Page 1

HONGYUAN COUNTY RAPID ASSESSMENTSURVEY carried out bv

FRIENDS OF CHINA FOUNDATION ln

June1995


TAlll,B

|)F 0l)NTE.r*T$

I. INTRODUCTION

I

2. DESCRIPTION OF HONGYUANCOUNTY 2.1 Geography, AltitudeandClimate 2.2 NaturalResources 2.3 Econorny 2.4 SocialStructure 2 . 5 D e v e l o p m e-nVt i s i o n ]. HISTORICAL P E R S P E C T I VOEF H O N G Y U A NC O U N T Y

3

4. GOVERNI\4ENT POLICY AND PLANS 4. I InternationalConventions - 1 . 1 T h e R i o " E : r r t h "S u r r r r n i t . 1 . 3 C h i n e s eG o v e r n n r e nPt o l i c y & P l a n s( 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 9 5 ) 4..1 Referencesfron.rthe ChineseConstitutionon lv{irroritv People -1.5 The Role of the HongyuanCounty Officials -1.6 HongyuanIntegratedCounty Project -1.7 The Green Food Corporationand the 3 Point Projcct

5 . S U R V E YN { E T H O D O L O G Y 5. I 5.2 5 .3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

LIST

IraGtl Nt).

t)lIAt)Tllll

Introduction S u r v e yT e a m Terrns of Reference Method of Survey The Conceptsof RRA and their Application Sur-veyScheduleand PlacesVisited Analysisof Findingsand ReportWriting Lirnitationo s f Survey

TAIILI]

3 A A

5 9 0 3

2. I 2. 4.1 2.4.|a 2. 4.2 4. 6 6 . 3. I 6 . 5.2

IraGll s-f). Hongyuan 20 Year Meterological Means HongyuanPopulation PooulationPvrarnidsof SichuanPrefectures Distributionof HonsyuanPopulationby Village/Town ldealisedFlowchartof Honsvuan Productivitv Countv Hvdrooower Plans Honsvuan Health Indicators

13 l6 18 18 lq L-)

1A AA

24 aA

25 25 27 27 28

6 . T E C H N I C A LR E P O R T S

30

6. I Grasslands 6 . 2 A n i r n a lH u s b a n d r y 6.3 Engineering 6.,1 Forestry 6 5 P u b l i cH e a l t h 6.6 Education 7. SUN,{MARY 7.1 Recornrnendations 7.2 Organisationa Im l plications 7 . 3 R e f l e c t i o nos n S u r v e y

3l 39 49 55 65

E. REFERENCES APPENDiCES

(DF TAI]LES

?o

90 90 9l 92 95

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3 6 6 22

50 66


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s t o m a c hd i s o r d e r / l i v el ur fk e

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Sun'ct' HongyuanCounryRupidossessmtnt

Chapter 1 Introduction

l l. INIPLEIV{ENTATION OF AGREEMENT I . 2 . E X E C U T I V ES U M M A R Y

Irt July 1994,at an investrnent fair heldin Chengdu,SichuanProvince,ofllcersof friends of CIrinanretwith officialsfronr the People'sGovernnrent of HongyuanCountyto discuss a proposed project.HongyuanCountyis situatedin North-western co-operative Sichuanin thc centreof the Aba TibetanQiangAutonornous Prefecture. Counlyofficialsdeveloped a plan in 1992, and requested construction co-operation in fbrestry,agriculture,health, education.hydra-electric generation,and water resourcemanagentent. ln 199.1,Aba TibdtanAut(rnolnous Prefecture wasrecognised as;r "specialtlcvcloprnent area". A lettcrof intentwas signedbetweenFOC and officialsfrom HongyuanCountyin July 1q9.1

1.] IIIPLI|M EN'.ATION OF AGREEMENT In r\ugust 1994,a water engineervisitedHongyLran, and in Septenrber of that year a forcst!'rand an FOC oftlcer visiled Hongyuanand were presentedwith a nunrberof proposals rurdrequests. At thc bcginningof 1995,international technicalexpertswith experience in development rvork u'ere contactedby FOC and were invited to corne frorn a nurnberof countries.In Junc 1995, they travelledto HongyuanCounty, conducteda survey of the area, and reporteci tlreir lindingsto Foc. The followingpagescontainthe detailedreportof that srrrvcy.

The team has suggestedthat before Friends of China become further involved in rural developmentwork there are important questionsthat need to be addressedby our leadership,both at a staff and board level. These key issues suggestedfor further investigationare in the following six areas: vision, structural implications, planning, personncl,financeand governmentrelationships.We needto have defineda clear vision of our long-term goals, particularly consideringwhether we should set up our own progranrs or secondpersonnel to government or otherexistingsituations.Plansneedto be clearly thoughtout which include strategies for monitoringtheir progress. It was highlyrecommended thate RuralDevelopment Co-ordinator be in placebeloreany furtherstepsor involvenrent in rural development would be implernented.Their presence be necessary preparationof proposals,plans, fundingand personnel to ensurethat adequate would be efficientlycompleted.It would also be importantfor him/her involvedin the initial negotiation with the government.This personshouldhavepreviousexperience in rural deve)opnrent work and it would be consideredadvisablefor them to hlve had acadernic trainingin sometechnicalfield. They needthe abilityto give clearleadership in nranagerrent, facilitatetrainingprogramsand cope with a high degreeof frustration.It rvrs further suggested personto that it rvouldbe ndvisahleto havean rdministrative/finance suplnlt tllc eo-ordirtator.llis/hcr duticswould bc to crst:rblrslr proccrlurcs lbr budgctrrrg, relateto donors,andgive necessary leadership in auditingand nronitoring of projects. Finally, the politicalirnplications of working in a rninorityareanrustbe clearlythoughtout. FOC tnustavoidbeingusedas a pawn in any strugglebetweenthe differentpo)itical factionsin theseminorityareas. I would like to thankthe rnenrbers of the surveyteanrfor theirvaluablecontribution to the work of FOC. The hardwork, co-operation and spirit of unity which this teamexhibited madethe surveya delightto lead. I am also indebtedto our four FOC Associates who acconrpanied us. They gave helpful service,both by providing supportin their technical fieldsand by beinga bridgeinto the communityfor the teamby usingtheir language skills and knowlc'rlge of theculture.

It is sincerelyhopedby all rnembcrs of the Hongyuansurveyteanrthat FOC will receive God'sgLridance andenablingas theyconsidertheitnplications of this report.

1.2 EXDCUTIVESUMMARY Thc purposeof doing this base-line surveywas to assess the possibilityof FOC becoming tnvolvedin long-ternrruraldeveloprnent work in HongyuanCounty. We werespecifically irtvestieating potentialinvolvernent in six areaspreviouslyidentifjedby the County in rvltichrve rnay be able to nrakean on-goingcontribution.Tlre critcriathat were usedin asscssing thispotentialwerethatthe resultinginvolvement wouldbe: withina specifictime franrc,scenas responding to legitirnate needs,focusingon work with peoplc(espccially in rraining),and replicable in othersinrilarareas.Along witlr this critcriatlle teant<leveloped a visionstatenrent which was usedas a guidelinein nrakingspecificrecontntendations in c:tcharcaLrndcr (Section2.5). Eachteanlnren)bcr investigatlon wrotea tcchnicalreporton thcir area of expertise,giving optionsof future involverrient and surnnrarising theseby statingadvantages (Chapter6) and disadvantages.

-l-

2-


Ll o n.gy utt t t C (, u I t D, R aP i d Ass r.v.;n t t t I S u r v'v

The countytown of Hongyuanis situated nearthe centreof the county,and the only other significanttown is Shuajingsi,near the southemend of the county. The county is dividedinto these2 torvns,9 "town areas",3 stateranchesand 33 villages. adrninistr:rtir,'cly

Chapter 2 Description of FlongyuanCouttty

2 . I C E O G R A P H YA, L T I T U D EA N D C L I M A T E 2.2 NATURAL RESOT,IRCES 2 . 3E C O N O M Y 2 , 4 . S O C I A LS T R U C T U R E 2,4.I. POPULATION 2..1.2.SETTLEMENTPATTERNS 2 . . 1 . 3M . IGRATION 2 . 1 . 4 ,G E N D E RA S P E C T S 2 . 5 . D E V E L O P M E N T- V I S I O N

Hongvunrris reachedby road frorn Chengduin about l2 hours. The road is subjectto the nrain landslides cluringwet weather. Within the countythe roadsare all unsurfaced: ro:rdsfrornChengduand to thenorthandeastare well-rraintained, but minor roadslt-ssso. Most villagesare accessible by vehicle,and are providedwith telephone,electricityand waterslipplies.The qLrality of theseservicesis variable,however,and somehavebeenout of conrmissionfor up to 5 years. Thereare no seweragesystems. Therearc 25 primaryand 3 nriddleschoolsin the county. Healthservicesare provided t h r o r r g2h5 c l i n i c sa n d2 h o s p i t a l s .

2.1 CEOGRAPHY,ALTITUDE AND CLIMATE in Northrvest Sichuan,seeenclosedmap at the HongyLran Countylies in Aba Prefecture^ beginning.it coversan areaof 8440km/ extending140knt fronr eastto westand 160km plateauxat about fronr north to south. The countyis a high-coldpastoralareacortrprising abovesealeveland tnountainridgesrisingto over 4,000 rn and peakingat 3,500 Dretres 4760 rn. The rnajorityol tlte countydrairrsnorth to the Yellow I{iver via the Bai River, but the soutilernend drainssouthto the Yangtzevia the SuolnoRiver. The SuornoValley which predominates is largelyforcst and cultivatedland in contrastto the pasture-land in the county. clscrvhere For six r'))onths of the year the mean tentperaturerenlainsbclow freezing, which has a donrinanteffect o.n both the environntentand the lifestyleof tlre pcople. Minimum ternperature is -36 C, andthe niaxilnuntis 25 C. Averageanntralrainfall,largelyas snow in the sunrnermonthsfror))N{ry to October. Sunshine is 753 rnrn,fallingpredominantly the year. Detailsof theclinlatearc givenin Table2. l. hoursarea high 54% throughout 'I'lble

2.1

l\Iorrth

Melns Ilongyuan20 Year lVleteorological j\ ttri n teul p. C

Ja n . Feh. lr{ urch /\pn l lrlav Juou July Au_r. ScIt. Oct. No\'. Dcc. Year

-10.3 - 1. 1

;; E.3 10.9 10.0 1.0 2.1 - 4 .l -8.9 LI

Surslrine

\f ind spced

hrslTa

nr/s

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Prccipitation rlln

2.2 9 25 48 95 121 t29 t0'l

2.6

2".1 1.9 1.6 1.8 1.9 ?.0 2.1

t22 70 lz ?5:]

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S o u r c eB : iork,1993

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't6

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n0 2AA 210 t70 150 30 30 170 190 140 t30 210

Evlpotrilts pir. r)llll

't5 '74

Ir5 135 l5t 122 150 t45 108 97 73 12 I3 0 3

Rcl. humid -ity

57 60 63 68 24 77 ?o

79 82 7'l 68 60 '10

2.2 NAT'URALRESOURCES The grasslands nrakeup 89% of the countyand are its nrostimportantnaturalresource, srrpporting rn anirnallivestockindLrstry of 450,000animalsinclLrding 300,000yak. Extcnsivcpeatdeposits are fbunclin the Hongyuanarea. Their uservasthe subjcctof a 4year .Swedish (Bjork, 1993). The study for the SichuanInstituteof NaturalResoLrrces conclusiorrs of the study were that the peat is not suitablefor industrialuse, due to its burningcharacteristics, but thatit is attractive for dornestic and horticultural use. loggingis takingplacein theremainingforested Conrmercial areas,particularlyin theWest andSouthof thecounty. Most of the 2 MW electricitycapacityin the counly is generatedfronr the 7 h_ydropower stations.The rnostinportantaretwo stations on the Amukhcheriver, sLrpplying Hongyuan Town an<lthe northernpart of thecounty,and two on the Suornoat Shuajingsi.The latter are able to operateat full capacityall year round, but those in the north suff'erfronr rcduccdllows or haveto shutdowndueto freezingduringthe winter. Oil is reportedto have beendiscovered recentlyin Roergai,the county to the north of Hongyuan,so may also be in the county. Invcstigations are currently under way to establish tlle extentof thegold deposits.

2.3. ECONOMY The pcop)cof Hongyuanappearto be reasonably well-oll':indicatorsare that 30% of the 4,000 nonradicfamilieshavesolarpanelscostingaround1000yuan,and that ntotorcycles are evicientin both HongyuanTown and the villagesand grasslirnds.Housingstandards vary fronrwell-builtstonehouses to limberhouseswith or withoutpeatinsularion. The nrainstay of the economyis the livestock,which yieldsmilk products,nteaf,Ieather, wool and relatedntaterials.Herbsare collectedand usedboth for medicinaland veterinarv 'DurDoses.


It o rt gt' t t t t t (' o u t t l' ll t l t i t l tl t.r?.\'.ril r.n l S u rll

( ) r ' c r 7 0 | l o i t h e p o p L r l r t i o na r e e r ] g a g e di n n o n a c l i c p a s t o r a l i s n l . l n d u s [ r i e s i n H o n g y u a n 'l'oun i n c l L r d et l r e N { i l k - p o w c l e r F a c t o r y ( 2 0 0 e r n p l o y c c s ) , t h c N { c a l l ) r o c e s s i r t gF a c t o r y ( 1 7 0 ) , r r p h a r r n a c e u t i c atla c t o r y ( 1 5 0 ) , a n d a s a $ , n ) l l l( 7 0 ) . A t S h L r a j i n g stih e r e i s a n a n i n t a l n r e c l i c i n cf a c t o r y w i t h i t s o w n 5 0 0 k W h y d r o p o u , c r .s t a t i o r ] . S n r a l l s r i w r l i l l s a n d l e a t h e r g o o d s p r o ( l u c t i o na r e s p r e a dt h r o u g h o u tt h e c o L l r ) t y . I { o n g y L r a rh r i r s o n l y r e c e n t l y b e e n o p e n e d f o r t o u r i s n r , a n d i s b e i n g p r o r n o t e da s p a r t o f a circLrit irorr Chcngdu including Juizhaigou and Huanglong. Hongyuan Town and S h u q i n g s i b o t h h a v e h o t e l s , s h o p sa n d r e s t a u r a n t s H ; o n g y u a n T o r v n a l s o h a s a t e n t p dc a m p f b r t o u r i s t s . T h e r e a r e v e r y l i m i t e d s h o p si n t h e v i l l a g e s .

I Iot.gt'utttt Courttt llt1tid A:.tt\!/)i.'rl

F i g r rr c 2 . 4 . L r l ' o p ul : r ti o r t P 1 ' r : r r ri rt l s o l S i c h u a r r l ) r c f ' c c t ut ' c s

.\!1i

41.

2.1. SOCIAI, STRUCTURE

Autnohous

2 . - 1 . 1 .P o p r r l a t i o n P o p u l a t i o nc l a t ao n H o n g y u a n C o u n t y i t s e l f i s i n c o m p l e t e .L o c a l c e n s u sd a t a s t a t e st h a t t h e p o l r u l a t i o ni n 1 9 8 0 w a s 2 6 , 0 6 5 , a n d g r e w t o 2 9 , 9 4 1 b y 1 9 9 0 , w h i c h y i e l d s a n a v e r a g e a n n L r apl o p L r l a t i o ng r o w t h o f 1 . 4 9 % . T h e 1 9 9 4 p o p u l a r i o nw i l s n r e a s u r c db y a h o u s e h o l d 'fhis c c r r s r r sc, o n c l u c t e db y t h e P L r b l i cH e a l t h B u r e a u . data is displaycdin Table 2.4.1a. bclo*'. '1'ahlt

2.J. I I Iortgyuurt Populatiort l ' o t r u I u t i o nS c c t o r Children aeed0 to 6 years \ \ ' o n r e n l 5 t o . 1 9v e a r s

Ntrrnber ol' Dcrsons

4204

'7130 15873 31461

All nrales -fotal 1994 Population

I)elccut of total

13.4% 24.6% 50.1%

t00%

T I r c c l a t ai s c o n r p a r a b l et o t h a t o f A b a p r e l ' e c t u r ea s a w h o l e , t h e p o p L r l a t i o np y r a m i d o f ' ' v h i c hi s s h o w n b e l o w , i n F i g L r r e2 . 4 . A b o v e a g e 4 4 , t h c p o p u l a t i o na s s l u r e st h e s h a p eo f p o p r r l a t i o nisn n r l n y d e v e l o p i n gc o u n t r i e s w , h e r e s t r i c t f a r l i l y p l a n n i n gp o l i c i e sa r e n o t i n f b r c e . l ' c r s o r t sn o r v a g e d 2 0 t o 4 0 w c r e b o r n d u r i n g a t i n r c o f c o n t l i c t .a n d r c a d j u s t n l e n t a t l e r t h e 1 9 . 1 9C o n r n r u n i s tR e v o l u t i o n . T h o s e a g e d y o u n g e r t h a r r2 0 r v c r e b o r n a t i c r r u i n o r i t y p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i r t gf a r n i l y p l a n n i n g i n t h e a r e a w e r e r e l a x c c l .T h e n r a l e p o p u l a t i o n r s n o l a r g e r t h a n e x p e c t e d ,a b o u t o n e - h a l f , a l t h o u g h t h e d i s t r i b L r t i o nb y l g e o f n r a l e si s trnknou,n.

Srrt r,

Prcfectu.e

Autnonroui

Prctcclure

l - h c d i s t r i b u t i o no f t h e p o p L r l a t i obny l o c a t i o ni s g i v e n b c l o w , j n " l ' a b l e2 . 4 . 2 . b . I l o n g y L r a r t T o N , n i s l l o I s h o w n , b L r tw a s r e p o r t e db y t h e P L r b l i cH e a l t h B u r e a u t o h a v e a p O P L r l a t i oonf -fhe about 3,000 (LeN4aster). f a r r n s s h o w n a r e g o v e r n n r c n t - r u nl - i r n n s ;t h t - b r e t ' t l i r t gf : t r n r i s i n L o n g r i . T h e a c t u a l p o p u l a t i o no f H o n g y L r a nC o u n t y r i t a n y o n e t i n r e s h o L r l dn o t [ r e c o n s i d c r e da f i x e d q r r a n t i t y :t l r e r l o v e r l e n t s o f n o l n a < l i cl r e r d s r n e nw i l l c a L r s et h i s t o l l t r c t r r a t e$ , i l c i l y .T l r e p o p L r l a t i o nl ' i g L r r egs i v c n r e l ' c r t o p t r s c r n sk , \ i s t c t ' e d a s r c s i ( l L ' l ) lo\ l H o n g l ' L r a rC t oLrnty. 'l'ablc

2 . . 1 . 2D i s t r i b u ( i o n o l ' I I o r r g l ' r r a nI ' o p u l a l i o n b y Y i l l : r g r / ' lo w r r Nrrne of Torvn or Village

Shrrriinrsi Oiuncx Lon grrn l\'l a i rva Sed i Ranck

Popuhtion

5E60 20 2007 2061 3374 |250

I)crcrnt i)t-fotrl (lrrrntv J)oo.

r s6 ' i t%

6.3./, 6.5 Vc 10.1% 4.0%

l9ti9 2(t52

6.3

Lon{r Si z h a

2t12

6.9./a

Anrtt

2988 I 695 543 18'/

L5",1 5.47(

Ailqu

Lontribrr Wroie lirnr lJreedrng filrrn - Lonrrr

Anttu ftrrnr Total Vill:rrc pLrpulrtiLrn

504 115

28620

6.4./"

2.5% t.67.

3% 90.9%

2.4.2. Settlenrent Patterns In thc sunrmera strikingfeatureof HongyuanCountyis the black tentsdottcdircrosstlll grassland. Aboutthreequartersof theTibetanpopulation are Iivingas noDtadic l)asturalists -5


Ilongvuon

Countl,

Rupid Ast?.tstil?nt

N o n r a d sr e n r a i n i n o n e l o c a t i o n f r o r n a b o u t l 0 d a y s u p t o 3 m o n t h s , b u t u s u a l l y s t a y w i t h i n a linrited geographic area. Several tents fornr an encanlpnrent, often extended family g r o u p i n g s . S t o r e s , c o n s t r u c t e do f s o d d e ng r a s s o r w o o d , e x i s t w h c r e t h e h e r d s r n e np l a n t o set-up the tent lbr the winter. We often observed fanrilies moving their tents with stakes, t e n t s a n d a l l o t h e r p o s s e s s i o n so n t h e b a c k s o f 4 t o . 5 y a k . T h e t e n t s a r e c o n s t r u c t e do f woven strips ot yak belly wool. The procedure to set-up the tent for the first time in a g i v e n l o c a t i o n i s r i t u a l i s e d , a n d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e t c n t a r ) d o f t h e h e a r t h s t o n e si n s i d e are given great in)portance. M a n y n o n r a d i c l l i r n i l i e s o w n s n r a l l h o u s e si n v i l l a g e s n e a r t h e r n a i n r o i t d , b u t m o s t l y o l d e r p e o p l e a n d c h i l d r e n l i v e i n t h e s eh o u s e sa l l d u r i n g t h e y e a r , a n d a r e j o i n e d b y o t h e r f a m i l y n r e r n b e r si n t h e r v i n t e r . A l l o f t h e s e t t l e r n e n vt i l l a g e s t h a t w e s a w h a v e a s i m i l a r s e t - u p :o n e third of the settlement contains the governnrent otllces and housing for government e n r p l o y e e s , u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e do f c o n c r e t e a n d b r i c k s ; o n e t h i r d c o n t a i n s p a s t u r a l i s t s ' h o u s e s ,w h i c h w e r e e i t h e r c o n s t r u c t e df r o m l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e r n a t e r i a l s ,s u c h a s w i l l o w a n d r l L r do r t i n r b e r , o r f r o n r i n r p o r t e cb l r i c k s ( e . g . , i n A n q L r ) ;t h e l a s t t h i r d i s o f t e n t h e s i t e o f a n ) o n a s t e r yo r t e r n p l e ,w i t h l r o L r s i n g a r o u n c lt h a t . H o n g y u a n T o w n i s t h e c e n t r e o f t h e C o u n t y , w i t h l a r g e b u i l d i n g s , g o v e r n n r e n to f f i c e s , 'I'lre factories, hospitals, schools, and a hotel. urain road contains nrany small e n t r e p r e n e u r i a ls h o p s . H o u s i n g i s n r o s t l y c r o w d e d i n t o h o u s i n g b l o c k s a l o n g n a r r o w l a n e s , o f t e n w i t h p L r b l i c t a p s t a n d so r w e l l s a n d u s u a l l y l a t r i n e s ( a s f ' e w a s o n e p c r 4 0 p e r s o n s (Bjork, 1993).1'he layout of the town is nonetheless plcious. T h e s o u t h e r na r e a o f t h e C o u n t y i s q u i t e d i f t e r e n t , e s p e c i a l l yo n t h e s l o p e so f t h e P l a t e a u . F a r n r i n g c o n r r l u n i t i e s , n r o s t l y c o n r p o s e do f H a n i n r n r i g r a n t sa n d a f ' c w i n d i g e n o u s Q i a n g a n d J i a r o n g p e o p l e , a r e s e t o n h i l l s i d e s , a n d h o u s e sa r e n ) o s t l y a t t r a c t i v e l y d e c o r a t e ds t o n e c o n s t n l c t i o n . P a s t u r a l i s t sa r e l a r g e l y a b s e n tf r o n r t h i s a r e a . 2.4.3 Nligration In-rnigrltion A f t e r C h i n a t o o k o v e r t h e a d n r i n i s t r a t i o no f T i b e t , H a n C h i n e s e w e r e encouraged to nligrate to trzrditional Tibetan areas. l'he Han Chirrcse came as a d n r i n i s t r a t o r s ,t e a c h e r sa n d f a c t o r y w o r k e r s . T o n r o v e a n d w o r k i n a r e n r o t e a r e a i s u n t i l t o d a y e n c o u r a g e db y s a l a r y a l l o w a n c e sa n d o t h c r i n c c n t i v c s . I n t h e s o u t h e r r rp a r t o f t h e c o u n t y t h e r e a r e s e v e r a lH a n C h i n e s ef a r r n i n g c o r l ] n r u n i t i e sT . hcse people first came as tree f e l l e r s , t h e n s e t t l e d: r n d b e g a n f a r n r i n g i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s . T o c h t y 1 2 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a r e o f T i b e t a n , 2 7 0 / o< t f H a n C h i n e s e a n d l V o o f o t h c r n r i n o r i t y o r i g i n . M o r e a n d n r o r e p o s i t i o n s 'fibetan people, however s u c h a s t e a c h e r s ,a d n r i n i s t r a t i v ep o s t s , h e a l t h w o r k e r s a r e f l l l e c l b y n o t s o n r a n y i n l e a d e r s h i pp o s i t i o n ( t e a m ' s o b s e r v a t i o n ) .W h c t h e r t h c r e i s c o n t i n u o u s r n n r i g r a t i o nb y H a n C h i n e s eo r o t h e r s i s d i f f i c u l t t o s a y . T i b e t a n s a l w a y s h a v e b e e n n r o b i l e p e o p l e . A s n o r l a d i c p a s t u r a l i s t sa n d traders, they move across Tibet into China, India and Nepal. Young people leave the area f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .T h e r e i s n o i n f b r n r a t i o n a v a i l a b l eo n t h e e x t e n t a n d d u r a t i o n o f t h e r n o v e r ) r e n t sT. h e t e a n r g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p e o p l e w i t h t h e i r h o m e a r e a i s r a t h e r s t r o n g . F u r t h e r , p a s t o r a l i s n rp r o v i d e s a s o l i d e c o n o n r i c b a s e f o r t h e h e r d s p e o p l e a s w e l l a s t h e b u s i n e s sp e o p l e i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y . T h e t a r n r i n g c o m r n u n i t i e sa t t h e f i i n g e s o f t h e g r a s s l a n db e n e t l t a s w e l l f i o m t h e ( b a r t e r ) t r a d e w i t h h e r d s n t e n .A s s u n r i n g Enrigratiorr

-1-

HongyuanCounry, Rapidassessmant Survey

Survet

that economicsare the strongestdriving force for migration,movementout of the areamay not be large. 2.4.4. Gendcraspects From the outside the nonradsociety looks quite egalitarian.Women and men are both living towardssurvival. Hard work and hardshipsare integratedparts of their existence. Still thereare specificrolesfor womenand rnenin the families. Somemajorwomen'swork-activities are: caringfor the calves,nrilking,the processing of milk (for butter and cheese)which does not need to be delivered to a milk collection centre,collection,drying and storingof dung. Men takecareof herdingand representing the family outsidethe home, for example,with the government.The women, due to the heavyphysicalwork, are in a worseconditionthan the men, healthwise. Most herdsmen's wiveswe interviewedwoulclnot like to seetheir daughters living in a tent as nomadsbut ratheras ernployees in town at an offlce. However,at ntarriage(on averageat20-21 yr. of age for both sexes)nrothersare preparedto give their daughtersas tnany yak as possible. In one casethe daughtergot 45 yak as dowry. There seemsto be little work in the towns but thereis alwayswork at thehercl'ssite. Anotherreasonwl.rytheywish theirdaughterto be employedin town relatesto security:"We need to have sonreonein town who know how to ordera rnealin a restaurant; who know thosepartsof the world whichwe don't." Lookingat the decisionmakingprocesses, mostdaily decisions are madeby women(rnen are often away during day-tinrein winter/spring),while the crucial decisionson: quantities selling/buying, of butterto be stored,out-tentrelationsare madeby menwith or withoutdiscussion with his wife. "Of coursehe is the headof the family." How this works in the polyandricfanriliesis not observed,but likely the oldest man takes/hasthe role of family head.But it seensindirectlythat womendo havea greatsay in the decisions.At the same time most decisions are forced frorn the outside (clirnate, grass production, governmentwith rulesto follow or to neglect). Childrenare of greatvaluein the familiesregardless of sex. Often nomadsfamiliesdo need someextra handsin work, which is partly solvedby operatingthe systemin a clan. But still extra handsare nrostwelcomeand at the sametime well cared fbr (childrenhelping catchingthe animals).Boys and girls attendschoolsin equalnunrberin the County.To haveone or two sonsin a monastery(from age of 8 onwards,althoughofficially only at the age of 18) is a good thing to do. The value of a male in cultural/ religiousperspective differs from that of the female,althoughthereare somemonasteries for girls/women. It seemsthatall childrendo inheritequally.The only girl in the fantilywhose2 sonsare rn the monastery will inheritall thepossessions of the parents."What to do?" Shewill be part of the nextgeneration herdswornen. In Governrnent offlcesand in Governrnent as suchthe womencan takepart in all posts,but the nurnbersare very low. The ForeignAffairs Magistrateand the People'sRepresentative werethe only two wontenat higherfositionsmet by the Team.In ofllcesmostwolnenare well dressedcleanersand hot-waterproviders.

-8-


Hott1l\,uatt County Rupid asl'6sncnt

Survay

2.5 DEVELOPMENT. VISION The following docunrent was developed by the Team in Hongyuan during discussions regarding the f-easibilityof possible options which nright be considered by FOC in response t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o n r t h e S u r v e y . I t a d d r e s s e sd e v e l o p m e n t a li d e a l s , w h i c h s h o u l d , i n t h e 'l'eanr's o p i n i o n , a l w a y s b e k e p t i n m i n d w h e n t h i n k i n g a b o u t a p o s s i b l ep r o j e c t . l

Society / Conrrrrunity / People o addressing people as human creative beings (not as things / production units / c o n s u r r i e r s/ e t c . ) o self deterrnination of people and communities for own developnrent (basic needs). o that the marginalized in society will be less rnarginalized and that issuesare addressedfrom gender perspective. o l o n g t e r m b e n e f i t si n c o n t r a s tt o s h o r t t e r m g a i n s ( e d u c a t i o n- > a t t i t u d e internal changes). o t o e n s u r e t h a t i n d e v e l o p r r e n ta p p r o a c h e st h e l i v e l i h o o d o f s u b s i s t e n c ep e o p l e i s irrproved.

2 . E n v i l o n r n e n t / R e s o u r c e s/ E c o n o n r i c s o awarenessof long tenn consequencesof short ternr high use of non-renewable resources. o g o o d n r a n a g e n r e not f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s( b y a l l i n v o l v e d ) t o i n s L r r et h a t t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n sa r e a b l e t o u s e t h e s a n e r e s o u r c e sw h i c h a r e n o w a v a i l a b l e (sustainable). o t h e c o s t s o f d a n r a g et o n a t u r e / e n v i r o n n r e nst h o u l d b e i n c l u c l e di n t h e c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i so f d e v e l o p r n e natc t i v i t i e s . o econonrics: - l o o k i n g t b r t h e o p t i m u m a n d n o t t h e n r a x i n r u n ra t a n y c o s t s ( n o t " t e c h n o l o g y "d r i v e n ) . - l o c a l L r r r c l e r s t a n d itnhga t g r o w t h h a p p e n si n b a l a n c ei n t e r n a l l y a n d externally. - o p t i n i u n . ru s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n to f r e s o u r c e sw i t h i n t h e p e r i p h e r y . 3 . G o v e r r r n r e r r t/ A c l n r i n i s t r a t i o n / L o c a l I n s t i t r r t i o n s o C o v e r n m e n t / A d n r i n i s t r a t i o nf b r p u b l i c a n d n o t f o r o w n s a k e ( s e r v i c e ) . o Public accountability for non-confidential data by what ever n)eanspossible. o B a s i c 3 - s e l f o r i e n t a t i o n :s e l f p r o p a g a t i n g/ s e l f : n r a n a g i n g ( g o v e r n i n g/ ) s e l f supportlng ; 1 .R e l i g i o n / C r r l t r r l e/ V a l r r e o R e s p e c tt o w a r d s c u l t u r e . ( e . g . b e l i e f s , k n o w l e d g e s y s t e n r s ,w o r l d v i e w s , intellectual property rights) o C r e a t i n g a n e n v i r o n n l e n ti n w h i c h t r u s t c a n b e b u i l d w i t h p e o p l e a s h u m a n beingswith their needs. o F a c i l i t a t i o n i n t h e w a y o f l i g h t - ( n o t m o n e y / b u s i n e s s/ e c o n o m i c s/ s t a t u si n the llrst placeetc.)

-9-


.:)

Tibet on roles

policies.

19 7 2 )

1 9 6 6 - 7 1 Cultural Rev. (Vietnam-war till

196',I

I 9 6 0 Class structure

19 5 9 , 0 1 F a r n i n e p e r i o d s (lndia-war; Tibetl

19 5 8 G r e a t l e a p f o r w a r d

Mutual Aid Pro;ramme (MAP)

Lamas support

PRC with Panchen

tergrated part of

lai Lama went to lndia. Tibet became an in-

Uprising in Tibet. Da-

of PRC/Tibet.

Agreement with

trict level.

structure at dis-

- New Administrative-

established in HY. Schools started

Milk powder factory

soldiers.

health classes by

under protection ol Red Army (1952).

Liberation: village

1-st Clinic in HYC.

County established.

sed H onovuan

Red Army pas.

returned to Tibet

counter revo-

19 5 6 C o l l e c t i v a t i o n

Coun

'longyuon County

Panchen Lama 10

Han-Chinese inllux

{overlap & conflicts)

secular leader

China. - Dalai Lama religious 'lO & Panchen Lama

l u t i o n a r i e s" . (Ko.ean-warl.

"Oppression by

1 9 5 1 Campaign:

of land.

N ationalization

PRC.

I 9 4 9 Proclamation oJ

19 3 4 - 3 5 L o n g M a r c h

Manchuria

Panchen Lama's to

China-Tibet

Historical pers p e c t i v e o f d e v e l o p m e n t s itnn H o

China

1 92 4 19 3 1 J a p a n i n v a d e d

Year

to n o w

-man".

more for hired labor)

With MAP together with the Cultural Revolution the persecution of tho wealthy class nomads started. (isolation {rom tho 'masses; not permitted to ioin MAP; woalthier got poorer pastures; paid

into mutual aid groups (cooperation: sharing of access to pa6tures; hording and oth6r non direct gconomic activities were done together)

organized religion was terminated'Later during Cultural Revolution in late sixties monasteries got destroyed. The result was that now each herdsman decided where and when to graze,6ell products etc. Mutual Aid Groups introduced (1961). The "poor" arrd "middle" classes o{ an area werâ&#x201A;Ź organized

Aristocratic and monaslic lords lost their estates but the Panchen Lama's got reimbursed. 'poor' Government ollicials appointed new officials Jrom the classes to manage e.g. the allocation of grazing lands. The monasteries were closed; monks send home; culturally

Class structure introduced (poor/middle/wealthy (no class-struggle Vet - only {ollowers o{ Oalai Lama did suffer)

lrom 1959 onwardsl-

Trade in kind forbidden bv Government of PRC . New Administrative nreasurements were introduced at all levels (1960). Government at local level took over {rom the Lama's (one inlormer nrentioned that a Committee at village level with local government representation is doing the distribution ol grazing lands to families every yearlseason

In Honguuan County a Panchen Lanra, Gong Tang Chang, cooperated well with Government (schools, Milkpowder tactory etc.)

as in the past years. 'Chinese character" Ior tribal people changed lrom "dog'into Early 5o-ties: Monasteries destroyed and rebuild (based upolr misunderstanding).

Every 3 years the grazing riglrts were reviewed and redistribution was done (quality o{ grassland and number of animals - overgrazed land got under grazed for restoration of the grass productivity In 1959 no new câ&#x201A;Źnsus was done arrd the Lagyab lhoiang allocated the same area'E to the nomads

11

oa

fr{

H

Fh

(a

a

Fl

H tD

(?

a

was allocated to families and clans (under great secrecy); conflicts among nomads were solved and tax (for Lama's) was raised.

(, .Fn

tD ,.1

l-

Till 1959 the PanchenLama's were the local lcaders ol the nomads communities. Via Lagyab lhojangs {conrmittee o{ Lanra's over a geographical area} grazing land

The whole area of Hongyuan was divided in localities (area's) over which Lama's were ruling on behalf ol the Panchen Lama . Practically they wero given the trust by nomads to take care o{ their livelihood (olten relatives in monasteries as monks and safeguards ol family wealth)

Effecls on peoples/communhies lives


I

I

Yea

lhina

Urban migration oolicies,

tation started.

19 8 0 F a m i l y p l a n n i n g policiesimplemen-

19 7 8 M a r k e t - o r i e n t a t i o n 4 -m o d e r n z a t i o n s : 1 . d e f e n c .2 . i n d u s t . 3. agr. 4. sci&techn.

Deng Xiaoping

1 9 7 72-nd Comeback

19 7 6 D e a t h : M a o Z e dong, Zhou Enlai End of Gang of Four

19 7 3 1 - s t C o m e b a c k Deng Xiaoping

1 5 7 2N i x o n s v i s i t t o

1 9 6 6 C u lt . R e v . 19 6 8 - 7 C

lhino-Tiber

1-child family.

Minority-reform ( p o s i t i v e )( s e e C h . 4 )

Privatereligionwas forbidden etc.

Communes introduced. Nomads rebelled in name of Red Guard, but in vain. Destroyingthe 4 old: ideas, culture, customs and habits --->

in HY-town.

1975- Meat factory

'I 97O- 1-st Hydropowerplant in County.

Hongyuan Counly

E{fccts on peoples/communities lives

Move other way round encouraged: rentoteness allowances etc.

Move from rural areas to urban areas disencouraoed. (immiqration of intellectuals)

F o r m i n o r i t i e s l i k e t h e T i b e t a n a n d Q i a n g 3 - c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y c a n b e r e g i s t e r e d ;f o r C h i n e s e o n l y o n e c h i l d p e r f a m i l y . L a t e r t h i s b e c a m e 2 f o r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s . ( a c c o r d i n gt o S i c h u a n P o l i c i e so n F P ) .

did not touch the normal population, Real change happened only after the introduction of 'responsibility system

In beginning those modernizations

v a l u e o f t h e a n i m a l st h e y b r o r r g h ti n t o t h e c o m m u n e . * s p e c i a l i z a t i o no f w o r k : h e r d i n g / m i l k i n g .W o m e n h a v e t o s l a u g h t e r ;m e n h a v e t o m i l k e t c . | * slaves/nocontrol over life orderedby n e w ( u n s k i l l e d )m a s t e r s . | | - - - ) U n c h a n g e d :f u l l s c a l e p a s t u r a l i s m < - - - , but decay of social and cultural life of nomads. M o n a s t e r i e sd e s t r o v e d . H a i r c u to f m e n ; s l a u g h t e r i n gb y w o m e n : p a r t o f d e s t r o y i n gt h e old habits and traditions.

o f i n t e l l e c t u a l ss e n t t o t h e c o u t r y s i d e f o r p h y s i c a l l a b o r lLots lI M i d d l e a n d r i c h h e r d s m e n w e r e j u d g e d t o b e e x p l o i t e r s o f t h e m a s s e s a n d c l a s s e n e m i e s . E v e r y t h i n g w a s lstrippedof them. --- ) Changes: t animal holdersto holders of a share in the commune's property. Workers on own'farm'. I * commune leaderswere'poor officials' who t o l d e x p e r i e n c e dh e r d s m e n w h a t t o d o . | * nomads lost their herds and got, ;f lucky (not c l a s s e n e m i e s ) ,g o t s o m e p a i d f o r t h e o v e r |

d a:

q

G

q q G 4 q

â&#x201A;Ź

<

c-

j

c


I

tJ

I

19 9 5

19 9 3

in West-Sichuan)

(more ethnic Chinese

Migration plan

system)

FOC-survey

F o r m u l a t i o no f p l a n (populationcontol)

policies.

(change of herding

19 9 2

Settlement

Pref.investmenl

Local investments encourageo ( e n t r e p r e n e u r s) .

1S 9 1 R e f o r m & o p e n i n g

19 9 0 E c o n o m i c g r o w t h of 2-digits per yr.

'I 985 Decontrol of prices of agr.products (partly)

19 8 3 E n d o f c o l l e c t i v e s .

implementation

l 983/85 Minority policies

Hongyuan County

'1983 water system M o n a s t e r i e s& l o c a l in HY-town c u l t u r e / l a n g u a g ep r o More Tibetan motion. Start of rebuild- schoolteachers/ ing monasteries. Tibetan hospital Tibetan middle school at Hongyeantow n

Responsibilitysystem introduced ( m a r k e t -o r i e n t a t i o n ).

of Party)

China-Tibei

Year China

1 9 8 1 Responsibility (Zhao Ziyang - GS

lives

for the shift was: individual herdsmen are much more able to look well after grassland and

3 types of herdsman after 1984:

Farm Unit.

Q.uota to be produced for Government.

Pasture allocation is done by Government

Surplus production is

experience/ clever/ relations with factories-government

least 50 yrs.) each family will get. There will be no: winter and summer pasture anymore. --) changed: whole 'nomad system' into a 'farming 3ystcm', w i t h o u t a n y p r e p a r a t i o n, t h a n o n l y p r o v i d i n g 7 5 " r 5o f t h e f e n c e s .

F u n d s a r e s t i l l a p r o b l e m . S o m e a d , j u s t m e n t si n p l a n s h a v e c o m e f r o m S t a t e l e v e l . 108 staffmembers have been recruited.3 staffmembers go to an area and study herd size per family and will determine (with the nomads (l?)) how the settlement will be done (which fixed area (for at

July 4 1995 the progranlmestarts in Hongyuan County. The first place, but next financial year ( J u l y ' 9 5 - J u n e ' 9 6 ) i t w i l l b e c o m p l e t e di n t h e w h o l e C o u n t r y .

Arguments to settle nomads to make thenr'yak-farmers'inslead: 1. poverty (backward/not taking part in China's economy); 2. poor health 3. bad schooling; 4. overgrazing of grassland (future perspective dark); 6. no good drinkingwater available for nomads; 7. education (TV -electricity); 8. many conflicts/fights among the nomads; 9. marketing economy.

Trade relations with foreiqn countrtes. --> Plan involves lifes of 4OOO herdsrnen's families.

More entrepreneurs and small businesses in townships

Reasons for the outcome:

officials etc.

members started equal, but the well experienced herdsmen, who lost most in Cultural Revolution 'poor' 'middle arrd class' herdsmen.

time, did much better than the

Commune

All three types are found in I995. The firsl one is the smallest qroup, as most animals are oiven back,

wage.

3. animals still owned by Government.

landal location per family (practice per clan) by local Government.

1. animals from Government to be given back over time (sheep). Any gain in number is private gain. 2. animals private owned, but production qouta for local factories at "government's price".

---)

animals than a commune is able to.

Argument

do need good cooperation.

grazing area. The labor requirements

the allocation of grazing area was done on a household basis, however,

an practice the individual families operated as "clan" with common

Later via the local Government

nomads

old herding practices started over again. Grazing land allocation was done for small groups ol (3 to 6) and no taxes were taken from Tibetans.

Herds were divided (or sold to max. of 2O Yuan/animal) among commune members and

ffects on peoples/communities 1981-84

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Hongyuan Counry Rapid asscssmentSurvev

4 GovernnrentPolicy and Plans

4. I. INTERNATIONALCONVENTIONS ' UMMIT 4 . 2 . T H E R I O ' ' E A R T H 'S 4.2.I, THE DECLARATIONON ENVIRONN{ENTAND DEVELOPMENT 4 . 2 . 2 .A G E N D A2 I 4.2.3. THE FORESTPRINCIPLES 4.2.4. CONVENTIONON CLIMATE CHANGE 4.2.5. CONVENTIONON BIOLOGICALDIVERSITY 4,3. CHINESEGOVERNMENTPOLICY AND PLANS (1977-1995\ 4.3.I. MODERNISATIONPOLICY 4 . 3 . 2 .L A N D 4 . 3 . 3 .M I N O R I T YP O L I C Y 4 . 3 . 4 .P O P U L A T I O NP O L I C Y 4 , 3 . 5 .N , I I G R A T I OP NO L I C Y 4 . 3 . 6 R U R A LR E F O R M 1.4 REFEITENCES FROM THE CHINESECONSTITUTIONON l"{INORITYPEOPLE 4 . 5 . T H E R O L EO F T H E H O N G Y U A NC O U N T YO F F I C I A L S 4 . 6 . H O N G Y U A NI N T E G R A T E DC O U N T YP R O J E C T 4.6.I. PRACTICAI-ELEMENTSOF HONGYUAN INTECRA'|[,D COT]NTY PROJECl' .1.7.THE GREENFOOD CORPORATIONAND THE THREE POINT PROJECT

4. 1 I NTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS conventions thataddress Sincethe early 1970's there havebeenarnunrberof international development, including"Rio Earth" Sunrurit.The "Earth" sumnrit,which China signed, nlodelsthat only apply science,technologyand challengesconventionaldevelopnrent growth econornicsin a top-down fashion to the exclusionor dctrirrtentof socirl, environmental,cultural, cornnrunity, gender, subsistcnccst:ctor and traditional considerations. Effbrtshavebeenrnadeto identifyclausesrclevantto the six disciplines philosophy in the study team and clausespertinentto development that arr: represented adoptedby the team. 4.2 TIIE RIO 'EARTTI'' SUMMIT In Rio de Janeiro,Brazilin Juneof 1992,at the largest-ever nreetingof world leaders,179 of our world countriesagreedon a blueprinton how to rrake the future develoyrnrent econonrically, sustainable. The agreernent corrprisedfive sociallyand environnrentally (KeatingM 1993& GrubbM 1993):difl-erent docurnents a) The declarationon Environmentand Developnrent b) Agenda21 c) The Principleson Forests d) Convention on ClinrateChange

e) Convention on BiologicalDiversityl 4.2.7. The Declarationon Environment and Development This comprised27 principlesthat define the rights and responsibilities of nationsas they pursuehuman developmentand well-being.In terms of the study there are six rmportant principlesthat emphasise:a) the relationship of manwith the naturalworld (principlel), b) the need to rneet the equitableneedsof presentand futuregenerarrons ( P r i n c i p t3e) c) the necessityfor environrnental impactassessment of deveropment activities (Principlel7) d) The vital role of womenand indigenouspeoplesand their full participation in the development process(principle 2O& 22) e) The recognition ofand srrpport for the identity,curtureand interests of indigenouspeoples(principle22) fl The needto protectthe environmentand naturalresourcesofpeoplesunder occupation(principle23) 4.2.2. Agenda2l A blueprint on how to make developmentsocially, economicallyand environmentaily sustainable. In termsof thestudytheareasof mostinterestinclude:_ a) The peoplesparticipationin povertyalleviation(Chap.3) b) The protectionand prornotionof humanhealth - throughcreanwater,sanitation, chirdspacingand the incorporation of indigenoushealrhknowledgeand practice.Chap. 6) c) The sustainable management of land - throughthe incorporationof indigenousland - useknowledgeand practice(includingpastoralism) and with the full participationofwomen, youth and indigenouspeople.(Chap. l0) d; Combatingdeforestation - throughprotectionand pranting.Forests needto be preservedfor their socialand spiritualvalues;includingthatof traclitional habitats of indigenous peoples.(Chap.I l) e) Combatingdesertification anddrought - throughsustainabre land- useand water-use,treeplantingandalternative energyuse.(Chap.l2) f) Sustainable MountainDevelopment - througherosioncontrol, protection and appropriatecottageindustries. (Chap.l3) g) Sustainable AgricultureandRuralDevelopment - throughresourceownership,accessto resources ,financing,nrarketsand a mixtureof r'odern and traditionconservation techniques.(chapter 14)

' The 1972 Stockhorm Conference, r9g2 raw of the Sea, The London Durnping Convcntion, The Basel convention on wastes, vicnna Conventionand the Montreal protocor on ozone

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Jrl('nl,tun'{) Hortg| uan County Rup id .lJ.tal

St'' Hrttt14l'ttutt CountyRapida'l'ltr'rsztcrt' of BiologicalDiversity h) Conservation - throughthe incorporation of traditionalnrethodsof agriculture, and with the full agro-forestryrangeand wildlif'emanagelnent participation of localcorntnunities. benefit - by ensuringthe indigenouspeoplereceivea fair and e'qtritable from the useof biologicaland geneticresources.(Chap' l5) i) Managementof BiotechnologY - throughthe developnlent of vaccines,diseaseresistantplants,soil fertility fast growing tree strains,and renewableenergytechnologies, nreasures, (Chap.l6) extraction' mineral friendly environnrenlally j) Protecting andManagingFreshWater (Chap.l8) - improvingsafewatersupplies and sanitation. k) ManagingSolidWastesandSewage(Chap.2l) development the role of wotnenin sustainable l) Strengthening - throughreducingtheirworkload,andgivingtherr access to creditandpropertyrights.(Chap.24) education, decision-rnaking, people the role of irrdigenous m) Strengthening in resource - by consulting with thenrandensuringthciractiveparticipation strltegies' attddeveloprtteltt and nranagerltent developnrent - by recognising knowledgeand resource theirvalues,traditioilal practlces. luranagcnlent andto practices - by adoptinglawsandpoliciesto preserve thcir custornary property(ideasand knowledge) intellectual protecttheirindigenous rights.(Chap26) the role of Farnrers n) Strengthening - to ensuresoundtarniingpractice,conservatiott, low-inputrnethods, power'andthrotrghtrainingin ecology' optimaluseof labour/animal Chap.32) Developnent o) Sciencefor Sustainable in - by trainingscientists; with indigenousknowledge, to link science and by enablingthem naturalsystems,ecologyand resourcemanagenlent audits.(Chap.35) to conductquality-of-life p) Education, trainingandptrblicawareness - by trainingenvironlnental technicians' - incorporating of sLrstainable andexperience knowledge indigenous andtraining.(Cltap.3) into education developnrettt ,1.2.3.The ForestPrinciples conservationand sustainable A statententof 15 principles to guide tlie nranagentcrlt, developmentand the econonlic to essential which are forest, of developmentof all types of interestto us : ol all formsof life. Therearethreeprinciples maintenance l) management of fbreststo Ineetsocial,econornic,ecological,culturaland spiritual needsof presentand futuregenerations. valuesof and nort-econonlic 2) tbrestryptansshouldcountboththeeconotnic or protectlng costsandbenefitsof harvesting forests,andtheenvironntental fbrests.

l-5

peopleand fbrestdwellers. and rightsof indigenous 3) supportthe identity,cLrlture forestuseshouldbe of conservation and sustainable Their knowledge forestryprogralnnles. respected and useclin developing 4.2.4. Convenlionon Clirnltc Change at levelsthat will gassesin the atmosphere Countriesshouldseekto stxbilisegreenhouse upsetthe globalclirnatesystem.In termsof the study the clauseof most not dangerously interestis: - the soundtnanagenrent gassinksas plants, andconservation of suchgreenhouse forests(andpeat- which may accountfor 30% of the worlds total soil carbon store).(Dr Maltby 1992) 4.2.5. Convenlionon lliokrgicnlDiversily Countriesshouldacloptways and rreirnsto conservethe variety of living species,ancl ensurethatthe bcnefltsfrorn usingbiologicaldiversityareequitablyshared.In termsof thc studythe clauseof n)ostintercstis: - nranyindigenous on biological and localconrnrunities havea closedependence resources, and nationsshouldrnakeuseof this traditionalknowledge.Countries andlocalknowledgeandprontote are to preserve and rnaintain suchindigenous its wider use,with theapprovalof the knowledgeholders.

4,3. CIIINESE GOVERNTTENT'I'OLICYAND PLANS(1977.1995) ion I)olicy 4.3.1. lVloderrrisrtt In the nriddleof 1977Deng Xiaopingreturnedto powerand becanrepart of a new 6-nran partyleadership. The Chinatheytook over was rackeclwith problerns, a backwardcountry rvereneecledin desperate ncedof nrodernisltion. Ncrv rneasures (agriculture,industry, national In 1978 China introducedthe "Four nrodernisation's" defence,and scienceand technology)(China Lonely Planet 1994)and this policy still For exanrplethe appliesacrossa broaclspectrurn of activitiesincludingrural developnrent. applicationoi scienceto the livestockindustry is still being rigorouslypursuedin HongyuanCountytoday(Bjork, 1993).In 1991a "reforrnand opening"policy "for 100 years" was endorsedby the l.+thCongrcssParty (in spiteof rarrpantinllation)(China pref'erential policieswere introdtLced to encourage Lonely Planet1994)and subsequently areas.Both Aba and Canzi Pret-ectures have prelerential investmentin disadvantaged policies. investment 4.3.2. Land In 1949all land (includingforestlirnd) was nationalised with the exceptionof tenrp)eland which was not nationalised until l9-5I (Richardson). Land tenurehas rcnrainecl with the in thc Stateever sincc,althoughunderthe responsibility system,which was introcluced 80's, allotmentof land was allowed to pass into the rnanagenlent of an individualor grouping. Between 1979 and l98l 267,000 ha. of forest legally passedinto the management of individualsand productionteanrsin WesternSichuan(Off-farnr).An Aba Land lr{anagenrent Policy wasforrnulated in 1991(SichuanNationalities Policy l99l).

1 6-


Surv(y Hcsngl'uan Coun1,Rapidasscssmcnt

HrtttgSuan Coulil)' RuPid asscssmcnt Survey

' : 1 . 3 . 3 .N l i n o r i t y P o l i c y T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e H a n C h i n e s e h a v e r e g a r d e c tl h e M i n o r i t i e s a s b a r b a r i a n s . I t w a s o n l y i n t h e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e R e p u b l i c t h a t t h e M i n o r i t i c s n a n r e( i n C h i n c s c c h a r a c t e r s )w a s c h a n g e d t r o n t " d o g " t o " D t a n " b u t a p o l i c y o f a s s i n r i l a t i o nw a s r i g o r o u s l y p u r s u e d ( C h i n a l - o n e l y p l a n e t 1 9 9 4 ) . S i n c e 1 9 7 6 g o v e r n r n e n th a s t r i e d t o d i f f u s e d i s c o n t e n tb y r e l a x i n g s o l n e o f i t s grasp orl the day to day lif'e of nrinority people by allowing ternples and mosques to open ( C h i n a L o n e l y P l a n e r 1 9 9 4 ) . I n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s M a o ' s p o l i c y o f a s s i r n i l a t i o n ,c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n a n d c l a s s s t r u g g l e w a s r e j e c t e d .I n i t s p l a c e a p o l i c y w a s i n t r o d u c e d t h a t a c c e p t st h e v a l i d i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l n r i n o r i t y p e o p l e sa n d c u l t u r e w i t h i n t l i e c o r n n t u n i s ts t a t e . ( C o l d s t e i n 1 9 9 1 ) . l n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s W e s t e r n S i c h u a n i r r t r o c l u c e da p o l i c y o f n r i n o r i t y s u p p o r t t o e n a b l e t h e m t o better participate in the rnarket econorny (Off-lurr)l). Aba Preflcturc introduced policies of c o m p u l s o r y e d L r c a t i o na n d i n h e r i t a n c e t b r n r i n o r i t y p e o p l c s i n l 9 9 l ( S i c h u a n P r o v i n c e N a t i o n a l i t i e sP o l i c y 1 9 9I ) . .1.3.4.Populatiort Policy A n a t i o n - w i d e b i r t h c o n t r o l w a s i D s t i t u t e d i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s w i t l t s o n r e s u c c e s sb u t w a s a b a n < j o n e d u r i n g t h e C L r l t u r a lR e v o l u t i o n . I r 4 a ob e l i e v c d i t w a s p a r t o f a c a p i t a l i s tp l o t t o nrake China wcak. In 1973 population growth targcts wcre agairr included in China's e c o n o r r . t i cp l a n n i n g a n d i n 1 9 7 9 t h c o n e c h i l d p o l i c y f b r H a n C h i n c s e w a s i n t r o d u c e d ( C h i n a L o n c l y P l a n e t 1 9 9 4 ) . C h i n a ' s r r r i n o r i t yp c o p l e s i n i t i a l l y h a t l n o c l r i l d l i n i t , b u t g r a d L r a l l ya l i n r i t o f 2 , 3 o r 4 c h i l d r e n w a s i n t r o d u c e d . I n A b a t h e n r a r r i a g ep o l i c y o f l 9 9 l p u t s s o r n e r e s t r i c t i o n so n t h e a g e o f n r a r r i a g ea n d l i n i t s n r i n o r i t y c o u p l e s t o 2 c h i l d r e n ( S i c h u a n N a t i o n a l i t i e sP o l i c y l 9 9 l ) . 4.3.5. Nligralion I'olicy C h i n c s e r l i g r a t i o n t o n i n o r i t y a r e a s h a s b e e n e n c o u r i r g e da s a n r c a n s o f c o n t r o l ( C h i n a L o n e l y P l a n e t 1 9 9 4 ) . A s l a t e a s 1 9 9 3 t l r i s w a s s t i l l L r e i n ge n c o t r r a g e di n S i c h u a n a t a n t e e t i n gw i t h t h e c o d c n u t u b e r 5 1 2 ( 1 6 t h s e s s i o no f . t h e U N S u b C o r t t t t r i t t e eo n P r e v e n t i o n o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d P r o t e c t i o no f M i n o r i t i e s - G e n e v a 1 9 9 4 ) . A p o l i c y t o s e t t l e C h i n a ' s tf n o m a c l sb e g a n i n t h c l a t e 1 9 5 0 ' s . I t o l - f e r e ccl o n r t b r t , p r o t e c t i o n a n c l l b r t h e d e v e l o p n r e n o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i e t y . T h e p r o p o s a l sa n s w e r e dr e a l r t c e d sb u t t l l e r e a l o b j e c t i v e w a s t o c o n t r o l t h e n o n t a c l ( l i k v a l l 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e p r o c e s s c o n t i r t L r e st o d a y a r t d t l t c a g e n d a i s s t i l l , a r n o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , c o n t r o l a l t d i n c o r p o r a t i o r it n t o t h e I n a r k e l e c o n o l n y . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o t e c o n o r D i cr e l b r n r i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s g r c a t e r d i s p a r i t i e se n r e r g e d b e t w e e n t l r e r u r a l a r r d u r b a n s e c t o r s ; t h r s r e s u l t e di n o u t - r t t i g r a t i o t rl ' r o t t t s o n l e r u r a l a r e a s . T o h a l t t h i s f l o w g o v e r n r n e n ti n t r o d u c c d a p o l i c y s e p a r a t i n gc i t y f r o n r v i l l a g e ( O f f - F a r r n ) . S i c h u a n o t ' f b r si n d u c e m e n t st o u n i v e r s i t y , c o l l e g e a n d t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l g r a d u a t e sw h o w a n t -fhey a r e e x e n r p t e c fl r o r n p r o b a t i o n p e r i o d , g e t a n a d d i t i o n a l to work in thc rurll areas. a l l o w a n c ea n d e n j o y a s a l a r yg r a d e o n e s t e p h i g h e r t h a n i n o t l t e r p a r t s o f C h i n a .

animalswere systernall the nomad"contnrune" Goldsteinl99l). Underthe responsibility while the grassland was by the governnlent authorities dividedequallyamongthe nouracls kept by the stateto control and regulateits use. The nornadswere allowed to retain the privateaninralstheyhadheldduringthecornmune period. In 1984the quota systenrwas abolishedapart from grain and cotton (China Lonely Planet 1994)and a policy to encouragenrral enterprisewas introduced. In West Sichuan: grainproductioninsteadefforts were a) Wherethe focushadbeenon rnaximising nradeto increase cashcrops,horticulture, livestock,forestryand specialised local products(Off'-Farrn). b) The contractterrnlor orchardsand forestwas extendedto 30 yearsand timber productsgiventax-freestatus.In 1985following3-5yearsof rigid pricecontrols productslegislation wasintrocluced to "decontrol"prices on agricultural (ChinaLonelyPlanet1994). Somedifficultiesareapparent in the move from a investrnent comnrandto a nrarketeconorry.In WesternSichuanpreferential (native& foreign)policies,as partof "reformandopening"havebeen introduced at countyancltownshiplevels(Off-Farrn& CanziInvestrnent Guide 1994)and "SpecialDeveloprnent Areas"identified.(Aba and Canzi Prefectu res).

4.4. REFERDNCESFROIV 7'IIE CTIINESE CONSTIT'UTION ON I},IINORITY PEOPLE The followingarebasicstaterrents aboutthe minoritiesin China: by nrinoritynationalities will form an autononrous o Everyareainhabited region. partsof China. Minority NationalityAutonomous regionsare not separated o Article4 Section3 (newconstitution)In the People'sRepublicof Chinaall will ensurethe legalriglrtsof all nationalities areequal.The Governnrent minoritynationalities andprohibitany form of racialdiscrirlination or oppresslon. will helpall rninoritynationality o Governrnent regionsto developtheireconomy and culture. will try to ensurethe prosperityof eachnationalityrninorityregion. o Government will assistall rninoritynationalityregionsto developtheireconomy o Government and cultureby fhcilitatingfinance,goods,materialsand technology. will assistminoritynationality o Government regionsto educate differentranksof cadres,prof-essionals, technicians and workerswho are rninoritynationals. o Covernment will ensurenrinoritynationality rightsand respecttheirtraditional culture.

4.3.6. I{ural ReIorrtt I n l 9 8 l D e n g i n t r o d u c e d t h e R e s p o n s i b i l i t yS y s t e n r t o r e l ) l t c e t h c r i g i d l y c o l l e c t i v i s e d agricultural systern. This included; a) liberalising China's econor)ry; b) ending the c o m l n u n e s a n c l ; c ) r e t u r n i n g t o a h o u s e h o l db a s e d s y s t e n l o f p r o c l u c t i o ni n r u r a l a r e a s f o r a g r i c u l t w e a n d i n d u s t r y . l t a l l o w e d a g r i c u l t u r a l h o u s e h o l c l sa n d l a c t o r i e s t o s e l l t h e i r s u r p l u s e s a f t e r " c o n t r a c t - q u o t a s "o n t h e o p c n n t a r k c t ( C h i n a L o n e l y P l a n e t 1 9 9 4 & .

4.5. TIIE ROLE OF TTIE IIONGYUAN COUNTY OFFICIALS As well as the government role in HongyuanCountythereare otherplayerswho cannotbe ignored. They include traditional leadership,the Lanas, and the "Green Food Corporation",a quasi-governnrent agriculturalproductcompany.It was impossibletcr players.We wereassured obtaindetailedinforuration of any of the non-governrnent of the

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Hongl,uuttCouttts' Rapidasscssnent Survey presence(verbal contmttnication)of a network of traditionalleadersand larnas.It was suggestedthat we network wil.h thenr to ensurethe grass-roolslevel of our good intent. Without the co-operationof this network, it was suggestedthat our developrnentefforts wouldfail.

4.6 HONGYUAN INTEGRATED COUNTYPROJECT Hongyuan county otficials presentedFoc with a chinese languageIntegratedcounty Proposalin 1994,and this hashavebeentranslatedby FOC surff.The translations havenot been recheckedby Hongyuan officials, but are tlie rnajor source of the following discussion.where additionalintornrationrvas collecteddLrringthe survey by team ntembers,thosepersonsare cited in the text. The detailedtechnicalproposalsthemselves are availablefrom FOC. The original integratedHongyuanIntegratedcounty project proposal is dated october 1992.The author is not identified,but at leastthe Educationproposalwas written by Mr. Gu, county vice-magistrate and GreenFood company officer (Dohne).The main proposal appearsto be an attentptto addressthreeobjectivedifficultiesencounteredin the meatand animalby-productindusrry: l) lossof up to 30,000yak in severervinters, drleto starvttion 2) Overgrazing by an estirnated 52% 3) lossof fat in nlcateveryyearworth2 to 3 tinresthe leln mentproductionthatyear. Theseproblctrswereattribrrted to the fbllowingcauses: l) Primitivenonradic aninralhusbandry practices leadherdsnren to "lbllow thegrass and water", and this providesinadequate shelterand tbod fbr anirnalsin severe rvinterconditions. 2) Internalconflictsexist,apparently betweenthe herdsrnen andbetweenthenrandthe productionexpcrts. 3) Aninal husbandry productionis not providedwith qualityscrvicesor "scientillc guidance". 4) The herdsnren arenot providedadequate basicamenities, includinghealth, education, cleanwaterandelectricity,andarethusde-motivated in theirvitatjob of anirnalhusbandry. The essentialthemerunning throughall the technicalProjectproposalsexcept forestryis "aninral production by constructionand technologicalnranagcnrent".The objective appearsto be optimisation of the economicproductivityof the anirnalsand animalbyproductsin the county, and the organisationof all services,peopleand structuresto this end. Seniorunidentified'cadres'havediscussed the problernsand corneto a consensus: they havedevelopeda technological solutionto "perfectthe county husbandryindustrial business conrpany".The basicpoliciesto accotrplish this inclucle: .l) construction ofa disaster-prevention infrastructLrre, inciucling fence-enclosed pasture lands,winteranintalshelters andstorage barns 2) institutionof a grasslandnanagementsysten)that "integrates humans,livestock, grass,buildings,management andutilities"to raisethe productivityof the pastures, and thusof the aninralsthatgrazeuponthem.All Hongyuanresidents are expected to fall in line with this system,and a systernof rewardsand punishments will be


Hottgyuutt County Rupid assessmcntSurvey

HongyuanCounryRapidassessnent Survey

a d l n i n i s t e r e db y t h e " L e a d e r s h i p G r o u p " v i a e v e r y l i n e a g e n c y b u r e a u i n v o l v e d , " t h o s e w h o c o n s t r u c t w i l l s u p e r v i s ea n d b e n e f i t " . F r o m t l i e w r i t t e n p r o p o s a l s , i t would be necessary to deduce that the nlain reason fbr settling the nomads in Hongyuan is to facilitate the snrooth operation of this ntanagement plan, despite any c o n t - l i c t w i t h N a t i o l a l e t h n i c n t i n o r i t y p o l i c i e s n r a y e x i s t . T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p sa r e

techniques.All of the technicalareaproposalsexceptthat for Forestrywere written togetherin October 1992, and all were meant to fit in with the generalthemeof improving the econornicproductivityof the herdsmenand aninralindustries.By the time of the survey,therehad beensubstantialchangesin the detailsof mostof these proposals,and thesechangesare reviewed in the reports of each service-related technicalarea.

i l l u s t r a t e di n F i g u r e 4 . 6 .

The Project is deemed t-easible in the Integrated County Proposal because the Sichuan Provinciil governntent has "designated Hongyuan County as the experinental point in a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y d i s a s t e rp r e v e n t i o n " . T h e r e a r e r e p o r t e d l y a l s o 1 2 0 i n - c o u n t y " t e c h n i c a l experts" in aninral husbandry, and related research institutes fbr dairy products, beef p r o d u c t s , g r a s s l a n da n d l i v e s t o c k n l a n a g e l n e n t . 4 . 6 . 1 . P r l c t i c i t l E l e r t r t ' r t l so f t l t e I l o n g y r r r n I r ) t e g r a t e d C o t r n t y l ) r ' o p o s l t l I n o r d e r t o n r a x i r n i s ep r o d u c t i v i t y , a f i v e p o i n t a c t i v i t y p l a t ) i s d i s c c r n i b l e i n t h e I n t e g r a t e d County Proposal: l ) 1 . 6 0 0 n o m a d i c t a n t i l i e s w i l l b e s e t t l e di n t o w n s h i p a r e a so v e r a 3 y e a r p e r i o d , t h e f l r s t 2 0 0 o f t h e s es t a r t i n gi n J u l y 1 9 9 5 . E v e n t u a l l y t h e n u m b e r o f t a n r i l i e sw i l l r e a c h 4 , 0 0 0 , a n d t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i s c o m r n i t t e dt o n r a i n t a i nt h i s s e t t l e m e n tp a t t e r n f o r at least 50 years. Each tantily is to fence-in 50 acres of grassland in the pasture area given to thenr tbr use, and the grass in this acreage will be harvested and stored for u s e i r r w i n t e r . T h e f l r s t t a r n i l i e sw i l l b e s e t t l e di n u n i t s o f 5 t o l 0 h o u s e h o l d si n t h e townships of Anrukha, Anqu and near Hongyuan Town itself (Millais). Summer grassland areas will be extended, ancl the Winter/Spring use of pasture reduced to 2/3 of the total area. Artit'icial and senti-artificial pastures will be produced by seedingand use of chernical tertiliser (Brown), and I arca of 1,000 acres in the county will be set aside to procluce grass seed. At the end of the initial 3 years, 80,000 acres of grassland will have bccn set asicle1br disastcr prevention. It should be enrphasisedthat the apparent reason given in tlre Project proposal fbr settling the n o n r a d s i s t o t a c i l i t a t e f u l f l l n r c n t o f t h e a n i n t a l i n d u s t r y p r o c l u c t i o ng o a l s . T h e herdsrnen thentselves have expressed concern regarding the nced for disasterprevention, despite nrisgivings about the way that the governttlent's proposed r n e t h o d s( v a n D i s ) . t s s o c i a t i o nw i l l b e s e t - u p t o i s s L r eg r a s s l a n d u t i l i s a t i o n 2 ) A g r a s s l a n c lr n a n a g e n t e n a , ' c o n t r a c t - r e s p o n s i b i l i t sy y s t e n r " t o " g u a r a n t e c t h e s u p p l y o f r a w pernrits, ancl a n t a t e r i a l s l b r t h e l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s i n gi n d t r s t r y . " T h i s w i l l a p p a r e n t l y t a k e t h e f b r n r o f p r o c l u c t i o nt a r g e t si n t e n u s o f n u t t t b c r so f a n i r t r a l sa n d v o l u n l e o 1 ' fbdcler prodLrcecl. 3 ) S o c i a l s e r v i c e s , i n t h e a r e a so l ' e d u c i l t i o n , h e a l t h , w a t e r a n c l e l e c t r i o i t y w i l l b e b u i l t g p a r o u n d t h e s e t t l e n ) e na t r e a s . T h r e e p o w e r s t a t i o n sw i l l b e r e - b u i l t o r e x t e n d e d , tliree clrinking water projectswill be constructed,24 village health clinics started, 4 2 k m o f h i g h w a y c o n s t r u c t e d ,a n d s c h o o l i n g t a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d f o r a n e s t i r n a t e d 2 , 1 4 0 c h i l d r e n . A n a n i m a l h u s b a n d r yt e c h n o l o g i c a ls e r v i c e c e n t r e w i l l b e s e t u p t o provide aninral disease prevention services and to train hcrdsnren in veterinary

-70-

4) A Projectconstructionexpertteam will be appointedfrom the technicalspecialists residentin the County'svariousrelateddepartments, and "expertsfrom the related provincialdepartrnents and units (slc.'or other outsideexperts?)will be invited for consultation. The smoothexecution of theprojectis guaranteed". will be rnobilised 5) The herdsmen to investcollectively to constructsettlement villages and townships,in termsof both labourand money.Of the estirnated 39.8 million RMB that the Projectwill cost, 24.6 million will conrefrorn the herdsmen,and most of this (22.88 million) will be directedtoward the constructionof disasterprevention bases and settlementhousing. Government has, however, offered recentlyto pay for 25% of settlementhousingconstruction,and'/5Voof the costsof constructingthe winter feed storagesheds,small fencesaround housing,and for new grain varietieswhich will be grown in these plots (?). The Hongyuan governmentwill also pay the approximate$1,900 US. for the outsidefencing aroundeachherdsrlan's 4,000to 6,000mu (1 mu : .667 ha.) of grazingland,but herdsnrenwill be responsiblefor all rnaintenanceof these fences, and for constructionof the insicle fencing that will protect the 50 acres of disaster prevention grassland frorntheactivelygrazinganimals(vanDis). An additionalForestryproposalwas given to FOC in Septeniber1994,which appearsto be unrelatedto the goalsand rhetoricof the 1992IntegratedCounty Proposal.This proposal, which calls for creationof a ShelterForestin southernHongyuanto deal with deforestation in that area, was reviewedby John Studley in October 1994. The feasibilityof forestry work in Hongyuanhas beeninvestigated by this tearn,and a technicalreport to that effect is alsoincludedin the Appendix. In summary, all the technicalsectionsof HongyuanIntegratedCounty Project Proposal written in 1992revolvearoundthe problemsfacedby the animal productionindustry.The team discussedthe advisabilityof supportingthis Proposalin Hong Kong prior to the survey.We realisedthat therewere possibleadvantages and disadvantages to the Proposal, but approachedthe survey without limiting our information gathering activities to the Proposal'sboundaries.Eachtechnicalexperthad opportunityto discussthe extentto which relatedHongyuangovernmentofficesidentifiedwith and supportedthe Countyproposal,to find out how much of the proposedactivitieshave alreadybeenaccornplished, and to hear what each Bureaucurrently hopesto accomplish.This information can be found in the TechnicalReportsin the Appendixof this report.


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4.7, THE GREEN FOOD CORPORATIONAND THE THREE POINT PROJECT Severalreferencesto a threepoint projectappearin the Universityof Lund, Sweden's199-l studyof Peatmining in Hongyuan(Bjork, 1993).In that report, a three prongedapproach peatutilisation includingsettlement, During and crossbreedingof animalswas mentioned. the survey,our educationexpertwas told by the vice magistratefor Educationand Health that the three point proposal included industrial developmentby the Green Food Corporation,energy productionby peat utilisation, and settlementand educationof the nomads(Dohne).The threepoint proposaland the Green Food Corporation(GFC) would appearto be much involvedwith countyplansfor development. The role of the HongyuanCreen Food Corporation(GFC) has rernainedmysterious,but severalobservations can be reported: l) When the team arrived in Chengdu,we were receivedat the GFC offices by Mr. GongbuDongzhou,the HongyuanChief Magistrateand seniorgovernment official in the County,and Mr. Gu, an officerof the GFC. 2) Verbal infornrationwas given to us in Hongyuanthat the rnilk powderand mea( processingfactoriesin HongyuanTown are financially related to GFC, and that herdsmenmust supplya quotaof their stockeachyear to the companyto partakein its financialinterests(van Dis and Brown). 3) When permissionfor the tearn'spresencein Hongyuanwas requestedof the Sichuan Provincialgovernment,GFC's Mr. Gu was responsibleto try to obtain this (Thuma). 4) Mr. Gu and Mr. Congbu Dongzhou have always identified themselvesas representingthe sarneinterests,so that Mr. Gu was sent to Hongyuan as Mr. GongbuDongzhou'srepresentative at theend ofour tirnein the County. We may speculatethat GFC is the profit-makingbusinessarm of the county government itself, and that the affairsof local governmentand of the Corporationare intertwined.This raisesthe issuethat the Hongyuangovernrnentis likely not disinterested financiallyin the productivityof the County, and may thereforebe lessable to be a disinterested proponent of the citizens of the County. It must be said, however, that clear and unambiguous informationabout the CFC was not offered by County Officials when requested(van Dis and Brown), and further researchinto the Corporation'srole in the County will be necessary.

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Chapter5: SurveyNletltodology 5.I INTRODUCI'ION . 5 . 2S U R V E Y] ' E . \ M 5.3 TERMS OF I{EFEITENCE 5 . 1 M E T H O DO l : T H t i S U R V I T Y 5,.{.I. RAI'IONALE TO ADOPT AN RRA METHODOLOGY D A N G E R SO F U S I N CR R A 5 , 4 . 2P O S S I B L E 5.5 THE CONCEPTSOF RRA AND THEIR APPLICATION 5 . 5 .1 . O P I ' ] M A L I G N O R A N C E 5 . 5 . 2 .T R I , { N C U L A T I O N 5 . 5 . 3 .L E A R N I N CA S A T E A M 5 . 5 . 4 .U S E O F A P P R O P R I A TIEN S T R U M E N T S 5 . 6 S U R V E YS C I - I E D U L A E N D P L A C E SV I S I T E D 5 . 7 . A N A L Y S I SO F F I N D I N G SA N D R E P O R TW R I T I N G 5 . 8 .L I N { I T A I ' I O N S OF'fHE SURVEY

j,t |NTRODUC.rION The suney of HongyuanCounrywasinniahd by FriendsofChina (FOC) to invesligatelh€ po$ibihies olrural developmenr wort in this area, So far, FOC his not beeninvolvedin dy rural developnrent work in China, thuslhe organieion had no experiencein doing this kind ofsufley in rhe counrry. The ran aho did not know, wh ro expecr,Two out ofthe sevenleao nren$etr had seenthe ar@ during Dreviousshoi visits, wheras the othcr five rean nemb.rs hld neverpreviouslyvisned China, Further, n was nol known how nuch tieedonrrhe tanr would hav€ to nrxkeils own plans, to lalk to pcopleand lo se plaB FOC could nor exacdypEdicr wharravel lacilitieswould bcavlilablc to the tei1.

2. possib)yto be replicated in othersinrilarareas 3 . t i r r r el i r n i t e d ,1.respondto a legitirnate nced 5. focuson workingwith peopleandon training The tcanrrvasaskedtc write the reportsin sucha way that they can be uscdas funcling proposals, includingbudgetsand personnel werc encouraged needs.The teanrnrcnrbers t<r goodwork relationships establish with governrnent officialsanclto bujki trustfor FOC. On the other lland,the teamwas warnednot to give any inrpressitrns on pronrises or talk too specificallyon projects.HongyuanCounty had subrlittedproposalsto FOC for their consideration (seechapter which werepassedon to the teamnrembers as basicintbrnration 4.5 and Appendices).

5,1 IIIIJI'HOD OF THE SURVEY Until the orientationin Hong Kong, prior to going into China,no particularmethodology was sclectcd.During the preparation meetingst.hetearr, in agreerlentwith FOC, decided to adopta RapidRuralAppraisal(RRA) Inethodology in a tearnapproach. 5.4.t nit'.nitc ro Adopr rtr RRA Mclhodotqy o RRA allows and rcqlircs a high dcgr@of flexibilily, and therefores*nred to be well suiEd for lheteam's rasklo cxplo€ a situatlonofmany utnowns. o It is i prfes appr@ch,which neans that whiledoinB the appraisalit is possibleto change,ro adjust- eitherto over.omeproblens or to takeadva.rageolunforeseer oppofiuinies, o RRA plovidcsa numberofinq0ir looh dd nlerhods(semi-nnrcxrredinteriew, bsenalion, tnnsr walts, diagans, nrappirgexercise9which can be appliedas the situationrcquircso RRA alloes a multi-disciplinaryleanrto tate fulladvailage oflhe va.ious prcfessionaland experienti.lbackgrounds ofi$ ne'nbersby shari'rE,exchangins,nnd rcflecting.

5.2. SURVDY IE"AM FocinviEdsix!p4ialis$ofvariousbac4runds|ocovc!lhctec[nicilareas.Hongyuan Countyhad submirtedproposalsfor: Annnal Hlsbandry (willem vu Dis) Gn$lods (OwenBlowi) Hydropos.rand w.rer (PererMillais) Heilth (JoeLenrasrer) Foresrry(JohtrStudley,an FOC A$oci.re ) Educatioo.T4hnical TeanrLqder (Karir Dohnc) Ten ladcr {winnieThuma. FOC Staio As obseneB lbur FOC A$ociat€si@k pan in th. Rey (Margo and Adam toyner, Cary Psquarell, and h"ilsHelle).

SoiD of thcsedange4 could bc overcone by rhe prcper apDlicatioroi rhe RRA conceprs. othcrsxrned out lo beco e li ihtions ofthis srudy.

5.3.|ERI\SOr:RET\E\TDNCE The ream had the rask to ide.tiiy ars fo! posible tunl developNe.t wark which would fulfil rhe fouowingcriteria: L functionas a 'door opener'for turorcinvolvemenl

5.5 TItE CONCETTS OF RIU ANDTI:|IIIR AP\L|CATION ln contnst to convcnlionalsufley nelfods, RRA uses diny or non-fornEl nrethodslo coll<t infordation. In order to avoid crc.s a number of conceptsare npplied ro incrcase the validity oi knowledgegainedthrouShan RRA prccess.A bdef descriptionof rhese

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rhcy arc willinB Governmenlsmfi, officials, comnunily meDrbc!, 5.1.2 PossiltlcDrnsers or UsnB RRA o hrphztrd inforlration tatheling, unreliabledala, o beins sr@redby others,e.g. govedhenr. ^ririne cxpeclations and subs€quent disppoinrmenl. o cxplorilion ofcommunity s needsand perceptionsis linrned,


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c o n c e p t sa n d h o w t h e t e a n rp u t t h e r n i n t o p r a c t i c e n o w f o l l o w s . 5.-5.I Optinral lgnor:rncc T o t l n d t h e n r i d d l e w a y b e t w e e n t h e t w o e x t r e n r e so f h a v i n g p r e d e t e r r n i n e dq u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d r e c o r d i n g a n y t h i n g w h i c h c r o s s e st h e p a t h o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ,i t i s n c c e s s a r yt o i d e n t i f y the key areas fbr infonnation collection. To study available literature is a first step to get some orientation, however very little was available to the team nrenrbers, who came from o u t s i d eC h i n a . T h e t e a n r t h e n a p p r o a c h e dt h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o no f k e y i n l b r r n a t i o n a r e a si n f o u r s t a g e s : l ) D u r i n g t h e o r i e n t a t i o ni n H o n g K o n g , g e n e r a lp r o b l e r n sa n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s w e r e i d e n t i t l e d . E a c h t e c h n i c a ls p e c i a l i s t p r e s e n t c da p l a n o u t l i n e f b r t h e i r o w n f i e l d . 2 ) A f i e r a r r i v a l i n H t ' r n g y L r a nw, e l r a d a f i r s t s e s s i o rw r i t h t h e g o v e r n n r e n to f l l c i a l s i n o r d e r t o g a i n a n i n r p r e s s i o n0 1 ' t h ea r e a , a n d c l a b o r a t eo n t h e p l a n s l o r e a c h t c c h n i c a l f l e l d . T h c g e n e r a lp r o b l e m s a n d o p p o r t L r n i t i e w s e r e i r r c o r p o r a t e di n t o t h e t e c h n i c a lp l a n s . F u l t h e r , a l i s t o f c o n r ) r o n q u e s t i o n sw a s c o l l c c t e d t o e n a b l c e a c h t e a , ) rn r e n l b c r t o i n v e s t i g a t eb r o a d l y w i t h o L r tn c c d i n g s p e c i a l i s tk n o w l e d g e . l) After one week, it was planned to review and to adjust tlle process as necessaryand t o i d e n t i f y i n f o n n a t r o n g a p s . ( T h e t e a n l w a s i n t h e n r i d d l e o f t h i s e x e r c i s ew h e n t h e n e w s a r r i v e d t h a t i t h a d t o l e a v ee a r l y ) . 4) After the cornpletion of the field work the tearri decided on a reporting fbrnrat and s h a r e dt h e l i n d i n g s w h i c h e a c h o t h e r . T h i s h e l p e d t o s i f t t h r o u g h t h e l a r g e a m o u n l o f i n f o r n r a t i o n a n d l o c l a r i f y c o n t r a d i c t i n go b s e r v a t i o n s T . o havc a plan and to know on w h i c h i s s u e so n e n e e d si n f i r r n r a t i o nh e l p e d t o n e g o t i a t e* ' i t h t l r e g o v e r n n r c n ta n d e n a b l e dt l ) e t e a n l t o p u s h a t t h e l i n r i t a t i o t r s . 5.5.2'frilngrrlalion T r i a n g u l a t i o n n r e a n st h e p r o c e s so f c r o s s c h e c k i n g i n f b r r n a t i o r r .C r o s s c h e c k i n g i s n e e d e dt o c o n f i r r r i i n t b r m a t i o n , t o i d e n t i f y c o n t r a d i c t i n gi n l b r n r a t i o n ( t b r h r r t h c r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) ,a n d , rlraybe most inrportant, to reduce biases of the investigator (stereotypes, personal p r e f ' e r e n c e sa. n ' l k n o w a l r e a d y ' r n i n d - s e t s ; .T h e s L r r v e yt c a r l a c h i c v c r l t r i a n g u l a t i o ni n t h c fbllowing ways: o a p p l y i n g s e v e r a lt o o l s t o e x p l o r e t h e s r n r e i s s u e ,e . g . l i t e r a t u r es t u d y , o b s e r v a t i o na n d i n t e r v i e w , i n t e r v i c w , o b s er v a t i o n , a n d t l i a g r a m ; o v i s i t i n g t h e s a n r ep l a c e b y t w o t e 2 l n r sa n d e x c h a n g i n gi n f b r r n a t i o n a n c li r n p r e s s i o n s , e . g . S e d i ,S i z h a i ; o e x a n i i n i n g a t o p i c i n i t s h i s t o r i c a ld i r n e r r s i o n i,t s p r e s e n ts t a t u sa n d p o s s i b l et i r t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t (sw h a t , i f . . . ) , e . g . s e t t l e n r e n st ,c h o o le d L r c a t i o n ; o p r o b i n g a n i n l b r r n a r r tb y a s k i n g , b y n r a k i n gd i a g r a r n so r c a i c u l a t i o n s ; o i n t c r v i c w i n g s e v e r a li n f b r n r a n t sd i r c c t l y a n d i n d i r e c t l y , i n t c r v i e w i n g d i f t ' e r e n tt y p e s o f i n t b r r n a n t s ,e . g . I r e r d s n r a nv, i l l a g e l r e a d r r r a ng, o v e r n n r e t l to i t l c i a l . 5 . - 5 . 3L e l n r i r r g a s a T c a n r l n m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y t e a n r s t h e n r e t n b e r sc a r r c o n r p l e r n e n te a c h o t h e r , o r c h a l l e n g e e a c h other with (naive) questioning. In this survey teanr six diff'erent prolessions and nrany years of overseas experience fronr severai countries (nrainly Nepal) were represented. Further, fbur FOC Associates took part as observers. The teani nret regularly in the evenings to s h a r e t h e d a y ' s f i n d i n g s , a n d c o r r e c t e a c h o t h e r ' s i r n p r e s s i o n s .D u r i n g t h e f i r s t w e e k t h e

26-

team split up in five groupsof two to three peopleof similar profession,accompanied by translators and governnrent officials,who functioned as guidesand 'rninders'.In the small group one personcould lead the investigation,whereasthe other one functionedas observer and record-kker.Sometinres the one personcouldoccupythe 'minder' to enablethe other one to talk to sonrebodyundisturbed.It was plannedto changethe small group composition and mix the professionsto investigaterrore in depthat communitylevel. Unfortunatelythis was not possible. 5,5.4. Useof Appropri:rteInstrunrents In recentyearsseveralinslrurnents for investigation havebeendevelopedunderthe RRA umbrella.The tearnreviewe(lthesetools during the preparationand practisedthem to farniliariseeach rrtetttberwith thertt. The nrain tools used were the serni-structureo interview and observation.Severalgroups attemptedtransectwalks, but could not complete,becausethey wcre rLrshed to other places.The preparationof diagramswere sotnetimes interruptedby our guides,sornetinres diagranrshelpedto clarify information. The groups used seasonalcalendarsand historicaltirrelines.To combine walks with interviewsprovedto be trseful:it allowedthe interviewto happenin a more casualway withouttoo nlanyothersIistening.

5,6 SURVEY SCHEDULE AND PLACES VISITED 29-30 May P r e p a r a t i o ni n H o n g K o n g 3l May- I June Travel to Hongyuan County 7 June M e e t i n g w i t h g o v e r n r n e n to f f r c i a l s 3-4 June T e a n r l n e e t i n g sa n d r e s t 5 - 9J u n e Field work l 0 - 1I J u n e Teanr rneetings and rest l 5 - 2 3J u n e 24-25 lune. 26June

Information that the survey time was cut by one week Analysisol- findings and reporr writing Travel and rest Debrieling and presentation of report to FOC

The survey team, split in five groups could visit all 8 township areas in the county. However, the team did not get to see the more remote villages in Sizhai township in the S o u t h w e s to f t h e c o u n t y . V i l l a g e s , t e n t e n c a m p m e n t s ,w i n t e r q u a r t e r so f n o m a d s , t o w n s , a s well as villages and towns of the agricultural area in the south of the county could be o b s e r v e c l .F o r d e t a i l s , s c e m a p .

5.7 ANALYSISOF FINDINGSAND REPORTWRITING Discussion of the findings, analysing the information, writingthe reportanddeveloping optionsand recornrnenclations are an integral part of the survey. It gives the team a last chancefor crosscheckingand correctingeachother. The different parts can be relatedto eachotherto get a roundedpicture.. It helpsto preventeachtechnicalspecialist lookingat theirown areain isolation. The generalpart of this report (chaptersI to 7) was producedby first brainstormingand collectingthe infornrationin a group discussion. A team rnenrberthen would produce.a - 2 ' 7-


Ilortgyuutt County Rupid usslsttt(nt Surv(y

Hongl,uanCounryRapidussassment Survey

'l'he tcchnical reports were written by drafi and present it back to the group lbr discussion. each expert. These reports were then presentcd to the tearn and possiblc options for future action discussed. The tean.rdeveloped advantages and diszrdvantages(a risk analysis) to eachof the options by considering: o t h e g e n e r a lp a r t i n t b r n r a t i o n , w h i c h p r o v i d e s b a c k g r o u n df b r a s s e s s i n gp o s s i b l es o c i a l a n d e n v i r o n n r e n t a li n r p a c t s ,a n d g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o r to n t h e e c o n o r n i c a la n d p o l i c y franrework. o the Ternrs of Reference of FOC. ' d e v e l o p m e n tv i s i o n ' o a s t a t e u r e nw t h i c h t h e s u r v e y t e a n rw o r k e d o u t i n o r d e r t o h a v e a deeper and a shared understanding on the purposes of developnrent.work. ( s e e s e c t i o n2 . 5 ) . o F i n a l l y t h e t e a n l d i s c L r s s etdh e i n r p l i c a t i o n so f a t t e n r p t i n g r u r a l d e v e l o p r n e n tw o r k f o r a n o r g a n i s a t i o n ,w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n r e s p o n s i b l cf o r r u r a l d e v e l o p r n e n tb e f o r e .

advantagedand disadvantaged could not be fully explored. For example the animal husbandrygroup had askedto meeta family responsible for a herd of lessthan 30 animals; this was not possibleto arrange. Not being familiar with the Chineseand the Tibetanculturecausedother limitations.It is jokes, ironic remarksand hiddenmessages. not easy to understand How to interpretnonverbalcommunicationand the not-said?How do they expresscritical or negativematters?

5.8. LIMITAT'IONS OF T'IIE SURVEY L i r n i t a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d o t s u r v e y r n a y r e s L r l tf r o m t h e r n e t h o c l o l o g ya p p l i e d a n d / o r f r o m t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e se n c o u n t e r e d .I t i s i n r p o r t a n t t o i d e n t i f y t l i e s e b o u n d a r i e s , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t n i i s - o r o v e r - i n t e r p r e t i i t i o to r f the results. lt also points towards further research n e e d s . W h e n t h e H o n g y u a n C o L r n t ya d n r i n i s t r a t i o na s k e d t h e s u r v e y t e a r ) l t o l e a v e e a r l i e r than plannecl, it nrcant, th:rt an irnportlrnt part of the survey process coLtld not be i m p l e n r e n t e d :i t h a d b c e n p l a n n e d c l u r i n g t h e s e c o n d r v e e k t o r e a r r a n g et h e g r o u p s a n c l g o o u t t o v i l l a g e s o r t e n t e n c a n r p n r e n t sa n c l t o o b s e r v e t h c l i V e s o f t h c ; > e o p l ea n d t a l k w i t h t h e m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e b i g g e s tl i n r i t a t i o ni d e n t i f i e d b y t h e t e a n r i s t l r e l a c k o f i n s i g h t i n t o t h e cornrlunity's perspective. Horvever, the anirnal Itustlurdry/grassland group had o p p o r t u n i t i c st o r n e e tw i t h n o n r a d s . Even if the team coLrld have done what was planned, this area would have been a l i r n i t a t i o n . A n y s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n s o n r e w e e k s , w h a t c v e r r n e t h o ( l su s e d ( R R A , P R A , Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y ) c a n o n l y p r o d u c e i n t p r e s s i o n so n t h e l o c a l p e o p l e ' s v i e w s a n d p r o b l e r n s .T o f l n d o u t i n d e p t h c a n b e d o n e o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l o n g e r t e r m i n v o l v e n r e n t w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n r n r u n i t y . P r o p e r i n f b r n r a t i o n o n t h e p e o p l e ' s v i e i v d e p e n d so n t h e t r u s t t h e y h a v e i r r t h e i n v e s t i g a t < r ra n d o n t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o f t h e c o r l r l u n i t y , i t s f a c t i o n s ,c o n l l i c t s i n s i d e a n d o u t s i c l e ,i t s p c r w c rs t r u c t u r cc t c . O n l y o n e g r o u p ( h y d r o p o w e r ) h a d a c h a n c c t o v i s i t a r ) r o n a s t e r y ,y c t i t i s k n o w n t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l i y n r o n a s t e r i e sa n d I a n r a sh a c ia n d h a v e b i g i r r l l u e n c ea n d p o w e r . T h e e c o n o m i c data the tearn got were biased towards noney economy. The subsistcnce econonry and barter trade are not represented. T o b e a c c c r r n p l r n i edda i l y b y g o ! L ' r n n r c r l to f l l c i a l s I i r n i t e r l t h e t e a n r ' s a b i l i t y t o t a ) k o p e n l y w i t h p e o p l e . P a r t l y , h o w e v e r , t e a r n n r e n r b e r sw e r e i n h i b i t i n g t h e n r s e l v e sb y a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n t r o l , o r b y b e i n g t e n s et o w a r d s t h e ' n i n d e r ' , t h u s f u r t h e r r e d u c i n g t h e r a d i u s o f a c t i o n . S e v e r a l t e l r n n r e r n b e r sg o t t h e i r n p r c s s i o n o f b e i n g g L r i d e d t o p a r t i c u l l r r p l a c e s a n d s e l e c t e dp e o p l e . O n e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e dr e f u s a lo f i n f o r n r a t i o n , e . g . e p i d e n r i o l o g i c adl a t a Although nrany places were visited, it was f'elt that the range of rich and poor, of

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6: Technicallleports

The lbllowing technical reports were written by each technical expert on the Team. Each report has been produced fionr the technical perspective of its writer, so the rcports are not exactly parallel; however, all follow a generalfrantework: l ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o na n d D i s c u s s i o no f O b s e r v a t i o n s . 2 ) P o s s i b l eo p t i o n s w h i c h F O C n r i g h t t a k e u p i n r e s p o n s et o t h i s S u r v e y . 3 ) P e r s o n a lr e c o n r n r e n d a t i o o nf the writer, with his or her cot)ccrns. The detailed observations fronr each area can be found in the Appcndices oi this report.

6.1 GRASSLANDS 6.I.1. OBSERVATIONS 6,I.2. LIMITATIONS 6,1.3. INTERPRETATION,EXPLANATION AND DISCUSSIONOF FINDINGS 6. 1,4. OPTIONSAVAILABLE 6. I.5. RECOMMENDATIONS 6.I.6. SUMMARY 6.6,1. OBSERVATIONS are recordedin the text of the observations in the Appendix.The The daily observations following are importantobservationswhich relate specificallyto grasslandsmanagement assessment. GrassTypes: The prirnarygrasslands are cornposedof two typesof grass,a fine and mediumfine grass. The fine grass is pref'erreclby the herdsnren,with medium fine grass of secondary preference.Thereare severalother specieson the grasslarrds, but of secondaryirnportance to the herdsmen.A volurneof 1,500kg per hectareof dry nratterwas presentedas a yield on naturalgrasslandsarea. There is no current use of indigenouslegume species,vetch, peavine, clover, or alfalfa grown in this area. PestProblems: The grasslandshave varying infestationsof noles and pocket gophers. These are the primary hazardsto growth of the grass.There have beenother internationalexpertsin the areato discr.rss solutionsto nrolesand pocketgophers.The lack of naturalpredatorcontrol, via fox, eagle,or wolf is evident.The rnoleis nruchmore difficLrltto controlbecause it rarely surfacesout of the earth.Fox peltsare sold in large nurnbersin Songpanto tourists. A high infestationof caterpillarmoth was reported,but not seen.The insecthas movedin from anotherarea. It consunres large quantitiesof grass,and is considereda problempest by the government official with us on our field trips. A rnechanism of control,spraying. developed by scientists at one of the r.rniversities in Chengdu,is efficient,but nraynot be in a TibetanBuddhistarea. culturallyappropriale WeedProblenrs: There are severalspeciesof weeds, consistingof buttercupsand other flower species. Thesehavehigh infestation ratesin heavilygrazedareas.Seabuckthornand willow plants are also in evidencein varyingarrountsat diff'erentsites.This decreases the productivityof the grasslanddependingon infestationseverity. Grazingland Allocations: The herdsmenare given grazing allocationstwice a year. Allocationsare given to the village level by the local county governrnent.The village head, in conjunctionwith the grazingallocations herdsmen, do grassland at thevillagelevel. The grassalong the road southof Hongyuan,to the border of the county was very short, with initial indications of overgrazing. This wasindicated by high weedinfestations andthe heightofgrassabovegroundlevel.Grasslands to the northand westof the countywerein

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much better shape, and were perhaps the later sunlner pastures. These grasslands were also in nrore of a peat bog type of land. Sorne yak were grazing in this area the day we left the c o u n t y . T h e o t h e r a r e a so f t h e c o u n t y w e r e n o t v i s i t e d , t h u s n o o b s e r v a t i o n sr e g a r d i n g t h e state of the grassland in those areas are presented. Grasslandsclose to the main road were very closely grazed by the aninrals. This was due to the milk frorn the yak being shipped to the niilk powder tactory. G r a s sV a r i e t y D e v e l o p r n e n l : Grasslands developnent at the local experinrental farnr was being done on a broom grass species from lnner Mongolia which used 50-70 kg pcr ha of cornnrercial fertiliser to grow. I n d i g e n o u ss p e c i e sw e r e n o t i n t h e e x p e r i r r e n t a lp l a n s a t t h i s t i r n e .

costsandavailabilityof comnrercial fertiliserin thisareacouldbe a problern. SpatialDifferentiationof CrassSites: The areato the westof the monasterywe visited,on Tuesday,hasa greatdeal of willow in the secondaryriver valley. This would have to be renovatedin order to have grass for storageproduced.It alsocutsdown grazingyields. The low roundedmountainson the eastof the main river valley havea lower stockingrate ofproductive grasses.Therewas more shrubsand other herbaceous growth there.

The local experirnental farni appears to be in the ntaintenance tnode. The seeding e q u i p r n e n tw a s a w a i t i n g p a r t s , a n d n r a n y b u i l d i n g s w e r e c l o s e d u p . T h e e x p e r i r n e n t a lf a r m had one newly planted tleld of grass, others were in a grazing trial, with yaks grazing on the fields.

Harvestingof Grass: Harvestingof grassfor winter usc cloesoccur. The amountstoredper anirnalrangedfrom l5-25 poundsper anirnalfbr the entirewinter. In Canada,for a similarclimatesituation, the storedhay requiredis 4,000poundsper animalper winter.Harvesting of grassis done by hand, with a hand sickle. In sonrecasesthis cut grasshas to be transportedto the base camp. No storagefacilitiesfor the hay were observed.The low precipitationin the winter suggests no needfor suchstoragefacilities.

T h e G r a s s l a n d sI n s t i t u t ei n H o n g y u a n t o w n w i r s d r y i n g g i n g e r o n a c o n c r c t c p a d i n b a c k o f the rnain building, no one with keys was availableto give rre a tour of the tacility. The m a n a g e r o f t h e G r a s s l a n d sI n s t i t u t e w a s i n C h e n g c l ua t s o r n e p r o v i n c i a l n r e e t i n g s ,a n d n o o n e w a s a v a i l a b l e t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n so r g i v e r l c a t o u r o f t h e f a c i l i t y w h e n I r e q u e s t e di t . The impression received at this specific tirre was that grasslanclsdeveloprnent was not a h i g h p r i o r i t y f o r H o n g y u a n C o u n t y C o v e r n n r e n to f f l c i a l s .

WaterAvailabilityfor Grass: Precipitationfor the growth of grassis adequatein the surnnrer.Seethe appendixon water in the engineering sectionfor precipitation totalstbr eachmonth. Water for the animals was availableeverywhere.The lirrtheranilnalsrangefrom water, the less the grassis grazed. Thus, and unevenAnlor.ntof grazing, basedon distancefrom water, was observed.

Fencing: W i r e f e n c e e n c l o s e dg r a s s l a n d sn o r t h a n d s o u t h o f H o r r g y u a nT o l v n h a d n a t u r a l g r a s s e si n t h e m , w i t h n o e v i d e n c e o f a r t i f l c i a l g r a s s e sp l a n t e d . T h e f e n c e s u r r o u n d i n g s u c h p l o t s s h o w e d s i g n s o f h i g h r a t e s o f w e a r b y a n i n r a l s .Q L r e s t i o n sa b o L r tt h e l o n g t e r r n v i a b i l i t y o f maintenance and repairs of this type of t'encing by the hcrdsrncn wcrc not answcrcd s u f f i c i e n t l y t o r e g a r d t h i s t y p e o f f ' e n c i n ga s a p o s i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v et o t h e c u r r c n t m e t h o d o f a l l o c a t i o n o f g r a z i n g a r e a . C r o s s - c h e c k i n go f i n f b r n r a t r o ng i v e n t o u s b y t h e o f f l c i a l s o f Hongyuan County regarding the 95% success rate of adoption of f-encing was not

Rotationof GrassGrazing: Sorneherdsnren had rotationsof winter/spring/sunrrner/fall with sornearea set asidefor winter grassproduction.Othershad only three rotationsof winter/spring/summer-fall. Rotations seerned to work aroundthe quotaof milk requiredby the milk powderfactoryby eachherdsman.Movenrentof households takesl-2 daysfronr one pastureto anotherand varies. Herdsmenmay work in extencledfamily groups to graze the yak, allowing other membersof the family to do othertasks.

substantiated.

Notesfrom SichuanUniversity: The visit to SichuanUnion University,Instituteof Biotechnology and NationalLab of GrasslandsBiotechnology,provided intbrrnationregardingthe biological control of the caterpillar,rnoleand pocketgopherpestproblemson the grasslands.The professorsstated good control of thesepestswas feasiblewith the naturalchemicalcontrolsthey have devised.Understanding of tlre socialand culturalrarrificationsto the TibetanBuddhist peoplewas unclear.

E s t a b l i s h e ds e t t l e m e n t su s e d w i l l o w i n I i v e o r d e a d f e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s .T h i s w a s f o r w i n t e r e n c l o s u r e s ,w h e r e h i g h d e n s i t y l i v e s t o c k a p p l i c a t i o n sw e r e e v i c l e n t . T h e r e w a s a l s o s o n r e 'l'hese were found in the north western e v i d e n c eo f s o d f e n c e s , w h i c h w c r e i n p o o r r e p a i r . part of the county. Fertilising: The tethering sites of aninralsat the base camps near the nrain roads were moved on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . O v e r f e r t i l i s a t i o nb y n a t L r r anl r e a n s( u r i n a t i o n ) , o n t e t h e r s i t e s , o c c u r r e d . T h e t u s eo f d u n g a s f i r e l b y t h e h e r d s r l e n d e c r e a s e ctlh e a n r o u n t o l n a t u r a l f e r t i l i s e r w h i c h w a s cycled onto the land.

6.1.2. LIMITATIONS The prirnarylinritationof the reportwastheavailabilityof an in countrycounterpart person at the GrasslandsInstitLrtein Hgngyuan.Atternptsto gain inforrnationthere were unsuccessful. This infbrmationwould havebeenvery valuableto assess the currentstatus of the grasslands, and the specificpcrceiveci/felt needstheyhave.

Commercial fertiliser is not considered viable by the herdsnren.They believe it kills o r g a n i s m s i n t h e s o i l , s o i s n o t i n a c c o r d a n c ew i t h t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e

Anotherlirnitationwas the shortness of tinte at the Experimental Farnt acrossthe river

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fronr Hongyuan. A brief introductory tour was not suftlcient to detenrine the extent of grass species research that has been done in the area.

the HongyuanCounty proposal,suggestsa stockingrate of one animal fbr 30 acres. This is quitelow.

T h e I i r n i t a t i o n o f n u m b e r o f s i t e s v i s i t e d . C r a s s l a n d si n s p c c t i o n so n l y o c c u r r e d a l o n g t h e r n a i n r o a d a n d a s e c o n d a r yr o a d p a s t a l a r g e r n o n a s t e r y .I t w o u l d h a v e b e e n u s e f u l t o h a v e a c c e s st o n r o r e o f h e l a n d a r e a , p a r t i c u l a r l y a w a y l r o n r t h e n r a i n r o l d . I t w a s n r e n t i o n e d that desertillcation was occurring in the north e:ist part of thc county. This was not p e r s o n a l l yo b s e r v e db y t h i s p a r t i c i p a n t .

Fencing: The costsof fencing with woven wire and steel postsis not justified, particularlywith a mixed responsefrom herdsmenand governmentofficials as to it's necessity.The cunent fencingof the grasson the grasslands is a very costly endeavour.The postsand fenceare estimated to cost $1,900USD in total for one family, $1,400USD would be paid for by the governnrent,and $500 USD by the faniily. The estinratedrepairsand life spanof the currentfenceplan do not justily the initial costs.The questionof who will maintainthe fenceis not clearly deflnedand governrnentmaintenance of a private fencedoesnot make sense.The labourcostsinvolvedin constructing live fencingor fencingwovenout of dead willow branches as an extensive fenceis not financiallyjustified.Sod fences,accordingto current information are not acceptableby the Tibetan Buddhistpeople, so they are not viable.

The limitation of time of year. It would have bcen nrore usefll to go to the area several tirnes during the year, to observe grass growing at several sites and the pest and insect problemsoccurring. 6.T.3. INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS T h e g r a s s l a n d sa r e a h a s b e e n i n p r o d u c t i o n f b r n r a n y c e n t u r i e s . O n l y r e c e n t l y h a s i n t e n s i v e p r o d u c t i o n b e e n a d v o c a t e db y t h e g o v e r n r n e n t .l t w a s d i f f l c u l t t o d e t e n n i n e i f t h e 5 0 % o f o v e r g r a z i n g s t a t e d i n t h e i n i t i a l H o n g y u a r r p r o p o s a l w a s a n a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t .S o m e documents suggest overgrazing is a problerl, sonrc do not. Tlicre does appear to be o v e r g r a z i n g a l o n g t h e r o a c i ,b u t t h i s n r a y [ r e r l L r et o t h o s e a s o no f m i l k s h i p r r e n t sg o i n g t o t h e m i l k p o w d e r f a c t o r y . A t o t h e r t i n r e so f t h e y c a r t h c a n i n r a l sw i l l b e f u r t h e r a w a y f r o n r t h e r o a d , w h e r e t h e l o n g e r g r a s sw a s . G r a s sT y p e s : T h e t w o g r a s s s p e c i e so r t y p e s i d e n t i f l e d a b o v e a r e r a p i d g r t . r w i n gs p c c i e s , w i t h e x c e l l e n t s u r v i v a l c a p a c i t i e su n d e r t h e e x t r e n r e c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d o n t h e T i b e t a n p l a t e a u . T h e g r a s s yield appears to be average for this type of clinrate. The secondary species of grasses are l e s s p a l a t a b l e b y t h e a n i n r a l s , s o t h e y a r e n o t n r e n t i o n e t l ,a n d p o s e n o l a r g e e c o n o r n i c a l beneflt to increasing their growth. Increases in yields would require investrnent in c o r n n r e r c i a lt - e r t i l i s e r . T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h i s h a v e b e c n n o t e d a b o v e u n d e r t h e t o n i c o f fertilising. PestProblenrs: The nrole arrd gopher infestltiorrs prcscnt Br.ivc problcrtts to tlrc inlproveruent of the g r a s s l a n d s . l r n p r o v e d g r a s s e s , e i t h e r b y i n r p r o v e c lv l r r i c l i c s , n e w v l r i e t i c ' s , o r i n c r e a s e d i n p u t s i n t o t h e s o i l t o i n p r o v e g r a s s g r o w t h w i l l h a v e l i t t l c e i l - c c t i f t h c s e t w o p e s t sa r e n o t adequatelycontrolled. Even if appropriate higher yielding varictics are viable from a c l i r n a t e s t a n d p o i n t , t h e i n i t i a l p r o b l e r n o f n r o l e sa n c lg o p h e r s w l r i c h k i l l t h e g r a s s n e e d st o be dealt wirh. Weecl Problenrs: T h e w e e d s p e c i e sw h i c h a r e e v i d c n t a r e a s y n r p t o n ro f o v e r g r i r z i n ga n d l a c k o f n u t r i L ' n t si n t h e s o i l . A d e q u a t e n u t r i e n t st o s t i n r u l a t eg r o w t h i n t h c g r a s s s p e c i e sn r a y e n h a n c eg r o w t h o f the grass and they in turn choke out weed species. Reseeding of grasses will also increase t h e y i e l d s a n d f l l l i n t h e s p a c e sw h e r e o v e r g r a z i n g h a s c a u s e d t h e g r a s s t o d i e . W e e d problems may also be eft-ectively controlled by spraying, spcaking fionr a scientific and t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t . T h e e c o n o n . r i cv i a b i l i t y o f t h i s i s y e t t o b e d e t e r n r i n e d .N o r m a l l y o n r a n g e l a n d s , s p r a y i n g f b r w e e c l si s n o t d e e n r e d l i n a n c i a l l y e t f l c i e n t , b e c a u s eo f t h e l o w d e n s i t y r a t e s o f a n i n r a l s .T h e d e n s i t y r a t e o f a n i n r a l s i n H o n g y u a n C o u n t y , a s t a k e n f r o n l

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Fertilising: Comrnercial fertilisingis not acceptable. Useof aninraldungfbr fuel curtailsthe amountof naturalfertiliserrecyclcdinto the soil. SpatialDifferentiation of GrassSites: The differencein grasssitcs indicatesdifterentnricro clinrates.Renovationof the sites infestedwith willow is possible,but requiresprivatelease/ownership agreernents with the individuzrls involved,otherwise,public propertyirrprovedby privateindividualswill not occur. Improvementof the grasson the shrubcoveredhills would be more difficult and tinre consurning.An analysisof the financialgains of this needsto be done before renovationwould be attelnpted. Harvestingof Grass: Harvestingand storageof grass, on a larger scale, would be very advantageous for individualfantrers.Sincethereis little precipitationin rhe winrer, little, if any storage facilitiesare required.Harvesting of grasscould be inrprovedby useof longersickles,of the typeknownin North Anerica.The groundis flat, so the long bladedtype wouldwork. These harvest sites need to be identified and blocked off near the winter quarters,so transportation by yak of the hay doesnot take up a largetirne frante. WaterAvailabilityfor Grass: Grass growth does not appearto be hinderedby lack of precipitation,no irrigation developmentneedsto occur. The further anirnalsrange from water, the less the grassis grazed.Thus,and evenamountof grazingthroughout the river valleyswasobserved. Grass grazingfurther away frotn the valleysnray be lessintensedue to distancefrom water. This needsto be takeninto consideration when determiningthe animal carrying capacityof the grasslands. Rotationof GrrssGrazing: Rotationof grazingslrouldoccur when grasshirsone to two inches,or 2.5 to 5 cm ot' growthabovethe ground.This providesand adequate arnountof leaf surfaceto allow the grassto regenerate itself. Rotationsobservedoccurredwhen the grasswas at groundlevel. -35-


It rut ut'ttut t County tl up i d dss( ssne ru Sur\'(\'

llortgt,uurt County Rapid dssassmcntSurv?y

L o w e r i n g s t o c k i n g r a t e sa n d i n t e n s i t y i n gt h e v a l u e o f t h e y a k , v i a v a l u e a d d e d p r o d u c t s i s o n e o f t h e e a s y t o d e a l w i t h t h i s p r o b l e n r . T h e r o t a t i o n d e c i s i o n so c c u r r i n g a t t h e v i l l a g e level seern to be well done with local area knowledge. Rotations on the open grasslandsare r e l a t e d t o t h e n r i r n a g e n r e net .x p e r l i s e o f t h e h e r d s n r e n .A w i s e n r a n a g e r k n o w s w h e n t o m o v e h i s a n i n r a l so n h i s a l l o c a t e dg r a s s l a n d .

H a r v e s t i n go f C r a s s f b r S t o r a g e : H a r v e s t i n g o f g r a s s l o r s t o r a g e t b r t l r c w i n t e r n r o n t h sc o u l d b e a c c e l e r a t c cbl y u s i n g l a r g e r sickles held by two hands. A pattern could be taken over by an individual frorr North A n r e r i c a , a n d u s e d t o n r a n u l n c t u r el o c a l c o p i e s . T h i s w o u l d e a s e t h e o n e h a n d e d g r a b a n d cut type of sickle currently used.

6,1.4. OPTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT Grass Types: E f f o r t s t o i n c r e a s et h e a r n o u n to f t h e f i n e g r a s so n t h e g r a s s l a n d ss h o u l d b e p u r s u e d . U s e o f o t h e r g r a s s v a r i e t i e s s h o u l d a l s o b e p u r s u e d . A n o t h e r o p t i o n i s t o d o d e v e l o p r n e n to f Iegurnes for grirzing and foclder storage. Weed Problenrs: W e e d p r o b l e m s c a n b e d e a l t w i t h i n s e v e r a lw a y s . O n e , s p r a y i n g o f t h e w e e d s , w h i c h h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e dp r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s r e p o r t . T w o , t i l l a g e a n d r c s e e d i n go f t h e g r a s s w h i c h h a s r e ) i g i o u s r a m i f i c a t i o n s . T h r e e , b r o a d c a s ts e e d i n go f g r a s s s e e d s a t h i g h r a t e s i n t h e e a r l y s p r i n g , s o t h e s e e d s w i l l b e i n t e g r a t e di n t o t h e g r o u n d b y f i o s t a n d n r o i s t u r e . T h i s w i l l c h o k e o u t t h e w e e d s p e c i e s .F o u r , u s e o f l e r r i l i s e r w h i c h w i l l i n c r c l s e t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f t h e g r a s s , b u t n o t t h e w e e d s . T l r i s i s i n t h e e x p e r i n l e n t a ls t a g e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , s o i t w i l l n o t b e a p p l i c a b l ef o r t h i s s i t e a t t h i s t i n r e . T I r e r n o s t v i a b l e o p t i o n i s [ r r o a d c a s st e e c l i n go f g r a s ss c c c l sw h i c h w i ] l c l r o k e o u t w e e d s . T h e g r a r s st o d o t h i s i s n o t d e t e r r ) r i n e (al t t h i s t i n r e . R e s e u r u l tro t h e a p p r o p r i a t et y p e n e e d st o b e done tbr this to have optinralresLrlts. Grazing Land Allocations: G r a s s l a n d a l l o c a t i o n n r e c h a n i s n ra s r e d i f f ' e r e n ti n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s . l n a d a p t a t i o no f o n e o f t h e s e m e c h a n i s n r sn r a y b e u s e i r l h e r e . T h e v i l l t r g e l e v c l i r l l o c u t i o n s y s t e l n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o L r n t yo f f i c i a l s i s a p p r o p r i a t ea t t h i s t i n r e . Crass Variety l)cvclopDleilt: E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n d i g e n o u s l e g u n r e s p e c i e s a s r v e l l a s g r a s s , r ) r o r e a w a r e n e s so f c u r r e n t s t a t e o f g r a s s a n d l e g u n r e v a r i e t i e s , a n d t h e r e s e a r c hd o n e o n t h c n r l b r t h i s a r c a would be very usefirl. Fencing: E l e c t r i c f ' e n c i n g , u s i n g o n e o r t w o w i r e s h a s b e e n e f f ' e c t i v ei n c o n t a i n i n g c a t t l e i n N o r t h America. This type of solar powered f'encing has been used to keep bears out of bee hives i n A l b e r t a , C a n a d a . I t i s v e r y e f t ' e c t i v e .C o s t s o f t h i s t y p e o i l ' e n c i n g a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y below the current f'encingproposal. High initial costs nlay clcter snnre hcrdsrnenfronr a d o p t i n g t h i s t e c h n o l o g yi n t h e s h o r t t e r r n . Fertilising: I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d u s e o f l e g u n r e ss u c h a s c l o v e r o r a l t a l l a w h i c h f l x t h e i r o w n n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i s e r h a s p o t e n t i a l t b r t h i s a r e a . L o n g e r t e r n r e x p e r i n r e n t n t i o nw i t h a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e sa n d v a r i e t i e si s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n er v h i c h s p e c i e sw o L r l db e t h c b e s t .

-36

Water Availability for Crass: T h e r e i s l i t t l e t o s p e a k a b o u t f b r o p t i o n s o f i r n p r o v e n r e n ti n t h i s a r e a . " L o o k i n g t o t h e s k y " f o r m o r e r a i n a t c e r t a i n t i n r e so f t h e y e a r w o u l d b e a p p r o p r i a t e . Rotationof GrassGrazing: E t j u c a t i o n o f h e r d s m e n t o t h e b c n e f i t s o f i n t e n s i v e r o t a t i o n a l g r a z i n g p r a c t i c e sw o u l d b e very beneficial to all the people corlponents concerned.This will only work if there is e n o u g h g r a s sa v a i l a b l c t o d o t h i s w i t h . I f o v e r g r a z i n g i s a t t h e 5 0 % l e v e l , t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y rotational grazing,thoLrgh not intensively, already. Eclucational sentinars for the governrrent offlcials antl extcnsion officcrs woulcl bc- a beginning point, then visits to c o r t r t n u n i t i e si n t h e w i n t e r t o e x p l l i n t h e b e n e f l t s , a n ( l a r o t a t i o n a l t r i a i d o n e b y t h e c o u n t y g o v e r n r r e n tw o u l d b e v c r y b e n c l l c r a l .E s t i r l a t i o n so f ' a o n e d a y s e n r i n a rw r t h a g r o u p o f l 0 p e o p l e w o u l d b e a b e g i n n i n g t o s t i r r t f r o n r o r r t h i s t o p i c . M c e t i n g s w i t h h c r d s r n e ni n g r o u p s o f 3 - 4 s h o u l d p r o d u c e g o o d r e s u l t sa s w e l l . 6. 1. 5. RECO M M EN DATI ON S Short Ternr: S e t t r i n a r so n t h e b e n e l l t s o f r o t a t i o n a lg r a z i n g o n t h e o p e n g r a s s l a n d sw o L r l db e e f f e c t i v e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e ( l e n r o n s t r a t i o no f t h e l i r r g e r , t w o h a r r d e ds c y t h e / s i c k l et o t h e h e r d s r n e nc o u l d a l s o h a v e a n i n l n e d i a t c p o s i t i v e e f t ' e c to n t h e a n l o u n t o f g r a s s h a r v e s t e d f o r w i n t e r u s e . These coultl ltappen as soon as the sLrnurer of 1996, with a translator. Senlnars on d i f f ' e r e n t t y p c s o f g r a z i n g l a n d a l l o c a t i o n sc o L r l da l s o b e g i v e n , p r e s e n t e dt o t h e h e r d s m e n ancllocal of'ficials,togcthcr, tlre opportunity to tailor ntake a workiible leaseuse progran) f o r t h e g r a s s l a r t d st h a t r r a y n o t i n c l u d c t h c n c c d f o r f e n c i n s . T h i s w i l l g i v e r h e n t a v a r i e r y o f c h o i c e ss o t h e y c a n s e l l ' r i c t e r r n i nrev h a tw i l l r v o r k b e s t i n l h e j r s i t u a t i o n . C o s t i n g r e q u i r c n r e n t sf o r s h o r t t e r n r : J ' h e r o t a t i o r r a lg r a z i n g s e r r t i n a r s ,a n d g r a z i n g l z r n d a l l o c a t i o n s s e r n i n a r s , w o u l d r e q u i r e a t r a n s p o r t a t i o na l l o t r D e n t t b r t h e p r e s c n t e r . M a t e r i a l s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e a n d T i b e t a n w o u l d r e q u i r e t r a n s l a t i o nw o r k r l o n c b y s o n r e o n e .T h e d c r n o n s t r a t i o no f t h e s c y t h e w o u ) d i n i t i a l l y b e d o n e b y t h e w r i t e r o f t h r s r e p r r r t . t h c n t r a i n i r n i n c l i g c n o L rpse r s o n t o d o t h i s . T h c w a g e p a y i n g o f t h i s p e r s o r tu ' o u l t l h l v e t o b e u ' o r k e d o u t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e l o c a l g o v e r n n r e n t .C o s t s h a r i n g o l ' 5 0 - 5 0 i s s u g g e s t c d ,h a l l ' b y t h e l o c a l g o v e r n n r e n t ,a n d h a l f b y t h e o r g a n i s a t i o ni n H o n g K o n g . T h e c o s t o f a s c y t h e , i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o nt o t h i s a r e a , a n d t h r . d e m o n s t r a t i o nt o t h e h e r d s n c n w o u l d b e c o v e r e d b y s p o n s o r s h i pf r o n r t h e A n t e r i c a s . I v l e d i u mT e r n r : J ' h e t r s eo f e l e c t r i c f e n c i n g t o e n c l o s i n ga r e a s f b r r n o r e i n t e r r s i v eg r o w r h o f g r a s s f o r r v i n t e r t t s e c o u l d o c c u r . A d c r u o n s t r a t i o np l o t o f t h e e t ' l ! c t i v e n e s so f t h e e l e c t r i c f ' e n c en e e d st o b r done in order for the herdsnten to belreve it will work. This is a nruch lower cosr a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c u r r e n t f e n c i n g p r o g r a n r . T h e c o s t s w o u l d b e b o r n - 5 0 - 5 0b y t h e l o c a l g o v e r n r n e n ta n d t h e l a r n r e r s , a n d t h e p e r s o n w r i t i n g t h i s w o L r l d b r i n g i n t h e s o l a r p o w c r e d

- 3 7-


6.2 I1ottx)'uunCttuntt'Iiupid ass(ssm(NSurw'y F e n c e i n s u l a t o r sc a n b e m a d e f - e n c e r s .A l l o t h e r h a r d w a r e w o u l d b e s u p p l i e d i n c o u n t r y . as the stlpport structure for used cotrlti be out of old inner lubes at)d tlres, irnd willow sterns substantial hardware and nlore tlse coul<.1 ones ternr short ternr fences, ancl longer fbr rtlctliunl tefln: The solar powered r e q u i r e ' r e n t s p o s t s . b o s t i n g p r o d u c e d indigenously 'l'rvq will initially be provitled, one as eleclic fcnce cost is $ LIS irr the Artrericits. detnonstration.andoneasbeckup'ThiscostwillbecarrieclbysptlnsorsintheAnlericas. will be carried by the local governnent' T h e c o s t o f r w o s t r a n d so f b a r b e i w i r e t o r l ' e n c i n g will be provided by both the local fence the of constrLrction the in Labour to assist g o v e r n m e n ta n d t h e H o n g K o n g a g e n c y ' Long Tenn: h a v e i n c r c a s e c yl i e l d s a t t l l i s a l t i t t l d e T h e d e v e l o p n r c r r to f g r i i s s a n d I e g u t l l e s p e c i e sw h i c h incrcasetheir ability to husband would be of great beneflt to thc herdsrlen. This wcluld t h c p r o t ' e s s o r sa t t h e t l n i v e r s i t y i n w i t h I n t e r a c t i o n l a n d . o f L r a s e ntore anirlals ort a flxetl i t t t e r a c t i o nw i t h t h e n l a n d h a v i n g t h e n t C n . n g a u , s u g g e s t st h i s i s a f e a s i b l eo p t i o n . I r t r r t h e r bcnellt all parties r v o t r l d w o r k t h r o t r g l t t o a s t h e o f f l c i a l c l r a n n e lr v l r i c l l Costtngreqtllrelnellts: Tlrisrecottlnrendatronrequiresseveralyears,andcostingre(lt|irerrlents.fbr.thiswouldbe A n o t t t l i n e o f c o s t i l r gi s a s f o l l o w s : n r o r e s u b s t a n t i i rtlh a n t h e t r v o t r b o v er c c o t n t ] l e t t c l a t i o n s . Ycerly: P e r s o n n e lw a g e n e e d sd l t r l l l g s t l n l l n c r : E q u i p n t e n tn e e d s : Seed needs: TransPortation ueerls: Fencing: 6.1.6. SLItttIIARY Thereisaplacefbrthisorgirnisationtoplayinthedeveloprtrcntofthcgrass|andsofthis in projecl size as trust on both sides ls trea. It will need to uegiri sntall, and work Up t h e b c g i n n i r r gu ' i l l l b s t e r c o n t i n u e d i o i n t d e v c l o p e c l .E x c e l l e n c c r n a s n r a l lj o b w c l l t l o r t e a t C 0 t l l n t t t n i c a t i o na n t l i n t c r a c t i o n r e g a r d i n g F u r t l t e r l o n g t e r t t t . t h e t l c v e l o p r n e n tp r O J e c t Sl n w i t i r r h e l o c a l g o v e r n r n e n t .c o n t i n u e d v i s i t s t h e e x t e n t o f i n r e r a c t i o nn e e d st J b e n e g r r t i a t e d i s n e c e s s a r yt o l t a v e a p r o g r a n l i n p l a c e f o r t l t c o f f l c i a l s a r e a a n c l c o u r n t L t t t i c a t i o nw t t h s u n r n t e ro f 1 9 9 6 .

AMMAL IruSBANDRY

6 . 2 , 1 .I N T R O D U C T I O ND I S C U S S I O N AND ANALYSIS 6 . 2 . 2 .C A N T H E N O M A D S Y S T E MB E I M P R O V E D ? I. BREEDING 2. FEEDING 3. HOUSINC 4. HEALTH 6.2.3. ARE THE SET'|LEMENTPOLICIESFOR NOMADS A JUMP FORWARD? 6.2.4.THE PROCESSING OF ANIMAL PRODUCTSIN HONGYUAN COUNTY 6.2.5. OPTIONSFOR POTENTIALINTERVENTION 6.2.6. RECOMMENDATIONS

(For Animal Husbandry Observations/Lirnitations, plcaseseeAppendixB). 6.6.1 INT'RODUCT-IONDISCUSSION AND ANALI'SIS Looking at the ctrltureand traditionof the herdsnran, it is not surprisingthat the words "work" and "difficult" are relatedwords in Tibetan.A lot of harclshipihave had to be enduredin orderto surviveover thecenturies. Thosehardships comefiom both the natural side (climate,altitude,grasslandprorlLrction etc.) and also frorr institutignalstde. The cultureand sociallife of the nomadshas beenunclerseverepressures during the Cultural Revolution,but still theendurnnce of the nonrads anclthe wisedecisions of th! Government (minority policies)werc enoughto overcornethoseperiodsof threat.Nornadshave learned to keep some sparebreathtbr tough periodsanclcome out after sorneyearsas ,,wealthy citizens,participating rnorethan everybodyelse in the (black?)rnarketeconomy,'.They cannotbe considered as poor. Still the qtlcstionis: can intprovernenls be nruclein the systentto reducethe risks and optinise opportunities? Ilelatedwith (hxt: irrr the proposalsfor settlingrhe nontadsln a certalnareaas "yak-firrnrcrs" a rviryto ilnprovethe econornicprospects of the herdsrnen? Another questionrelateswith the outp.t of the herding ryrt",n, ho* can the output productsbe processed in a way beneficial 1brrnanyparticipants? 6.2.2. CAN TIIE NOTIAD SYSTEM BE III,IPROVED ? Lookingat the system,somesub-systerns can be identifiedas Breeding,Feeding,Housing, Health.They will be dealtwith in brief. l. Breeding No real breedinggearedtowardsupgradingthe stock is taking prace.There are no specific criteria for breedingas srrch,other than just "character', (what ever this rnay mean _ sometimes it seenrsliterally'character': two calvesare bountltogetlrr,r so one is teaching the other one how to behavein a rrercr). In this breedingarea, however,thereare qulte solnepotentials. The variationwithin.theherd is so nir.rch that thereis selection on certain criteria,other than'character':nilk production/ nreatprocluction / f'ertility/ hair_wool producrion can be esrablished (pu Jiabi_ 1994). on the otherside,thereis not rnuchroornfor breedingo. rts own, when it is not doneln -39-

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IlortgyuurtCounryRupid ass?ssnl?ttt Survey

Hongtuun Countl, Rupid ass?ssnlcnlSurvey

c o n b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r b o t t l e n e c k s : f e e d i n g ( e s p e c i a l l yi n w i n t e r a n d s p r i n g ) , h o u s i n g (protection) and health. The greatest natural selection takes place based on fitness / t o u g h n e s so f t h e a n i n r a l s( s o n r e t i n r e su p t o 3 0 % o f t h e l r e r d d i e s a s r e s u l t o f l a c k o f f o d d e r during winter and spring). Breeding (if any occLrrsg ) ocs via ferrale lines. With a little bit o f " r e c o r d i n g o f y i e l d s " o f n r i l k / n r e a t / h a i re t c . , a b e t t e r b a s i s f b r s e l e c t i o no f b r e e d i n g - b u l l s c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d .O f t e n t h e " b e s t b u l l " i s s o l d o f f , a s i t g i v e s r n o r e m o n e y t o t h e f a m i l y i n need (negative selection for breeding ends). In this County's plan, it lbrwardcd the idea of having eachyear 20 cattlecows brought into t h e C o u n t y t o s t a r t b r e e d i n g ( a t A n i r n a l H e a l t h O f f l c e r s s u g g e s t i o n ) .T h i s i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e o r f e a s i b l e . P r o d u c t i v e a n i n r a l s .l i k e c a t t l e c o w s . w i l l n o t s u r v i v e t h e s e v e r ew i n t e r s . I n t h e early 1950s, Holstein-bulls were introduced in the area, but died all within two years (nobody knows how to care lbr then and one cannot treat a cattle-cow like a yak-cow). Another reason is that the inrpact of 20 (costly) cattle cows on the total population of 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 f e n t a l e y a k s i s e q u a l t o z e r o ( u p g r a d i n ga g a i n s tt h e s t r e a r no f y a k b u l l s ) . T h e i d e a a s n e n t i o n e d i n a n o t h e r v e r s i o n , t o o p e n a n A r t i f i c i a l I n s e n r i n a t i o n( A I ) C e n t r e a t a b i g y a k f a r r n , i s a l s o q L r e s t i o n a b l eI .t h a s b e c n t r i e i l o u t i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s i n H o n g y u a n , b u t failed: to costly to keep things running srnoothly (availability of enough liquid nitrogen n t u s t b e g u a r a n t e e d ) ;d e t e c t i o no f a n i n r a l s i n h e a t i s v c r y d i f f i c u l t a n d t h e l e r t i l e p e r i o d i s s h o r t . C o n c e p t i o n r a t e w a s o n l y 3 0 t o 4 0 % u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d r n a n a g e n ) e n ta n d n o t i n e x t e n s i o n . I n e x t e n s i o n , i t w i l l b e c v e n l o w e r a n c lo l ' t e r ra y a k b u l l g c t s t h c f l r s t c h a n c e . I f n e w t e c h n i q u e sa r e u s e d ( l i k e h o r r l o n e s y r r c h r o n i s a t i o n )t,l ) e c o n c c p t i o n r a t e m a y g o u p t o 7 0 % o r n r o r e . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s q u i t c " l r i g h - t e c h "a n d n o t r c a l i s t i c i n a c o u r r t ya r e a . T h e i d e a t o s e l l c r o s s b r c e d s( t h a t g i v e 2 t o 3 t i r r e s n r o r e I n i l k t h a n y a k a n d a r e s t r o n g e r i n rluscles) to local yak owners is a briglrt idea, as such, since frorn there the yak-upgrading s t a r t s i n n e x t g e n e r a t i o n si n t h e f e r r a l e l i n e . T h e a s s u n r p t i o ni s t h a t r n o r e n r i l k i s p r o d u c e d p e r a n i m a l , e v e n w h e n t h e h e r d s i z e r e m a i n s t h e s a n r c .T h i s r n a y b c n o t t h e c a s e . A g a i n , w h e n t h e y a k - b u l l s a r e n e g a t i v e l y s e l e c t e d f b r b r e e d i n g I ) L r r l ) o s c( t h i s n r c a n s a p o s i t i v e s e l e c t i o nt b r ' d i r e c t n l o n e y ' p u r p o s c ) , t h e i l u p u c t r . v i l l p r c s L r r l ) : r b n l yo t b e a s h i g h a s a s s u n t e d .T h e e f f b r t s t o g e t t h o s e c r o s s b r e c c las r e e n o f l ) r ( ) u sv i a A I . I t r n a y b c g o o c l t o t r y t h i s o u t a t l o w e r a l t i t u d e s ,w h e r e c r o s s b r e e d i n g( c a t t l e b u l l x y a k c o w ) i s p r a c t i s e dt n o r e i n a n a t u r a l w a y ( b y C h i n e s ea n d n o t b y T i b e t a n s ) . B o t h p a r c n t s s t o c k s , c a t t l c a n d y a k , h a v e t o b e k e p t a n d g e n e r a t e dt b r n e x t g e n e r a t i o n sc r o s s b r c c c l (so r r l y l ' e r r a l e sa r e l ' e r t i l e ) . W h e n b r i n g i n g i n s t r a n g cb l o o d ( n r a l e o r f ' e n r a l e ) ,t h e d a n g c r s a r e e r ) o n r o r . l si n a b a l a n c e d s y s t e m . I w o u l d , a s i n d i c a t c d , b c t b r c o p t l b r " i n t p r o v e r n e n tf r o n r w i r h i n t h e s y s t e n r " b y b c t t e r b u l l s e l e c t i o n( s e l l i n g o f t w o " b a d " a n i n r a l st o g e t t h e s a n l e a n r o u n t o f n r o n e y i n h a n c l a n d k e e p i n g t h e o n e g o o d b u l l ) , a s t h e r e i s e n o u g h v a r i a t i o n o n a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c sl i k e : r n i l k production (varies fronr 100 to 225 litre per lactttion - lactation perioci from 5 to 7 n t o n t h s ) ; f e r t i l i t y ( t h e r ea r e b l o o d l i n e sw i t h n r o r e t w i n s , s h o r t c r i n t c r c a l v i n g p e r i o d s ) ; m e a t p r o d u c t i o n ( s i z e so f a n i m a l s d i f f e r e n o r r n o u s l ya s t h e i r c a r c a s s e sd o ) ; h a i r p r o d u c t i o n . 2. Feeding F e e d i n g i s t h e r n o s t c r i t i c a l p a r t . W h e n t h e D M i n t a k e i n s L r u r n r eirs u p t o 5 . 5 - 6 k g p e r day in winter it drops to 1.5 - 2 kg DM only. Again, the enrphasisshould be on i m p r o v e n t e n t f r o n r w i t h i n t h e s y s t e u r . ( F o r t l r e g r a s s l a n d i r n p r o v e r n e n t ,p l e a s e r e f e r t o

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C h a p t e r 6 . l . ) . T h e w h o l e s y s t e n ri s q u i t e c o n r p l e x : i t c o v e r s t h e g r a s s l a n d sa t o n e s i d e a n d t h e a n i m a l s a t t h c o t l r e r . A s s o o n a s t h e y i i r e o u t o f b a l a n c e ,o n e h a s t o g i v e u p n u c h i n t h e s h o r t t e r m a n d p a y b r c k u n t i l a n e r v b a l a n c eo c c u r s . I n s o r r e c a s e s ,t h e s y s t e m w i l l c o n r e back to an overall balance, but rnore often presumably at a more deteriorated balance, cornpared to what it has been in the past. This concept should be clear before entering any s p e c u l a t i o n( a s i n p l a n s ) . A h e r d s n r a nd e c r e a s e sh i s n u m b e r o f a n i n r a l s b e f o r e t h e w i n t e r starts, by selling of his latty hcavy aninrals(high prices). He is not able to sell off too nrany animals as he does not know what the end of winter and spring will do to his herd (security). He is familiar with nraking those decisions. He is not familiar with making decisions related to grassland rnanagenrent ("natural material God provided to this County"). This makes the overall inrprovenrent of the system in relation with feeding more c h a l l e n g i n g . F e e d i n g - i r n p r o v e n r e n tssh o u l d b e g e a r e d t o w a r d s c o v e r i n g h i g h e r p r o d u c t i o n (for a short period tbllowed by the sale of aninrals/niilk) and the survival of the weak a n i n r a l s( y o u n g a n d p r o d u c t i v e f e n t a l ea n i n r a l s )i n w i n t e r . The idea of fencing of a certainarea (50 acre per family or 20 ha.) for hay-rnaking/winter grazing, with special so-called inproved and high productive grasses, is fair and worth a t r i a l . H o w e v e r , t h e q L r e s t i o nt o a n s w e r i s w h e t h e r t h e s o - c a l l e d i n p r o v e d h a y - g r a s s e s , w h i c h d o v e r y w e l l a t t h i s a l t i t u d c , a r e a v a i l a b l e ( t e n ) p e r a t u r ea t s o i l l e v e l m a y v a r y w i t h i n a 2 4 h o u r s f i o m - 3 4 t o + 5 l C ) , w h a t i s t h e l i t - e t i m eo f t h o s e g r a s s e s ,a n d w h e t h e r t h e y r n u l t i p l y t h e n r s e l v e so r w h e t h e r t h e h e r d s n ) e nn e e d s t o r e - e s t a b l i s ht h e g r a s s l a n da t c e r t a i r r intervals. F o r w i n t e r g r a z i n g , - 5 0a c r e s i s n o t e n o u g h t b r a h e r d o f 1 0 0 y a k , b l r t w h e n r e - g r o w t h t i n r e i s g i v e n t o t h i s a r e a ( n r a n i l g e n r c n t )i,t m a y s a v e a l o t o f a n i r n a l s a n d l e s s c o n c e n t r a t i o ni s r e q u i r e d t o k c e p t h e a n i n r a l sa l i v e . 1'he production of anirnal fat is enornrous. Most of it will be needed for hurlan c o n s u n r p t i o ni n t h e c o l d H o r r g y L r a nC o u n t y , b u t t h e r e n r a y b e p o t e n t i a l t o h a v e s o m e w a s t e fat to be rc-used in arrimal l'eecl. T h e o t h e r a r e a t o l o o k i n t o i s t h e t r e e / s h r u b sf b d d e r s p e c i e s .W i l l o w i s c e r t a i n l y a v a i l a b l e ( r n u l t i - p u r p o s e t r e e ) . S o n r e m o r e s y s t e n r a t i cr e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o f l n d t h e p o t e n t i a l s . D r i e d w i l l o w l e a v e s ,m i x e d w i t h s o r r e u r e a ( u p t o 3 - 5 7 0 ) a n d w a s t e f a t s ( u p t o 5 % ) m a y b e 'concentrate' for the winter periocl. a good 3. Housins Housing, as such, is not required fbr the yak. It is a hairy and woolly animal with a very thick skin (6.2 rnrn). However, for young and pregnant anirnals the loss of energy to keep the body at the right tempcrature should be avoided as rnuch as possible. Therefore p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s tc o l d , i c y w i n d s i s a s t e p f o r s u r v i v a l . T h e r e a l n o m a d w i l l t a k e t h e r i s k a n d i s n o t " i n " f o r h a v i n g a b a r n / s h e df o r f e m a l e a n i r n a l s , b u t s o m e h e r d s n r e nh a v e b e e n convinced to use kind of shed/natural place (gully) to protect their anirnals. Those sorts of s h e l t e rp r o t e c t i o n c a n b e i m p r o v e d ( f o r l i t t l e c o s t s ) o r n e w o n e s c a n b e b u i l t . C o s t s p e r s h e d o f 2 0 x 3 m e t e r e n o u g h f b r 4 0 t o 6 0 a n i n a l s a r e a r o u n d 5 t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 Y u a n . T h e s h e d - p l a ni s therefore worth a go: there are enough herdsrren practising this rvay of keeping female


Itottgy,uutrCounty Rapid ass(ssmentSurvey

a n i r n a l so v e r t h e w i n t e r / s p r i n g . 4. Health O n t h e u , h o l e , t h e h e a l t h s t a t u so f a n i m a l s i s g o o d . L o c a l t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i c i n e sa r e i n u s e : o n l y i n r e a l p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n sn e e d a " t o w n d o c t o r " . ( i n t o t a l 1 4 ) b e c a l l e d f o r a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s w o r k s w r . l l i n s o r n e v i l l a g e s . T h e " v i l l a g e d o c t o r " ( a h e r d s n r a n )i s k e p t r e s p o n s i b l ef o r nrany things of which he is not in control. He should stop delivery of nrilk to the Milk P o w d e r F a c t o r y w h e n a n a n i m a l i s s i c k ; h e s h o u l d r e p o r t o n a l l a n i n r a l h e a l t h a s p e c t si n t h e v i l l a g e t o " t o w n d o c t o r " a n d l o c a l C o v e r n m e n t . H i s f u n c t i o n i s n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d .T h e training he gr-'tsfrorn the "town doctors" (5 of which only get a salary for 5 nronths of a Chinesc year of i2 nronths - due to iack of funds) is presunrably not worth calling a t r a i n i n g ( i f p r o v i d e d , w h i c h i n i t s e l f i s q u e s t i o n a b l e ) .I n s o n r e a r e a s , t h e H o n g y u a n T o w n d o c t o r s w e r e n ( ) t a b l e t o g i v e r n e a " d i a g n o s e /t r e a t r n e n ts c e n a r i o " f o r a n a n i r l a l w i t h ( l i v e r f l u k e ) s y n r p t o 'r s . T h e y a r e t h e o n e s w h o t r a i n t h e " t o w n d o c t o r " . T h e l a t t e r i s t h e t r a i n e r of the "village.loctor". O n t h e w h o l c r n o r t a l i t y i s l o w , a l t h o u g h h e a l t h a r ) d n u t r i t i r ) na r c p i r r t o f t h e b a l a n c e ds y s t e n r : r s w e l l . I t * ' o u l d t r e v e r y i n t e r e s t i n gt o l e a r n r n o r c t r a t l i t i o n a l t e c h r r o l o g i e so n p r e v e n t i o n and treatrncnt of diseases, wlrile in certain cases input fronr'westcrn veterinary s c i e n c e / k n o w l e c i g en' r i g h t b e o f g r e a t h e l p w i t h i i l t h e n o r l r a ds y s t c n r . 6.2.3. ARE 7-IIE SE'TTLEII'TENT POLICIES FOR NO]IIADS A JUMP FORWARD ? I t i s n o t t h a t e : r s y t o s a y y e s o r n o . Q u i t e s o n r e i r r t e l l e c t u a l sh a v e b e e n i n f a v o u r o f t h i s s e t t l e n r e n tp o l i c y . P r o t e s s i o n a l sh a v e b e e n , a l s o , a l t h o u g h i n a n a l y s i n g t h e p l a n t h e r e a r e n r a n y a s p e c t su ' o r t h l o o k i n g a t a g a i n . A s t i r n e g o c s o n , u r o r e a l t e r n a t i v e sa n d i d e a s h a v e beenbrought rrp. T h e k e r r r e lo l ' t h e p r o p o s a l i s t h i s : c a n o n e e x p e c t a r r o n r a d( a b l e t o g a n r b l e w i t h h i s a n i n r a l s -l'o i n a h a r s h e n v i r o n n t e n t ) t o b e a i r i a n a g e ro f t h e g r a s s l l n t l s ? n r a k e a n o r r r a di n t o a s o i l tiller rnay not bc a good thing to start with, cven when it is said by one of tlrern: "We do l v h a t t h e G o ! ' c r ' ) r n c n tw a n l s u s t o d o " . T h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v c l b r t h e h e r d s n r a ni s t o g a m b l e w i t h a n i r n a l s r r h i g h e r r i s k s ( T h e A n i r n a l H u s b a n c l r yN ' l a g i s t r a t er n e n t i o n e d t h a t w h e n a I r e r d s u r a nd o e s n o t h a v e e n o u g h g r a s s w i t h i n h i s f b n c e h c r n a y s c l l n r o r e a n i r n a l s t h a n usual). C e r t a i n l y i t i s n o t f a i r a n d g o o d t o f o r c e a p e r s o no v e r t h c e c l g er v l r c n t h e r e a r e n o e x a m p l e s o r n r o d e l s h o w g r a s s l a n dc a n b e m a n a g e d a t t h i s a l t i t u d e a n d c l i n r a t e . R e a l e x a n r p l e so f nraking a Iiving with yaks at this altitude in a llrrnring setting are not available. The c l i r n a t e , a n d u . i t h i t t h e g r a s s p r o d u c t i o r r , a r e s u c h L r n c c r t a i nf a c t o r s t h a t t h e I i v e s t o c k s y s t e m r e q r l i r c s a r r o r e f l e x i b l e s e t t i n g / e n v i r o n n r e n ti n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e c l i m a t i c s u r p r i s e s :a l ' e n c el i n r i t s t h e f l e x i b i l i t y . T o m r k e t h e l r c r c l s u r c jnu s t " r e s p o n s i b l ef b r a p i e c e o f l a n d " , w i t h o L r tp r o v i d i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y a n d n r e a n s( k u o w l c c l g e ie x a r n p l e s ,e t c . ) , j s n o t a n e x a m p l e o l g o t r d n t : i n a g e n r e n t / g o v e r n n r eannI d i t r n : r yb a c k t l r e a t t h e c n d : y a k s d o n ' t k n o w w h a t l e n c c s a r e a n d t h e y u , i l l g o t h r o L r g ht h e n ) . T h e g r a s s o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e f e n c e i s always rnoregreenNone of the interviewees has been 100% positive about the settlenrent idea. Even professionals (Pu Jiabi, Anirnal Health Doctor) struggled with qtrestions: is it really

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n e e d e d ? ;i s i t g o o d f o r t h e a n i r n a l ( l o n g h o r n s a n d f e n c e sd o n ' t g o t o o w e l l t o g e t h e r ) ?M o s t h e r d s m e nh a v e b e e n n e g a t i v ea b o u t i t : i r o n i c a l l y d e f i n i n g r e a s o n sw h y t h e n e i g h b o u r i s n o t i n f a v o u r o f t h e f e n c i n g / s e t t l e n i e n(t" t h e p o o r o n e c a n n o t a f f o r d i t " ) o r g i v i n g n o n - a n s w e r s ("1 don't know if it is good, rnay be it is good, or may be it is bad" - "We will do what the Governrnent wants us to do"- "lt may be good fbr people, but it is not good for the 'life animals. So what to do?"). In the past their culture and social has been under attack, while now the whole systenr is under attack. Ccrtainly there is no place for selfd c t e r r n i n a t i o na s t h e p r o p o s a l i s n o t a r e a l i s t i c o n e f b r t h e h e r d s n r c nt o b e g i n w i t h . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n l i l r i n r p l e n r e n l n t i o nh a s s t a r t e d i n t h r e c v i l l a g e s a n d o n c t o w n s h i p ( 4 J u l y 1 9 9 5 o n w i r r c l s ) .I a r l t o l d t h a t t h e t o t a l i n r p l c r n e n t a t j o nn r a y t a k e n r o r e t h a n 5 0 y e a r s , a s t h e p o J i c y i s o n l y d c - f l n e cflo r a p c r i o d o f 5 0 y c a r s . H a v i n g v i s i t e t l s o m e o f l l c i l l s a n d e x p c r t s i n t h i s C l o u n t y a n d c o u n t r y , i t s e c n r st h a t t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n a lp r e p a r a t i o n f i r r t h i s p l a n i s a b s e n t . I t w i l l i n f l u c r r c e t h e p a t t c n l o f a n i m a l r l i s e a s e s i t w i l l c e r t a i n l y h a v e i n r p a c t o r r p r o d u c t i o n o f a n i n r a l p r o c l u c t sa n d t h c t w o a g r o t z r c t o r i e si n H o n g y u a n T o s , n . A n r a z i n g l y , n o p r e p a r a t i o no f w h a t e v e r s o r t h a s b e e n t a k e n o r d o n e , w h i l e i t w i l l e l ' f e c tu l t i r n a t e l ys o n t e 2 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e o f t h i s C o u n t y . I n s o m e d i s c u s s i o n sI c l i c l h a v e t h e t c e l i n g t h a t s o n r e l e a d e r s d i d n o t b c l i c v e i n t h e p l a n e i t h e r , b u t f o r f o n n a l i t i e s s a k e s t a r t e do l ' f v e r y e n t h u s i l s t i c a l l y . A t t h e e n r l , r e a l i t y c a n r c d o w n : " l t m a y t a k e r n o r e t h a r r5 0 y e a r s t o i n r p l e n r e n tt h e p l a n " . F r o n t a n e c o t t o n r i cp o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r a t e o f r e t u r r l w i t h r r o r r n a la c c o u n t a n c ys t a n d a r d si s n e g a t i v e : i t w i l l r e r n a i n a r ) ) o n e yr i r i r i n t o w a r d s t h e r c p a i r i t n d r n a i n t e n a n c eo f f - e n c e sT. h e c o s t o f t h i s l t a s n o t b e e n t r k e n i n t o c o n s i t l c r a t i o n .T h e s u b s i d y p a r t h a s , b u t t h a t i s a o n e t i r n e t h i n g . R o u g h c a l c u l a t i o n st e l l u s t h a t a h e r d s r n a nn e e d s t o i n v e s t U S $ 4 0 0 f o r e x t e r n a l f - e n c ee v e r y l 0 y e a r s . T o r n a n a g et h e g r a s s w ' e l l h e n e c < l st o h a v e i n t e n r a l f e n c e s a s w e l l . w h i c h d e p e n d i n go n t h e t y p e , w i l l b e a r o u n c la n o t h e r U S $ 7 0 0 a t l e a s t . T h e t o t a l i n v e s t n r e n t f r o m h e r d s m a r r ' ss i d e i s j u s t b e y o n d r e a s o n . I t i s a s k i n g a p e r s o n i n j a i l t o p a y f o r t h c p r i s o n w a l l s a n d k e e p t h e m i n g o o d s h a p e . H e n e v e r b e c o n t e so w n e r o r w h a t e v e r , i r i s j u s r h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t yt o i s o l a t eh i n r s e l f f r o n r h i s f e l l o w c l a n - n t a r e s . T h e r e s t i l l a r e r e a s o n a b l ep a r t s i n t h e p l a n , w h i c h h a s a l r e a d y c h a n g e do v e r t i n t e a l i t t l e b i t , n a r n e l y t h e ( l i s a s t e rp r o g r : l n l n ) e : f L n c i n g a s u r a l l a r c a i n w i n t c r p i l s t u r e s l b r h a y o r h 1 1 , g r a z i n g a n d t l u i l d i n g t h e s l r e d 1 i > rm a i n l y y o u n g a n d f e n r a l e a n i r l a l s . ' l ' h e s e h a v c b e e n d i s c u s s e da b o l ' c , b u t s t r l l l i r r n o r n i t < l si t h i i s t o b c ( l c r l r o n s t r l t e dw i t h i n t h e s y s t e m t h a t i t b e t t e r s t h e r i s k s l b r s u r v i v a l . I d r d n o t l r a v e e r r o L r g ht i r n e t o c l i s c L r stsh i s i t e n r t h r o u g h w t t l r o f t l c i a l s , w h i c h I i n t e n d e dt o d o . 6.2.4. THE PITOCESSING OIt ANIIIAL PITODUCTS IN IIONGYUA*' COI:llTl' I t i s v e r y a p p r o p r i a t c t o a d d v a l L r et o t h e p r o d u c t l o c a l l y p r o d u c c d i n o r c l e r t o k e e p t h e g a i n i n t h e a r e a a s a r c w : r r c jl i r r t l r e c o u t r t r o ne f l b r t s . H o w e v c r , i n a c h a n g i n g t h e e c o n o n r y , a n d L t n d e rw i s e g u i d a n c e l r o r n t h e S t r t e C o v e r n r n e n t , i t r v i l i b e v e r y h a r d f ' o r l o c a i i n d u s t r i e st o k e e p t h e q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o r tu p a n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s d o w n . H a v i n g p a i d v i s i t s t o t l r c r n i l k p o w d e r t a c t o r y a n d t h e r l r c a t l a c l o r y ( a n t i l e a t h e rp l a n t ) , i t s e e t l s t ( ) n t e t h a t t h e y w e r c r u n v e r y u n - e c o n o r n i c a l l ) .C o i n g o n i r r t h i s w a y o f o p c r a t i o n , i n t h e l o r r g r u n t h e y r v i l l b c o u t o f b u s i n e s sd u e t o c o n r p e t i t i o ni n a o p e n / f r c ' el n a r k e t e c o n o n t y .


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T h e m a i n r e i r s o n t h a t h e r d s n r e nd o n ' t l i k e t o s e l l t h e p r o d u c t t o t h e t a c t o r i e s i s t h a t t h e prices are very low compared to the local rnarket prices. The contpulsory production of h e r d s m e na g a i n s ta n e x t r e m e l o w p r i c e k e e p s t h e f a c t o r i e sg o i n g , b u t t h e i r w a y o f o p e r a t i o n i s v e r y i n e f f i c i c n t , e . 9 . , t h e n u r l b e r o f y a k s p r o c e s s e di n t h e n t e a t - t a c t o r y l a s t y e a r w a s o n l y 6 0 0 , w h i l e r o L r g he s t i n r x t e si n d i c a t c t h a t k e e p i n g t h e t o t a l y a k p o p u l a t i o n i n r i g h t s h a p c f r o n r H o n g y u a n C o u n t y a l o n e s o r n e7 , 0 0 0 t o 4 0 , 0 0 0 y a k s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e f b r s l a u g h t e r (the figure difterence relates to the type of winter). But on the average, sonte 25,000 a n i m a l s a r e s o l d v i a o t h e r c h a n n e l s . P r e s u n r a b l y ,b y o f f b r i n g t h e h c r d s n t c n m o r e , t h e p r o c e s s i n gc o s t p e r a n i n r a l r n a y d e c r c a s e ,a s t h e t l r c t o r y w i t h 1 4 7 w u r k c r s i s p u t t i n g a n enonnousdrain on the 600 yak and 1,000sheep. A s s o o n i r s c o n r p c t i t i o n c < r n r c si n , i r t r v h i t t c v c r r v a y , f r o n r i n o r o u t s i d e t h i s C o u n t y , t h e t a c t o r i e s ,l r ' h o a r e v i a l o c a l g o v e r n n r e n r sn o w i n c o r ) t r o l o v e r t h e h e r d s n r c n( v i a p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s ) , w i l l l o s e t h e i r s t a n c l .I n t h e l o n g r L r n , t h i s w o u l d b e a p i t y a s i o r t h e g e n e r a l d e v c l o p n r e n to f t h e C o u n t y . 6.2.5. OPTIONS T'OR POTENTIAL Option l.

]NTERVEN'TION

A s s i s t a n c ei n b r e e d i n gp r o g r a n r n r eu s i n g i n t e r r r a lr e s o u r c e s .

I n e s s e n c et h i s c a n b e w i t h i n a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a r n n l e : s e l e c t i o n n r e t h o d so f l o c a l b r e e d i n g s t o c k l o n l y a p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u r r ro n b r e e c l i n g ) .I t r l a y t r e a l s o p o s s i b l e f r o m a s n t a l l ( t r a i r t i n g ) r l o r l c l c c n t r e - t o g c t h e r w i t h s o n r e h e r d s r n e no r o n e v i l l a g e ) a s a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n t h e n l i d s to f a c o r n r n u n i t yw i t h l o c a l g o v e r n o ri n v o l v e da t t h e s i d e - l i n e . A d v i t n ta g e s : o t e c h n i c a lp o t c n t i a l si t r e t l r e r e ; v a r i z r t i o ni s l h e r e . o e x p e c t e do u t c o n r cc a n b e d e f l n e d . o i r n p a c ts h o u l d n o t t a k e t h a t l o n g o p r o d u c t i o n p e r a n i n r a l g o e s u l ) , w h i c h r n a y l c a c it o k c e p i n g l c s s a n i m a l s ( l e s so v s r g r a z t n ge t c .) o g i v i n g p o s s i b r l i t i ctsr . cr o n t r i b u t ei n a s r n a l lw a y , b r r t n l l y g e r ) c r a t e n r o r e i d e a sa n d a r e a ' s w l r i l e b e i n g i n v o l v c d . o i t s r e l a t e sq L r i t ed i r e c cu , i t h t h e I o c a l p o p u l a t i o n o w i t h o u t g o i n g i n c r o s s b r e e d i n gt r u s t c a n b e b u i l d w i t h l o c a l p c o p l e . o c o r n p a r e dt o o t h e r b r e e d i r r gp r o p o s : r l sq L r i t ei r r e x l l c n s i v c . D i s i r d v an t a g e s : o s o n r e r l r o r er c s r ' a r c hr n a y l r c r c c l u i r c d .T h i s i r r i t s e l f , l r o w e v e r , r u a y b c a n a d v a n t a g e( r e s u a r c hf o c u s o n v a r i a t i o n i n h c r d s a n d d e l i r t i n g b r e c d i n g p u r p o s e / g o a l s ) .I l r n a y e v e r rn r e i r nt o h a v c s o r n e y a k s - b L r l l sf r o n r a n o t h e r provlnceor area. o a l t h o u g h c a s t r a t i o ni s p r a c t i s e da l r e a d y , n r o r e s y s t e n r a t i cs e l e c t i n g - o u it s r e q u i r e d .T h i s r n a y n o t b e f u l l y i n l i n e w i t h l ' i b e t a n c u l t u r e / b e l i e f s . O p f i o n 2 . A n r o d e l c a n b e w o r k e d o u t w i t h s o m e h e r d s m e nt o i n r p r o v e t h e n u t r i t i o n s t a t u s o f t h e a n i n t a l s o v e r t h e y e a r ( e . g . n r a n a g e n r e not f h a y - l a n d / s e a r c h i n g t b r r v a s t e st o b e u s e r la s a n i r n l l t ' e e d/ i n r p r o v i n g t e e d i n g p r a c t i c c s/ s t o r a g e ) . ( A g a i n t h i s c a n b e d o n e f r o n r

within a training setting,with a seasonalfollow-up or togetherwith a comrnunityof officerat village with the local animalhusbandry herdsmen in one villagein co-operation level or whoever.It shouldbe broughtas a pilot-activityand be formulatedin the way the Governmentproposalhasbeenfornrulated). Advantages: o T h e b e n e f i t sa r e q u i t e d i r e c t f o r t h e n o m a d s . o Building up trust is a key part. o Expected outconre can be deflnecl. o A F r i e n d O f C h i n a - e x p e r tm a y h a v e m a i n l y a f a c i l i t a t i n g r o l e . o G e a r e d t o w a r d s " i m p r o v e n r e n tf r o m w i t h i n s y s t e m " ( s e l f c o n t r o l ) o Start may be rather snrall, but nray grow over time (control in own hand). o W h e n c r i t e r i a a r e b L r i l ti n b e l o r e h a n r l t h e r e i s a l w a y s a p o s s i b i l i t yt o nf t e r 3 t o 5 y e a r s ) . s t e p o u t ( e v a l L r a t i oa Disadvantrtges: o S o m e n r o r e r e s e a r c hr n a y b e r e q u i r e d . ( w h i c ha r e a , w h i c h h e r d s n r e ne t c . i n itself positivesideas well). o Focus should be on the target group, although others may feel bypassed ( L o c a l C o u n t y e x p e r t s ) . ( A r e p o r t i n g c o - o r d i n a t i o ns y s t e r nm a y b e developed to include thenr fronr a distance: the way how frr FOC will go n e e ( l st o b e d e f i n e d b e f o r e h a n c l ) . o W h e n o n l y p o s s i b l ei n a n a r e a w h e r e t h e P l a n h a s b e e n i n r p l e n r e n t e dt h i s i d e a n e e d ss e c o n r lt h o u g h t s ( s e e P o i n t 4 ) . o S t a r t n r a y b e w i t h s o n r en r i s t r u s t . 'town doctors" by working along sidc Option 3. Inrprove the poor nlotivation level of them to inrprovethe quality of ":village doctors" (This only via training and follow-up with r e p o r t i n g / c o - o r d i n a t i o ni n s t r u m e n t st o o f l l c i a l s i n H o n g y u a n T o w n ) . T a r g e t g r o u p s a r e : l. the Village Doctors 2. the Town Doctors and 3 . w o r n e n t r a i n e d i n b a s i ca n i m a l h e a l t h i s s u e s . Advantlges: o Clear target groups. o I n t e g r a t i o no f l o c a l r l e c l i c i n e sw i t h " w e s t e r n t e c h n o ) o g i e s " . o P r o g r a n r m eq u i t e e a s y t o d e f i n e . o L i k e l y t h a t s o m e t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e sa r e a l r e a d ye x i s t i n g ( A l t h o u g h p l a n n e d , i t w a s r n a d ei r n p o s s i b l et o v i s i t a t o w n d o c t o r a n d h i s w o r k i n g / t r a i n i n g e n v i r o n n r e n t- t h i s m a y n r a k e t h i s a n A - o p t i o n a s w e l l . ) o A t r a i n e r w i t h s o r l e b a s i c k n o w l e d g e o n a n i n r a l h e a l t h a n d h u s b a n d r yw i l l d o m a r v e l l o u st h i n g s ( v e r y r e w a r d i n g ) ( t r y t o g e t e x p e r t t o N e p a l f b r a l o o k a t R u r a l D e v e l o p r n e n tC e n t r e , P o k h a r a / U M N a n d A H I & T P ) Disadvantages: o C o m p e t i t i o n a n d i n c e n t i v e s t r e s s e de n v i r o n m e n t ( b u t t h i s w i l l b e t h e c a s e everywherel ).

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of the in the inrplenrentation Option 4. FO(l shouldtry to refiain fronr any involvement plan. This rneansalso stayingaway frorn the areaswhcre the programmeis scttlement It is too political.A tbreignagencyshould ir))pler))er)ted or on the way of irnplenrcntation. not be involveclin this type oi activities(to take stirndagxinstreal necdsand wantsof will understand. Locll governors population is bevondwhatcanbe expected). However there are a few points in the proposals which seenr quite reasonable: as the disaster plan (-50acre fence for fbdder production and shed). H a v c a d c n r o n s t r a t i o n s e t - u p a t o n e o r a f ' e w w i n t e r q u a r t e r a r e a ' s t o t e s t f - e n c e( i n cornbination wirh yaks), to test so-called irnproved grasscs, to have a shed build and t u s c d / t e s t c (db u i i d i n g s t y l e i l o c a t i o n s i s i z c s e t c . ) . T h i s c a n o n l y b e d o n c i n a r e a w h e r e t h e S c t t l e l n e n tP o l i c y i s n o t i n r p l e n e n t e d a n c ld o e s n o t g o t i r n p l e r n e n t e df o r a c e r t a i n n u m b e r o f

leadersresponsibility to be convincedthatthe adviceis thecorrectone. o sometraining(management skills)can easilybe incorporated. o ternrsof secondnrent can be definedpreciselyand rnaybe a little frustratingjob for a quick temperedperson. Disadvantages: (GFC etc.),which o theremay be a lot of intriguesandhidden-agenda's makeoperatingin that environrnentdifficult (in terrnssafeguards needto b e b u i l ti n ) . o outconleis clifflcultto define. 6.2.6. RECOM M E NDATI ON S Besidethe generalrecornrnendations on rural development activitiesas a whole,including the preparations internallyfbr beinginvolvedin this typeof activities.

vcars. Adv:rnl rrges: o S n r a l l s t a r t b u t w i t h p o t e r ) t i a li r n p a c t . ( c i t h e r a t i c r n e g a t i v eo u t c o t r l e t h e S e t t l e r l r e nIt' o l i c y n r a y b e r e d e f i n e c l ) . o H o w e v e r n o t a l l d e t a i l sa r e y e t c l e a r a g o o d s e t o f e x p e c t c do u t c o t n e sc a n be deflned. activities. o C a n b c d o n e i n c o r n b i n a t i o nw i t h a b o v e t t t c r t t i o r t e d D i s i r r l v rr r ta g e s : o ( l a n b e d r a g g e d i n t h e s c t t l c n t e r t its s L r e( t l t e r c f o r el ) a r t i c i p a t l t si n d e n r o n s t r a t i o nn c e d s t o b e s e l e c t e cvl e t y n t u c h o n n t o t i v i l t i o n ) . L o c a l g o v e r n o r s w i l l r c s p c c tt h i s , a s l o n g a s F O C t l o c s n o t i n t e r l c r c i n t l t e i r n p l e n r c n t a t i o na s s u c h . ( T h i s a c l c l r e s s ct sl r e I r o u s i n gp o t e n t i a la t t h e s a n t c t l n r e .) O p l i o r r 5 . F O C n r a y p l a y a r o l c i n t h c u r a n a g c n ) c not l ' l i r c t o r i c s . ' l - l t i s i s o n l y f u t u r c d r c a n r s , i r u t I c u n s e e t h a t n r a n a g c n l e n ts k i l l s a n d e x p c r i c n c c a r e l a c k r n g . A n l t n a g e t n c n t a d v i s o r n r a y d o a g o o d j o b t o p r o v i d e n r a n a g e n l e nut r o c l e l sl o r t h e a g r o - i n d u s t r i e sk e e p i n g i n n i i n d t h i i t t l t e q L t a n t i t i c so f p r o d u c t s h a s t o i n c r c i r s c f b r r n a k i r t g t h c f a c t o r i e s I n o r r ' c ' f f i c i e n t , w h i l e t h e h c r d s n r e ni s a b l e t o / s h o u l d g e t a r u o r c t a i r p r i c e f o r h i s p r o d u c t s . T h i s i d c a o f n r a n a g c n r e n t / p r o d u c t i oand v i s o r r e l a t e st o t h e h o l d e r o f t h e n r i l k p o w d e r f a c t o r y . ( l ' c r s o n s a n c li n s t i t u t i o n sa r e i n v i t e d t o g i v e g o o d s u g g e s t i o r t os n t h e r n a r r u l h c t u r i n gp r o c e s s , t h e t c c h n i q u c so r e v e n t b r n r a j o i n t - v e n t u r c w i t h o t h e r c o r n p a n i e s .P e r s o r t sg e t r e w a r d e d : w h y n o t a f r i e n c lt o t a k e t h a t r o l e ? ) T h i s c a n o n l y b e d o n e a f t e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i r n e . I ' e o p l e / l e a d e r ss h o u l d f l r s t k n o w F O C , a s I c a n i n t a g i n c t h x t t h e b a s i s t b r f u n c t i o n i n g a s a d v i s o r( l ) i s j u s t t r u s t . B u t t h i s i s t o k e e p i n r n i n d .

A d v a n t rg e s : writesthisit maybe o Whena factory(linkedwith GreenFoodCorporation) in a way it cannotgo tln in alt environntent out of despair.lt operates w h i c ht e n d st o b e n r o r e ' r n a r k o e rt i e n t e d ' . whilc it retnainslocal canbe of'1erccl, o Models/ re-organisation-strategies

-40-

l. Rerrainout of the politicalprogranrnein irnplementation at any cost. The host will in the irnplernentation of understand this, as foreignagencyFOC cannotbe a front-runner policiesheavilyunderdiscussion. This meansthat FOC shouldnot work too directlywith peoplein processof (forced)settlernent, even if part of the plan soundsvery reasonable. FOC has beenshownenorrlrous has given us a look intir trust that the local governnlent their kitchenand given sor)retasteof their politicaldishesfor nornads.Maybeat a latcr stageFOC may do sonrewelfnrework an)orlgthe nornads. 2. Focuson geographical areas,with the help of the County'stop leaders,by-passing sonrt-' policiesare not implenrented other "chickenson the road", wherethe settlernent and will not be irrplenlented for a coLrple of ycars(if ever). 3. Try to incorporatethe (top) leadersby giving thern syrnbolicroles in a kind of (discussing problenrsand progress) monitoring-cornrnittee togetherwith someotheractors in the FOC's progranrme activities.It shouldnot be a steeringcomnrittee. It nraybe good to put thosenrernbers on a payroll of the project/programrne. 4. Be surethat any ProjectDocuments and Agreements are very tied in areaswhereFOC doesnot want to lose any grip. This meanseven small irnplernentation detailsrn sonrc cases;it avoidssurprises afterwards.In a friendlyway, dictatethe rulesof the garne:it helpsthem to understand FOC and its philosophyfor developrnent. FOC is not a business organisation or a companywherebargainingand negotiations are falling in line with each other.FOC is alwaysableto "hide" itselfbehindthe Donor. Negotiations can only startat the small,lessimportantissues. 5. Regarding theoptions: a. The optionscan potentiallybe cornbined,althoughstaff -wise, thereis roorn for two expatsto beginwith: onegrassland/economist specialist and oneanimal husbandry/aninral healthspecialist. It wouldbe goodif oneof the two hadpractical experience trainingadults. b. Discussions with top-leaders on the icleasshouldfirst focuson generalideas: * Only trainingusingexistingGovernnrent tacilities:


Hottgl,uurt Coutttl, Rupid ass?ssnrcntSurycy

Hongyuan County Rapid assassmentSuryay

6.3 Advantages: o low investment. o nluch ntore in control on the what and how with less pressure frotn p o s s i b l e ' c h i c k e no n t h e r o a d ' . o outside local resourcescan be invited ibr contribution against a rewards (incentive) o as contract/agreetrent should draw clear lines the actual physicat working a r e a u n d e r l i n e si t . 'freedorn o more and less frustration' for expats. Disadvantages: o F o r a b e g i n n i n g e x p a t , i t i s r n u c h r n o r e d i f t - r c u l tt o i n f l u e n c e a n e x i s t i n g systent for the good. o W o r k i n g a l o n g s i d e i s p r e s u r t r a b l yn o t a p p r e c i a t e d( e x p a t l n a y b e s e e na s the ethicalwarchdog). o W o r k i n g w i t h o u t o n e ' s o w n b u d g e t i s r r o r e d i f f i c u l t : g o v e r n r l r e n th a s budgetIinritations). o W o r k i n g w i t h a l i n e a g e n c y i s v e r y p o o r t r a i n i n g f o r a n y f u t L r r ek i n d o f F O C u ' o r k - u n i t c e n t r e : ( f i o n r w h e r e t h e p r o g r a n r ) ) e a c t i v i t i e sa n d r n a t e r i a l stock are planned/recorded). o M o r e i n v e s t n t e n t so v e r t h e y e a r s ( a l t l r o u g ha b u i l d i n g s h o u l d n o t b e b o u g h t - b u t t a k e n o n l e a s e- a l o c a l p e r s o ni s b e n e f i t i n g f r o r n F O C , s p r e s e n t ; he is FOC's local 'friend'. o M o r e r n a n a g e r n e nst k i l l s a r e r c q u i r e d f r o l r t t h e e x p a t . o More tieedorn can lead to kingdonr-building and it gets a personal p r o g r a t n t n e ,f b r w h i c h y o u c a n n o t f l n d a s L r c c e s s o rw, h e n e x p a t l e a v e s . (The progranrme should be designed in such zr way that there is roonr for personal interest - lQ to 157o of the tillte at nlost (to provide a closesof satisfaction) but the rernaining part should be designed together with other e x p e r t sa n d t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n . x

A r e a s e l e c t i o n( T h i s i s p a r t l y n o t i n F o c c o n t r o l b u t s o n r e ' c o n d i t i o n s ' c o u l d b e listed - as not to work in too big an area(e.g., up to 20 to 30 herdsmen).

F i n a l c o n c l u s i o n : T h e o p t i o n s l , 2 , a n d 4 . 1 c a n b e c o n t b i n e d a n d a r e r e a l i s t i c a l l yf e a s i b l e w i t h r e a s o n a b l ep r e d i c t i o n so n o u t c o n l e . T h e o p t i o n 3 ( t r a i n i n g o f V i l l a g e H e a l t h D o c t o r s ) i s n r o r e i n l i n e w i t h e x i s t i n g s y s t e n l s ,b u t w i l l b e m u c h n r o r e a c h a l l e n q et o b e i n f ' l u e n t i a li n a positive way (weak environnrent).

ENGINEERING

6.3.1. SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS I. HYDROPOWER 2. WATER SUPPLY 6.3.2. INTERPRETATIONAND DISCUSSIONOF FINDINGS 1. LOCAL CAPABILITY 2. PERCEIVED ELECTRICITY NEEDS 3. PERCEIVED WATER PROBLEMS 6.3.3. OP"TIONS 6.3.4. RECOMMENDATIONS

6.3.1. SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS The engineeringteam visited a numberof hydropowerand water supply schernes all over the countywith the Directorof the CountyHydraulicBureau. It becameapparentthat the engineeringproposalthat had beenpresentedto FOC was part of an ongoinginfrastructure developmentprogramme,to provide water and electricityto each village as part of the overall plan to settlethe nornadicpopulation. The directorstatedthat the county had the ability to implementthis programrne, usingconsultants and contractors from elsewhere in Sichuanwhen necessary: the assistance they soughtfrom FOC was funding. Details of the observations are presentedin Appendixc, and a summaryof eachsectoris given below. l. Hydropower There are 7 hydropowerstationsin the county with a norninaltotal capacityof 2083 kw. Two stationsare out of conrnrission:Sezhai(28 kw) was put out of action by a flood in 1990,and Maiwa (75 kw) in 1991. Bothof theseare isolatedstationssupplyingonty their respectivevillages;Maiwa is now under repair by a Sichuancontractor. Two stationson the Amukeheriver supply1285kw into a grid coveringthe northernpart of the county, includingHongyuantown, whilstthe southernareais suppliedby a transmission line fronr the 150 kw Shuajingsistation. The two remainingstationsare not controlledby the county HydraulicBureau:they are a 500 kw stationat Shuajingsisupplyingrhe animal medicinefactorythere,and a 45 kW supplyto the Longribasheepbreedingstation. The hydrosin the north of the Countyall havereducedor no winter output becauseof low river flows and freezing:HongyuanTown is thereforelimited to three hourselectricityper night during the winter; the industrialusersof electricityare closedduring the winter anyway. By contrastthe two stationsat Shuajingsiare able to operateat full capacityall ye f. The currenthydropower plansof thecountyare givenin Table6.3.1.

48-

-49-


Httng1'uartCouttty,Rupid assessmcntSurvey

able 6.3.1

Ctiuntv Ilvdrouo*'cr Pllns

Yuan/kW

Location

Type of project

Capacity

Maiwa

I{ehabiI itrrtion

75

1.0

r3.300

Anrukar

Expansion

Sezhai Jiangcong nra

Rehabilitation New Exoarrsiort

500 28

2.5 1.0 0.75 t.0 1.2

5,000 35.700 10.000 5.000 4,500

kw

Shuaiingsi Shuajingsi el s e w h e r e

and

Otherrrewprojects

'75

200

I 600

Budget cost l0o vrran

l n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e p l a n s f b r a d d i t i o n a l g e n e r a t i n gc a p a c i t y , t h e r e a r e p l a n s t o e x t e n d t h e t r a n s n r i s s i olni r r es y s t e r na t a c o s t o f 0 . 7 r n i l l i o n I { M 1 3b y : o A 2 5 k n r l i n e f r o n r L o n g r i b a t o A n q u , w h i c l r w o u l d c o n n t : c tt h e n o w s e p a r a t e n o r t l l e r n a n d s o u l . h e r ng r i d s i n t l r e c o u n t r , . o A 1 5 k r n l i n e f i o m L o n g r i b a t o S e z h a i . T h i s i s a v e r y r n u c h c h e a p e ra l t e r n a t i v et o r e h a b i l i r a t i n gt h e S e z h a ih y d r o , b L r tc o u l d o n l y b e d o n e a t i c ' r e x p a n s i o no f t h e S l t u e ji n g s i g c n c r i { t i n gc . r p l c i t y . 2. Water Supplv The survey tearn visited seven piped water suppiy systcnls, ilrost ot' which had been i n s t a l l e d b y t h c c o u n t y w i t h i n t h e p a s t t i v e y e a r s . O u t s t a n r l i n gc o u n t y I ) l a n s i n t h i s s e c t o r a r c t o s u p p l y S e z h a ia n d M a i w a v i l l a g e s ,a t b L r d g c cl o s t s o l ' 1 0 7 , 5 0 0 a n d 1 4 8 , 7 5 0 R M B r e s p e c tvi c l y . One interestingfinding was that Hongyuan Town has a pipcd water distribution systen o p e r a t c db y t h e r n e a t p r o c e s s i n gt a c t o r y , b u t t h a t c o n t a n r i n a t e du , e l l s c o n t i n u e t o b e w i d e l y L r s e tiln t l r e t o \ \ ' n t o a v o i d t h e n l c t e r c h a r g eo f 0 . 4 I L r a n / n r Jt b r c l t ' u n w : r t \ l r .

6.3.2. L\TTRPRETATION

AND DISCUSSrcN OF ITtTYDINGS

l. [,ocal Capnbilit-v The survey has indicatcd that there is the local capilbilily to build, Inainlain and operate w a t e r a n d h y c l r o p o w e rs c h e r n e s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e d o c s a p p e a r t o b e r o o r n t o s t r c n g t h e nt h e p l a n n i n g a n c ld e s i g n o f s u c h s c h e r r e s . C o s t e s t i r n a t i n g o f p r o j e c t s s l r c r r v sw i d e d i s c r e p a n c i e s :t h e t l i l ' l e r e n c e sb e t w e e n c o s t s i n T a b l e s C . l a n d C . 2 c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d s i n r p l y b y i n f - l a t i o n ;t l r c o r i g i n a l b u d g e t f b r M a i w a h y d r o r e h a b i l i t i t t i ow n a s 0 . 1 2 n r i l l i o nR M B , w h i c h w a s t h e n i n c r e a s e dt o 1 . 8 5 n r i l l i o n ,a n d t h e a c t u a l c o n t r a c tp r i c e i s 1 . 0 n r i l l i o n R M B . T h e C o u n t y p l a n s a p p e a r t o i g r r o r ee c o n o m i c r e a l i t i c s . F o r c x a n r p l e t h e b e n c f i t s o f w a t e r s c h e n r e sa r e c o u n t c d o v e r 3 0 y e a r s r v i t h o u t a n y d i s c o u n t i n g t o p r e s e n t v a l u e . T h e h y d r o p o w e r p r o g r a n r n r ei s p r e s e n t e da s a n e s s e n t i a lc o n l p o n c r l t o f t h c c o u n t y ' s s e t t l e r n e n t

50

Hongyuun County Rupid ussessmantSurvey

programrne, without any econonric justification: electricity charges are inadequatettr f i n a n c e t h e e x p a n s i o np r o B r a r n u r e ,a n d n r a y n o t e v e n c o v e r l a b o u r a n d m i r i n t e n a n c ec o s t s ; t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e n o p r i o r i t i s i n g o f l o w c o s t y e a r - r o u n d s c h e m e so v e r | n o r e e x p e n s l v e Isolattd developrnentswhich nray only produce power tbr six rnonths pcr year. h y d r o p o w e r s c h e r n e ss u p p l y i n g v i l l a g e s w i t h o u t a n y i n d u s t r i a l l o a d h a v e a v e r y p o o r l o a d factor, and therefore tend to be unecononric: there has been little consideration of a l t e r n a t i v e ss u c h a s d i e s e l , w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o b e a c h e a p e r m e a n s o f p r o v i d i n g p o w e r f o r only a few hours per day. i t i s n o t a b l e t h a t t h e w a t c r a r r d h y d r o p o w e r s c h e r n e sc o n s t r u c t e di n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h c county have almost all suff-credheadworks problems: o A t S e d i t h e i n t a k e i s i n r n e d i a t e l y d o w n s t r e a n to f a l a n d s l i d e , s o i s r e g u l a r l y blocked by debris; o A t A r n u k a r t h e c l a n rl i i l e d ; o A t M a i w a , A r n u k e h e , S c z h a i , L o n g r i , a n d b o t h l l . a n g k o t rs c l r e n t e st h e t i i v e r s i o n weirs have been oLrtllankedu , n c l e r n r i n e do r w a s h e do u t b y t h e r i v c r s . W h e n a d c l e dt o t h e l a i l u r e o f t h e R a n g k o u w a t e r s c h e n r e st o d e l i v e r w a t e r , a p p a r e n t l yd u c t o i n a d e q u a t eg r a d i e n t i n t h e p r p e s , t h i s a n ) o u n t st o a c a s e t b r s t r e n g t h e n i n gt h e e n g i n c e r i n g d e s i g nc a p a b i l i r y . 2. Perceived Electricitv Necds E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n i s b e i n g p r o n r o t e c ia s a n r e a n s o f e n c o u r a g i n g n o n t a d s t o s c t t l e i n t h c villages: as support for this the caseof Sezhai is quoted, where a population of 1000* in 1 9 9 0 h a s d r o p p e d t o 1 0 0 o f t l c i a l s s i n c e t h e h y d r o f a i l e d . T h e r e r n a y b e o t h e r r e a s o n st b r t h i s , h o w e v e r , s u c h a s f ' e a r sa b o u t a c o n t a n r i n a t e dw a t e r s L r p p l y ,p o o r l o c x l g r a z i n g , a n d t h c a l t e r n a t i v e s c l r o o l i n g a v a i l a b l e n e a r t h e n r o n a s t e r ya t J i a n g g o n g r n a . C o n t r a r y e v i d e n c c i s a v a i l a b l e f r o n r S e d i a n d M a i w a t h a t e l e c t r i t l c a t i o nn r a y n o t b e a s i n r p o r t a n tt o t h e p c o p l e a : ; s u g g e s t e d :S e d i i s a d e v e l o p i n g s e t t l e n r e n tw i t h o u t e l e c t r i c i t y i M a i w a h a s n e v e r h a d l i w i n t e r e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y , a n c ih a s b e e n t o t a l l y w i t h o u t e l e c t r i c i t y t b r t h e p a s t l b u r y e a r s , b L r l there was no indicationthat tlris has effectedthe village population. 3. Perceived Wnter Problems T h e f a c t t h a t S e z h a i v i l l a g e r s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o r n a i n t a i nt l r e i r w a t e r s u p p l y s y s t e n rs u g g e s t : r that the value of clean water is not fully appreciated. The unwillingncss of Hongyuan T o w n r e s i d e n t st o p a y f o r c l e a n w a t e r d e m o n s t r a t e st h e s a n l e a t t i t u d e . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r el c a s e f b r a h e a l t h e d u c a t i o np r o g r a n r n e t o e x p l a i n s u c h b a s i c s .

6.3.3. OPTTONS T h e c o u n t y e l e c t r i f r c a t i o np r o p o s a l sf i r r t l t e n e a r f i r t u r e ( i . e . e x c l L r c l i n gt h e l a r g e r p r o . ; c c l s: r ' S h u a j i n g s i ) h a v e a t o t a l b u d g e t c o s t o i 5 . 9 5 m i l l i o n R M B . N a t i o n a l g ( ) v e r n r n e n tw o u l ( j c o n t r i b u t e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h i s , b u t l o c u l g o v e r n n r e n ti s s t i l l l o o k i n g l b r s o n r e 2 r n i l l i o r ; RMB to finance the work: the county proposrl to FOC is essentiallvlooking for thi:, money. Apart fron the tact that FOC is not a firnding agency, frorn a developmcnr p e r s p e c t i v et h e r e i s n o j u s t i f i c a t i o n f b r g r a n t i n g t h i s r r o n e y , s i n c e : o T h e c o L r n t yi s n o t p o o r a n d c o u l d a f i o r d t o t l n a n c e t h e u , o r k , e i t h e r o u t o f g e n e n r l r e v e n u eo r b y i n c r e a s i n gt h c e l e c t r i c i t y t a r i f f ; o U s i n g g r a n t l i n a n c c i s n o t a s u s t a i n a b l ef o r r n o f d e v e l o p n r e n t , b u t e n c o u r a g e s


Hortgyuutt Counry Rupid usscssr'r(ntSurvc) dependency; o The electrification progranrnle is essentially part of the prograrnrne to settle the n o r n a d i cp o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h F O C s h o u l d n o t b e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n . T h e c o u n r y w a t e r s u p p l y p l a n s i n v o l v e l o w e r c o s t s < z i / s o , z s o R M Bf o r s e z h a i a n d M a i w a ) , b u t s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t sc a n b e m a d e a g a i n s tF O C h e l p i n g t o f i n a n c e t h e r n . o p t i o n s t h a t c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e db y F o c i n t h e e n g i n e e r i n gs e c t o r a r e o u t l i n e d b e l o w . O p t i o n I - S e c o n d r n e u to f a n E x p e r i e n c e d C i v i l E r r g i r r e e r S u c h a p e r s o n c o u l d b e s e c o n d e dt o w o r k i n t h e c o u n t y H y d r a u l i c B u r e a u , t o a s s i s ti n t h e w o r k o f t h e b u r e a u a n d t o g i v e o n - t h e - j o bt r a i n i n g t o i t s s t a f T . Advirntages: o S t r e n g r h e n i n gl o c a l c a p a b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n _ o No large sunrs of rnoney to go astray. o C o n s i s r e n rw i r h F O C p h i l o s o p h y . D i s a d v an t a g e s : o Technical help has not been requestedby the bureau, so there is the risk of F O C e n g i n e e rb e i n g p u t i n a n o f f l c e a n d h a v i n g n o i n r p a c t . o M i g h t b e s e e na s i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t i n gt h e g o v e r n n t e n t ' sp l a n t o s e t t l et h e n o n t a d i cp o p L r l l t i o r r . O p t i o n 2 - S e c o r r d n r c n lo f i r u A h e l r u r l i v e T e c h r r r i l o g i s t There are at least two areas where introduction of new technologies could make a significant irnpact on the lives of local people. a) In the energy sector, the introduction of solar water heaters is likely to be worthwhile in settled areas: solar radiation is high throughout the year; the technology has already been proven in other parts of the world, although sonre nrodif'jcation may be needed to cope with the very low winter ternperatures; the nlanufhcture of solar heaters could be carried out as a snrall-scalelocal industry. b ) I n t h e w a t e r s e c t o r , t h e p r o b l e r n o f c o n t a r n i n a t e dw a t e r s u p p l i e s f b r n o m a d s c o u l d b e tackJed by introducing appropriate portable treatment svstents, e.g. Katadyne filters or the portabie uitra-violet sysrern which is reported to have been rieveloped at Loughborough university water and Engineering tbr Developing countries unit (WEDC). c) In addition to the introduction ol these new technologies, there is a need for a local person to provide a repair and Inaintenanceservice tbr the 300 W solar panels which are widely in use by the nonrads. A l l o f t h e s e s e r v i c e sw o u l d b e m o s t s u i t a b l e f b r p r o r l o t i o n b y a c o n i n r e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e , w h i c h w o u l d b e t h e n r o s t e f f b c t i v e w a y o f e n s u r i n g t h e i r s u s t a i n a b i l i t y :i t i s s u g g e s t e dt h a t a suitably experienced FOC associateshould tlnd one or more local partners to train in each area (there is already a local workshop nraking nie[al wood-burning stoves which could be a suitable partner fbr nraking the solar water heaters).

57

Honlqt,uort CounD, Ropidoss(.tsnuttSu^,ay Advaulages: o Opportunityto help both settledand nontadicpeople. o No largesuursof nloneyto go astray. o Consistenr with FOC philosophy. Disadvnntages: o Not requestedin the Countyproposal. o Perfornrance of solarheatersin Hongyuanwintershasto be proved. o Portablewatertreatmenc systenrs mustnot be introduced withoLrt a parallel healtheducation prograrnme (seeOption3) which may not be acceptable to the authorities(badly nraintainedtllters can be worsethan no water treatment). Option 3 - IlygierreEdrrc:rtion and Protectionof Water Supplies One suitablyexperienced person(experienced in hygieneeducationand/or cornnrunity development) could take on rhis combinedrole, working in conjunctionwith the village healthworkers. A smallbudgetnrightbe required. a) None of the water supply intakesvisited has any forrn of protectionto stop livestock grazingirlrrediatelyupstrearrol the intakeand contarrinating the sLrpply,althoughit seemsto be generallyrecognisedthat wet weather runoff fronr the grazing lands is contaminated.cairncrossand Feacharn(1993) reconrnrend that there should be a minimum l0 nr horizontaldistance betweena watersourceand possiblecontatnination, thereforelivestockshouldbe excludedfron) a strip at leastl0 rr.rwide on eachsideof the sourcestreatnand extencling (say)at least500 rn upstrearrr. This land mightbe used for "disaster hay" and/orsociallorestry. b) The typical local well has a protectiveslab some 0.5 m aboveground level, but is uncoveredand vulnerableto dirt being kicked in or childrenfalling in; this could be improvedwithoutinfringinglocaltaboosby addinga 0.8 m high masonrywall around the well opening. c) Simplehygieneeducation hasthe potentialto effectnrajorirnprovernents in the livesof local people:adviceon washinghandsand safe drinking water could prevenrmany illnesses, arnongst boththe settledand nornadiccomnrunities. Advantages: o Opportunityto helpboth settledand nornadic people. o could be integrated with proposars for "disaster hay", fbrestryandtraining of villagehealthclinicworkers. o No largesurnsof ntoneyto go astray. o Consistent with FOC philosophv. Disadvantnges: o Not requestedin the Countyproposal. o Authoritiesmay not,accept proposalfor workingdirectlywith the cornmunity. Option 4 - Hongyuan Town Se.rver:rgc A suitablyexperienced civil/environnrental engineercouldbe seconded to work up detailed proposalslor dealingwith HongyLrart's seriousIack of water and wastewatcr treatnrcrlt -53-


LIott gt,uutt Cttuuty Rup i d uss t'ssnc nt Survc \, Ilong;'uan Counry Rupid assassm(ntSurvey

6.4 t a c i li t i e s . Advantages: o U r g e n t n e e d t o a v o i d p u b l i c h e a l t h p r o b l e n r sa s H o n g y t r a nT o w n g r o w s . o O p p o r t u n i t y t o p l a c ea n e x i s t i n g F O C A s s o c i a t e s . Disadvantages: o Not requestedin the County proposal. o Apparently not in County plans. o Detailed report by Per Johanssonof the Wetland Research Project has not been seen and may already have covered the work. o Creates expectation that FOC will be able to secure the f u n d s t o i r n p l e r n e n ta n y p r o p o s a l s . o S e r v e st h e r i c h e s t s e g m e n to f t h e c o t n r t t u n i t y . O p l i o n - 5- W a t e r Q u a l i t y R e s e : r l c h Water quality problems are suspectedor known to exist downstreatil of Hongyuan Town, in the Sezhai area and at certain water sources regularly used by nourads. Basic research into what is in the water at diff'erent tirnes of year could be followed by an epiderniological s t u d y ( i f r e l i a b l e r e c o r d s f b r a s u l f i c i e n t l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o na t r i s k c a n b e o b t a i n e d ) , l e a d i n g t o r e c o n r n r e n d u t i o nvsi a t h e v i l l a g e h e a l t h w o r k e r s o n s u i t a b l ep r e v e n t a t i v en r e a s t t r e s .T h e research could also be used as part of the docurnetrtation of the need for funding proper sewerage for Hongyuan Town.

Advlntirges: o Opportunityto placean existingFOC Associirtes. proposed uncler with personnel o Couldwork in association Option2 s , 3 a n d4 . o No largesunrsof nroneyto go astray. Disadvantages: in Countyproposal. o Not requested o Work may alreadyhavebeendoneby tltc County o Epiderniological Bureau,whichrefuseddatato the surveytealll. by theauthorities as sensitive o Work maybe regarded use. o Risk of acadernic studvwith no Dractical

6. 3.4 - RECOMMENDATI ONS with FOC's philosophy and as beingcorlsistent Options1,2 and 3 canail be recounrended withoutseriousdisadvantages if Hongyuanacceptsthern;however,FOC cannotcommit itself to theseoptionsbefbreit has personnelavailablewith the requiredexperience.The main advantages to FOC of Options4 and 5 are that they errableAssociatesto be placed, but the signiticant disadvantages shouldnot be ignored.

FORESTRY

6.4.I. INTRODUCTION 6.4.2. FORESTRYBUREAU PROPOSAL I. SOCIAL FORESTRYCOMPONENT 2. FOCUSAREA 3. SHUAJINGSIFORESTDISTRICT TIIAININC 6 . 4 . 3 .S O C I A LF O R E S T R Y 6 . 4 . 4 .C O S T I N G 6.4.5 TREE TENURE AND USERRIGHTS 6.4.6. FORESTRYBUREAU STAFF AND EQUIPMENT 6.4.7. MANAGEMENT PLANS FOR OLD GROWTH FORESTAND NIiw PLANTATION 6.4.8. SILVICULTUREAND MANNGEMENT I , S P E C I E SC H O I C E 2. NURSERY 3. SEED 4 . G I S A N D NF F O R E S ' | A T I O S NI T ES E L E C T I O N 5. LOGCINC 6. RESEARCH 7. FIRE CONTROL 8, WILDLIFE 6 . 4 . 9 .I N F O R M A T I O NL A C K I N G 6 . 4 . 1 0 o. P T r o N S 6 . 4 .t I . R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S

6.4.1. INTRODUCTION Forestsare an irnportantresourcein any country.They not only supplytinrberand othcr products,but they play a vital rolc in cnvironrnental protection,and haveeconomicantl socialsignificance. Forestsirt morrntain arL'asare particularlyinrportantbecause they: ir) protectsoil frorn rain and wind; b) enhanceagriculturalproduction;c) providcproducts, goods and servicesfor peasantlirnrers and; d) protect downstrearrareas1'ronrexcessivu floodingandotherharrnfullluctuations in streanrflow. This is particLrlarly irnportant in tlr,-' fiagile mountainsof SouthWesternChina, where high intensity,long-duration raini;rll. extremevariationsin land fornr, stâ&#x201A;Źepstreanrgradients,earthtrernors,nrASs nrovelnents, landslidesand other natural Irazardsare comrnon. In these areas, accelerated foresl degradationcausesadverseeft-ects not only in the uplandsbut alsodownstream. South-western China was a very inrportantforest region,and it still containstoday 30% o1' the nation'sgrowingstock.It hastreensubjectto accelerating defbrestation sincel9-50.ln 1950 nracro-scale tinrberproductionenterprises were established. In SichuanProvincc. alone,as a resultof morethan30 yearsof intensiveexploitation, rnostlyfronr the Western mountains,forest resourcesare exhaustedin nrany accessibleplaces,and the torestcovcr has decreasedfront 30%(19-50's) to l4%(1980's). As late as 1986 Chinesefi)rester\ p r o v i d e dt h e f o l l o w i n gs t a t i s t i cfsb r S i c h u a nP r o v i n c e : A n n u a lt ' e l l i n g , 3 0m i l l i o n n r l ; Annualgrowth, l-5rrillion rttJl Restrurce Iite, l0 years!(ltichardson,1990)

5-5 -54


Httttt|uurt Crturttt'Iltpid us.stssnrcrtt Survc| i \ l t h o u g h t h e a r e a o f i n t e n s i v ee x p l o i t a t i o n n r a y b e s n r a l l , t h e i n f l u e n c e o n t h e e n v i r o n r n e n t h a s b e e n r a p i d . U p l a n d e r o s i o n h a s l e d t o e x t r e n r e l y h i g h s e d i n r e n tl o a d s i n r n a n y o f t h e r e g i o n ' s n v e r s . E a c h y e a r t h e Y e l l o w a n d Y a n g t z e R i v e r s , c o n r b i n e d , d i s c h a r g e2 , 0 9 5 M I o n s o f s i l t ( R i c h a r d s o n , 1 9 9 0 ) . S o i l e r o s i o n h a s c a u s e ds e < l i r n e n t a t i oann d s i l t a t i o n d a n t a g e t t r r g 5 g * o 1 t r , h y d r o - e l e c t r i cp r o j e c t s , a n d i r r i g a t i o n a n d d o n r e s t i c s u p P l y n e t w o r k s . I t h a s a l s o l e d t o a n i n c r e a s ei n f l o o d f r e q u e n c y , I o s s o f c r o p s , p r o p e r t y a n d l i v e s ( T a c k e , 1 9 9 3 ) . -fwo t l o o d s o n t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r ( i n 1 9 8 1 a n d 1 9 8 3 ) u n d e q r i n n e dt h e r e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e n \ \ ' a t e r c o n s e r v a t i o n , l a n d u s e a n d t b r e s t r y a n d r e s u l t e d i n a n a c k n o w l e d g e r n e n tt h a t delbrestation had played sonre part (Richardson, 1990). As a result, investment in r c t o r e s t a t i o nr v a s s t e p p c d u p a n d r n o r e a t t c n t i o n u , a s t o c u s c d o n r i v e r h e a c l u , a t e r sS. i n c e 1 9 8 , 1t h e t b r e s t a r e ' a so f S i c h u a n h a v e c e a s e ctl o d e c l i n e , l ' r o r n 1 9 8 4 t o 1 9 8 8 a n a v e r a g eo f i 1 1 . 1 0 0 h a . o f f b r c s t w e r e a c l d e de a c h y e i r r ( L i , 1 9 9 - l t . A l r h o u g h t h i s i s e n c o u r a g i n g ,n r u c h o f t h e e r r t p h a s i sh a s b e e n o n c o n r n e r c i a l s p e c i e si n t l ) e p l a i n s . M o r e n e e c l st o b e d o n e i n t h e hi l l s . S i n c e t l t c e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s , f b r e s t a t i o np l o j e c t s i n h i l l s h a v e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i s e ctlh e n e e d s a r r d s o u g l r t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o no f l o c a l p e o p l e . A t t h e R i o " E a r t h s u r n u r i t " ( G r u b b e t . a l . , 1 9 9 3 & K c a t i n g , 1 9 9 3 ) ,w h i c h C l r i n as i g n c da s p a r t o i A g e n d a2 l ( - 1 r dt o l 4 t h J u n e 1 9 9 2 ; , t l t e v i t a l r o l e t l f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e , w o r n c n , y o u t h , a n d o t h e r l o c a l c o r n r n u n i t i e s. i n c r t v i r o n r t t e n t a lI l I I n i l g e D l e n t a n c l c l c v e l o p n r e n t( i n c l t r c l i n t r e l b r e s t a t i 0 n ) w a s h i g h l i g h t e d ( A g e n d a2 l i t e n r 1 0 . 2 0 , 2 1 , & 2 2 ) . ' f h c A g c n d l a l s o c l i s c r r s s tehse s t a t e ' sr o l e i n : a ) c t l a b l t l t g l o c a l p c o p l e ' s c n t p o w e n n e n t ; b . ; r e c o g n i s i r r ge n t l s L r p p o r t i n gt h e i r i d e n t i t y , i r t d i g e n o t r sk n o w l e c l g c ,i n t e l l e c t u a lp r o p e r t y r i g h t s : r n d c u l t u r e a n c l ; c ) i n e n a b l i n g t h e i r f u l l p l | r t i c i p a l i o ni n t h e d e v e l o p u t e n tp r o c e s s . -l'here

i s r e s o n a n c ew i t h t h i s i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f C h i n c s c s c h o l a r s a n d l b r e s t c r s . L i ( 1 9 9 3 ) r c ' c o t t l n l e t t d st h c p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t j o n i n r e f o r e s t a t i o r ri n t h e S W C h i n : r n r o L r n t a r na r e a s . L o n g a n d C h e n ( 1 9 9 4 ) r e c o r t r u t e n ct h i a t i n d i g e n o u sk n o w l e d g e b e u s e d t b r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e n l a n a g e n r c n t .u s e i s b e i n g n r a d e o f R u r a l R a p i d A p p r a i s a l ( R R A ) t e c h n i q u e s i n s e v e r a l p a r t s o f t h e Y a n g t z e h e a d w a t e r ss h e l t e r t b r e s t a r e a t o u n d c r s t a n d t h e n e e c l so f t h e l o c a l p e o p i e , t o r c s o i v e p o t e n t i a i c o n i l i c t s o f i r r t e r c s ta r r d i n v o i v e t i r e n r i n r c f b r c s t a t i o n ( D u S 1 9 9 1 a1 n d Z o u H 1 9 9 3 ) . l { o n g y L r e nC - o L r n t vi s s i t L r a t c di r r t h e c c n t r c o f I h c A b a T i b c t a n a n t l e i a n g N i r t i o n a l i t i e s A u t o r . r o n t o L r[s' r c f e c t u r c . T h c c o u n t y w a s e s t a b l i s l r c di n A u g u s t 1 9 6 0 . H o n g y u a n T o w n ( K a c h u d o i n T i b c t a n ) i s s i t L r a t c di r t t h c F l a l a r r ag r l s s l a n t l . T l r c ' w h o l e C o u r r t y a d r n i n i s t e r s9 t o w n s , 2 t o w t t s h i p s ,a n d 3 3 v i l l a g e s . l t i s l o c i r t e d i n ( h e h e a c i w a t e r so f ( r i b u r a r i e so f b o t h t l r e Y a n g t z e a n d Y e l l o w R i v e r s a r t d h a s a n e l e v a t i o no f b e t w e e n3 , 2 1 0 a n d 4 , 8 5 7 n r e t r e s .l l c o r r r p r i s e s8 , 4 4 0 k r r r 2 . P a s t u r er e p r e s e n t s9 2 o / oo f t h e c o u n t y a n d l b r e s t l a n d 5 . 8 % . F o r e s t c o v c r h x s d r o p p e d t o o t t l y 5 . 4 % a n d l h i s h a s r c s L r l t e di n h i g h s i l t l o a d s , r c d u c e c ls t o c k raising ability (grass procluction, carrying capacity), reduced agricultural production, i n c r e a s e d d e s e r t i t l c a t i o n , r e d u c e d e c o l o g i c a l b e n c f l t , a n d r c d L r c e c pl r o c l u c t s , g o o c l s a n d services. 6.4.2. TIIE FORI]57'RY BUREAU PROPOSAL T h c P e o p l e ' s C i o v e r n n t e no ( f H o n g y L r a nC o u n t y i s s c c k i r r g: i s s i s t a n c et o p l a n [ 2 0 , 0 0 0 h a o i f b r e s t i n t b u r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s( " s y s t e n r s " ) .S i n c e t h e p r o p o s i r lw a s w r i t t e n , t h e C h a l o n g a r e a has bcen adcled to the otlrer fbur "systcnls" (areas), as part of it lies irr the yanBtze

56-

HortgyuanCounryRapidusscssmant Survcy catchmentand concernis beingexpressed over the Three Gorgesproject.The rationalefor forestationis as fbllows: a) There are not nrany forestsin the (foLrr) system(area), but they are mainly distributedin the river valleysof the White and the Black rivers, tributariesof the Yellow River, and the Suorno River, - a tributary of the yangtze River system.They not only servean importantfunctionas water-conserving rivers of the upper Yellow and YangtzeRivers, but also contributemuch to the industrial and agriculturalproductionof the middleand lower reachesof the two rivers. b) There is low forestcoverageand unevendistribution.The presentforestsin the cotlnty are mainly concentrated on the transitionalbelt betweenthe Southwest and the hilly plateau.In the Northwest,especiallyin the area to the west of the upperand middlereaches of the WhiteRiver,thereis virtuallyno high forest. In principal the proposal is thought out, but spoilt by minor mathematicalerrors and onrissions.It is reminiscent of a 1960'sstyle top-downblue print end-state project.It emphasisescommercialand environmentalforestry, but the subsistenceneeds and the participationof the local peopleappearto be irrelevant.The stake-holders appearonly to be the Governrnent, IndustryandAgriculture. l. SocialForestrvConrnorrent civen the current global attentionon social forestry and peoples'participationby international institutionsand the donor conrmunity,it is considerednecessary to add a social forestry componentto the comrnercialand environntental cornponents and to recognisethe local peopleas stake-holders. SocialForestryshouldincludeboth the wage and subsistence needsof settlers,ago-pasturalists and pasturalists. In discussion with the Forestry Bureau (FB), they were not opposedto social forestry, but indicate<tthat they lackedthe fundingand training.Furtherirrvestigation needsto be done into the placeof forestrygoodsand services in the livelihoods ofpastoral,agro-pastoral anclsettledpeoples. 2, FocusArea The costof establishing sheltertbrcstin fbur areas(costingin excessot'66 nrillionRMB) would excludeall potentialdonorsapart from the World Bank or some UN organisations. This would involveboth Hongyuancounty and Foc in protractedlobbyingin Beijing, requirea major feasibilitystudy,and would be incompatible with the development vision (SeeSection2.5) of the teamand the spirit of Agenda21. There are very real dangersof 'elitecapture' of funds,andof fLrrther nrarginalisation and disenfranchising of thepoor, the subsistence sectorand wonten. GivenFOC's inexperience in development activity,thereareadvantages in considering one areafrom the proposal(of say 5,000 ha over l0 years)in an easyareawlrere the FB have someexperience. This would allow FOC to approachthe bilateralaid conmunity for any funding,only requireHongyuanCountyand FOC ro lobbyin Chengdu,:rndallow FOC to establishcredibilitybeforeconsideringdifficult areas. 3. ShuaiingsiForestDislrict This area is locatedin southernHongyuancounty, and coversan area of 97,1g5 ha. (12.6% of the county'srotal)of which the foresrcover is 24,393.43lra (25.1% of the area)."ForestLand" comprises 26,084.3ha (26.84%of the area).It is locatedro the sourh

- 5 ' 7-


flongt,uanCountyRupiduss?ssnailSurvey

HongyuanCountfRapidass?ssmcnt Survey

nrountains of the Chazhenliangzi on the upperreaches of the SuomoRiver (a tributaryof the DaduRiver).It hasnarrow,precipitous river beclsand rushingwaters.It hasa growing stockof timber:3,306,1'78n3 65.97oof thecounly'stotal).

subsistence sectoris not excluded.Userrightsto tbrestproducts(for homeconsumption) or for animal grazing are renrarkablyrelaxed. The only limitations are live trees, young plantationsand areasselectedfor natural regeneration.Cornpensationis given to users when traditionalgrazingland is convertedto forest.

In additionto l)eingthe easiestareain HongyLran County to grow treesand the areawhere the FB have nrost experience,a forestationproject of'lbrs the prospect of addressing Lrnemployrnent in SouthHongyuan,of posingInininralthreatto other land users,and of addressing the w'orsterosionin thecounty(usingCAS criteria). Shuajingsi Adrninistrative Districtand RangkouAdministrative Districtare both atypicalof Hongyuan Cotrnty in different ways. Rangkou resenrblesHongyuan in its ethnic corrrposition and rn the Iivelihoodstrategies of its people,but its cljnrateis a little different. lt has a wanner yearlyaveragetenrperature and it has nrorerain thln HongyuanTown. 'fhere wasirrsLrftlcicnt datato deternrine if Ilangkoulrada binrodalrainfallpattern. Shuajingsi is dissirrilarin its ethnicconrposition, and the livelihoodstrategies of its peoples its clinrate. Shuajingsihad over 83% Han Chinese, 53% ol its populationare agro/agro-pastoralists who grewcropsfor cashor hon)econsunrption. It is wetterand hasa wan)rerycarly averagethan Hongyuan.lts rainfall is binrodalwith peaksin July and Sr'pternber. l'hc Si-tupeoplewho live in Shuajingsi areJiarong,but tbr politicalreasons all theTibetanpeoples whenI askedif there are put together.In both RangkouandShuajingsi, wereany Jiarongpresent,I wastold thattherewereonly "ArudoTibetans". 6.4,3,S0CIAL FORESTRYTRAINING "SocialForestry"as a tleld of studyor research is still in its intancyin China. A social (l;rrgelywith Ford Foundation tbrestrynetworkhas only very recentlybeenestablished funding)and fbrestryschools(e.g. Dujiangyuan) haveonly very recentlybegunto teach sonreof the conceptsinvolved.Most lorestersin Chinado not havethe "social"skillsto inclucle"sociirltbrestry"conrponcnts.'l'lre Dircctorof HringyuanCountyForcstryBurcau asked "What clo nonradshave to do with tbrestry?".Whcn I replied that I had seen tlrewoodoutsidenomadtentsand readof Yak eatingwillow and rhododendron fodder,he said, "We r)rr)sttalk to the AgriculturllDepartment." He Inusthavedrivenpastheapsof tlrewood outsidenonradtents Inxny tirnes,but his tr:riningcausedhinr to filter out fbrestryneeds.It is recognised subsistence that if SocialForcijtrywere(o be addedfurther trainingmay be required. 6.4.4. COSTING The FB appcaredto be Lrntarniliar with accoLrnting tools useclfbr cornputingflnancial viabilityover tirne.(NarnelyIRR, NPV, NDR) On the basisof tiguresgiven, on typical sites in SoLrthHongyuan,with Fir/Spruce,in cornnrcrcialplantations,I was able to concludethat the IRR would be approxinrately 5.2% (Sec Appendix D). Althoughthe proposalrnajorson the environrnental role of the proposedtbrestation,no figuresare availableregardingerosiondecrease or watercapacityincrease, and no environmental cost benefitanalysishasbecnconclucted. This is worthyof lirrtherinvestigirtion. 6,4.5. TREE l'ENURE AND USERRIGITT-S Legally there appcarsto be nothingpreventingeachvillage having its own cornmunity forest(the trees,not the land).The legislirtion hasa comnrercial orientation,althoughthe

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6.4.6. FORESTRYBUREAU STAFF AND EQUIPMENT Out of a staff complimentof 64, 58 were in position.The offices were adequate,but very basic.They appearedto lack basicmensurationand surveyingequipmentand statedthat the mostadvancedequipmentthey possess were calculators. 6.4.7. MANAGEMENT PLANSFOR OLD GROWTH FORESTAND NEW PLANTATIONS The age structureof the forestsis disproportionateand there is a lack of young and semi-mature forest(In the systenlarea95% of the forestareasare over matureand3.5% are mature).This is a resultof mining (the best)in the past and inadequate planting(33 ha/yearsince 1957)(5?0). HongyuanCountyhas requested help in nrakinga Inanagenrent plan to developits old growth fbrestsand for its new plantations. 6.4,8. SILVIC ULTU RE A N D MANAGEM ENT l. SpeciesChoice The FB staff exhibitedextrerreconservatism,with respectto specieschoiceand appeared unwillingto considerother optionsapartfrom Fir, Spruceand Willow (This might be a result of top down comnrandstructure- []ost governmentforest departrnents don't encourage their staff to experintent). Sonresilviculturaltrials had beenconductedin the 1960's,but seerningly all the species thathad beentried had failed.A list of failedspecies was not available.If the airn is water conservation capacity,Oak forest is betterat conservingrnoisturethan Fir or Spruce(Lei, 1992).Oak is rnuchntoreof a multipurpose providingmorecuts,goodsand services species thanFir or Spruce.Quercusserneca4rifolia is suggested.Piceaasperatashowsthe nrost prornisein ternrsof productioncornparedto other Spruces(JiangH. 1992).Researchhas shownthat thereis a closeassociation between volunreand soil volunreweight,soil ntoisture,land forrn, altitude,slopeand pH. Furthcr investigationis required. 2. Nurserv Althoughthere nrightbe economies of scaleproducingseedlingsin large nurseries, this doesnot enhancerelationswith the localcomrnunity.Smallcomtnunitynurseries may pro rata be more expensive,but they encourageparticipationwith the local people. 3. Seed Currentlythe FB purchase all their seedrequirenrents and they haveno seedcollectionor seedtestingfacilities.Sonrecost savingscould be madeif they had their own equipment and testingfacilitiesand through-sales to othercounties.This would requireequipment and training. 4. GIS and AfforestationSite Selection GeographicInformationsystem computersoftware(GtS) gives us the ability of using Boolean logic to select at'forestationsites that cause minimum conflict with the other -59-


H o n y \ u a rt Ctt u ntl' R up i d asse.tJlttrr, S'irrrt'r

HongyuanCountyRapidastassmailSurvey ';take-holders. Unfortunately this could not be optinrisedbecauseit was not possibleto ,r[rtaina grassland nrap,and alsobecause the place,if any, it was not possibleto ascertain oi agro-fbrestryor silvi-pasturein the livelihoodstrategies of the people.Somesort of ideal ';itecould be fornrulatedfbr the threeforesttvoes: Cornrnercial Forest a) NE, SE or E aspect b) More than 500rn frorn water courses c) On slopes less than 45 deg d) Areas larger than 200 ha e ) O n n o n a g r i c u l t u r a ll a n d f) Ort poor or non grazing land g) 2km frorn villages

.

7. Wildlife T h e F o r e s t r y B u r e a u h a s r e q u e s t e da s s i s t a n c ei n c o n d u c t i n g a w i l d l i f e c e n s u s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s i n l p o r t a n t a n d a n e c e s s a r yp r e - r e q u i s i t ef o r b i o d i v e r s i t y m a n a g e t n e n t ,I ( S t u d l e y ) l a c k t l r c expertise. FOC may need to approach a wildlife expert. 6.4, 9. I N FORMATI ON LACKI NG 1 ) A g e c l a s sp y r a n i i d d a t a 2) Sonre meterological data -water balance 3) If forest is increased frorn 25% to 35 % rvhat js the effcct on a) water conservation capacity b ) E r o s i o n a n d s i l t a t i o nr e d u c t i o n 4 ) T h e i n r p o r t a n c eo f t r e e s , N { F P a n d f o r e s t t o p c o p l e 5)'frees on grazing land 6 ) S i l v i - p a s t u r e( p r o t e c t i o n ) 7) Agro-forestry (prorection)

I)rotec(iorrFores( a ) 5 0 0 r n e i t l r e rs i d e o f m a j o r w a t e r c o u r s e s b) Steep eroded areas c) Agro-lbrestry ?? d ) S i l v i - p a s r u r e? ? Socill Irolestry ( c o n s i d e rt h e w a g e a n d s u b s i s t e n c en e e d so f t h e n o n r a d s ,a g o - p a s t o r a l i s t ss, e t t l e d Tibetan and Han) a) Areas within 2knr of villages b ) A g r o - f o r e s t r y ? ? ( o n a g r i c u l t u r a ll a n d ) c) On poor or non grazing land

I ' h e r e i s n o q u e s t i o n t h a t G I S t e c h n o l o g y w o u l d g r e a t l y a s s i s t i n t h e m a n a g e m e n to f o l d ; r o w t l r a r r dn e w p l a n t a t i o r r s .

i.l=!scr!.c

6. Fire Control Research indicates that fire towers are not cost effective and engender the wrong mcssagcs to the comrnunity at large. If the community is incorporated into fbrest rnanagemenr through peoples participation they are more likely to protect their vested interests.

'Irees

N { o s t o f t h e t e l l i n g a n d l o g g i n g i s b e i n g c o n d l r c t e di n C h a l o n g D i s t r i c t . are being c l e a r - t e l l e d , i . e . a l l t h e t r e e sa r e b e i n g r e n o v e d . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , p r o v i d i n g t h c f o r e s t i s n r o r e t h a n 2 0 0 h a , t h e s l o p e i n l e s s t h a n 4 5 d e g r e e s ,a n d r n o r e t l r a n 5 0 0 n r . f r o u l w a t e r c o u r s e s , there is no nraxinrum size to the f'ellingcoup. Given the clirnate, the slopesand the soil t y p e s , t h i s i s a r e c i p e f o r s e r i o u se r o s i o n a n d i t n r a k e sr e f o r e s t a t i o nv e r y d i f f i c u l t . t o g g i n g i s n a i n l y d o n e m a n u a l l y a n d f e l i e d l o g s , a f t e r b e i n g c r o s s - c u ta r e e i t h e r r o l l e d d o w n t h e h i l l o r p u t o n c h u t e s . A l p i n e " s k y l i n e " l o g g i n g s y s t e n r sa n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y f r i e n d l y logging systems that limit the size of the felling coup are available in China (we saw s e v e r a lN W o f W e n c h u a n ) . W h e n I a s k e d w h y t h e y w e r c n o t u s e d i n C h a l o n g I w a s t o l d t h a t t h e y l a c k t h e r n o n e ya n d t r a i n i n g . 5. Rt,seitrclt Nlost of the researchappears to have been done in the 1960's. With the advancesin p r o p a g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e sa n d t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f g l o b a l l i t c r a t u r e , s r n a l l l i r n i t e d n u r s e r y a n d s i l v i c r r l t u r l r lr c s u a r c l rt l e s e r v e ss o n l e a t t e n l i o n .

6.4.10. OI'TIONS Oplion I - Shelter Forestil)esert Controt Proposll T h e p e o p l e ' s g o v e r n r n e n to f H o n g y u a n C o u n t y a r e s e e k i n ga s s i s t a n c et o p l a n t 2 0 , 0 0 0 h a o l ' l b r e s t i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s ( " s y s t e r n s " ) .S i n c e t h e p r o p o s a l w a s w r i t t e n t h e C h a l o n g a r c a has been added to the othcr four "systems" (areas), as part of it lies in the )'anStzc c a t c h r n e n ta n d c o n c e r n i s b e i n g e x p r e s s e do v e r t h e T h r e e G o r g e s p r o j e c t . Advtrntagcs: o Rapid impact o E c o n o m i e so f s c a l e o I n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t r y p o t e n t i a l( s a w m i l l s , p u l p r n i l l s , w o o d p r o c e s s i n g ) o H i g h p r e s t i g ed i s a d v a n t a g e s Dis:rdvantages: o Difflcult to lirnd o M a j o r f e a s i b i l i t ys t u d y r e q u i r e d o F O C a n d H o n g y u a n C o u n r y l o b b y i n g r e q u i r e di n B e i j i n g o D a n g e r so f c l i l e c a p t u r e o D a n g e r s o f f u r t h e r m a r g i n a l i s a t i o na n d d i s e n f r a n c h i s e n r e notf t h e p o o r a n d suDsrs(encesector.s o S a d d l e dw i t h a n t a i o r b a n k a s c n c l a C)ption 2 I t i s s r r g g c s r e dt h a t a ) - O n l y o n e e a s y " s y s t e r n "a r e a b e c o n s i d e r e d b ) - A s o c i a l f o r e s t r y c o r n p o n e n tb e i n c l u d e d a n d t h e p e o p l c s p a r t i c i p a t i o ni n c o r p o r a t e d . O f t h e a r e a s b e i n g o f f e r e d t h c " S o u t h e r n W a t e r C o n s e r v a t i o nS h c l t e r F o r e s t S v s t c n r " a r c u

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ol -


J/1r1' llrtrt.lt uan Crturttt' Rttpil d.fr('.\.r/r1('/lf

ITotutl'uattCountyRapid dss(tsttt(trlSurvcl

irr Shu:gingsi Forest District off'ers the most potential. The County have requested assistancein 500 ha of afforestation over 10 years. Shuajingsi Forest District comprises 'ihurjingsi Adnrinistrative District and Rangkou Adnrinistrative District Supplementary c ( ) n r p o n e n t si n c l u d e : - N u r s e r i e s , t r a i n i n g , a s e e d l a b / c o l l e c t i o ns t a t i o n , a l p i n e l o g g i n g , o l d : r r o w t h a n d p i a n t a t i o nn r a n a g e n r e npt l a n , r e s e a r c h ,a f l r e t o B ' e r . .\dvllrtagcs: o I t w i l l a l l o r v F O C t o g a i n e x p e r i e n c ea n d c r e d i b i l i t y o I t w i l l b c e a s i e rt o s e c u r ef u n d i n g ( b i l a t e r a la i d ) o It will only require lobbying in Chengdu o M o r e o l a g r a s s - r o o l sf o c u s p o s s i b l e o l r , l o r ef r e e d o r no f i n r p l e n r e n t a t i o n o lr.rse of Af-forestation o FB have nrost experience tirere o A d d r e s s e st h e n ) o s t s e r i o u se r o s i o n ( u s i n g C A S d a t a ) o A d d r e s s e st h e n r o s t s e r i o u su n c r n p ) o y r l r ' n t o Training need o P o t e n t i : r lt o r s o c i a l f o r e s t r y a n d p e o p l e sp l r t i c i p x t i o n o G r e a t e r t u r r d i n gp o t e n t i a l o T r a d i t i o n o i a g r o - t b r e s t r v ,b L r tl a c k o i r c s e a r c h D i s ad r ' : rn t : r g e s : o Degreeof popular supportunknown 'l-oo n r a n ye l e r l e n t s o o U n c l e a r s t a t L r os i s o c i a l l b r e s t r y o I n a d e q L r a tree s e r r c h ( w h a t w o r k s , h o * , n c c r l c d ) o N o t a n e r 1 > r e s s ende e d o Lack oi treining o Degree of political will unknown o D a r r g e r so i b i l a t e r a l a i d " s t e e r i n g " o D a n g e r so f l o n g t e r m c o m m i t m e n t Option 3 F - O [ ] a s s i s t st h e F B b y e s t a b l i s h i n ga t h r e e y e a r P i l o t S c h e r n c ( p o s s i b l y l e a d i n g a t s o m e s t a g e o n t o s o n r e e l e r n e n t so f o p t i o n 2 ) . T h e S c h e r n es h o u l d h a v e a t o w n o r c l u s t e r f o c u s , : r n d c o n r p r i s e a c t i o n r e s e a r c h( i n s o c i a l f o r e s t r y ) , l i n r i t e d a l l b r e s t a t i o n ( s a y 1 0 0 h a v e a r ) , r L s s i s t r n cr cv i t l rr n a n a g e n r e rprlta n s ,t r a i n i n ga n i l I i r n i t e dc q u i p r r r c nnt c c d s . A tlvlrntlrgcs: o AIIows FOC to startsrlall and expartd o Allows IrOC lo explore rrally current Lrnknowns o Does not commit FOC to too rnuch, for too long o Allows FOC to developits capacity o A d d r e s s e ss o n r eo f t h e f e l t n e e d so f t h e F l l D i - s i r dv a n t n g e s : o P o s s i b l ed i s a p p o i n t r n e n t o Further deforestatron o N e g l i g i b l c i n t p a c to n e r o s t o l l o N e g l i g i b l ci n r p e c to n w r t e r c o n s c n ' r L t i d n o N e g l i g i b l e i n r p a c to n u n e n r p l o y n r e n t o N e g l i g i t r l ei r r p s c t o n t h e Y a n g t z e R i v e r c a t c h n r e n t

-62 -

6.4. 1 I. RECO IITM EN DAI'IO N S Pilot Scheme I t i s r e c o n r n t c n d e dt h a t F O C a s s i s t st h e H o n g y u a n C o u n t y F o r c s t r y B u r e a u b y c s t a b l i s h i r r g a t h r e e y e a r P i l o t S c h e r n c( p o s s i b l v ) c a d i n g a t s o n r c s t a c . eo D l o s o r l l e e l c n r e n t so f o p t i o n 2 ) . T h e S c h c n r e s h o u l d h a v e a l o \ \ ' n o r c l u s t e r f b c u s , a n t l c o n r p r i s e a c t i o n r e s e a r c h( i n s o c i l t ) f b r c s t r y ) , l i r r t i t e d a f f o r e s t a t i o n( s a y 1 0 0 h a y e a r ) , a n ( l a s s i s t a n c ew i t h r r r a n a g e r t t e nPt l a n s . t r a i n i n ga n d l i r n i t e de q L r i p l r r c n ' ncte c l s . T h e P i l o t s c h e r r e s h o u l c ib c c s t a b l i s h e ci ln S h t r a j i n g s iF o r c s t D r s t r i c l . Social Forcstry Coruportetrt I t i s r e c o n t r n c n d e dt h a t F O C , i n r c c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n e e c i so f a l l t l r c s t a k c - l t o l c l c r (s' l - l t t S t a t c . t h e C o u n t v a n d t h e P e o p ) e ; s L r p p o r t sH o n g y u a n C o r r D t r ' I r o r e s t r y I l L t r e a t t( l - l O F I l ) t n l t t r i p a r t i t c a p p r o a c ht o f o r e s t r y n a n r e l y : I c o r r r r r r e r c i aflb r e s t r y c o i l r l ) o n ( ' r ' t tl t, n c r t t ' i r . t r r n l t t t l l l t i r r e s t r y c o i l l p o n L ' i l ia t t d a s o c l l t i l b r c s t r y c o l r p o n c n t i n a n r a r r n e rt l l l t d o e s n t r t r l i s : r c l v a n t a gaen y o f t h e s t : L k c - h o l < j c r : ( S o c i a l F o r e s t r y i n c l u < l c s b o t h t h e r i , a l l c a n c l t h c s L r b s i s t c n c cr e q u i r c n r c n t s ( ) l p a s t r r r a l i s t sa, g r o - p a s t u r x l i s tasn c l s e t t l e r s . ' f h c n e e d s o f t h e p o o r , t h c s t r b s i s t c n c r ' j e e c ls p c c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n ) . scctor, wonren, and the rtnrginalisccn 'l'r':rinilrg I t i s r e c o r n n r e n d e dt h a t F O C s u p p o r t s H C I r I ' ] i n a t l d r c s s i n g s o c i a l f i r r e s t r v , p e o p l c ' : p a r t i c i l ) a t i ( ) nI ', R . A , i n < l i g t n o r rksn r r * , l c c l ! laen < lr v i l L l l i l r n: n n i r g c n r c n bt y l a c i ) i t l t i r r gp , r r t , , ' ' tlrclirrrrlirg. S c c d L n b / C o l l e c t i o n S t : r ti o n I t i s r e c o r l n r e n c l e dt h a t F O C r e v i e r v sp o s s i b i e s t r p p t r r tl i r r a s c e c ll a b a r t d o r s c c t l c o l l c c t i o r t e q u i p m e n ta t t h e e n d o f t h e P i l o t S t a g e . C o r t t n r un i l y N u r s e r i e s I t i s r e c o n r r n e n d e dt h a t F O C r e v i e r v sp o s s i b l e s u l ) p o r t t i ) r c o n r n r L r n i t yn L r r s e r i e ist t h e e n ( l of tl)c Pilot Stage. Alpirre Loggirrg I t i s r c c o r r r r n e n d et h d a t F O C Ir c v r c w sp o s s i t l l es u l ) p o r tt o r c n v i r o r r r n e n l a l llyr i c r r d l yl o g g r r i l ' at tlrecnd of the Pilot Stage. Old Grorvth Forest Anrl Nov l)l:rrrtutions I t i s r e c o n r r n e n d e dt h a t F O C s L r p p o r t sH C F B w i t h t h e r ) r i i n u g e n r e notl ' i t s o l d g r o w l h t b r e s l a n d n e w p l a n t a t i o n sb y a s s i s t i n gt h e r n w i t h t l r e p r e p a r a t i o no f r n a n a g c n r e n p t lans and br l:it:ilitating s o r r r eo f t l r e f r r n r l i r r lgi r r c q u i p n r e n t . I t c s r , ul c l r l t i s r e c o r n r n e n d e dt h a t F O C r e v i e w s p o s s i b l e s u l ) P o r t sl o r a p p r o p r i a t e t o r c s t r Y r c s c r r c h l r r the r'nd of the Pilot stage. File l'orvcr I t i s r c c o r u r uret d e dt h x t I r O C r l o c s n o t s r l l ) l l o r tI I ( l F I l u i t h a f l r c t o u ' c r / s t : r t i orns t h c v ( 1 ( ,

63


Counry Rapid cssc.rsrnan,Strrvc-r' H nn 11t'uan

Hottgyuun Coun4' Rapid oss(ssm(nt Survey

not engender any public spirit or responsibility. It is hoped that by ensuring the cooperation and full participation of the local people that there is a cotllmunity-based vested i n t e r e s ti n p u t t i n g f i r e s o u t . Wild Aninr:rl Census I t i s r e c o m n r e n d e dt h a t F O C s u p p o r t sF B b y s e e k i n gt h e a s s i s t a n c eo f a w i l d l i f e s p e c i a l i s t . Nlonitoling and Evaluation I t i s r e c o n t n r e n d e dt h a t F O C s u p p o r t s H C F B w i t h t h e j o i n t n r o n i t o r i n g a n d c v a l u a t i o n o f t xpertise. t l r e P i l o t S c h e m eb y f a c i l i t a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n e Iixpatriate Counterpart I t i s r e c o n r r n e n c l e dt h a t F O C s u p p o r t s H C F B b y p r o v i d i n g a r c s i d e n t P i l o t S c h e m e c o u n t e r p a r tt o p r o v i d e a d v i s e , e x p e r t i s ea n d t o j o i n t l y s u p e r v i s et h e d i s b u r s e t t t e not f f u n d s . I t i s s u g g e s t e ctlh a t t h e F B a r r a n g e 1 b r s u i t a b l eh o u s i r r g ,t r a v e l a n d a v i s a f b r t h e e x p l t r i a t e

6.5

PUBLIC IMALTII DISCUSSION

INTERPRETATION

OF FINDINGS AND

6 . 5 . I . A P P R O A C HT O T H E A I I E A MORTALITY AND STANDARD 6,5.2. HEALTH STATISTICS(N'(ORBIDITY, INDICATORS 6.5.3. HEALTH SYSTEMREVIEW BY FACILITY: INFRASTRUCTURE, ACTIVITIES,AND KNOWLEDGE,ATTITUDESAND PRACTICES 1. HOSPITAL 2. EPIDEMIOLOCYCENTRE 3 . W O M E N A N D C H I L D R E N ' SC L I N I C 4. VILLAGE HEALTH CLINICS 6 . 5 . 4 .C O U N T Y P U B L I CH E A L T H P R O P O S A L 6 . 5 . . 5O . P T I O N SA N D R I S KA N A L Y S I S 6 . 5 .6 , R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S

counterpart. Funding I t i s r e c o n r r n e n d e dt h a t F O C s u p p o r t s t h e F B b y s e e k i n g a p p r o x i n r a t e l y 1 , 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 R M B lirnding fbr three years (ltMB 350,000 fbr I year) -fhe break-downis as lbllows:

RMB 10,500 807,000(100 ha x 3 years) 10,500 40,500 40,500 40,500

Astion Research A fforcstation N ' [ a n a g e r r e npt l a n s Equiprnent Wildlife Consultant MiscellaneoLrs

1.050,000

TOTAL * f b r f u l l l i s t o f e q u i p n r e t t t t e c c l ss e e A p p e n d i x D

6.5.1. APPROACII 7'O TIIE ]IONGYUAN AREA teanr(Dr. J. LeMaster, On arrival in HongyuanCounty,the Public Healthinvestigative Mrs. Margo Joynerand TranslatorLiu Xiao, hereafterthe PH team) met with senior officialsfrom the HongyuanCounty Public Health Bureau(PHB) to discussthe teanr's It wasagreedthatthe PH tearn,cluringthe first weekof to gatheringinfornration. approach intervieu'sat the PHB, County Hospitaland the study, rvould conductsenri-structured relatedfaciiities,and village healthclinics, and rnventorythe physicalstructures!rn(l week,a fbcusgroLrp DLrringthe secondinvestigative at eachsiteas ner-cssirry. equiprnent was to be held with 8 to l0 village healthclinic doctorsto discussnonradic discussion Also duringthatweek,the PH tearnwottld thatthe doctorshadobserved. healthbehaviours of nontadichouseholds spendat leasta half a day actuallyobservingthe hygienebelravioLrr in the field. Additiontlly,the PH teanrwas to Ineetthe PHB offlcialstwiceweeklyfor ortc hour. interviewsheldat eachhealthtacilityweredrawnl'rotnlt tbr the senti-structLrred Checklists of developirrg list of protocolsdevelopedby C1'Z (Kielnrann)tbr_usein the assessrrent notetl et.al., 1991).All observations aud systerls(Kielnrann colntry healthneeds,services were thoseof the PH teantexceptwhereotherwiscmentioned.The visits to the variot)s PHIJ facilitieswent aheadas planned,and theseforrnedthe brrlk of the observations. to the PH teatn to carry out the locus grotrp officials, in the end, deniedpernrission discussionand houscholdobservations.Health statisticalinlbrmation was collectedat the is PHB, EpidemiologyCentreand Hospital.The completerecordof theseobservations includedin AppendixE. 6.5.2. HEALT'H STATISTICS(T'IORBIDITY,MORTALITY AND S'nANDARD INDICATORS are collectedas a collaborativeeffort betweenlltr' Populationand mortality statistics. in HongyuanTo*'rr. hospitaland the Wonrenand Children'sClinic (W&C), also sittrated Reportedly,twenty trainedhealthworker's frorn W&C annuallyconducta population census,at which standardhealthindicatorinforrnationis collected.village healthclinic (VHC) staffwerenoted,however,to haverecordedall this datain theirclinicson the basis

-64-

-65[[rtn t'uattCounn' l?altitl(/.tJ('JJ/ircli


Hongyuan Court4' papil assessmcntSumcr

The PHB reported that 8 cliscascsare causing signilicant nrorbidity in the area. Where the team was able to obtain annual incidence data at HospiLll or Epidemiology Centre, this is shown below:

I*t rrgt'u urt Coun t1,Rupid ass(.\.\nt( tr Surv?), in theirarea:morelver,all clinic staffinforrned of their own contactswith the houseliokls the I'H tearnthat PLIB offlcialsand staff only canreto thr: VHC areasto collect this intbrrnatiorr The standard inclicators arc shownin Table6.5.2. onceannLrally. T ' a b l e6 . 5 . 2 . :I l

He I r l I r r d i c

I r r di c t t u r I n l ' a r )M t ( ) r t x l i t yR a t e N l a t e r n a lN ' l o r t a l i t yR a t e C l n r d cl l i r t h I l a t e flaesarean sectior'rrate ( C - s c c ti o n s / e s t iI n a t e d total colrnty births)

Rute births 0.8/1000 I 991) 4 0 / 1 0 0 , 0 0b0i r t h s l 991) 13.4'7o/o

t.5% (24 procc'dures/.2 l-5-49yearold total worlen)

Exoccted Rln

60-r00/r000 ( N e p a il s 1 0 5 )

l 00,000 100-500/ (Neoalis 5-50) t0-30% 3-5%

-lhc

a c t L r an l u t n b e r o f d c e r t h so f 0 - l y c a r o l d c h i l d r c n * , a s n o t s L r p p l i e d ,s o t l ) e a c c u r a c y o f t h c ( i n l i r r r t n r o r t a l i t y r a t e ) I I \ ' 1 Rc x n n o t b e c o n r l t c n t c d u p o r r ; h o w e v e r , t l t c r e w i r s o n l y I r e c o r d e d r u a t e r n a l d e a t h , r n a k i n g t h e e s t i r n a t e c jn r a t e r n a l n r o r t a l i t y r a t e v e r y u n r c l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l l y .A p p a r e n t l y , t h e c h i l d s u r v i v a l r a t e ( l - u n d e r 5 y e a r o l d r n o r t a l i t y r a t e ) h a s 'l'he population Cn e v e r b e c r r e s t i n r a t e d ,a n d w e c o u l d f l n d n c l r e c o r t l o f c h i l d d c a t h s . s e c t i o nr a t e g i v c s a n i n d i c a l i o n o f t h e a l r i l i t y o f t h e h e a l t h s y s t e n )t c rd c l i v e r q u a l i t y o b s t c t r i c c a r e t o \ r , o n l c n w i t l r h i g h r i s k p r e g n a n c i c s .I r r o n r - 5 - 1 5 % o l ' a l l r l c l i v e r i e s e x l ) ! ' r i e n c L ' a p o t e n t i a l l y l i t ' c t h r e a t e n i n go b s t e t r i cc t r r n p l i c a t i o nr v h i c h n r L r s b t e g i v e n o b s t e t r i ca s s i s t a n c e : a C - s e c t i o nr a t e o f 1 . 5 % i s l o w e r t h a n c x p e c t e d . O r r t l r e o t h e r h a n d , t h e n u r n b e r o f d o c t o r a s s i s t e dd e l i v e r i e sw a s 1 5 4 , o r 9 . 9 6 % o f t o t a l e x p e c t c dd e l i v e r i e s , w h i c h i s q u i t e w i t h i n t h e e x p e c t e dr a n g e . A l l e x p e c t e dr a n g e sg i v e n i n T a b l e 6 . 5 . 2 a r e l b r d e v u : l o p i n gc o u n t r i e s ,w i t h N e p a l g i v e n a s a n e x a n r p l e . P l e a s ec o n r p a r e H o n g y u a n f i g u r e s t o t l t o s e t b r C h i n a i n t h e W o r l d B a n k ' s 1 9 9 3W o r l d D e v e l o p n r e r R t e p o r t " l n v e s t i n gi n H e a l t h " ( W B , 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e P H t e t n r w a s t o l d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o a c t u a l b i r t h o r c l e a t hr e c o r d a s s u c h , a n d t h a t t h e h o s p i t a l s , a s a b l e [ o r e c o r d a c c u r a t e l yt h e n L r r r r b eor f b i r t h s a n d d e a t h s i n t h e u ' h o l e c o u n t y " b e c a u s et h e p o p u l a t i o n i s s r n a l l i n t h e a r c a " . A h o u s c h o l d r e g i s t r a t i o n s y s t c n l e x i s t s , a n d e v e r y l a r l i l y i s a c c o r d i n g l y r e g i s t e r e dt h r o L r g ht h i s , s o t h c i r r v h c r e a b o u t sa n d v i t a l e v e n t s c a n b e c h e c k e da n n u a l l y . T h e E p i d c r n i o l o g y C - e n t r e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t ' e c t i o L r sd i s c r s e s t a t i s t i c s , a n d t h a t departnrentdid furnislr us with sonre inlorrlation. lnfornration on the incidencc of i n r n r u r r i s a t i o n - p r e v e n t a bdl ei s e a s e sw a s n o t s u p p l i e d , b u t t h e v a c c i n e r e g i n t e n r e p o r t e d i s t h e s t a n d a r d W H O r e c o m r n e n d e d r e g i n t e n l b r p o l i o , d i p h t h e r i a , B C G , n r e a s l e sa n d p e r t u s s i s .T e t a n u s i m n r u r r i s a t i o ni s n o t g i v e n t o e i t h c r c h i l d r e n o r t o p r e g n a n t w o n r e n . V H C d o c t o r s d i d r e p o r t t l l a t t h e y h a d s e e n c a s e so f n e o n a t a lt e t a n u s ,b u t d i d n o t o f t ' e r s t a t i s t i c s . W i t h r e g a r d t o i m r n u n i s a t i o nc o v e r a g e r a t e s , o n l y t l r e n u n r b e r o f B C G v a c c i n a t i o n sg i v e n w e r e r e p o r t e d t o u s , a n d t h e e s t i r n a t e di n r m u n i s a t i o nc o v e r a g e r a t e t b r B C G i s 7 7 % , b a s e d o n t h e n u r l l b c r o f b i r t h s r e p o r t e db y t h e C o u n t y c c t t s L t sd a t a ( s e e K i e l r t t a n n , e t . a l . , p . 1 2 2 . .r,. ,,,prbrtrlt

l. Chronic airway disease 2 . T u b e r c u l o s i s( 2 1 c a s e si n 1 9 9 4 , o r a t o t a l o f 6 6 . 7 / 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ) y d r n i s s i o n s: 7 9 , o r 2 . 4 1 1 0 0 0 3 . G a s t r o i n t e s t i n adl i s e a s e( d i a r r h o e a l / d y s e n t e r a population) 4 . O s t e o a r t h r i t i s ,i n c l u d i n g r h e u m a t o i d s p o n d y l i t i s( d u e t o b r u c e l l o s i s ) 5. Derrnatologic nranifestationsof exposure 6. Chronic flLrorosis 7. Anthrax (2 to 3 cases/year) T h e f l u o r o s i s p r o b l e m w a s s a i d t o b e c h r o n i c , b u t l i m i t e d t o t e e t h d i s c o l o r a r i o na n d m i l d g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a pl r o b l e r r r s .T h e W a t e r t e a l n w a s t o l d t h a t n a t u r a l U r a n i u r n ) e a k i n g i n t o t h e grorrnd water rvas causing a strangearthritic condition; this was not contlrmed by PHB officials, and cancer rates in tlre area were not above the expectcd levcl. Although the Epidenriology Centre also docs watcr quality testing, they would not divulge measurr.d f l u o r i d e l e v e l s , n i t r a t e l e v e l s , o r o t h e r m e a s u r e so f w a t e r c o n t a n r i n a t i o n ,s u c h a s f a e c a l c o l i f o r n r l e v e l s i n t e s t e dw c l l r v r t e r . T h e P H t e a n r w a s s h o w n a v e r y c o r n p l e t e r e s t i n gl a b , and the Director of the centre inclicrted that all wells in Hongyuan are tested at least a n n u a l l y , t r e a t e d w i t h l i q u i d d i s i n f e c t a n ti f n e c e s s a r y ,b u t w o u l d n o t r e p o r t t h e l o c a t i o n o f contaminatedwells. The Epidenriology Centre offlcials refusal to sharc information on d i s e a s ei n c i d e n c e a n d w a t e r q r r a l i t y s e v e r e l y l i n i t e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , s o t h a t c o n c h l s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e s et o p i c s a r c i n r p o s s i b l e . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e w a g ep r o b l e m i n H o n g y u a n T o w n c o n t i n u e s e x a c t l y a s B j o r k r e p o r t s i n t h e 1 9 9 3 U n i v e r s i t y o f L u n d W e t l a n d R e s e a r c hP r o j e c t r e p o r t : s i x f o o t h i g h m o u n d s o f g a r b a g e l i n e t h e s o u t h e r na p p r o a c h t o t o w n f r o n t t h e r i v e r ; t h e l \ ' l i l k P o w d c r F a c t o r y c o n t i n u e s t o p o u r u n t r e a t e ce l fl'luent into the Longreka River, frorn whence it i: carried we stward toward Longran Township; pit latrines are still ntany fewer than n e c e s s a r yt o m e e t t h e t o w n ' s n e e d s( B j o r k , 1 9 9 3 ) . I n l i g h t o f t h e s a n i t a t i o np r o b l e n r sn o t e d i n t h e t o w n , a t h o r o u g h l o o k a t n o n r a d i c h y g i e n e b e h a v i o r . r rw o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n i n o r d e r , b u t t h i s h a s n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e , a s n o t e : l r n members were given free access to local people. A few observations have been able to be made by various team ntenrbers in passing: water was often observed being drawn for use in tents directly from rivers or creeks. It is sonretimes stored irr coveretl containers. antl sometimes not. Wornen were never observed to wash hands prior to fbod preparation. D e f e c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y a w a y f r o n r t e n t s , i f p o s s i b l eo n h i g h g r o u n d a w a y f r o r r t l r e r i v e r ( v a n Dis & Brown). In general, observed nontadic hygiene behaviour was not adequateto p r e v e n t t h e s p r e a do f l a e c a l - o r a lg a s t r o e n t e r i t i sv i a h a n d s o r w a t e r s o u r c e s ,e s p e c i a l l yi f i n f u t u r e t h e y a r e p l a c e di n c r o w d c d c o n d i t i o n s . C o n c l u s i o n : R e c o r c l i n go f v i t e l s t : r t i s t i c sb y t h e C o u n t y r r a y b e L r n r e l i a b l e .E , v e ni f V H C d o c t o r s a r e c o l l e c t i n g t h i s d a t a v i a d a i l y c o n t a c t s w i t h r e s i d e n t si n t h e i r t o w n s h i p s , t h e n o m a d i c l i f e s t y l e r n a y t a k e h e r d s r u e na w a y f r o m t h e a r e a f b r s L r b s t a n t i apl e r i o d s , s o t h a t b i r t h s a n d d e a t h sc o u l d b e m i s s e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i f t h e r e i s n o b i r t h o r d e a r h r e g i s t e r , e v e n

- b/ -


HongyuanCounryRupidossessment Sumet'

Ilongvnurr CountyRupid dss.rsnutt SurncJ

V H C c o l l e c t e d d a t a n r a y b e l o s t . I f , a s w a s s u g g e s t e da t t l l e W & C , c e n s u sd a t a i s c o l l e c t e d by PHB/W&C staff, Tibetan nornadic nrothers would seern unlikely to give vital infbrntation to unknown Han Chinese census-lakers. Some intprovenlent is needed in this system: at the least, birth and death registers should be kept, verbal autopsies collected when a death occurs, and training and support given to those collecting the primary information. C o n t r o l o f i n f ' e c t i o u sa n d s a n i t a r y d r s e a s ei s n r o d e r a t ea t b c s t . T h e h i g h r a t e o f b r u c e l l o s i s r e p r e s e n t sa s e v e r e p u b l i c h e a l t l l p r o b l e u t . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e E p i d e r n i o l o g y C e n t r e officials were not forthcoming with intbrmation, liave not rnade significant improvements i n t h e s a n i t a t i o no f t h e i r o w n l o c a l t o w n ( d e s p i t et h e p o s s e s s i o no f v e r y a d v a n c e df o o d a n d water testrng equipment), and have not requested outside help, the prospects for itnprovenlents in this area seellr renrote. Further research could reveal to what extent the poor sanitary condition of the town is creating a hazard to the surrounding nornadic e n c a n r p r ) ) e n tasn d t o w n s h i p s . 6. 5. 3. I I EALT'II S y S7'EllI R EV I Ely u Y F-ACI LI'l'l' : I N F RA ST R U CTU R E, ACT|VITIES, AND KNOIYLEDGE, AT-IITUDES & PRACTICES l. Hospitrl O f t h e 1 5 8 [ ' > H Bs t a f f i n H o n g y L r a n ,6 4 w o r k a t t h c l ) e o p ] e ' s C o u n t y H o s p i t a l , a W e s t e r n l n e d i c a ll a c i l i t y w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b y C h i n e s et r a d i t i o n a l n r e d i c i n e .T h e n u n r b e ro f d o c t o r s l n - p o s t , t w e n t y - s e v e n ,i s g e n e r o u sb y a n y s t a n d a r dl b r t l r i s s i z e p o p u l a t i o n . A l l t h e n r a j o r s p e c i a l i t i e sa r e r e p r e s e n t e d a , lthoughapparrentlo y nly six of the doctors are fully university t r a i n e d . A t t h e t i n l e o f t h e s u r v e y , 1 6 % o f t h e p o s t e d c l o c t o r sw e r e o u t o f H o n g y u a n f o r 'l'he a d v a n c e dt r e i n i n g , w h i c h a l s o s e e n ) e da l a r g e p r o p o r t i t l n . n u r n b e r o f n u r s e s ,e i g h t e e n , i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l b r a h o s p i t a l o f t h i s s i z e , a n d t h e g r e a t e r n u n r b e r o f d o c t o r s s u g g e s t st h a t p r i o r i t y i s g i v c n t o s p e c i a l i s tk n o w l e d g e a n d n o t t o p r a c t i c a lp a t i e n t c a r e . Outpatient clinics are conducted in medicine, paediatrics,obstetrics and gynaecology, Chinese tradilional ntedicine (rnainly acupuncture and electrostirlulation, tlie only p h y s i o t h e r a p ya p p a r e n t l y a v a i l a b ) e ) , b u t o n l y 2 , 0 0 0 p a t i e n t s l r r e s e e n n t o n t h l y . C i v e n a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 t , 0 0 0 , t h i s s u g g e s t so n l v e r a g e t h r e e v i s i t s t o t h c h o s p i t a l O P D e v e r y f o u r y e a r s . T h e n u r n b e r o f p a t i e n t s s e e n b y e a c h c l i n i c i s r e c o r d e d , b L l t t h e d i a g n o s i so f t h e p a t i e n t s ,o r a n y o f t h e i r p e r s o n a li n t b r r D a t i o n( e t h n i c i t y , a g e r s c x , t o w n s h i p ) i s n o t a p a r t o f a n y p e r m a n e n t r e c o r d , r e p o r t e d l y . H o w e v e r , w e w e r e t o l d t h a t 8 0 o / oo f o u t p a t i e n t ss e e n w e r e f r o t n t h e t o w n s h i p a r e a s( w h i c h i n f b r n r a t i o nw o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l et o o b t a i n i f p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w e r e n o t r e c o r d e d s o n r e w h e r e ) .T h e h i s t o r y , e x a r n i n a t i o n ,d i a g n o s i s a n d t r e a t r ) r e n tg i v e n t o t h e p a t i c n t i s r e p o r t e d l y r e c o r d e d o n t h e H o s p i t a l p h a r r n a c y p r e s c r i p t i o n ,w h i c h i s r c t a i n c d i n t h e P h a r r l a c y f o r o n e y e a r a n d t h c n t h r o w n o u t . T h e r e i s n o o t h e r p c n u a n e n t r c c o r d o f t h e p a t i e n t s 'c a r e k e p t e i t h c r b y t h c H o s p i t a l o r t h c p a t i e n r s t h e m s e l v e s .T h i s w a s r e c o g n i s c ' cbly t h e H o s p i t a l d i r e c t o r i r s a s e r i o u sc l c l l c i t . I n p a t i e n t s t i t t i s t i c a lr c c o r d s a r e r a t h e r b e t t e r . T h e n u r n b e r o f a d r D i s s i o n sf o r e a c h d i a g n o s i s , the nuniber and type of operation, the nuutbcr and type of dclivery, and the number and cause of inpatient deaths are recorded; however, we wDre not shown this inforntation. A v e r a g e s t a y i D e a c h o f t h e f i f t y b e d s w a s e i g h t d a y s , w i t h a b e d u t i l i s a t i o n r . , t t eo f 5 l % o , w h i c h s L r g g c s t sh a t t h e i n p a t i e r )i ti l c i l i t i e sa r e n o t u n d e r - u t i l i s e (dK i e l u r a n ne t . a l . , l 9 9 l ) .

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Chargesfor outpatientand inpatientserviceswere flat rate and nrodest(10.6 RMB for an OPD visit, 18.6 RMB for an inpatientday, includingall procedures and medicines), and this may accountfor the fact that the Hospitalonly has a reportednet incomeof 90,000 RMB/yearto spendon trainingandequipment. The team'sdetailedreviewof thefacilityand its equiprnent can be fbundin AppendixE. In general,the buildingswereold, but keptcleanand in nrostlygood repair.Outpatient clinic and inpatientroom spacewas nrorethan adequate.The only outpatientequipmentnotedto be absentwas an adequatenumberof otoscopes. Althoughthe HospitalDirectorwas at painsto pointout manyold or dysfunctional pieces of equipment,only a few are really needingreplacement;most possiblycould be repaired, or have parts replaced.The X-ray machinein use as a fluoroscopewas dangerous:thc centralray was directedthrougha standingpatientonto a thin flLrorescent screen,behinti which the radio techniciansat. No personalfilrn badgesappearto be worn by X-rav personnel, department and if useof this pieceof equiprnent continues, a regularuseris ar high risk of damageto theol)ticallens,and of developnentleukaernia or anotherradiationcarrsedcancer. Equipnrent which conceivably ncedsattentionstrict.lyon the basisof its functionalstatus. afterinspcction, includes: l. Rentovalof a flrrorescent screenand placenrent of a PhotomLrltiplier unit and x-ray tube for 500 Ma fluoroscope(renrovethe dangerous40 Ma tluoroscope) 2. Repairor replacernent of 3 channelECC rnachine 3. Replacetransducerof real time Ultrasoundmachine 4. Repairor replacelaboratoryrefrigerator operatingtheatrelight 5. Replace In addition, severalpiecesof equiprnentwould seernto be standardfor a hospitalin a rurll locationsuchas this,andrvouldbe advisable for this Hospitalto oblain.Theseinclude: (anrbubag, perhaps J. Basicresuscitation equiprnent a Bird verrtilator) 2. Oneadditionalgoodqualityotoscope for OPD 3. Vendeuse suctionobstetric apparatus 4. EMO ethernebulizerfor operatingtheatre. With the aboveexceptions, in every area that the team visited,the nuntberand type ol' equipmentobserved, and the stateof the buildings,seenred appropriate to a hospitalof this ievel and in sucha location.The laboratoryarea had tunctionalequipnrent for the main important biochemicaland bacteriologicalanalysesdone in general rural hospitals.Tlr.: surgicaldepartment's equipmentwas sonrewhat linrited,but considering the fact that onlt' an averageof 0.54 proceduresper day are performedthere (despitethe presenceof seven eagersurgeons),this seemedadequate as well. 2. Women & Children'sClinic Although the visit to this HongyuanTown facility is reviewedin AppendixE, ir is

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(''rJ/rJrlllSarv{'-l' I I on gl'utttt Crt utt;-t Ru1ti d a/.J.f rncntioned herc becausc it was the only central lacility uhosc director spontancously c x p r e s s e da d e s i r e t o b e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r i r i n i n g o f V i l l a g e H e a t t h c l i n i c i l o c t o r s ' T h e Director hati alrcady reportedly wrilten a proposal 10 this eft'ect,whiclr had been turned . h e t e a m r l l e t t h e e n t h u s i a s t i cs t a f f , w h o p e r f o r n l down by the County due to lack of fLrndsT w e l l and sick child exams at the clinic, conductthree a s e x a n r s g y n a e c o l o g i c a n c l n a t a l ante n l o n t h l y m a t e r n a l - c h i l do u t r e a c hc l i n i c s i n r e t n o t e l o c a t i o n s n l o n t h l y , a n d c o l l e c t t h e a n n u a l p o p u l a i i o n a n d h e a l t h s r a t i s t i c sf o r t h e C o u n t y . T h e s e c l i n i c s i n c l u d e a n t e n a t a l c h e c k s , b u t neither well-child exatns nor imrnunisation are perfbrrned. Abortions (without any a n a e s t h e s i aa) n c l f a r n i l y p l a n n i n g p r < l c e d u r e s( e . g . , p l a c e r u e n to f I U D s ) a r e a l s o p e r f o r t n e d a t t h e c l i n i c , r v h i c h c h a r g e sa v e r y n r o d e s tr a t e o f 0 . 5 0 R M B p e r v i s i t ' T h e c l i n i c i s w e l l

I! o n gy tt u rt Co u n |), Ila l'' i I a : s( :isn ( t' t Su rv()'

Scveral drugs which would secnr essentialwere not often present: xylocaine injection. e r g o r n e t r i n e ,p i p e r a z i n eo r o t h ! ' r a n t i h e ln r e n t h i c s . A l l o f t h e c l i n i c s c o - o p e r a t c dw i t h t h e i n r m u n i s a t i o np r o g r a m r r e o p e r a t e db y t h e P H B , a n d did inforrn their populationsrvhcncvcr a vaccine carrp was about to be conducted.The v a c c i n e b t l x e s f b u n d i n t h e c l i n i e s i n t w o c a s e s( a t A r n u k h e h e a n d W a q i e c l n o u r f i r s t d a y ' s v i s i t ) c o n t a i n e dv a c c i n es t o r c di r t a n r e a s u r e dr o o n l t e r r p e r a t l r r o ef.l5'C., warnt enough t o i n a c t i v a t e n r e a s l e sv a c c i n e , a t l e a s t i f k e p t a t t h a t t e m p e r a t u r ef o r a n y t i n t e . S t a f f s t a t c d t h a t t h e i c e c o n t a i n e r sw e r e f i l l c d w i t h a l c o h o l t h a t w a s c h a n g c de v e r y 2 r v e e k s ,a n d h a d n o knowledge of the need tbr a cold chain, nor even *,hrl this nreant.

s t o c k c d w i t h r c g i r r d t o e q L r i l t t t t e natn d n t e d i c i n e ,a n d d i d n o t r e q u e s th c l p i n t h i s r e g a r d 3 . V i l l i r : : l eI { c : r l l l r C l i n i c s T h e P H t e : r n tw a s a l l o r i e d t o v i s i t t i > L r vr i l l a g e h e a l t h c l i r r i c s ( V H C s ) , i n A n t r k e h e , W a q r e , A n q u a n c l L o n g r a n . A r l d i t i o n a l l y , t h e E t l u c a t i o nt e a r l l w e r e a b l e t o v i s i t t h e V H C i n S e d i . A t e a c h s i t e , t h e t e a n rd e t e r m i n e dt h e n u n r b e ra n d l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g o f a l l s t a f f p r c s e n t ,d i d a r a p i d i r r v e n t o r y o l t h c t i r c i l i t y a n c l c q t r i p n r e r t t ,a n d i r l t c r v i e w e c l t h e W e s t e r n r n e d i c a l (diarrhoea. e x a n r i n i n g s t a f f o n t h e i r k n o w l e c l g ea n c l p r a c t i c e sc o n c e r n i n g c o l l l t ) l o n a i l n l e n t s l e a rn how the a b l c t o w c r c a l s o W c p n e u r t t o r t i a ) . n r a l n u t r i t i o n ,n e o l l a t a lt c t a n t l s ,c h i l c l l t o t r c l s t a f f r n e e t t h e t r l s i c h e a l t l r n e e d s o f t h e n o r l r r t l i c T i t r c t i l n s . l r t c l i v i d u a lc l i r t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s

M e d i c a l k n o w l e d g e a n d p r a c t i c ew a s l a c k i n g i n r e g a r d t o d i a r r h o e a i n e v e r y c l i n i c v i s i t e d : a l l d o c t o r s w e r e a c l r n i n i s t e r i n ga n t i b i o t i c s t o r o u t i n e c a s e s o r d i a r r h o c a , a n d n o o n c s p o n t a n e o u s l yd e s c r i b e d t h e L r s eo f r e h y d r a t i o n s o l u t i o n ( r n o s t s a i d t h e y h a d u s e d s u c h a solution nrixture, but had rLrro r t r t a n d n o t r e p l a c e di t ) . A l l d o c t o r s c o L r l cal c c L r r a t e l d yescribe t h e s y n r p t o t n sa n d t r c i l t r n c n t l b r p r r c u r n o n i aa n d n r a l n u t r i t i o n . b u t n o n e k n e w t h a t t e t a n u s vaccinatiott t-rf pregttant wourcrl prevents ueonatal tetanus. Obscrved practice was also Iacking: we observed the adnrinistration of intrantuscular gentantjcin (a very strong a n t i b i o t i c ) f o r c o l d s y n r p t o n t si n a n i n f a n t : i n a p p r o p r i a t eb y a n y W e s t c r n s t a n d a r d ,a t l e a s t . I n s u r n r n a r y ,n r e d i c a l k n o w l e d g ew a s p a t c h y .

a r e , o r ) c e n r o r e , t o l r e f o t r r t di l r A p l l e n d i x E . 'l'he

r r u n r b e ro f " r l o c t o r s " a t c a c l r c l i r r i c r a n g e d 1 ' r o r t tI t o 4 . W h c r c t h c r e w o r e f b u r d o c t o r s , t h e r e w e r e a t l e a s (t w o T i b c t i r n n t e d i c i n ep r a c t i t i o n e r s .[ J s t r r l l y t h c s e c o n ( lW t s t c r n n r e t l i c a l " ( l o c t o r s " w e r c t r a r n e da t p r a c t i t i o n e r h a d a c l c l i t i o r r at lr a i n i n g r n O b s t e t r i c s .A l n r o s t a l l t h e N ' l a ' e r k a n g ' l ' e c h n i c asl c h o o l , w h i c h t h e y c n t c r e d a f t c r . i u r r r o rh i g h s c h c x l la n d a t w h i c h t h e y t r a i n c c lf o r 2 t t r J y e l r r s . A t i r l l b t r t o n e o l ' t l r e c l i n i c s . t h . r e \ \ ' a So l l O l l t l r s e , : t l s o t r : l l n c ( l a t N 1 a ' e r k a n lgo r t w o y c a I s . -fhe

c l o c t o r sa l l s a w p a t i e r r t sc l a i l y a t t l i e c l i n i c s , r c l t o r t c t l l y l r c t u ' e c r t2 t o 4 p c r s o n sp e r d a y . inter patient lolds were greater,whcn a t n r i n i r n u n r ,t o u p t o t w e n t y p e r s o n sa t t r l a x i r t t u t t t W nrore ol' the population is staying near the towns, allhough ltlore children present wilh 'I'he d o c t o r s a l s o w i l l a t t e n r lp a t i e n t si n t h e t e n t s i f r e q u e s t e d ;t h i s d i a r r h o e ai n t h c s u n r r ) l e r . a p p c a r st o h a p p e na l n t o s t d a i l Y . E a c h c l i n i c h a d a t n r o s t t w o f i r n c t i o n a lr o o r ) 1 si,n c l u d i r l g s p a c et o P c r t o r l n l l l l n o r p r o c c c l u r e s ( s u c h a s a b s c e s sd r a i n r g e ) o r t o e x a n r p a t i e n t s ,a r e g i s t r i r t i o na r e a a n d a I n e c l i c i n ec t l p b o a r d . t a s L r c k i n g i n e v e r y c l i r r i c u e v i s i t c c l ,c s p c c i a l l y s t e t h o s c o p e s B a s i c e x a n i i n a t i o ne c l u i p n r e nw and otoscopes. tntairt u,eighing sca)cswerc universrlly abscnt. N4inor surgical/dressing e q u i p n r e n tw a s u s u a l l y i n s h o r t s u p p l y . M c c l i c i n c s u p p l y , i n c o n t r a s t ,d i d I l o t a p p e x r t o b e s h o r t . I \ l e d i c i n e i s o r d c r c c ld i r e c t l y f r o r n the phanuaceutical supply house in HongyLran. Each VHC doctor ortlers whichever n r e d i c i n e sh e / s h e t ' e e l sa p p r o p r i a t e .T h e n r e d i c i n ei s p a i d l b r f r o n r a r e v o l v i n g d r u g f u n d sold t h a t t h e P H B i n i t i a l l y s u p p l i e sa n d a p p a r e n t l yt o p s u p e v e r y y e a r , a n d a f t e r d r u g s a r e variety trf a t f l x c d p r i c e s i n t h e c l i n i c s , n t o r e d r u g s a r e o r t j e r e c lf r o n r t h e s L r l > p l yh o t r s e . A o r a l a n t i b i o t i c s w e r e a l r v a y sn o t e d t r . rb e i n s t o c k , a s w e r e n l a n y v i t a r t t i n sa n d S y l n p t 6 n i a t l c us. t r e a t r l e n t s .N l e n y o f t t r c d r r r g s w e r e s l i d t o L r c W c s t t r r t . b L t t $ c r e l l o t l h l n i l i a r t o

'70

A l l o f t h e d o c t o r s e x p r e s s e cal s t r o n g c l e s i r ef o r r n o r e t r a i n i n g i n a l l a r e a s , b L r ts p e c i f i c a l l y in Obstetrics. One of the Obstctric doctors (in Sedi) reported carrying out 80-90 tenr d e l i v e r i e s / y e r r ( w h i c h i s i n t e r e s t i n g ,c o n s i d c r i n g t h e t o t a l n u n r b e r o f r e p o r t e d d e l i v e r i e s i n the Cou'rty, 424), and all of the Ol>s-Gyn doctors lrad encountered and ret'erred a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o H o s p i t a l o b : j t e t r i cc o n r p l i c a t i o n s . A l l o f t l r e c l i n i c d o c t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t p r e g n a n t w o n r e n d o r l o t c o n t e f o r a n t e n a t a lc h e c k s . E x c e p t f b r d o c t o r s i n L o n g r a n , o n l y 2 k t n l i o t t t l - l o n g y u a nT o w r t , n o n e o f t h e d o c t o r s h a d b e e n s i v e n a d d i t i o n a i p o s t - g r a d u a t , t r a i n i n g o f a n y k i n c l , d e s p i t e L r pt o f - i v c y e a r s o f c l i r r i c a l s e r v i c e i n t h e V H C s . A l l t h c V H ( ' d o c t o r s , w h e n w e a s k e d d i r e c t l y , r e p u r t e . dt h a t H o n g y u a n d o c t o r s a n d P H B s t a f i d i d n o t c o r n e t o t h e V H C s e i t h e r t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g o r t o s u p e r v i s en t e d i c r l p r . l c t i c e . Conclusion: S t a f f i n g o f d o c t o r s i n a l l s e c t o r s o f t l r c h e a l t h s y s t e n r a r e e x c e s s r r f r e c p r i r e r r r e n t sb,u r e s p e c i a l l ya t t h e h o s p i t a l . ' l ' h e n u n r b c r o f t l o c t o r s t h e r e , t h e l e v e l o f s p e c i a l i s a t i o n a , nd thc a p p a r e n t r e a d y a v a i l a b i l i t y ( f o r r l t c r t t )o f ' a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o L r t : j i d er h D C o u n t y p r o b a b l r i n c r e a s et h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d f b r m o r e t e c h n i c a l e q u i p m e n t , b u t s u c h a p e r c e p t i o nw o u l d n o t b e g r o u n d e d i n a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a lo f t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e a r e r e a l e q u i p r l e n t n e e d sa t t l r c hospital, in a few key arcas, but the need to overhaul the Ol)D nredical record systerrr s e e r n st n o r e u r g e n t , s o t h a t a n y a d d i t i o n s t o t h e e q L t i p n r e nat n ] . l a n r e n t a r i u rcna n b e r e l a t e dt 0 t h e p u b l i c ' s n e e c lf o r t h e s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e d i s e a s e st h a t a r e o c c u r r i n g i n r h , p o p u l a t i o n . a n c l n o l t h e d o c t o r s ' d e s i r e sf c r r n e w g a d g c t s Despite the tact that the VHCs are responsible for prirnary care of the bLrlk of thc p o p u l a t i o n s ,t h e l e s s e rt r a i n e d d o c t o r s a r e s e n t t h e r e , a n d t h e y a r e g i v e n v i r t L r a l l yn o f r r r t h e i t r a i n i n g o r c l i n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n .R a t i o n l l d r u g u s e h a s n o t b e e n e r l p h a s i s e da n y w h e r e i n t h r ' s y s t e m , w h i c h a p p e a r s s u b s e q u e n t l yt o h a v e d e g e n e r a t e di n t o " t r c e t l u e n t b y c o n s e n s u s ' w i t h o u t a n y o t h e r s c i e n t i l l c b a s i s . T h e e < l u i p n r e n nt e e d si n t h e V H ( - - s a r e b r s i c a n d u r g c n l :

1l


Hongl'uart Counr;' llapid .ll.t(.t),it'ill Jlrr '

i.longl,uan Countl, Rapid ass?ssmentSurvey a few sintple exanrination tools really are essential to prirrary health care. The need for t r a i n i n g a n d s u p p o r t t h e r e i s c l e a r a n d u r g e n t ; t h e o n l y q u e s t i o ni s w h e t h e r t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l is present.

of their existing equipment was not possible, because of its advanced age and thc unavailability of parts, despite the fact that they mostly request new equipment which are lar nlore inrportant to expands their current invcntory. lvlany features of the .r1'.rrcrn V H C a n d s u p port, rational drug use, an t r a i n i n g ( t h e s y s t e r n , r e c o r d s n t e d i c a l O P D update e f f e c t i v e i r n r n u n i s a t i o ns y s t e n t ,t o n a r r e a f e w ) .

other sectors of the health systern (immunisation,. antenatal and well child care) are f u n c t i o n i n g , b u t n o t w e l l . I r n m u n i s a t i o nr a t e s a r e n o t p o o r , b u t t h e l a c k o f a c o l d c h a i n suggests that vaccinatiotl tlray not be effective, and the absence of tetanus vaccination a n y w h e r e i n t h e C o u n t y i s s i r n p l y u n c o n s c i o n a b l e .I f t h e n o n t a d i c p o p u l a t i o n i s p l a c e d i n c r o w d e d s e t t l e r n e n tc o n d i t i o n s , t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r a n r e a s l e se p i d e r n i c i s v e r y h i g h , a n d t h e t r a n s m i s s i o no f T B w i l l i n c r e a s e .A n t e n a t a l a n d w e l l c h i l d e x a r n i n a t i o ns h o u l d b e s u p p l i e d by the VHC doctors, which would free up w&c stalr, for example to train and supervrse t h e s ea c t i v i t i e s .

On a more positive note, the PHB proposal does not appear to lay great emphasis on the County Proposal, nor to be overly concerned with the issue of settletnent of nornads. The VHCs have been in place since Liberation of the County in 1958, and will provide care to t h e n o m a d i c p o p u l a t i o n s n e a r t h e n t , w h a t e v e r t h e s e t t l e m e n tp o l i c i e s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t . PHB officials made no comntent on the issue of settlenent and did not appear much

6.5.4, COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH PROPOSAL T h e r e w e r e f o u r m a i n a r e a s t o t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h s e c t i o n o f t h e C o L r r r t yP r o p o s a l : h o s p i t a l a n d b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ,n r e d i c i n ea n d e q u i p r n e n ts u p p l y a n d c a s h f l o w , s t a f Tt r a i n i n g a n d V H C s u p p o r t . D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n sr e g a r d i n gt h e s ep r o p o s a l sa r e i n A p p e n c l i xE .

l . P r o v i d e a ' f r a i n i n g P t ' o g l i t r t t r t tleo l V I I C D o c t o r s b y F O C S t a l f l ) i I ' e c t l y . A s t e p - w i s ea p p r o a c hc o u l d b c d c v c l o p c c l :

S o r n ep a r t s o f t h e P r o p o s a lh : r v ea l r e a d y b e e n c o m p l e t e d , i . e . , t h e c o n s r r u c t i o no f 2 5 V H C s i s c o n l p l e t e . H o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g r e f L r r b i s h m e n its s t i l l s e e n a s a p r i o r i t y , b u t t h e c u r r e n t b u i l d i n g s a r e r e c o g n i s e db y t h e P H B t o b e f u n c t i o n a l . D r L r g c a s h t l o w a p p c a r s t o b e a r e c u r r e n t b u d g e t a r y i t c r n , t o t o p - u p t h e r e v o l v i n g c l r L r gt L r n t lo f a l l f a c i l i t i e s w h c r e d r u g s 1 r e s o l d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n : t h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e s o n r e t h i n gt h a t c o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h b y a r e s t r u c t u r i n go f t h e s y s t e n tt o e n r p h a s i s ec o s t r e c o v e r y a n d r e t i o n a l d r u g L r s e . A l t h o u g h P H B D i r e c t o r a n d H o s p i t a l D i r e c t o r J i a r e c o g n i s e dt h a t p o s t - g r a d u a t et r a i n i n g i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l l d o c t o r s i n e v e r y a r e a , t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r e s s e dt h a t h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y s h o u l d g o t o h o s p i t a l d o c t o r s , a n d t h a t s L r c ht r a i n i n g s h o u l d o c c u r i n t e r t i a r y h o s p i t a l si n b i g c i t i e s b e c a t t s et h e p a t i e n t l o a d t h e r e w i l l b e b e t t e r . W h i l e r e c o g n i s i n gt h a t V H C d o c t o r s a l s o n e e d s u c h t r a i n i n g , t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l ys t a t e dt h a t , e v e n i f a f b r e i g n c l o c t o r c a m e t o c o n d u c t s u c h t r a i n i n g , i t c o u l d b e s t b e a c c o r n p l i s h e da t t h e h o s p i t a l , r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e V H C d o c t o r s ' own setting, because the sanre patients present to both the vHC and to Hospital. They d e n i e d t h a t t h e c o n s t r a i n t so f t r a v e l f o r p a t i e n t so r o f t h e l i n r i t e d c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h VHC doctors travel should have any bearing on this. They stated that even if W H O / U N I C E F d i d s t a t e t h a t m i n i n r a l l y t r a i r r e dh e a l t h p e r s o n n e l , g i v e n a d e q u a t et r a i n i n g a n d s u p p o r t , c o u l d d i : r g n o s ea n d t r e a t t h e b u l k o f p a t i e n t s ( l b r a g o o d d i s c u s s i o no n t h i s , s e e K i n g , 1 9 6 9 ; U N I C E F , 1 9 9 4 ; w o r l d B a n k , 1 9 9 3 ) , r h i s w i r s n o r n e c e s s a r i l yr h e c a s e i n Hongyuan. We wcre given the strong inrpression that foreign cloctors would not be w e l c o l . n et o s p e n d t i t r c i n t h e V H C s t r a i n i n g t h e d o c t o r s t h e r e , t o r a n y r e a s o nw h a t s o e v e r . T h e n e e d f o r t e c h n i c a l r l e d i c a l e q u i p r l e n t w a s e m p h a s i s e ctlo u s o v e r a n d o v e r , i n e v e r y s i t u a t i o n . B e f b r e w e l e f t H o n g y u a n , a n c w P u b l i c H e a l t h p r o p o s a l w a s g i v e n t r > L r s ,w h i c h contalns a request fbr rnoney to purchase thirty-seven pieces of advanced medical t e c h n o l o g y ( A p p e n d i x E ) . A s n o t e d a b o v e , t l ) e h o s p i t a ld o e s n e e d r e f u r b i s h i n ga n d p o s s i b l e r e p l a c e m e n to f a f e w i t e m s o f e q u i p n r e n t ,b u t t h e i r n p o r t a n c eo f t h i s a p p e a r st o h a v e b e e n i n f l a t e d o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e r n i n d so f t h e P H B o f f l c i a l s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n gr o n o t e t h a t , out of a requestfor 6. l5 nrillion RMB, only 100,000 of this is for rraining, while 4.37 m i l l i o n R M B i s r e q u e s t e df o r h i g h t e c h n o l o g y .T h e P H B o f f r c i a l s a l s o i n s i s t e dt h a t r e p a i r

1a

i n t e r e s t e di n i t . 6.5.5. OPTIONS AND 1I/.'l( ANAI-YSIS

a ) F O C T r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e lc o u l d b e p l a c e d i n H o n g y u a n t o t r a i n V H C d o c t o r s . T h i s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y b e c o n d u c t e d i r r b a t c h e so f 4 t o 6 V H C d o c t o r s , p r o b a b l y f r o m 2 V H C s a t a t i r t r e . E a c h c i a s s s h o L r l cbi e c o n ( l u c t e di r t H o n g y u a n h o s p i t a l ( o r a n o t h e r c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n w i t h a d e q u a t et e a c h i n g s p a c e ) t b r t w o w e e k s , i r n d s h o u l d e n l p h a s i s er a t i o n a l d r u g u s e , s t a n d a r d t r e a t m e r t t o f c o r n r n o n c h i l c l h o o d d i s e a s e s ,a n t e n a t a l a n d o b s t e t r i c c a r e , a n d i n r n t u n i s a t i o np r a c t i c e s .I t m x y e v e n b e p o s s i b l e l b r s u c h c l a s s r ' st o b e c o n ( i u c t e do u t s j d c H o n g y u a n , e s p e c i a l l y i l ' F O C w e r e c o n d u c t i n g a n o t h e r s i r n i J a r p r o g r a r r t n t ei n a n o t h e r C o L r n t y .A n i d e a l t e x t f i r r s u c h a c l a s s * ' o u l d b e W e r n e r ' s " W h e r e t h e r e i s n o D o c t o r " . which has been trillsiute(linto l\lundarin, and,,vhich has an excellent tercltirtg c o n r p a n i o nv o l u m e i n E n g l i s h ( W e r n e r , 1 9 9 2 ) . b ) T h e s e p r e c l o r n i n a n t l yd i d a c t i c c l a s s e sw o u l d b e i r n r n e d i a t e l yt b l l o * ' e d b y a p c r i o d o f o n c m o n t h o f t l e i d o b s e r v a t i o na n t i t r a i n i n g , d u r i n g w h i c h F O C s t a f i r . r " o u l calc c o r t t p a n yt h , VHC doctors on all their lleld and VHC-based activitics in Hongytran. This step is I' v i t a l p a r t o f t h i s o p t i o r r , b c c z r r r s ict i s c e n t r a l t o t h e i s s u e o f b e i n g a b l e t o a s s u r e t h a l V H C d o c t o r s a r e a b l e t o a p p l y l h e i r d i d a c t i c k n o w l e d g e i n t h c r e a l , c o n s t r a i n e dc l i n i c u l s i t u a t i o n t h a t t h e y e n c o u n t e ri n t h e i r d a y - t o - d a y c l i n i c a l l i v e s . c ) T h e a b o v e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a n r t n ec o u l d c o n t i n u e i n s i x w e e k c y c l e s f r o n r A p r i l t o O c t o b e r . w h e n l i v i n g a n d t r a v e l c o n d i t i < - r nisn t h e C o u n t y a r e a c c e p t a b l e .A l - t e r s i x n r o n l h s , t h c training programn)e should be evxluated, to be sure that the trained VHC doctors arr' a b l e t o a d e q u a t e l yp e r f o r r n a l l c l i n i c a l f u n c t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n t r a i n e d ( t h i s c o u l d b e d o n e u s i n g s t a n d a r dq u a l i t y - o f ' - c a r ec h c c k l i s t s : t b r a n e x a r n p l e , s e c A g a K h a n F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 9 4 ) . T h i s w o u l d i c l e a l l yb e p e r f b r m e d b y a n o u t s i d e e x a n t i n e r , w h o n e e d n o t b e a p h y s i c i a n o r b c p c r r n u n e r ) t l ys t a f f e d i n H o n g y u a n , b u t w h o s h o u l d b e m e d i c a l l l ' t r a i n e d . I l t h c t r a i n i n g l ) r o g n r n r n l ch a s n o t b c e r r a b l e I o b s c : r r r i e t l o L r l d u e t o l f i c k o l ' a c c e s st o p e r s o n n e lo r l o c a l i t i e s ,t h e p r o g r a n l l n c e n c i sh e r e . d ) A n a d v i s o r y b o a r d , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e C o u n t y M a g i s t r a t e , A s s i s t a n t N ' l a g i s t r a t e ,a n d r e l a t e d P H B o t l l c i a l s , c o u l d o v e r s e c t h e p r o g r e s s o f s u c h a l ) r o g r a n ) r ) l e .I t w o u l d b c e x p e c t e d t h a t a r e p r e s c r t t a t i v eo f P H B w o u l d a c c o n l p a n y t h e ' F O C t r a i n e r , b u t t h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d b e s e l e c t e c ln r u t u a l l y b y F O C a n d t h e P H B o n t h e b a s i s o f r e l e v l t t ( t r a i n i n g a n c le x p e r i e r r c e .

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Hotrgyuun County Rapid ass?ssmentSurvey

I I ot tg| uurt CourttS,Rtryi I ds.t( t');nrcnt Surv(y e ) A t t h e e n d o f t h e e v a l u a t . i o ni,f s a t i s f a c t o r yp r o g r c s s h a s b e e r rm a d c , p r e s e n t a t i o no f a s e t o f i r r d i v i d L r abl a s i c e x a r n i n a t i o ne q u i p n r e n t( a s t e t h o s c o p ea, n s i n r p l c o t o s c o p e ,a p o r t a b l e b l o o d p r e s s u r ec u f f , s e v e r a l s i m p l e p i e c e so f s u r g i c a l e q u i p n r e n t , i . e . a t o o t h e d f o r c e p s , a c l a n r p , a n d a p a i r o f i r i s s c i s s o r s ) ,a n d a p e r s o n a lc o p y o f " W h e r e t h e r e i s n o D o c t o r " c o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h c g r a d u a t e s .P r o v i s i o n o f s u c h .e q u i y r n r e nw t ould be in kecping with the spirit of the progranrme. Adequate recognition of the role of county oftlcials in f a c i l i t a t i n g t h i s p r o c e s sc o u l d b e g i v e n a t t h a t t i n e . i) Staffing needs: At loast one, preferably two trainers, rvho have cxperiencein training b a s i c h e a l t h p e r s o r t n c li n d c v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i c s , p r o b a b l y f o r a t l c a s t t h r e e y e a r s . C h i n e s e l a n g u a g es k i l l r v o u l d b c n r a n d a t o r y .T h e s e s t a f f n e e d n o t b e q u a l i f l e d d o c t o r s : a l r , [ a s t e r ' s i n P u b l i c H e a l t h r . v o u l db e a n a c c e p t a b l ea l t c l n a t i v e q u a l i l r c l t i o n , p r o b a b l y e v e n t o P H B o f f r c i a ls . Advlntlges: T h i s o p t i o n w o u l d p u t F O C t r a i n c r sd i r e c t l yi n t o a t r l i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i pw i t h t h e h e a l t l rs t a l f r v h o a r e r c s p o n s i b l et b r t h c r n c d i c a lc a r e o f t h e b L r l ko f t h e p o p L r l i r t i o nI.t w o L r l dl i l l a t r a i n i n g g a p t h a t h u s b e e n i d e n t i f i c d b _ yt h e P H B a n d b y t h e V H C d o c t o r s , t n d w a s n o t e db y t h c o r i g i n a l C o u n t y P r o p o s a l O b s e r v a t i o no f t h e c a r c a d r r i n i s t c r c db y t h e V H C c l o c t o r sv r i l l a l s o p u t F O C s t a f f i n t o c l i r e c tc o n t a c t w i t h k r c a l n o r l r d i c p c c l p l e ,w l r i c h w i l l f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h e i r h e a l t h a n d h y g i c n c b e l i e t s a n d p r a c t i c e s .T h i s , i n t u r n , w i l l h e l p t h c F O C t r : r i r l c r tso t a i l o r t h c t r : r i n i n gp r o g n l r ) r r ) rt eo h c l p t h e V H C r l o c t o r sp r o v i d c a l t p r o p r i l l c c l r r c . f)isldvl ntngcs: I n t h e c u r r e n t c l i n r i r t e ,i t s e e u r sv e r y u n l i k e l y t h x t P H B o f f l c i a l s w i l l a g r e e t o t h i s o p t i o n . E v e n i f t h e y d o a g r e e , t h e e x t e r r s i v eo b s e r v a t i o no f t h e V H C c l o c t o r sw h i l e t h e y a r e w i t h t h e t r a i n e r , l n d o f t l r c a c t L r atl r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , r n a y l i r n i t t h e a r ) r o u n to f r e a l i n l b r n r a t i o n s h a r e da b o u t c l i n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s ,o r a b o u t t l r e d i i f l c u l t i e s e n c o u r ) t e r c db y n o r n a d i ct a r n i l i e sr e g a r d i n g t h e i r h e a l t h . I t n r a y b e c o n r ed i f t l c u l t t o c o n t r i b u t e r e a l i s t i c r l l y t o t h c i r n p r o v e n r e n to f c l i r t i c a i p r a c t i c eo r L h en o n l a d ' s h e r i t h / l r y g i c n cp r r c t i c e s . S o r n e o l t i r i s n r a y inrproveaftr:rFOC stal-t-hilve b e e t rw o r k i n g i n ( h e C o u n t y f b r s o n r et i r n e , b u t e v a l L r a t i o rol f t h i s a s p e c tr v o u l t l n c e d t o b e i n c l u d c d . 2. Trlin Ilospital Doctors to Train the VIIC Doclors I t n r a y b e n i o r e p o s s i b l ef o r F O C t o p l a c e h e a l t h e x p e r t s i n H o n g y u a n f o r s h o r t e r p e r i o d s , to train the County Hospital doctors to executethe above training for the VHC doctors. H o s p i t a l d o c t o r s c o u l d a l s o r e a p t h e b e n e f i t o f c x p o s L r r et o a t b r e i g n n r e d i c a l s p e c i a l i s ti n t h e i r o w n a r e a . T h e f o r e i g n e x p e r t c o L r l c sl L r p e r v i s et h c t u ( e e s u ' h i l e t h e y t e a c h t h e V H C doctors, preferably in the VHCs, but possibly also at Hongyuan hospital. FOC would e v a l u a t et h e p r o g r a n r r r t ea l ' t e rS I X n r o n l . h si r s a b o v e , b u t t h c r n o n i t o r i n g i n d i c a t o r w o u l d b e t h e n u m b e r a n d q u a l i t y o f t r a i n i n g ' s c o n d u c t e dt b r V H C d o c t o r s b y t h e H o s p i t a l d o c t o r s . T h e b e s t g r o u p o f t r a i n e e s ,i n i t i a l l y , w o u l d b c t h e W & C c l i n i c d o c t o r s , w h o a r e a l r e a d y r n o t i v a t e dt o c o n d u c l t r a i n i n c l o r t h e V H C d o c t o r s . Advanttges : H o s p i t a l / H o n g y u a nt o w n d o c t o r s w i l l b c p u t i n t ( ) c l ( ) s c rc o n t l i c t w i t h t h e

v i l l a g e h e a l t h s t a f f w h o a r e t r e a t i n g t h e r n a j o r i t y o f d i s e a s ei n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e V H C d o c t o r s w i l l b e t h e d i r e c t b e n e f i c i a r i e s ,a s w i l l t h e i r n o m a d i c p a t i e n t s . H e l p i n g h o s p i t a ld o c t o r s t a k e t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d t r a i n i n g t h e i r VHC counterparts nray be a good initial move toward re-orienting the health system to support Primary Health Care. The political will is already present i n t h e W & C , a n d t h i s w o u l d b e a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s et o o n e p a r t o f t h e C o u n t y P r o p o s a l( p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g f o r t h e V H C s ) . Disadvl ntages: P r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g t h i s h i g h u p i n t h e h i e r a r c h yo f t h e h e a l t hs y s t e n r c l e c r e a s etsh c l i k e l i h o o d t h a t r e a l b e n e f i t w i l l r e a c h t h e i n t e n d e db e n e t l c i a r i e s o f t h e p r o g r a n r u r e :t h e V H C d o c t o r s . T h e H o s p i t a l d o c t o r s s h o w e d n o motivation to provide training to VHC doctors,only to obtain funds so that t h e y t h e m s e l v e sc o u l d o b t a i n t r a i n i n g o u t s i d c t h e C o u n t y ; t h e r e f o r e ,t h e y a r e u n l i k e l y t o b e e n t h u s i a s t i cp a r t i c i p a n t so f s u c h a p r o g r a n r m e , u n l e s st h e y a l s o h o p e t o r e c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l i n c e n t i v e s .H o s p i t a l s p e c i a l i s t sa r e a l s o r u n l i k e l yt o b e a r c c c p t i v e a u d i e n c er v h e n F O C t r a i n i n g s t a f f a t t e r n p tt o r e v i e r v s t a n d r r c ln r e d i c a lc a r e w i t h t h e n i ( e s p e c i a l l yi f s u c h p r a c t i c ed i l ' f c r s f r o n r r v l r a tt h c y a r e d o i n g ! ) . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r O p t i o n I o r O p t i o n 2 w o u l d b e a c c e p t a b l et o t h e P H B i f t h e i r p r i r n a r y r e q u e s tf o r a d v a n c e dt e c h n i c a le q u i p r n e n tw e r e n o t a d d r e s s e t l I. f t h e P H B d o e s n o t p a r t i c i p a t ei n n e g o t i a t i o n sw i t h F O C , b u t i s f o r c e d t o a c c e p ta t r a i n i n g p r o g r a r n m ed u e t o a g r e e n t e n t sm a d e w i t h F O C o n their behalf by the County Magistrate,the PHB/llospital staff rnay block the i n i p l e r n e n t a t i o no f t h i s p r o g r a r n n r e ,a t l e a s t f u n c t i o n a l l y . 3. Rese:rrchinto the Sanitation Problenrs of the Area T h i s s t u d y h a s o n l y t o u c h e do n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o b l e n r si n h y g i e n e b e h a v i o u r a n d s a n i u t i o n in Hongyuan County. Much infornrationremains to be collected; specifically, it would be inrportant to learn what eff'ect contamination of water sources near Hongyuan Town havc o n w a t e r q u a l i t y a n d t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d i a r r h o e a l d i s e a s e i n h e r d s n r e nn e a r t h e t o w n . l t w o u l d a l s o b e g o o d t o c o n r e t o t h e b o t t o n r o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c eo f n a t u r a l U r a n i u n r l e a k i n g i n t o t h e w a t e r s u p p l i e s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e s e i s s u e sc o u l d b e a p p r o a c h e do n a n acadenric basis, with reconrmendationsfbr infiastructural sanitary alterations being forwarded to the County afterwards. lt would be inrportant to llnd a local counterpart r e s e a r c h e rw h o w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e di n t h i s o p t i o n , t o h e l p o p e n t h e d o o r s w h i c h n r i g h t o t h e r w i s e r e n r a i nc l o s e d d u r i n g s u c h a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

Advantages: Sanitation wouldallow FOC to follow-upon the recotntnendations research of the Universityof Lund'sHongyuanWetlandResearch report(Bjork, 1993),as well as to nrakeuseofcurrentpersonnel now workingin China. The findingsof suchfesearch wouldbe of imnrediate practicaluse,if the Countyis willing to ntakethechanges whichare indicated. Disadvr rrtage.s: Work in thisareahasnot bcenrequested. Alreadywe haveencoun(ered

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HongyuanCountyRapidassassment Survcy

SurveJ HottgyuanCountyRupidassessment frorn the EpiderniologyCentre;if thereis no request significantresistance nor openness for work alongthisline, it nraynot be fruitful to pursueit, at of this investigation.Even if leastas an integralpart of the recourmendations sucha researchprojectis allowed,the practicalimplicationswhich will to be madein HongyuanTown's alterations.need fbllow (i.e., thatstructural seweragesystern)rnayinvoluntarilyseemto comrnitFOC to willingnessto contributeto this financially. Alterations 4. Set-up of the Medical Records/Systern healthcould come to Hongyuanfor a short An expert in rnedicalstatistics/records/public respondto the diffrcultiespointed term project to help the Hospitaland other departments This recordscouldbe re-organised. out in this report.In particular,the Hospitaloutpatient in a I to 2 week trip. At the satnetinre, if there was could probablybe accornplished programme openness to this, it rnay be possibleto conducta trainingon iurnrunisation in Practice"(WHO, 1991). practice,usingWHO standard texts,suchas "ltl]nturtisiition Advantages: T h e H o s p i t a l D i r e c t o r h a s e x p r c s s c dr e c o g n i t i o nt h a t t h e r e c o r d ss y s t e n r n e e d sr e v a n r p i n g .T h i s s o r t o f t r a i n i n g w o u l c l n o t c o n t r t r i tF O C t o a l o n g t e r m i n v o l v e m e n t i n H o n g y u a n i n a n r e c l i c asl y s t e m t h a t i s r e s i s t i n gc h a n g e , but nlight give an opportunity to see how receptive to change the systeln c o u l d b e . A f u r t h e r s p o t - c h e c kt o s e e i f t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n taught are being practised could probably be arranged (and should certainly be agreed to frorn the outset). If a functioning record systetn could demonstrate which sort of diseasesare being diagnosed at Hongyuar. . his h o s p i t a l , a n o b j e c t i v e b a s i s t b r e q u i p m e n tn e e d sc o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d T could be an initial step into the Hongyuan health system at a level that does not impinge on local government sensibilities toward tlie Tibetan population. Disadvnntages: I t i s a l w a y s d i f f l c u l t t o t a k e a d v i c e o n t h e w a y o u r o w n s y s t e l nf u n c t i o n s f i o r r t a n o u t s i d e r , n o t n l a t t e r h o w " e x p c r t " ; t h e i s s u eo f i a c e ' n l a y b e a t s t a k e h e r e . A l t h o u g h t h e d e f i c i e n c i e si n t h e O P D r e c o r d s s y s t e mw e r e admitted, there was no request for help, and FOC accessto all medical records nray be a sensitive area, especially if there are activities which the H o s p i t a l d o e s n o t w i s h t o p u b l i c i s e ( e . 9 . , ' f i b e t a n a b o r t i o n n u n l b e r s ) .A s h o r t f b r a y i n t o t h e h e a l t h s y s t e n rn l a y t e s t t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f P H B / H o s p i t a l o f t l c i a l s t o c h a n g e ,b u t t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o nh a s g a u g e d t h a t a l r e a d y : s o m e m o r e f u n d a n e n t a l c h a n g e i s n e e d e db e l b r e t l r i s s o r t o f i n t e r a c t i o ni s l i k e l y t o r e c e i v ea r e u d v h e a r i n s . 5 . S e n d i n a B i o n r e d i c r l E n g i n c c r t o A s s e s st h e S t a l u s o l t h e H o s p i t i r l E q u i l l n t e l t t Which Needs Repair', as Merttioned itt this lteport. T h o s e i t e m s w h i c h c a n b e r e p a i r e do n t h e s p o t , c o u l d b e . P a r t s w h i c h n e e d r e p l a c i n g c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d , i f a v a i l a b l e , a n d a r e c o t r r n e n d a t i o nc o u l d b e g i v e n a s t o w h e t h e r t h e e n t i r e unit in question needs replacerrent.This would problbly require at least two trips to Hongyuan: the flrst to diagnose the need for parts, and the second after whatever parts are available have been ordered and obtained.

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Advnntages: This approachwould optirnisethe efficiencyof any attemptto help the problems.Sincethe basicequipment Hospitalwith its equiprnent inventory at the Hospitalis appropriatefor the populationit serves,a biomedical engineercoLrldhelp preventgreatexpensefor unnecessary hardware replacement. This would seema mandatoryfirst stepto any donationsof equipment,whatsoever. Disadvantages: The PHB/ Hospitalofflcialshavealreadypatentlyrejectedthis option,and if it were agreedto in negotiations with the Magistrate,this could create resentment. Also, if thebiomedicalengineer recommends replacement of any equipment, sinceFOC senthim in, it may seemmandatory to go ahead and replacethe equiprnent.It shotrldbe notedthat mostof the mostrecent (AppendixE) areconservative: CountyProposal equiprnent costestimates replacernent of an X-ray tubeand placenentof a photornultiplierunit on a fluoroscope is likelyto costabout$50,000U.S. Placement of a biornedical engineer couldinaclvertently cornnritFOC to rnajorexpenses. 6. 5.6 RecomrnenduIiort Option l: Training VIIC DoctorsDirectly If the Hongyuanofficialsare willing to allow FOC trainersaccessto VHC doctorsand nomadicpatientsin the field, eventhoughthis may be difficult at first, this optionwould be most consistentwith the DeveloprnentVision developedby the whole teanr.The great difficulty would lie in the tendencyof the PHB offlcials to continueto try to negotiatefor Hospitalequiprnent, and to block the implementation of the trainingprogramrne unlessthis were forthcorning.This would seernespeciallylikely if the training programmewere agreedto by the Magistrateon behalfof the County.If the PHB offlcialstakepart in the negotiations,it would seernlikely that there will be sorneeffort to get FOC to accepta minimalpresence in the trainingschene(suchas Option2), and eventhen,only to allow suchinvolvementafter equipnrenthasbeendonated(increasethe "carrot" and decrease the "stick"). Supplyof nredicalequipnrent to hospitals and PHBssuchas that in Hongyuanas the major or initialelenrentofan NGO's involvernent in healthdevelopnrent has,in our experience in Nepal,led to increased expectations for more donations'as the "price" ofany substantial developrnent work, a passiveattitudeon the part of recipients,and the clevelopment ot' dependency on the donoragency.Considering the overwhelrning ernphasis that the PHB is placingon equipmentsupplyat this tinre, and their intransigent attitudetowardthis and towardchangein the otherelements of their system,it wouldbe quitejustifiableto explain the findingsof the studyto the PHB officials,and to statethat FOC cannot,at this time. work with themon thisbasis. It is true that,if FOC is not involved,the opportunityfor an ongoingpresence, to serveas salt and light, to influencethe systentfor positivechange,will be lost, at leastfor thc


Hongyuan Counry Rapid assessm(ntSurvcy

Hottgl,uuttCoutttyRupid usscssn?ntSurvq

n r o n e n t . T h e P l l l l n ) a y g o o n w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t h o s p i t a l - t o w nc e n t r e d p o l i c i e s , a n d m a y b e s u c c e s s f u li n f i n d i n g a n o t h e r N G O w h o r v l / / f l l l l l t h e i r d e s i r e s f b r t e c h n i c a l e q u i p m e n t w i t h o u t o r g a n i s x t i o n a lc h a n g e . I f F O C h a s o t h e r w o r k i n t h e C o u n t y , t h e p r e s e n c eo f s u c h an NGO nray harnper sLrchwork; however, it is tlrc opinion of this writcr tha.t no major tilntling botly ttoultl .fittul the PIlB request as it now stunds. I t i s m y r e c o n r n r e n d a t i o nt h a t F O C d o e s n o t p r o v i d e H o n g y u a n C o u n t y w i t h a n y d o n a t i o n s o f m e d i c a l e q L r i p r n e n ta t t h i s t i n l e a t a l l . I f t h e P H B o r H o n g y u a n o f f i c i a l s a r e n o t c n t h u s i a s t i ca b o u t t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a n r l r e b y i t s e l f , w i t h o u t c q u i p n r e n t d o n a t i o n s , t h e n i t rnay be best fbr FOC to withdraw fronr Public Health work at this tinle. FOC should then e x p l a i n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e p o r t t o t h e P H B , s o t h a t F O C ' s c o m m i t n r e n t sa n d r e a s o n sf o r w i t h d r a w i n g a r e c l e a r . T h i s w o u l d a l l o w F O C t o p o i n t o u t t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e so f t h e P H B s requests and approach with FOC developnrental policies, and possibly allow the o r g a n i s a t i o nt o h e l p t h e P H B t o b e g i n t o r e - o r i e n t i t s e l f w i t h c u r r e n t r e a l i t i e s . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s r n a y c l e a r t h e w a y f b r f u r t h e r f r u i t f u l n c g o t i a t i o n si n t h e f u t u r e . T h e P H I I o f f r c i a l s should be invited to reconsider their proposal and to approach FOC at a later date, should t h e y w i s h t o d o s o . I t n r u s t b e e m p h a s i s e d ,n o n r a t t e rw h a t a p p r o a c h F O C c h o o s c st o L r k e , t h a t d o n a t i o n s o f n t e d i c a l e q L r i p r i l e nw t i t h o u t a p p r o p r i a t ea g r e e n r e n t sw i t h H o r r g y u a n t h a t c r n p h a s i s er e : r l h e a l t h s y s t e n rd e v e l o p n r e n tw i l l l c a d t o a p a s s i v ea t t i t L r t l co n t h e p a r t o f P H B ol'flcials: th is r s rrrrt re t:ttrt ttrtt ttttcd. I t w i l l b c i n r p o r t a n tf b r F O C t o b e a b l e t o d e t l n e t o i t s e l f , a n c lt o t h e C h i n c s e g o v c r n m c n t , j u s t w h a t i t s c l e v e l o p r l c n t a lp o l i c y i s g o i n g t o b e . l - h e r e s h o u l d b e s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r l a p b e t w e e n F O C ' s g o a l s a n t l i n t e r e s t sa n d t h o s e o f t h e g o v e r r r n r c n tb o d i t : s w i t h w h i c h F O C w o r k s . T h e r e r n a y b e s o n r e d i f f ' e r e n c e so f o p i n i o n a t t h e e d g c s o f t h e s e a r e a s o f o v e r l a p : t h i s i s t h e b a s i s f b r n e g o t i a t i o n . W h e n t h e r e i s r r o o v e r l a p i n i r t t e r e s t sa t a l l , t h e r e i s n o b a s i s t b r n e g o t i a t i o n ,e i t h e r . A d e v e l o p m e n ta g e n c y t h a t t r i e s t o f b n n a n a g r e e n r e n tw i t h o u t m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s b e c a u s e o f a d e s i r e t o w o r k i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , o r b e c a u s ei t h a s c e r t a i n r e s o u r c e s( s a y , d o n a t e dn r e d i c a le q u r p n r e n t ) ,w i l l f l n d i t s e l f e n r b r o i l e d i n c o n t i n u o u s c o n f i o n t a t i o n w i t h i t s n e g o t i a t i o np a r t n e r . I t i s h o p e d t l l a t F - O C w i l l c h o o s e w i s e l y .

6.6

EDUCATION

6.6.I GENERALDATA I. STUDENTS 2. TEACHERS 3. CURRICULUMAND TEACHING 4. FACILITIES 6.6.2 EDUCATION, NOMADIC LIFE STYLE AND SETTLEMENT 1. WHAT CAN EDUCATIONOFFERTO A NOMADIC FAMILY 2. LANGUAGE AND CT]LTURE 3. IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHICLOCATION 4. ADULT EDUCATION(LITERACY) 6.6.3 OPTIONSAND RISK ANALYSIS 6.6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS

6.6.1 GENERAL DATA The educationgroup of the surveytcarl (KarenDohneand Winnie Thurna)visitedninr: schoolsin HongyuanCounty:sevenTibetanprinraryschools,one Chineseprirrary school and the TibetanBoardingMiddle School (TBMS). Of theseschools,eight headmasters villageheadmenand ComntunistParty were interviewed,severaltcachcrs,solnestudents, secretaries.For thesedetailedobservationspleaserefer to the diary in Appendix. At the end of this chapteris an overviewchartof the visitedschools. after 1959.From the beginningol Schoolsin HongyuanCountywere mostlyestablished the educationof Tibetan establishinga formal schoolsystem,the governnrentemphasised children. "Schoolson horseback"were started,followed by the EducationDepartmerrl boardingschools.Boardingschoolsare the runningschoolsin tentsand laterestablishing only feasibleway to provide effectiveeducationto the children of nornadicfarnilics accordingto the HongyuanCountyEducationBureau. In total thereare twenty-fiveschoolsin the County:twenty-twoprirnaryschoolsand thrr'c middle (high) schools.Out of the twenty-twoprirnaryschools,eighteenare Tibctanan(l four Chinese,whereas out of thethreerniddleschools,one is Tibetanand two areChinese. irrranirnalhealthworkertrainingschoolunclerthe aninral All educationactivities(besides husbandryoffice) are overseenby the HongyuanEducationBureauheadedby a director. and Hcalthol The EducationBureaurelatesto the Vice Magistratefbr Education,CultLrre The Vice Magistrateof the Education,Cultureand Healthis. the County adrninistration. responsible for a budgetof 4 rrillion RMB annually.Of this 3.6 nrillionis spentin thc educationsector(80%). Accordingto nationalpoliciesthereshouldbe rrineyearsof free educationfor all childrenby the year 2000. However,in Hongyuan,due to the local conditions,and the late beginningof schooleducation,the Educationl3ureauhas set rts goal to providesix yearsof free educationto all childrenby the year 2000. The primary schoolstartswith a prelinrinaryclassand goesto grade6. Crade7 to grade(l are consideredrniddle school, grade 9 to 12 as high school. Contpletinggrade 9

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/6

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I IortgytttnCoun\, JlupiI urscss|il(n|Surve),

s t l c c e s s i t l l l yc l t i l b l e s t o e n t e r t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s s u c h a s t c a c h c r t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s , n t e d i c a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l sa r l < la n i r n e l h u s b e n d r ys c h o o l s .T h c s c s c l l o o l sa r e l o c a t e d i n N , I a ' e r k a n g t, h e A b a P r c t ' c c r u r ec e r t t r e ,a r t t l o t h c r p l a c c s . A f t e r c o n r p l c t i o n o l ' g r a d c 1 2 , s t u d e n t sc a n g o o n to colleges ancl universitics. The Chinese universities regulate enrolrncnt by a tough e n t r a n c e e x 3 . n 1 i r l a t t o nh.. l i n o r i t y s t u d e n t sg e t a b o l r u s . F o r r u i n o r i t y p e < - r p l ct h c r e a r e t h e I n s t i t u t e sf o r N a t i o n a l i t i e s( e . g . , S o u t h w e s ra n d N o r r h w e s t a n d B e i j i n g , s C e n t r a l ) . ln Hongyuan schools are available up to grade ll. Thc prirlary schools are well spread over the area of the county. In spite of the dil'ficulties presented by the geography, r e n l o t e n e s sa n d c l i n t a t e \ \ ' e g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e s c l r o o l s a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e da n d tirnctioning. I. Studerrts o u t o f 4 , 2 0 9 c h i l d r e na g e d 7 - 1 2 y e a r si n 1 9 9 5 , 2 9 1 9 a r e a r r c n d i n gs c h o o l s ,1 2 5 i n g r a d e6 . 'fhe e n r o l n r e n tr a t e i s 6 9 % ( i n 1 9 8 3 , 2 5 o / o ) . ' l b el o w n u r n b e ro f c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e 6 m a y clther point to a high dropout r:tlc or a rccent incrcaseoi enrolruent in cracie I or a conrbination of both. 'lhe

n u t t l b e r s o f b o y s a r r d g i r l s i s t h e s l n r c ( i r r t b r n r a t i o n f i o n r l r c t c l n r a s t c r sn r a t c h o u r o b s e r v a t i o n ) .T h e a g e i n o n e g r a d e l n a y v a r y e . g . i n o n e g r a c l eI c l a s s w e s a w c h i l d r e n w h o l o o k e d t h e a g e o f 8 a n d 1 0 . N o n e o f t h e s c h o o l s r e p o r t e t ia h i g h d r o p o L r tr a t e , b u r t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o r i t , e , g . 1 ' e * , s t l i l d s g ni n t h c c l a s s . T h c T B N I S r c p o r t e c lc l r o p o u t d u r i n C p r e p x r a t l o n c l l s s e s . T w o h c a d t t t a s t c r sr c p o r t e d i r r e g u l a r a t t e n d x n c c d u r i n g t h e S u m n r e r , w h e n t h e r e i s a l o t o f u , o r k o n t h c l ) a s t u r r : sT. I l e s t u d e n l su , c s ; r r vi n t h e c l a s s c s ,p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e C l a s sw o r k . T h e y w c r e v e r y d i s c i p l i n c d . 2. Telchers T h e r e a r e J l 6 r e a c l r e r si n t h e c o u n t y , n r o s t o f t h e s e ( 3 1 0 ) w e r e t r a i n e d i n a t a n c h e r s t r a i n i n gs c h o o l ,e . g . i n M a ' r c k n g . A c c o r c l i n gt o t h e E d u c a t i o nB u r e a ut h e r e a r e o n l y t h r c e o r t t h e j o b t r a i n e d t e a c l t c r s .W e n r e t s e v e r l l ( c a c l r c r sr v l r o l r a c lo n l y c o n r l > l e t c dr n i d i l l e s c h o o l a s t l l e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n .A f t s r s e v e n y e r i r st h c y g o t r c c o l l n i t i o na s ' g o v c n l l c n t t e a c h c r s ' . 'Ihere a r e s e n i o r l e c t L t r e r sa s w e l l , u , h o h a v c s t L r d r c dl o r 2 - . 1 y e a r s a t a L r n i v c r s i t y .F r o n r o b s e r v a t i o n ,a b o u t o n e t h i r c l o f t h e t e a c h c r sa r e l t n r a l c , 1 6 % a r c o l " f i b e r a n o r i g r n . loarl f r o n r E d u c a t i o nB u r e a u ) . T h e t e a c h e r ' so r r g o i n g t l a i n i n g i s t l r e r e s p o r s i b i l i t y o f t h e [ ] d u c a t i t r r rB u r e a u , w h i c h o f f e r s c o u r s e s d u r i n g h o l i d a y s . W e d i d n o t r t t e e t t e a c h e r sw h o h l d t a k c n p a r t i n t h c s e c o u r s e s . , A s k c d a b o L r ro r r g o i n g t r a i n i n g , a l l b u r n ' o s a i d t h c y h a d n c v e r h a t i a n y , n o r u , o u l d t h e - 1 , h a v e t i r n e o r n l o n e y t o t a k e p a r t . o n l y t w o t c x c h c r sg o t a s h o r t t r a i n i n g o n h o w t o u s e t h e s c l e n c ee q u l p n t e n tw h i c h w a s r e c e n t l y g i v e n t o t h e s c h o o l s . - 1 .C r r r r i c t r l r r n a t nrl Teleltirrg All schools we visited used the govcrnnrcnt curriculurn lncl tcxt books. The following subjects are taught in tlre prinrary schools: Tibetan languirge, chinese ranguage. r n a t h e r n a t i c ss, c i e n c e ,n r u s l c , a r t s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a l i o n , s o n r e t i r n e sh i s t o r y . T e x t b o o k s w e r e a v a i l a b l e i n a l l s c h o o l s . T w o s c h o o l s c o n r p ) a i n c do i n o t h a v i n g e n o u g h b o o k s f o r a l l s u b je c t s .

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I l ) c I l r \ 1 5 l \ l c . l c l l l l t gt l l l l t e r r ) \ l i ( r J e ! { : ,(., r i , ui - . ' . , . h u s b a n c l r ya n c l h y d r o p o w e r t e c h n i c a lc o u r s c . F o r v a r i o u s r t ' a s o t t st l ) i s w a s t o o d i l ' l l c u l t a n , l bservc scverxl teachillg nlctht)ds being usetl u n s p c c e s s f r r l .I n t l r e c l a s s e s r v e c c l L r l c o r c l ) c a t l n ga l l c r t h c t e a c h c r a r r d r u e l n o r i s i n g ,c o p y i n g 1 l - o r rttl t e b l : r c k b o a r t i ,q t l c s t i o n - a n s \ \ ' c r i n t e r a c t i p n ,1 s e o f b l a c k b o a r dt o e x p l a i n a n d i l l u s t r a t c , L r s eo f b o o k s a n d d i c t i o n a r i e s , e r p c r i r l c n t s u , i t l r s c i e n c e c q r r i p r t r e n t .l n t * ' o s c h o r r l sw c s 3 w c l a s s e s r v o r k i n g u i t h o u t i r \ tc:tcircr. 4. Facilitics B e s i d e so n e ( L o n g r a n w h i c h i s p l a n n e d t o r e b u i l d ) , a l l s c l r o o l s h l c l q u i t e g o o d c l a s s r o o n l buildings with high ceilings, big windows, space lbr about twenty-five students.Thc r l i f t e r e r r c cw a s n o t s o n t u c h t h e b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r db L r (m o r c t h e c l e a n l i n c s sa n d c a r s f o r t h c r o o n t s a n d V a r d s . S o m e s c h o o l s h a d u n w e p t f l o o r s , r L r b b i s hp i l e d u p i n c o r n e r s , f i r e w o o t l d r r r r p e r li n c o r n e r s . O t h e r s c h o o l su ' e r e c l c a n . a n d h r d r t r b b i s hb i n s c t c All schools had brand-new science equiprrtent.One school had an overhead projector, a r r o l h r ' rh a t l l b u r o v s r l r e r t l p r o j e c t o r s , o n c s c h o o l l : a c l a ' l ' V . A l l s c h o o l s h a d a b a s k e t b e l l coUrt. 'fhe b L r i l c l i n g sl b r b o a r d i n g w e r c b o a r t i i n g l a c i l i t i e s o f a l l s c l r o o l sw e r e r a t h c r s i n r p l e . o l d a n d s n l a l l e r t h a n t h e c l a s s r o o r nb u i l d i n g s . U s u a l l y 8 - 1 2 c h i l c l r e n s h a r e a r o o n t . T h e r e w e r e k i t c h e n s ,d i n i n g r o o n t , s t o r er o o l t l . 'l'hc

6,6.2 EDUCATION, NOMADIC LIFE STYLE AND SET'rLEMENT " H r r c l s p c o p l ca r e p r a c t i c a l , t h e s c h o o l sd o n ' t t e a c h t h e i r c h i l d r e r r p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s ; t h e r e f o r e . o r n a c l i cp e t r p l es p c r t dt h e i r I i f e o n t h e t h c v d o n ' t s c e a n y b e n e f i t i n g e t t i n g t h e r l e d u c a t c ' r iN g r a s s l a n c i s t, h e r e f o r e t h e y d o n ' t u n c l e r s t a n dt h c n c c d l i r r c d L r c i r l j o n . "( H e a d r r t a s t c ro f t h o 'l'ibclan I l o a r c l i n gM i d d l e S c l t o o l ) . s a r n t l r e i r t r a t l o w l r i l e g r o * ' i r t g L r p[ r y c o p v i n g : i d L r l t sa n d t h r o i r g h N o r l a r i i c p t r s t r r r a l i s tl e l c : r r r r i r r gb y d o i n g . T h c g i r l s l i r l l o r v r r r r t ll t c l p t h c r r I t t o l l i e r r v i t l t t c n d i n g t h D l t t l i n l a l s . p r o d L r c i n g[ r L r t t car n d c h e c s c .T ] r e b o y s l i r l l o w t l r c r r l i i t h c r l r c r t l i r t ga n d l o o k i n g a f i e r t h c a n i n a l s . ' l - l t cc h i l d r e nl e a r na t a n c a r l y a g e h o r v t o h a n t l l ea t t i t t i a l s . A s c h o o l c t r n n e v e r r e p l a c c t h i s t y p c o f c d u c i r t i o n .T o b c i l n o n l a ( l i c p r s t o r a l i s t i n t h c h a r s l t c n v i r o l l t c r t t o f t h e T i b e t a np l a t e a Lrre q u i r e sn o t o n l y s k i l l s ,b u t a n i n d e p c n d c npt e r s o n a l i t y , a q , c l l c l c v e l o p e di n t l i t i o n t o c l i a g n o s ea s i t t r a t i o na n t i r c l t c l t o i t q u i c k l Y ( s e c E k v a l l ) . A s c h o o l w i t h e v e n t h e b e s t a n i r r t a lh u s b a n c l r yc l a s sc a r l n o ta c h i e v e t l ) i s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n t n e n t o f n o r r r a d si s c l r a n g i n g f a s t : i n t m l g r a t i o n i r l t ( ' their area by people with differing interests, politics and repeated attenlpts to control n o t r l i r < l i s D ri n , ( l U s t r i e sn e e d i n g r a w p r o d u c t s a n d u , u r k c t r , I l l r r r k u t e c o n o l l t - ya t t d c c r n s u n l t r g o o d sa v a i l a b l ci n t o w n s . tl ic F:rrrt i l1 .' I . \\' I r:r{ (':t rr llclu cn!!t!!-gJf(]l!!sd!q!'1 'l'hc ability to cope with a charrging environurent, tr) ncgotiatc wjth a g()vernlncnt e r n p l o y e e , t o d o b u s i n e s si n t o w n , t o d e a l w i t h t h e n r i l k p o w ( l c r a n ( l n t e a t f a c l o r i e s , I ( ) u n ( l c r s t a n dl ) o l i t i c s t h e s ec o u l d a l l b c e n h a n c e db y g o o d q L r l l i t y p r i r r r a r vc d u c a l i o t t .R c a d i t t g

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IlortgyuanCounryRapidassessment Survey

Hottg;'LtuttCounty Rupid asj'assmentSurvey

a n d w r i t i n g s k i l l s , c a l c u l a t i o n sa n d u n d e r s t a n d i n go f t h e b a s i c s o f s c i e n c e ( n a t u r a l a n d i s e s s e n t i a tl o c o p e w i t h i r ) t h e C h i n e s es o c i e t y . s o c i a l ) a n d C h i n e s el a n g L r a g e W h e t h e r s c h o o l s ( p r i m a r y a s w e l l a s s e c o n d a r y )h a v c a n y t h i n g t o o f f e r t o n o n t a d i c c h i l d r e n in ternrs of practical vocxtional education is difflcult to say. The Tibctan plateau ls an e x t r e t n ee n v i r o n n r e n ta n d t h e n o n r a d i cl i f ' e s t y l ei s s o d i f t - e r e n t ,t h a t i r r d i g e n o u sk n o w l e d g e i s probably superior to school knowledge. Institutionswill not recognise the value of this lifestyle and the wisdonr of it. Ofien we heard "the tent people are backward, they don't k n o w h o w t o b e h a v e , a r e u n d i s c i p l i n e d ,e t c . " W h e t h e r i t w o u l d b e u s e f u l t o i n t r o d u c e l e s s o n so r r p r a c t i c a l t o p i c s s u c h a s a n i r n a l h e a l t h , hygiene, nutrition, etc. is theretbre difllcult to say (intagine the contrast of a snndard lessonon a balanceddiet to the noDrad'smeat diet). The content certainly would need a d j u s t m e n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a rl i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . U n t i l l 9 9 l f a n r i l i e so f n r i n o r i t y g r o u p s w e r e a l l o w e c lt o h a v e u p t o t h r e e c h i l d r e n . S i n c e l 9 9 l t h i s i s r e c l u c e dt o t w o c h i l d r e n o n l y . A c c o r d i n g t o o L l r o b s e r v a t i o n s ,l a r n i l i e s d o h a v e 3,4,5 chilclrcn bLrt send only three to school.'fraclitionally sortrechilclrcn became (are b e c o n r i n g ) r l o n k s ( n u n s ' ? ) .E d u c a t i o r to f f e r s a n e w u l t c r n i t t i v ea n c l o p e n s t h c w a y t o p a i d e n r p l o y n r e n t .M o r e a n d n r o r e p o s i t i o n sg e t f i l l c d b y T i b c t : r r r s ,b o t h i r r a c l r t r i n i s t r i r t i oann d i n 'fo factories. beconre educated and get a job nray lrc nrr.rreattractive to children froln l a r n r i n g t a r n i l i c s . W h a t t h e i n t e r e s t so f t h e p a r c r t t si n e d u c a t i o n a r e , w e d o n ' t k n o w ; i t i s beyond the scope of tlris survey. The teirnrhad only littlc opportunity to talk to parents w i t h o u t t o o n r a n y p e o p l e l r s t e n i n g .O n e p a r e n t , a v i l l a g e h e a c l r n a n h, a s f o u r c h i l d r e n . t h r e e attend school. The youngestwas kept at honle to look after tlre herds. The father expects t h a t e d L r c a t i o ns h o u l d i r n p r o v c h i s c l r i l c l r e n ' sc o n d i t i o n s a n d t e a c h t h e n r h o w t o r a i s e c a t t l e skill'ully. He was unableto explain what that nreans. A n r o t h e r ( n o n r a d i c h e r c l s w o n r a ne) x p r e s s e dt h a t s h c w o u k l l i k e t o s e n d h e r d a u g h t c r t o s c h o o l s o t h a t s h e g e t s a n o l ' t i c ej o b , b e c a u s el i t e i n t h c t c n t i s s o d i l ' t l c L r l t .A n o t h c r I n o t h e r w o u l d l i k e t o s e e h e r d a u g h t e r e d u c a t e db e c a u s e" s h c n e c t l s t o h a v e i r p e r s o n w h o k n o w s w h a t y o u c a n o r d e r i n a r e s t a u r a n t".

their children far away to a central Hongyuanboard primary school. According to the EducationBureau such a central school for 1,000 children would solve all problemsin primary education(seeoption 1). The centralmiddle schoolalreadyhasthe potentialto alienatechildrenfrom the way of life of their parents;this alienationprocesswill only increasewith the introductionof a central primary school. The children are cut off from the "learning by doing" processin their families. As boarding students,Iiving in a big peer group is completelydifferent from growing up in a tent with its ratherlonely environment.(accordingto Ekvall, nomadic children don't have much interactionwith each other). They learn a different lifestyle: sleepin bedsand storehouses,eat different food, wear Chineseclothes,and are told that the nomadicway of life is backward,etc. To summarise,schooleducationcan inrprovethe standardof nomadicpastoralist,but is can as well contributeto the underrnining anddestruction of the nornadicway of life. 2. Langrrnsennd Crrltrrre At the primary schools,besicles the Hongyuanones, we visitedother classesin either Chineseor Tibetanlanguageas teachingrrediurns.We could not find out who decides whichlanguage to use:the parents,the teachers, thechildren,others? Many classroonrs we saw were decoratedwith picturesof Tibetantemplesand Lamas.46% of the teachers areTibetan.In the Qiangcornmunities of the Southernpart of the Countyis a prirnaryschoolwhich usesQianglanguage as the teachingmediunr.Thereis certainlya greatopenness by the education institutions to allow (evenencourage) the expression of the cultureand the use of the nrothcrtongue.The TibetanBoardingMiddle Schoolowns a library with 12,000Tibetanbooks.If childrencan studyduring their first yearsin their greatlyto their futurelearningabilityand forrnation own language it will contribute of their identity(literaturereferences can be providedat request). Traditionallyeducation wasnot availableto all exceptfor thosewho becanremonks.Thus, education,influenceand power were limited. Since 1959 primary schoolshave been established all over the County,off'eringseculareducationto all.

S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o 1 ' t h e P R C t h e r e h a v e b e e n n r o r e o r l e s s s t r o n g a t t e n r p t st o c o n t r o l t h e people of the Tibetan platcauand in particular the nornrds - not only fbr political reasons b u t f b r e c o n o u r i cr e a s o n sa s w e l l : t o m a k e t h e i r p r o d u c t s ( n r i l k , n t e a t , h i d e s , w o o l ) a s r a w n t a t e r i a l i n t o i n d u s t r i e s .T h e n r a j o r s t r a t e g y t o a c h i e v c t l r i s h a s b e e n t o s e t t l e t h e n o n t a d i c p a s t ur a li s t s .

Since 1983 monasteries were reconstructed. Our team saw at least six monks in their characteristic dresson the street.The rnonasteryin Amakhakehas 300 monkstrainees.(P. Millais)althoughaccordingto the law boysonly abovethe ageof l8 canjoin a monastery. We learnedthat boysafter the corlpletionof primary schooljoin ntonasteries.

G o v e r n n r e n to f f l c i a l s c l c a r l y l i n k s e t t l e n r e n at n d c c l u c a t i o n . ' f h e t h r c c p o i n t p r o g r a n r r n et b r n o n t a d i c s o c i c t y d e v e l o p n r c n t r c l a t e s e c l u c a t i o nt o t h e s e t t l e r ) l e n to f t h e n o n t a d s a n d a n ovcrall improvenrent in their living conditions. l'echnical classessltould be provided, c l a s s e st b r a c l u l t sa n d o n T V .

The TibetanBoardingMiddle Schoolhas three seniorteachers and one vice headmaster who wear rnonks'dress.Accordingto the headmaster, the teacherswere ntonksbeforethey becameteachersand decidedto continuea celibatelifestyle,but they were no longer monks. One of theseteacherswe observedteachingthe Tibetanlanguage.He is respected person. as a very well-educated

T h e H o n g y u a n e c l u c a t i o np r o p o s a lo f 1 9 9 2 p l r t s t h e s c t t l c r ) ) e not f n o r u a c l sa s a p r e - c o n d i t i o n t b r i r n p r o v e d e d u c a t i o n . l n t h e p a s t t h e r e h a v e b c e n a t t c n t p t s t o a < l j u s ts c h o o l s t o t h e l i f e s t y l e o f t h e p e o p l e ( s c h o o l so n h o r s c b a c k ,s c h o o l si n t h e t c n t s a n c l a t p r e s e n tv e r y s n r a l l b o a r d i n g s c h o o l s ) . l n f u t u r e p e o p l e w i l l h a v e t o a d j L r s tt o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s : s e t t l e o r s e n d

Although,learningin one's own rnothertongueimprovesthe studyeffectiveness, it may becomea stunrblingblock in the lateryearsof secondary and tertiaryeducation,sincethe nationallanguage is Chinese.

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Surwy HongyuanCountyRapidassessment

Hongyuan Counry Rupitl assassmut Survey

A c c o r d i n g t o o u r o b s e r v a t i o n st h e s t u d e n t so f t h e T i b e t a n p r i t n a r y s c h o o l s t e n d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o ni n t h e ' f i b e t a n M i d d l e S c h o o l , a n d t h e r re i t h e r i n t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l so r o n e o f t h e I n s t i t u t e s f o r N a t i o n a l i t i e s . W e c o u l d n o t e x p l o r e t h e c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e st o a s t u d e n t from these institutions, but presumably they are .linrited to Tibetan speaking areas. Although students of nrinority background get a bonus in the entrance exarns to the m a i n s t r e a m( C h i n e s e )u n i v e r s i t i e s ,o n e c a n a s s u r n et h a t o n l y a f e w a r e p a s s i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e v a l u e o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o nc a n n o t o n l y l r e m e a s u r e db y t h e s u c c e s so f t h e f e w i n t e r t i a r y e d u c a t i o nw h o b e c o n r er n e d i c a ld o c t o r s a n d e n g i n e e r s ,b u t w h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e st o t h e i n r p r o v e m e n to f l i f e l b r t h e m a n y . L o o k i n g a t t h e s c h o o l s f r o r r t h e H o n g y u a n p e r s p e c t i v ei t s e e m s t h a t t h e T i b e t a n s c h o o l s n r a k e a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o k e e p a l i v e a n c l t o d e v e l o l >T i b e t a n l a n g u a g e a n d c L r l t u r c 'H . owever, in the nation-rvide cortext tlrese schools secrn (o be second rrte thus enlrancins tlre " b a c k w a t e rs t a t u s "o l ' t h e g r a s s l a n d s . 3 . I n r p a c t o f G e o g r a p h i cI - o c u t i o r r C o r n p a r i n g s c h o o l sa c c o r d i n g t o t h c i r l o c a t i o n , t h e r e a r e n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e t w o s c h o o l sw e v i s i t e d i n r e m o t e a r e a s ,S i z h a i a n d S e d i b o t h h a v e d i f f l c u l t i e s t o a t t r a c t q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r sb e c a u s eo f t h e l o n g d i s t a n c et o t h e t o w n a n d t h e l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s s u c h a s electricity and housing. The quality of a school however depends very nruch on the ) e a d e r s h i po f t h e h e a d r r a s t e ra n d t h e t e a c h e r s .H o n g y r : a r rP r i n r a r y S c h o o l i n c o n t r a s t h a s w e l l q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s ,i n c l u d i n g s c v e r a ls e n i o r t e a c h e r s .T l r e s c h o o l i s t h e o n l y o n e w h i c h r e p o r t s o n g o i n g t e a c h e r st r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . E v e n o u r l i n l t e d o b s e r v a t i o n ,t l l e d i f f ' c r e n c e sr r r l i v e l i n e s s , v a r i a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g b e t w e e n t h e H o r r g y u a nT o w n a n d t h e r u r a l s c h o o l s w e r e striking. T h e s c h o o l i n t h e r n o s t d e p l o r a b l es t a t e s u r p r i s i n g l y w a s t h e L o n g r a n s c h o o l , j u s t o u t s i d e H o n g y u a n T o w n . T h e E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u p l a n s t o r e b u i l d t h e s c h o o l . A n o t h e r r e a s o nc o u l d b e t h a t i n f l u e n t i a l p a r e n t ss e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o t h e H o n g y u a n T o w n s c h o o l , r a t h e r t h a n t o the local school, which in turn reduces attention to the school. The Tibetan Boarding M i d d l e S c h o o i h a s s t a t i s t i c so n h o w r n a n y s t L r d e n tcso n r e f r o r n w h i c h p r i r n a r y s c h o o l . T h e h i g h e s t n u m b e r - 6 3 - c o r r r e sf r o n r a s r n a l l t o w n s h i p i n t h e S o u t h . T h e h e a d r n a s t e o r f the T B M S e x p l a i n e d , " l n a g r i c u l t L r r aal r e a s t h e e c o n o n r i cc o n d i t i o n s a r e p o o r e r , l a n d c a n n o t b e divided unendingly arnongst the children. Tlterefore parents pay higher attention to education." Similarly Sizhai school, although a renrotc, struggling school has sent 48 s t u d e n t s .S i z h a i , a l t h o L r g ha p a s t o r a la r e a , i s p o o r e r a n d c l o s e t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . 4 . A c l t r l t E d t r c : r t i o r (r l i t c r u c J , ) A p r i r n a r y s c h o o ls y s t c r rh a s o n l y e x i s t c csl i n c e 1 9 5 9 . C u r r e n t l y , t h c e n r o l n r c n ti r r p r i n r a r y s c h o o l h a s r e a c h e d 6 9 % , t h e r e f o r c , t h e r e r ) r . r s tb c a h i g h r i r t e o f n o n - l i t c r a t c p e o p l e . I n 1 9 8 8 t h e E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u l a u n c h e da c a l r r p a i g nt o " w i p â&#x201A;Ź o u t i l l i t e r a c y " . S i n c e t h e n a s c h o o l t e a c h e r i n e a c h t o w n s l i i p i s r e s p o n s i b l et b r c l n g o i n ga d u l t e d u c a t i o n w o r k . W e n r e t t h r e e t e a c h e r si n d i f f c r e n t s c h o o l s w h o h a v e t h i s t a s k . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u all people under the age of 48 are literate. We were told that in Sunrurcr thcre are no

-lJ4-

classes, only in the Winterduringthe day, whenthe nomadshavemore time, andvisit the encampments. How long tlre courselasts, how often the classesmeet, and how the teacherwas doing, were questionsthat were not answered.There are two Tibetan languagetext books, of which we were shownone. It startedwith simplelettersand words but quickly progressed to pagesof small printedtext. The book had someillustrationsof poor quality. Adult educationor non-formaleducationhas two aspects:functional literacy skills and conscientisation.Conscientisationmeans the increasing awareness of one's own environment,a betterunderstanding of the world, the learningeffect beyondthe technical skills reading and writing. Many community developrnent programmes use the raising conscientisation aspectof adult educationas a meansof entry or as an awarenes5 not only that thosewho are non-literate are disadvantaged, tool. In this they are assunring in thatonearea,but alsoin the widercontext. Accordingto our (very limited)inforrnationwe can guessthat the focus of Hongyuan's adult educationclassesis on the functionalskills. Neitherthe books nor what we told is partof it. indicates thatconscientisation If schoolteachersare maderesponsiblefor the literacy work, it is likely that they do the and treatadultssirnilarlyto children- whichis contrary teachingsinrilarto schoolteaching We did not get inforrnation view of literacy.In to conscientisation. on the administration's general,teachers werereluctat)t or not interested to talk aboutadulteducation.

6.6.J. OPTIONSAND RISK ANALYSIS of an Following are the optionsI can see for work in the field of Education.Presentation option doesn'tmeanthat it is recomnrended. Eachoption is followedby a discussionof the advanlages and disadvantages. Option l: Education Bureau Ploposal "HOPE SCHOOL": HongyuanCounty needsto increaseits prirnaryschoolingcapacityby 1,200 placesto achievethe goal of six yearseducation.As most childrenare frorn nomadicfamilies, boardingfacilitiesare neededas well. Thereforethe HongyuanEducationBureauproposes to build a centralboardingprinraryschoolin HongyuanTown. A plan for this is in place but was not given to us due to our early departure The costestimatedis 8 million RMB. The Countyhasalreadyreceivedsomemoneyfrom a partnershipfund. FOC coulclsupportthis plan by providing funds for construction, a^,'i^m-nt

ar^

Advantages facilitiesin onego. o Solvestheproblemof lackingeducation o A big schoolcan provide more and betterfacilities o Easyto attractteachersand to exchangeexperiencewith other schools

-85-


SurveJ Hongl'uanCountyRapidusscsstn(nt Disadvant:rges (stillseenrs thanexpanding very highandis lrore expensive o it is expensive :r1 readyexistingschools). o f{unrovesyoungchildrenfar arvayfrortt their parents. opportunityfor the o No link with the localcourrnunity and lesscontribution pnrents. approachfor FOC to gain experience o Not a "step-by-step" Option 2 Support the Tibetan Boarding llliddle School (TI|I\{S).' The TBMS is the only one in the HongyuanCounty which offers secondaryeducationin the Tibetan rnediLrnr.It has realisedits capacitylinrit and asks for support. Neededare moreclassrooms, lab, taperecorders. They did not ask for teachertrainingfor ii language to explorethe seconclurent of an Englishtcachcr. theirside,but it rnaybe possible Advantagcs o iiusy to relate to. o l l s e c o n d r n e n to. p p o r t u n i t y t o b e i n c o n t a c t w i t h y o u n g T i b e t a n s . Disadvautages o l i ' c u s o n s e c o n c l a r ye d u c a t i o ni n s t c a do l - p r i n a r y o Support to the centre rather than to the periphery. Option 3 Expansion :rnd lrnprovenrent of lhe Facilities of Existirtg Sclrools T o a c h i e v e i t s g o a l , f r e e s i x y e a r s e d u c a t i o nl b r a 1 l c h i l d r e n , t h e C o u n t y n e e d st o e x p a n d i t s t a c i l i t i e s b y a t h i r d : n r o r e c l a s s r o o n r s ,f u r n i t u r e , t e a c h i n g c q u i p r n e n t , b o a r d i n g f a c i l i t i e s , t e a c h e r s 'h o u s i n g , w a t e r s u p p l y , e l e c t r i c i t y . Sorne of the existing lacilities could use upgrading arrd rcnovation. Additional teaching aids, e.g. textbooks, books, tape recorder and tapes are also needed. F O C c o u l d i m p l er n e n t t h i s i n t w o w a y s : b y i t s e l f o r b y d e v o l v i n g f u n d s t o t h e E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u . T h e l a t t r - rw o u l d b u i l d a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y i n t h e b u r e a u , w h o s e l e a d e r s e e m s t o b e a s i n c e r en r a n w h o k n o w s h i s f l e l d . Advantagcs o R e s p o n d st o a n u r g e n t n e c d . o C a n b e i n r p l e m e n t e di n s t e p sa n d a l l o w s t r u s t a n d r e l a t i o n s h i pb u i l d i n g . o (lan be combinedwitli otlter options. o K e e p s t h e l o c a l s c h o o l sc l o s e t o t l r e c o n r n i u n i t y ( p a r e n t s ) . Disadvantages o I n t r o d u c t i o no f F O C a s r e s o u r c ep r o v i c l e r o N u e r r t p l t a s iost t t r a i r t i r t g . o l . i l l l e p e r s o nt o p c r s o ni r r t c r a c l i o u . Option 4 Teachcr Training B e s i d e st h e i n r p r o v e n r e n to f t h e p h y s i c a l l a c i l i t i e s , n l o s t s c h o o l se x p r e s s e da n e e d f o r n t o r e and better qualified teachers. The teachers are generirlly very young and nrost corne from

-86-

I I o n g t L , a r tC o u n t \ ' l i ' t : ' t , | a s s c s s n t u t tS u r v a y

Ma'erkangTeacherTrainingSchool.On-goingterchertrainingis near)ynon-existent. The HongyuanEducationBureauhasa teachertrainingunit for on-goingrraining,but it does not functionvery well. FOC couldsupportHongyuan'sEducation Burcauby settingup the teachertrainingunit for on-goingtrainingof prirnaryschoolteachers.An expatriate, an experiencedprimary schoolteacheror teachertrainer in co-operationwith l-2 local staff could organisecoursesduring holidayson subjectslike child-development, bilingual teaching,teachingmethods,useof equiprnent, didacticon the varioussubjects,few head mastersadministration, supervisor of staff, and generalmanagemcnt. DLrringschooltirne, the teamcouldvisit the schools,observeteachers, andtrainon the spot. A dvarrlnges o S u p p o r t st h e e x i s t i n g s c t u p o f s c h o o l sw h i c h i s q u i t e r r c l l a d j u s t e dt o t h e local needs. o H c l p s T i b c l e n r r ' : r c h e r st o c a t c h u l ) . o A n s w e r s a n e x p r e s s c dn c e c lo l - r n a n y s c h o o l s ,b u t n o t a s ; l r i o r i t y n e e d . o A l l o w s F O C t o g e t t o k n o r v t h e e d L r c a t i o ns y s t e n tf r o r r r r l r c i n s i d e . o S t a f f c a n l i v e i n H o n g y u a r ra n d s t i l l b e i n c o n t a c t w i t l r r u r a l a r e a s . o C o m p o n e n t h o w t o t e a c ha d u l t s i n l i t e r a c y c o u l d b e a d c l e t l . o C a n b e c o n r b i n e dw i t h O p t i o n 3 . Disadvnntagcs o I s n o t s e e na s p r i o r i t y b y t h c E d u c a t i o n B u r c a u . o I s n o t r e s p o n d i n gt o t h e e x P e c t a t i o nf o r l i n a n c i a l h c l p . Option 5 Adult Litcracy Educltion L o o k i n g a t t h e s c h o o l e n r o l n l e n t l i g L r r c s ,o n e c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t t l ) e r c i s i r h i g h r a t e o f n o n literate people. T h e E d u c a t i o n B u r e a u l a u n c h e da c a m p a i g n " t o w i p e o u t i l l i t e r a c y " i n 1 9 8 8 a n d c o n t i n u e s t e a c h i n go f a d u l t s . H o w e v e r , w e g o t v e r y l i t t l e i n t b r m a t i o n . FOC could support the Education Bureau by staff, training and nrarcriai.Training would i n c l u d e t e a c h e r ' s t r a i n i n g a s w e l l a s v i s i t i n g l h e c l a s s e s .T h e t e a c h i n g r r ; l t e r i a l ( t e x t b o o k s ) n e e d st o b e r e v i s e d . Advarrtages o D i r e c t c o n t a c tw i t l r r u r a l p e o p l e . o Opportunity to find out people'sviewpointsand probh:nts_ Disadv:rntagcs o N o i n t e r e s tb y o f l i c i a l s . o C o u l d q u i c k l y b e c o m ep o l i t i c a l . o T e x t b o o k c h a n g e sa r e o f i e n s e e na s h i g h l y p o l i t i c a l . o Would requiretrust.bygovernrrentas well as by people ro be effective. o G o v e r n n t e n tn t o s t I i k e l y w i l l n o t a l l o w a f o r e i g n o r g a n i s r ' t i o nt o g e t i n a p o s i t i o n o f d o i n g c o n s c i e n t i s a t i o nw o r k .

- 8 1-


@ @

I,695+

Waqie

Nl

t '"

Primary

2,000

) t-t)

Anqu

Siziai

* figures population figures Chapter fipures differ from oonulation Note: Rangkou. pop. 800; 63 in TBlt,lS

attendance

150 '40%

attendance

187 '86%

418

Tibetan N'{iddle/ High Primary

Hrxgyuan

l3

10

2',78

356

6 6 Tibetan

8

6l

0 n() I 5 Tibetan f a c iilt i c s l .

5

I2

20

30

170

t0

t0

mainly Tibetan, Chineseas a subiat.

Tibetan and Chinese

Tibetan, Chi nese r n t r o .I n prade 3 Chinese. Tibetan as a subJcct

Tibetan or Chinese

generaily teach in Tibetan, Chineseas a subiect teach in either Tibetan or Chinese

I'I: ) I-ANGUACE TEACITERS I USED

60

l0

BOARDING STUDENTS

136

r50

5E9

Tibetan Primarv

'-

Chinese Prinrary'

2,484

I ,695 Primary ( 3 58 families)

N.) STUDENTS

Hongyuan

Longran

Waqie Govt. Farm

Tibetan Primary

2,900+

Maiwa

Primary

Primary

TYPE()F scHooL

4,000*

t: . POP'LTN

'I (tI

Sedi

NA\iiJ OF TOUINSHIP

,r 't_

N,totivated.interestedtachers'. older Tibetan hsdmaster. Buildings well-kept, clan, tres and bushesplanted. Tibetan identity (pictures,dresses,..).

School had vacation New clrosrmm building (1992) of tiles Class rmms not sweDt:board ac. very simple

R iI'ARKS

30 in TBli,f S some other schmls; some po home 44 in TBltlS; some bcome monls; srme go home

;i$eâ&#x201A;ŹlEi

.g icE; EH;?i: asir liiiF ;

ai=i; lrtEiicilE itiiletâ&#x201A;Źaa E

iFi;;ii1i iii++s

Iliggs#?,Ei$

W*lth1, community, very young but enthusiastic h*dmaster; parentscontributefinancially to the schml; I OH Projctor, spaciousclm courr, well kept simple classroom.cood sciencetscher. Remole, no el4tricity, difficult to attracttschers. Motivated teachers, using equipment they have, try hard. Well kept classrmru and court, tres plmted, crowded boardinp.

83% ofchildren from nomadic families, l7% from govemment offices.

Facilities average,not particularly good nor bad. Chineseheadmastcr,Tibetan young tdchers. Teacher'shousing is a problem, boarding tm small, TV in boardins. 4 in TBlt,lS School brak. Femalehadmster, not interestedin us. Spaciousnew building, finmced by fam. S i m o l eb o a r d i n s . Building desolate,broken windows, unswept rubbish. No teachingdue to vacation. Female hadmaster, interested. Education Burau nlans reonstruction. 5 2 i n T B I r ' 1 S ; Tibetan studentsget tuition in Chineseand are encouraged Chinese to use Chincscafter hours. middlcschool Grrcd facilities, rvell trained teachers,4 OH Projtrtors, severaltap r*orders. 80 % of children from govemmentemrrloyees. l7 in TBlt{S

]7 in TBMS

17 studentsin TBMS

AFrER S.'i


IIong\uurt CountyRupitl uss(ssnt(ntSurve|

Chapter 7 Sunrnrary

7.I RECOMMENDATIONS 7.2 ORGANIZATIONALIMPLICATIONS 7 . 2 . 1F O C ' SL O N C ' | E I I . MV I S I O N 7.2.2PLANNINC, N,IONITORING, EVALUATION 7 . 2 . 3O R G A N I Z A ' I I O N A LS E T . U P 7 . 2 . 4P E T { S O N N E L 7 . 2 . 5F I N A N C E 7 . 2 . 6G O V E R N M E N T 7.3 REFLECTIONSON SURVEY

7.I REC0 ltLv I N D.-t't. I () t\ S -l'he tean discussecl the optionsof clch techrrical flcld and asscssed thcm againsttlrecritc-ria which werc rlevelopcdout of F()C's lcrrn.sof rclercnce,thc gencralsitLration and the visionsof the teanr.On thc fbllowingpageis a chartwlrich sLrnrrnarizes developntent the di scussi on. The team reconrrncnds that a trainingprognr)rn)e be est:rblislrcd in HongyLran for villagc level profcssittnal/scntiprol'essional workers ol' r,arious fields. For dctails see the reconrmendecl optionof thetechnicalreports.A trainingl)rogramDre coLrldtlt w,ellwith the also reconlrnended applicd (action)rcscarchcon)l)or)cnts on grass, fbcidcrand socill fbrestry. It is reconrmended to bring in not only technicalspecialists, to cover particulartechnical llelds,but alsostafi who havetrainingand experience in trainer'straining,adulteducation and/orconlnrul)ication. Nianar:enrent as well couldbe of use. FOC shouldbe cautiouswith fundingbesidcsthe inrrncdiate budgetneededfbr thc running of the trainingand rescarch projects.However,fLrncling couldbc nreaningiul oncethereis trustand FOC is convincedthateoodusewill be nradeol it. F O C n e e d s t o b e c l c a r o n i t s r o l e , w l r c t h c r i t w a n l s t o b e s c c n a s a r r r a t e r i a lr e s o u r c e provider. 'l-hc

t e a n r t l r t h e r r e c o m r n e n < ltsh a t F O C r e v i e w s i t s g o a l s , d e l r n e s a c l e a r f u t L r r ev i s i o n a n d a s s e s s e ist s i n t e r n a l c a p a c i t y .

The foilowing chirl)tcrdcscribesin nrore dctiril the possibleirlplicationsentailedby rvork. A lot delrerrcls enteringinto rural developnrent now on the further negotiations of FOC and the governnlent. ls it pos.siblc to flnrl areesol'nrulualirrterest'l Is the governnrent interested only in funds,when FOCIoff'ersrlostly trainingprogranrs? Docs the political frarre work allow I-'OCto tlo what thcv lvantto do'l

-90

Hon 91, uan County Rop id u.s-sL,s : tnt n! Sur-ve1, 7.2 ORGANI ZATIO NAL I M PLI CATI ON S If FOC enters into rural developmentwork it will have implications for the overall organizationalset-up. So far FOC has nrainly secondedpersonnelto cxisting Chinese institutions.with rural developmentwork, Foc as an organizationmight be in a position to influencethe shapeof a particularprogrammeand back its positionby the provisionof funds. Only if FOC is equipped to do this,will it be to theFOC's advantage. The following questionsand recommendations are groupedunder six headings,with which the teamwantsto makeFOC awareof the organizationalimplications. Seesummarychart at the end of the chapter.

7.2.1 FOC'S LONG TERM VISION Questions: why does Foc want to begin Rural Development(RD) work? what are the specificreasons?What are the long ternt goals to be achieved? Are there alternatlvesto achievingthesegoals? Is Hongyuanreaily a poor and needy area?The team observed many problems,but is economicsupportor socialservicethe adequateresponse,if most of the problemsare rootedin politics? Recommendations:FOC (its leadership,staff and board)shouldntakethe effort to define theirvisioncarefullywith or withoutthe helpof an outsideadvisor. 7.2.2 PLAN N ING, MON ITORI NG, EVALUATION Questions:Are the planningand plan approvalprocedures in place?Is the Foc's central office'scapacitysufficientto facilitateplanning,and to do monitoring? Rccommend.tions:FoC needsto keepin nrindthatRD programnres req,ireguidance and direction,which canonly providedif thereis suitablestaffto do this. Havea staff member as RD coordinatorwho is availablefull-timeto build up the progranrrnes and to support the field staff. The teanl feelsthat suchan RD coordinatorshoull be in place before the work starts,e.g. to negotiatewith the government,to prepareproposalswith the field staff, plans,budgets,find funding,anclto recruitpersonnel. Furthei, it is important that the specificobjectivesof eachprogranrnre, the strategies to be Lrsed,the indicatorsto assess success, inrplementation scheilLrles and budgetsareclearlydetermined. 7.2. J O RGANI ZATI ONAL S ET-UP Questions: How does Foc want to implernentRD work: through the governmentline agencies,or more independently? where should the RD coordinator be located? In Chengdu?Who supervises whom? What are the areasof responsibility? Recommendations: Pay attention to the organizationalset-up and have clear job descriptions.Placeat leasl two peoplein the sanrefield locationso that they can shareand exchange with andbe supportive to eachother. 7.2.4 PERSONNEL Question: what recruitmentstrategiescan be developedto find people who are well_ balancedand able to bear fnrstration?Is two yearsof languagestudytoo long?

-9t


HongvuanCounryRapiduJsc$nentSurvc), Recommendations:Find well qualified and experiencedstaff. The experiencedoes not necessarilyneed to be front developingcountries. Additional skills as trainer or in management are desirable.If local peopleare employedby Foc, a policy ard salaryscale needto be in place. 7,2.5 FINANCE Recommendations:Proceduresfor budgeting, financial monitoring and auditing are necessary.Fundingproposalsneedto be written, donor relationsdeveloped,reportingand correspondence with donorsmaintained;all this requiresa lot of attentionand time. Maybe a financialperson(administrative) is neededto supportthe RD coordinator.

HongyuanCounryRapid assessmant Survey o

The sizeof the teamwasappropriate,but teamscould havebeenmixing more when doing the survey. The preparationand reportwriting requiredas muchtime as for doing the actualsurvey. The teamfelt guidedby rheSpirit of the Way of the Light.

Foc shouldaim to run pilot projectsfirst, which needonly srnall scalefunding.This will allow Foc to learnas it goesalong.Many donorsprovide'nratching, fundsonly, which rneansthat funds are provided for a certainpercenrage oF the budget, and the other part rnustbe providedby theorganization, e.g. throughpersonnel. 7.2.6 GOVERNMDNT Questions: How can Foc avoid getting crushedin the middle of the Tibetan-Chinese conflict? Recomnendations: Have clear ancj specitic agreenrents,based on well thought-out, definiteplans,which spellout Foc's responsibility and that of its partners,definereview pointsand the responseto unfultllled obligations. Bind in high level governmentofficials, for exarnpleby establishing an advisorycornrrittee. Preventthe high level officials being the only onessteeringthe process. The governrnent shouldalso make a contributionto the programme,e.g. by providing office space,paying someexpenses, providingvisa. Avoid gettingin a positionof beingobligated,e.g. rhe tr'arnf'elrrhatby accepting rhe rnp to Jiuzaigou,this could havecreatedtutureindebteclness.

7.3 REFLECTIONS ON SURVEY Following are solnecomlrentsby the teamnrernbers on their experiences of this survey: o

o o

o o

Althoughthe teamhad to faceso nranyunknowns,it was surprisinghow much informationcould be gathered.To work as a teanlwas extrernelv helpful. The openness of the HongyuanCountyadrninistration was antazing. More time for preparationand pre-surveyreconnaissance would havebeen valuable;however,Johnwas very helpfulin puttingtogetherliteratureand providingbackground information. Looking back, the tearnfelt very uneasyon havingacceptedthe Jiuzhaigoutrip. The lirnitationsof the consultantrole shouldhavebeenclearer,sometimes the governementpeoplegot confused,r.g. by useof FOC visiting card, but the teammembersnot representing FOC.

-92^

- vJ -


.+

v

ncxt

lrarnln0

this

tcechcr

(€ftcr

In

optronl:

p la n s .

rcsource managemenl.

risks over winter

herdsmen to

sec-res€6rch,

Envi.onmcnt sound svstemS.

managcment

a c t r v t t r c sI n

touchy, duc to the plans.

on farmsites. Grasscs/ lcguminosis. (no fcrtilizcr)

+ Govt. wanls to apply the

+ + Long-term rescarch n€eded

0 Gress is

Action/applicd research

3RASSLAND (sovt. we6kl

from

intcrest

rsed as control

{govt. employecsl PH D octors.

no

plan, bu!

l

qovt.

peopre,

+ Govt.

)ut depends

* + Polentral vrlh pcople,

Potentiallv

less wrth

cntcrpnse

u€l etc,

)nergy; saves

wrlh

+ r

0 As commercral

arc poor)

Inleraclron

people.

Laler more

with

+

)ossible.

+ +

w orkinq.

r 1 vra €thrcal

r + Able 10 Oo aoainstcorruptionT Counter paft sr(uatron.

wrth govt.

pe ople.

I

r

+ + Need are identificd ( i n t a k es t r u c t u r e s

+ + use of solar

)eat, coal.

+ + Saving :uelwood, dung,

nform6tion can be

+++Oualrtyof

+ + Portable ryater vie filtcl

& schools.

+ + + Potcntially

to mansge grassrano.

availablc.

++

after I whilc

O New conccpt + LOng term research,

Maybe

Tibet medrcrne

Jp. lt should bc a MSc. person

' No one comrng

txpcncnced ,erson on llne.

'No surtable,

frame.

+ + Bringing in - transfer

tetson on

' No suitable,

ol tcachers required I

R e a lt r a r n c r

llne.

- Nobody on

:xpcflenced

okey.

to use time

o bc defined.

r y r t ht c a c n e r s

) Bur health

ietliemcnt.

elated lo

), Al(houoh lydro rs rn plans

nfluencel.

inked wrth plan. {ideological

r++Veryclcer

+ + Intetactton

. + Tcachers & Headmaster as[ed for it.

+ + Teachcr lr6rntn0 In plan 6lready.

Prof. support nccdcd I ess. Succcastul morc

o bc clcerly jcfincd an pilot.

Neutral

not strmulatrng

arouno /

++

luring rcsearch

lame n€cds

+ + + Stalf

altst or vet.

ntcnstve.

Maybe

bandry speci

+(+) Lcss

(trainer/6n.

son tn lhe pipelinc

- No cxperrenced per-

capocity

Within FOC't

+++Trme

+ Good possible.

)asturaltsts,

elationswrth

o

manaocmcn(

+ + Encourages

: o n t a c ts .

r y r t h Io c a r s .

+ + informal

tutcome,

people

/ timelimil

+ depems on

Focus on

Replic.ble

ocal tcachers

but...

forcst/trcc

arca. Han-Chinesc

qurle some

nlet ections

+

Sharing God s

Uqht.

+ + Strcnehlcn

) wrth 0ovt.

J In polrdcs aductaron rs

+ + wrih people

+ On papcr { s o c i s lf o r e s t r y ) looks oood,

+ + + Indegcnous knowlcdOe ot

wrth people + wrth govt.

wrth govt.

+ wrth people

ple & govt

scttclcmcnt

Po(entislly

{hcrbs).

trainees.

+ + Not In the

in Oovt. system. Im p r o v e m e n t

Tibcrt6n medicinc

trainees,/femelc

self-control. necded.

+++lselreaoy

O Rcsearch on

+ Through

+ rndfcct more

be lcss insecure

mcntioned in

+ + Local avarlable

+ + Reduccs

Te.ching Villeoc Health Documcnl

IEALTH (qovt. weakl

appropriatc technologY (solsr heatcr/f iltcrs etc,)

secondment to hydro_of trce

.{YDRo & WATER (govt. + }

schools

ongorno

E D U C A T I O N ( o o v r+. + l

D i l o tp r o j e c t i n S o u l h H o n g Yuan {tocus Social ForestrY)

FORESTRY

Town Doctors.

trainingof Village Animal Doctors {non-govt stafl) tog.ther with

pilot project lodde( / l.ed I brccding (upgradrng wrthin).

ANIMAL HUSB. {oovt. wesk}

enviromentl

IIUSI with peo-

/gendet

Build

Fir into oovt. porrcy

N6tural te30utcea (Fr.9ile

Reducbon of

maroinoliz!gon

+ + + Encouraoes

relf control

Eutral i.0

)ositive ir upto 3 Plusse3.

6enemenl

)ption3 vefsut Visionr

6 \i

-l

q

.|

G a4

.-

q

6

\

<

o -_

s

;:

:F


Ilotrgl'uan Counry Rapid assessmantSurr..\ Hottgyuan County Rapid assassmcntSuney 8.0 References A g a K h a n F o u n d a t i t t n( 1 9 9 . 1 )P r i m a r y H e a l t h C a r e M a n a g e r n e nAt c l v a n c e m e nPt r o s r a m n r e A . KF, Geneva. B j i l r k S ( 1 9 9 3 )T h e H o n s Y u a n W e t l u n ( R l e s e a r cP h r t u ' e c tu: n e c o l o ! : i c aal n ( lt e c h n i c atl e a s i b i l i r -svt u d . v o f p e a t m i n i n ! : i n H o n g Y u i r n . S i c h u a n .C h i n a . D e p a r t n ) e l lot f L i m n o ) o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f L u n d , Swcden. B u c k l e yM ( 1 9 9 4 )C h i n a -a t r a v e ls u r v i v i r lk i t . 4 t h e d i t i o n ,L o r r e l yP l a n e tP u b l i c a t i o n sA, u s t r a l i a . C a i r n c r o s sS , F e a c h e r nR ( 1 9 9 3 )E n v i r o n n r e n t aHl e a l t hr n r l E n s i n e e r i n si n t h e T r o n i c s ( s e c o n dE c t . ) . J o h nW i l e y a n d s o n s ,C h i c h e s t e rU, K . D o w n sJ F & E k v a l l R B ( 1 9 6 1 )A n i r n l l s a n d s o c i a lt y p r s i n t h e c x p l o i t a t i ( ) nF O t h e T i h e t a nP l a t e a u . P a p e r t b r s y m p r l s i u t n" M u n , C u l t u r e l n d A u i n r a l " : l t l ) c n v e r o r g a n i s c d[ r y A r n . A s s o c . t i r r t h e A d v a n c e m e not f S c i e n c e( 3 0 D e c . l 9 6 l ) P u b l i c : r t i o7n8 o t t h e A A A S . D u S ( 1 9 9 3 ) " S i c h L I : rSne t sU p P r o t c c t i o nF o r e s t s "i n F o r t s t r y a n r l S o c i e t _nve w s l e t t e rV . ol I Np.2, CAF. Bei.jing. -fihc'trn E k v l l l R B ( l r C , 8 ) F i c l L l so r t t h e H , r , r l . sN c x u s r ' 1 N o n r a d i cP a s t t r r a l i s r nC. a s e s t u d y t i o n r W a v e l a n dP r e s sl n c . , I l l i n o i s( I S B N : 0 - 8 8 1 3 3 - 0 5 2 - 3 ) . E k v a l l R B ( 1 9 7 4 )T i b e t a nN o m a d i cP l s t o r a l i s t se: n v i r o n n e n t s p , e r s o n : r l i t ya n d e t h o s .P r o c . o f t h e A n r . P h i l o s o p h i cS ao l c i e t v .I l 8 : 6 . D e c . 1 9 7 4 . F e i W ( 1 9 9 2 )S t r u c t u r ea n d t r a n s f i r r n r a t i oonf t h e l a b o u r f i r r c ei n E d : G u o j i e , O t l ' - F a r mE m n l o _ v m e n t i n t h e H e n g d u a nM t r L r n t a iR n e g i o no f S i c h u a nP r o v i n c e C . h i n l t . ,C h i n aS c i e n c ea n d T e c h n o l o g yP r e s s , Bei.jing. G a n z iP e o p l e sG o v e r n n r e n(t1 9 9 4 )T h e I n v e s t t l e n G t u i r l et o C u n z i .T h e P e o p l e sG o v e r n r n e notf C l n z i 'l'ibetan A u t o n o n ) o uP s r e t c e t u r cS. i c h r r r n C . hina. G o l d s t e i n M & I l e a l l C ( 1 9 8 9 ) , N ( ) n ) l ( l s ( ) f W e s t c r n ' I i l r ! ' t . ( l l r - s u r v i v i l l ( ) t i t w i l y ( ) f l i t e . S e r i n di a Publications, (ISBN: 0-906026-23-7).

G u l d s t e i nM & C B e a l l ( 1 9 9 1 ) " C h a n g ea n d C o n t i n u i t y " i n N o n l r d i c P a s t o r a l i s mu n t h e W e s t c r n T i b e t a nP l a t e a ui n N o m a d i cP e o n l e s2 8 : 1 9 9 1p p . 1 0 5 - 1 2 7 . G r u b b M e t a l ( 1 9 9 3 ) T h eE l l t h S u r n r n i A t g r e e n r e n t sA: C i u i d eu r r r lA s s e s s n c n tE . a r t h s c a nP u b l i c a t i o n s Ltd. Lond0n. J a m i s o nT , B o b a d i l l aJ L , H e c h t R . H i l l K . M u s g r o v eP , S t x c n i a nH . T a n J P . B e r k l e yS & N , l u r r a y C J L ( W o r l d B a n k ) ( 1 9 9 3 ) W o r l d D e v e l o p n r c n tI n r l i c u ( o r s ,I n v e s t i n q i n H e : r l t h : t h e W o f l d D e v c l o D m e nRt e l o r t . 1 9 9 3 .O x t i r r cU l n i v e l s i t yP l c s s ,N e r vY o r k . J i a n g H ( 1 9 9 2 ) " 1 ' h e R c l a t i o n B e t \ \ ' c c nt h e N r t u r r l S p r u c e P r ( ) d u e t i v i t yu n d t h e E c o l t r g i c u l E n v i r o n m e n t "i n P r o t e c t i o na n c lM l n l t g c n r c n ot f M o u n t r i n F o r e s t se d i t e db y Y a n g Y a n d Z h a n g J , S c i e n c eP r e s s ,B e i j i n g . -fhe K e a t i n gM ( 1 9 9 3 )T h e E a r t h S L r n r r n i t A ' sg e n d af i r r C h a n r e : p l a i n I a n g u a g ev e r s i o no f A q e n t t a2 l a n dt h e o t h e rR i ( ) a s r e e m e n t sC. e n t r et i r r O u rC o u r n ] u nF r ) t r t r cG , eneva.

K i e l m a n nA A , J a n r r v s k yK , A n n e t tH ( 1 9 9 1 )A s s e s s i n pD i s t r i c t H e a l t h N e e d s .S e r v i c e sa n d S y s t e n 5 P r o t o c o l sf o r R a D i dD a t i C o l l e c t i o na n ( lA n a l y s i s .G T Z . L o n d o n . . HO, Geneva. K i n g M ( 1 9 6 9 )M e d i c a lC a r e i n D e v e l o p i n gC o u n t r i e s W Lei R (1992) "Etfects of Forest on PrecipitationRetainingCapacity and Effects of Cutting on Water S t o r i n gC a p a b i l i r yo f F o r e s tS o i l i n t h e F o r e s tR e g i o n so f t h e Q i n l i n g M o u n t a i n s "i n P r o t e c t i o na r , d M a n a s e m e not f M o u n t a i nF o r e s t se d i t e db y Y a n g Y a n d Z h a n g I , S c i e n c eP r e s s .B e i j i n g . L i W ( 1 9 9 3 ) " F o r e s t so f t h e H i r n a l a y a n - H e n g d u aMno u n t a i n so f C h i n a a n d S t r a t e g i e st b r t h e i r S u s t a i n a b lD e e v e l o p m e n t "I,C I M O D , K a t h m a n d u . s a n a g e m e ni tn Z i x i s h a n L o n g C L , C h e n S Y ( 1 9 9 4 )" l n d i g e n o u sK n o w l e d g ea n d N a t u r a lR e s o u r c e M R e g i o n ,C h u x i o n g .C h i n a " K u n m i n gI n s t i t u t eo f B o t a n y ,A c a d e m i aS i n i c a . o tr l s n r i r ] l L o n g R ( 1 9 9 4 ) ,M i l k p e r f b r n u n c eo f Y a k C o w s u n d e r t r a c l i t i o n afle e d i n ga n d n r a n a g e m e n T i b e t a nf a r m s .C h i n aY a k A C T A P R A T A C U L T U R A ES I N I C A . 3 : I 3 , p p . 7 l - 7 6 . M a l t b y D r ( 1 9 9 2 ) C o m m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r J i n t o P e a t a n t l P e a t l a n t l s :C o n r r n i s s i o n e r s ' R e n r ' ( Co nclrrsjons !!d Rela ntrng!d4!]q!r. PlantI i f e, Lo ndo n . review. lntermedi:rte M o r i s J & C o p e s t a k eJ ( 1 9 9 3 ) O L m l i t a l i v ee n q u i r y t i r r r u r a l d e v e l o n m e n tA T e c h n o l o g yG r o u p f c r rO S D , L o n d o n( I S B N l - 8 5 3 3 9 - 2 1 5 - 4 ) . P u J i a b i E A ( 1 9 9 4 ) . D i s t r i b u t i u n ,P o p u l a t i o na n d F i n e B r e e d so f C h i n e s eY a k ; C h a r a c t e r i s t i c, sr f . hi,ra C h i n e s eY a k ; I m p r o v e m e not f Y a k i n C h i n a : w i t h i n B r e e d s e l e c t i o n- t h r o u g h h y b r i d i z a t i o nC Y a k . S u l p l e m e n t1. 9 9 4( J u l y ) . l u h l i s h i n gH o u s . ' , P u S Q ( 1 9 9 0 ) " ' f h e A t l r r so f S i c h u a nT r ' r r i t o r i u lR e s u L : r c e sC"h e n g d LCr a r t l o g i c a P L u o n gQ u a n y i . R i c h a r d s o nD ( 1 9 9 0 ) " F o r e s t sa n d F o r c s t r yi n C h i n a : C h a n g i n gP a t t e r n so f R e s u u r c eM a n a g e m e r , L ' I s l a n dP r e s s ,W a s h i n g t o nD C . S i c h u a nN a t i o n a lP e o p l e sC o n g r e s s( S N P C ) ( 1 9 9 1 )S i c h u r r nM i n o r i t y N l r t i o n a l i t i ePso l i c y S N P t . Chengdu. a no u n t a i n so f C h i n a a n d S t r a t e g i e tsb r t h r i r T a c k e E F ( 1 9 9 3 ) " F o r e s t so f t h e I { i m a l a y a n - H e n g d r r M S u s t a i n a b lD e e v e l o p m e nCt I M O D , K a t h m a n d u . T e n g S C ( 1 9 4 8 ) " F o r e s t G e o g r t p h yo f t h e E a s t T i b e t a n P l a t e a u "B o t a n i c a lB u l l e t i n o f A c a d e n . . ; r S i n i c aV o l . I I P a r t I p . 6 2 - 6 7 ,B e i j i n g . U N I C E F ( 1 9 9 4 )T h e S t a t eo f t h e W o r l d ' s C h i l d r e n .U N I C E F , G e n e v a . W e r n e rD ( 1 9 9 2 )H e l p i n eH e a l t hW o r k e r sL e a r n . H e s p e r i a nF o u n d a t i o nL, o s A n g e l e s . . HO, Geneva. W o r l d H e a l t hO r g a n i s a t i o (n1 9 9 2 )l r n r n u n i s a t i oinn P r a c t i c eW Y a n g Y , L i C ( 1 9 9 0 )" F o r e s t si n S i c h u u n "C h i n a F u r e s t r yP r e s s ,B e i . j i n g r ol- I No. !. Z o u H ( 1 9 9 3 ) " S o c i a lF o r e s t r yP r o g n r mi n Y u n n u n " i n F o r e s t r ya n c lS o c i e t yn e w s l e t t cV CAF, Beijing.

96-95-

Hongyuan County RAS 1995  

Hongyuan County RAS 1995

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