1.071

1.4

1.3

1.429

1

1.3

1

1.143

1.296

CLOSE

Forest - Wildlife

1.382

3

1.421

1.333

1.286

1.45

1

1.786

1.2

1.333

1.75

1.286

1.407

Conservation - TB

1.588

12

1.474

1.733

1.357

1.75

1.4

2.071

1.1

1.667

1

1.714

1.556

Conservation - Men

1.618

13

1.737

1.467

1.5

1.7

1.4

2.214

1

1.667

1.25

1.857

1.556

Conservation - Bless

1.647

15

1.579

1.733

1.786

1.55

1.4

2.143

1.2

1.7

1.25

1.714

1.63

Forest - Nw

1.791

20

1.524

2.13

1.779

1.8

1.9

1.714

1.79

1.784

1.843

2.083

1.716

Conservation - Nw

1.791

21

1.734

1.864

1.994

1.65

1.5

2

1.791

1.818

1.593

1.797

1.79

Forest - Men

1.824

23

1.734

1.867

1.643

1.95

1.8

2.071

1.5

1.867

1.5

1.857

1.815

Wildlife - Conservation

1.824

23

1.474

2.267

1.143

2.3

2.4

2

1

1.9

1.25

2

1.778

N

Forest - Soc

1.869

25

1.808

1.953

1.745

1.95

1.6

2.077

1.869

1.899

1.652

2.105

1.806

E

Conservation - Self

1.882

27

1.789

2

1.929

1.85

1.3

2.571

1.5

1.933

1.5

2.429

1.741

U

Forest - Bless

1.882

27

1.895

1.867

1.571

2.1

2

2.214

1.3

1.9

1.75

1.714

1.926

T

Forest - TB

1.912

28

1.789

2.067

1.286

2.35

2.5

2

1.2

2.033

1

1.571

2

R

Conservation - Soc

1.916

29

1.82

2.039

1.797

2

2

1.857

1.916

1.947

1.687

2.262

1.827

A

Forest - Self

2.059

33

1.684

2.533

2

2.1

2.2

1.786

2.3

2.067

2

2.429

1.963

L

Self - If

2.083

34

2.127

2.028

2.131

2.05

1.3

2.643

2.083

2.119

1.812

2.167

2.062

Men - If

2.125

36

2.191

2.042

2.446

1.9

1.2

2.786

2.125

2.163

1.844

2.036

2.148

CLOSE

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Conservation - Wom

2.147

38

2.105

2.2

2.571

1.85

1.3

2.714

2.2

2.167

2

2.429

2.074

Conservation - If

2.166

39

2.149

2.189

2.261

2.1

1.5

2.643

2.166

2.205

1.875

2.762

2.012

TB - If

2.208

40

2.107

2.336

2.649

1.9

1.5

2.714

2.208

2.249

1.906

1.774

2.321

Bless - Soc

2.208

40

1.949

2.536

2.22

2.2

2.3

2.143

2.208

2.249

1.906

2.631

2.099

Forest - Wom

2.265

41

2.263

2.267

2.571

2.05

2.2

2.143

2.5

2.3

2

2.714

2.148

Nw - If

2.416

45

2.32

2.539

2.726

2.2

1.6

3

2.416

2.464

2.062

2.833

2.308

Wom - If

2.416

45

2.478

2.339

2.797

2.15

1.6

3

2.416

2.464

2.062

2.69

2.345

Wildlife - If

2.458

46

2.594

2.286

2.399

2.5

2

2.786

2.458

2.5

2.094

3.131

2.284

VERY

Bless - If

2.708

49

2.713

2.703

3.006

2.5

1.9

3.286

2.708

2.765

2.281

3.345

2.543

DISTANT

Conservation - Hunt

3.676

57

3.368

4.067

3.929

3.5

3.9

2.786

4.7

3.633

4

3.857

3.63

DISTANT

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APPENDIX !.21 MALE ACTORS Male actors: all themes : all China Sites

2

Wom 1.5 Fp

1

Self

Soc

TB

0.5 Nef

If

Bless 0 -- Dim2 -->

Nhf Men

-0.5

Conservation Nw Forest

-1

-1.5 Wildlife

-2

Hunt -2.5 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

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0.5

1

1.5

2


APPENDIX 1.22FEMALE ACTORS Female actors: all themes : all China Sites

4

Hunt 3

-- Dim2 -->

2

Fp

Wildlife 1

Forest

Nef Nhf Soc 0

If

Conservation Men

-1

TB

Wom

Nw Self Bless

-2 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

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0.5

1

1.5


APPENDIX 1.23 FAR ACTORS 465kn+ from provincial capital Far actors 465km+ :all themes: Benga & Zongdian

2.5

2

If

1.5 Nw

1 Soc

0.5 -- Dim2 -->

Wildlife Nhf

Self

Hunt Conservation Forest

0

TB -0.5

Nef

Wom Bless -1 Men

-1.5 Fp

-2 -2

-1

0

1 -- Dim1 -->

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2

3

4


APPENDIX 1.24 NEAR ACTORS –less than 465km from provincial capital Near Actors : all themes : Yajiang & Zongdian

2.5

Hunt

2

Wildlife

1.5

Forest

1 Fp

Conservation

-- Dim2 -->

0.5

Nhf Bless

0 Nw

Nef

-0.5

If

Men

TB

Soc -1

Self -1.5 Wom

-2 -3

-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

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0

0.5

1

1.5

2


APPENDIX 1.25 YAJIANG ACTORS Yajiang actors: all themes

2

1.5 TB

Self Wom

1 Bless

Conservation

Nw

0.5 Men

Nef

0 If

-- Dim2 -->

Nhf -0.5

Soc Fp Wildlife

-1

Forest

-1.5

-2

-2.5

-3 Hunt

-3.5 -1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

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0.5

1

1.5


APPENDIX 1.26 ZONGDIAN ACTORS Zongdian Actors: all themes

4

3

Hunt

2

Fp

Conservation -- Dim2 -->

1 Forest Men

Nw Wildlife Nef

0

Nhf

Bless Soc

-1

TB If Self

-2

Wom

-3 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

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0.5

1

1.5

2


APPENDIX 1.27 BENGDA ACTORS Bengda actors : all themes

3.5

3

Hunt

2.5

2

1.5

-- Dim2 -->

Wildlife 1 Forest Fp

0.5

Men If Nef

0

Soc

Conservation Self

-0.5

TB Nhf

Wom

Bless

-1

-1.5

Nw

-2 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

- 38 -

0.5

1

1.5

2


APPENDIX 1.28 FREQUENT FOREST VISITORS Frequent forest visitors: all themes

2

If Fp

1.5

Hunt

1

Soc

Nef

0.5

-- Dim2 -->

Forest Nhf 0 Self Wildlife Men

-0.5

Conservation

Wom

-1 TB Nw -1.5

Bless

-2 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

- 39 -

1

1.5

2

2.5

3


APPENDIX 1.29 ACTORS WHO SELDOM VISIT FOREST Seldom visit Forest : all themes

2.5

2 Hunt

1.5

Wildlife

1 Men Self

-- Dim2 -->

0.5 Nef Fp 0

Bless

Soc TB

Wom

Forest

-0.5 Conservation Nhf -1

If

-1.5

Nw

-2 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

- 40 -

0.5

1

1.5

2


APPENDIX 1.30 YOUNG ACTORS Young actors: all themes : all sites

2.5

2 If Hunt 1.5 Fp

1 Soc

-- Dim2 -->

0.5

Nhf Men Wom

Forest

0

Nef -0.5

TB

Wildlife Self Conservation -1

-1.5

Nw

Bless

-2 -3

-2

-1

0 -- Dim1 -->

John Studley

- 41 -

1

2

3


APPENDIX 1.31 OLD ACTORS Old actors: all themes : all sites

1.5 Wildlife

Nw

1 Hunt Conservation

Bless

0.5

Forest

TB Nef

-- Dim2 -->

0

Nhf

Self -0.5 Men

-1

If

Soc Wom

Fp

-1.5

-2 -2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

-- Dim1 -->

John Studley

- 42 -

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5


APPENDIX 1.32 : THEME SEPARATION SCALING It is necessary at the beginning of the scaling task to explain unambiguously to the respondents that a ratio rule is what is requested of them. In this case the following explanation was given prior to the task [in the local language] "We want to understand how you see and think about your environment, especially the forest. This form uses some words that seem to be important in this area and we are just interested in your views, and how you see things. There are no right or wrong answers. We want you to imagine that the distance between white & black is 5 units apart [show with one hand]. We then want you to use that distance like a ruler, to measure the distance between such terms as "forest" & "forest products", "forest" & "conservation".

1

2

3

4

1=close

5 5=distant

Some things like "forest" and "forest products" might seem quite close and you might give them a 2 and others such as "conservation" and "hunting" might seem distant and you might give them a 4. To use an example from health we might find the following distances Health - Good diet

2

Health - Listening to the radio for 10 mi ns a day Health - Smoking 100 cigarettes a day

3 4

Health - Drinking several bottles of spirits a day4 Remember there are no right and wrong answers, we are very interested in your thoughts and views and the distance you decide between the words on this form Do you understand what is required [repeat if not] Thank you

John Studley

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Mapping Tibetan Forestry Perception 2002