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Do You Know Your Body? Written By: Brad Moorhead, Luke Miller, and Drew McKenzie



Exercise This chapter will discuss exercise, including types of exercise, why it’s important, and the science behind it.

Exercise can have many positive effects on your life. In this chapter, you will learn what these benefits are, as well as how to achieve them. You’ll also learn about the three types of exercise- strength, cardio, and flexibility, including specific exercises that target each area. Finally, you’ll learn why exercise benefits you- including how your body burns fat and builds muscle.


Three Types of Exercise


1. Cardiovascular Aerobic Exercise- Also called Cardio- this type of exercise requires the use of a lot of oxygen, and really gets your heart pumping. Typical Cardio workouts include swimming, biking and running. 2. Strength- This type of exercise is usually used to either gain or tone muscle. Most of what you see going in on a gym is strength training, like weight-lifting or core exercises.

Cardio Cardiovascular exercise is one of the most common types of exercise out there, simply because you can do it anywhere! Running, biking, or walking can be done in just about any park or on any road. Cardio’s most important function is to get your body efficient. The heart is just like any other muscle, the more you use it the stronger it becomes. When you perform cardiovascular exercise, your heart beats faster, and various metabolic processes are carried out at increased rates, which help burn energy and make your body a more efficient machine.

3. Flexibility- Can be improved by different types of stretching, both before and after exercise, to not only make a person more limber, but also to prevent injuries and improve form.




Although it may be seen as an activity only Although flexibility is probably not intense as meant for giants body-builders that live at the gym, the previous two types of exercises, it is still a crustrength training is an important aspect of any per- cial part of any exercise plan. Flexibility is improved son’s health and fitness. by stretching, and stretching should be done both Depending on what types of results you are look- before exercise, to warm up, and after to relax the ing for, there are two main ways to use strength muscles and prevent soreness from setting in. Imtraining. If you desire a toned look, with only a little proved Flexibility also will make certain movements mass, exercises should be completed at a low weight, but with a high number of reps (Ex: pushR EVIEW 1.1 ups, pull-ups, or completing many repetitions with light dumbbells). If you’re try to bulk up, and gain a Which of the following types of exercises is typically associated with increased lot of muscle, you heart rate and oxygen consumption? should focus on using heavier weights while only doing a A. Strength few reps (Ex: bench B. Cardio press, shoulder press, or a few sets C. Flexibility of 4-5 curls with dumbbells. If you’re D. Mental Exercise not sure what exercises to do, check out page 4 of this chapter to see Check Answer some basic examples to get you started. 3

Video Demonstrations Flexibility is even the main focus of an entire branch of exercises. Participants gradually master progressively more difficult poses. Below is a great video that demonstrates several key beginner yoga poses.

Pushups are one of the most common strength exercises. Although they utilize almost the entire body, the main muscle groups that are worked by pushups are the Pectorals (chest) and the Biceps (arms). How to Perform a Pushup

Running is one of the most popular cardio exercises. It can be somewhat daunting to begin, but this video has some great tips on how to get started. Beginner Running Tips

Beginner’s Yoga Video

Pull-ups are another great strength exercises for working many muscles at once. As you will see in the video, pull-up are great for back and Triceps strengthening. Pull Up Tutorial

Once you’ve got the basics down, the following video provides 5 common workouts to make you a better, faster runner. Running Workouts

Although Yoga began as a spiritual exercise used to to get in touch with one’s inner-self by Eastern Cultures, in the modern world, it is used mainly as a physical exercise to improve flexibility and sometimes to relax. 4


Regular Exercise can help:

The following are some statistics taken from the US - Control weight President’s Council and Exercise, Sport, and Nutrition: - Make your muscles stronger - Reduce fat More than 80% of adults do not meet the guide-- Promote strong bone, muscle, and joint develop lines for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening ac- ment tivities, and more than 80% of adolescents do not - Condition heart and lungs do enough aerobic physical - Build overall strength and endurance activity to meet the guide- Improve sleep lines for youth. - Decrease potential of becoming depressed - Increase your energy and self-esteem Only one in three chil- Relieve stress dren are physically active - Increase your chances of living longer every day. - Prevent chronic Children now spend more than seven and a half diseases such as hours a day in front of a screen (e.g., TV, videoheart disease, cangames, computer). cer, and stroke (the three leading 12.5 million (16.9%) children and adolescents health-related are obese. (By the year 2030, it is estimated that causes of death) half of all U.S. adults will be obese. 5


Basically, today’s kids are spending much more time sitting on the couch and eating junk food, than they are playing outside and getting exercise. This is causing skyrocketing obesity rates and does not bode well for America’s future.

Biology Behind Exercise

R EVIEW 1.2 On average, how much time do children spend in front of the TV and Video Games?

D ISCUSSED IN THIS CHAPTER : A. 2 hours a day B. 3 hours a day C. 5 hours a day D. More than 7 hours a day

1. How our bodies produce, store, and break down fat 2. How our bodies build and maintain muscle 3. The differences between aerobic and anaerobic exercise

Check Answer


How Fat Enters The Body

How Fat Is Stored

A chylomicron, after passing through the blood Sometimes, gaining an understand of how your body is working, gives meaning to a difficult task, stream, allows the fatty acids to deposited into difsuch as motivating yourself to exercise. Hopefully ferent types of cells, most commonly fat cells. Fat cells are essentially normal cells, but there after this section, you will understand how fat is a large droplet of fat in them that takes up 85% of works in the human body. the cells volume. The fat simply remain in the The most common types of fat molecule is called a triglyceride. A triglyceride is composed of bloated fat cells until they need to be broken down to provide to your. If you’re constantly eating, then one glycerol moleyour body always has excess fuel to run, so all of cule attached to 3 these large will just sit there, or even worse grow! fatty acid chains, The good news is whenever you exercise your body which are just a will likely use up all the fuel that it has readily availlong line of hydroable, and begin to break down the fat droplets. gen and carbons If you eat a lot of stuck together. high-fat foods, and rarely The fatty acids are then broken off of the glycerol and then many in-exercise, you may be shocked to see a lot of this dividual fatty acids and glycerol molecules are “packaged” together into a larger ball shaped struc- stuff in your body, and it doesn’t look very good! ture called a chylomicron, which can move through the body’s veins much more easily.


How Fat is Broken Down Once you begin exercising vigorously, or you don’t eat anything for awhile, your body needs to find some fuel to keep itself running. It first turns to the glucose, which is a common carbohydrate (This is that readily available fuel discussed on the last page). Once that is depleted, the body turns to its reserve energy- in the form of fat. It’s helpful to think as fat cells as a sort of bank. The body deposits fat in the cells when it has extra, just like someone deposits their leftover paycheck in their savings account. Once it needs energy, it makes a withdraw, like when you need some money you can take out some money from the bank. To make a withdraw, the fatty acids and glycerol are transported out of the fat cell, through the blood stream to the liver, where it is converted to the body’s favorite fuel- glucose. This glucose is now converted into energy for the body to utilize, and the fatty acids are used up.

It is important to note that fat cells are not destroyed in this process, they only shrink. The number of fat cells in your body stays relatively constant after puberty. R EVIEW 1.3 A triglyceride is composed of:

A. 1 Glycerol and 3 Fatty Acids B. 3 Glycerol and 2 fatty Acids C. 3 Glycerols and 1 Fatty Acid D. 3 Glycerol and 5 Fatty Acids

Check Answer


the sensation of being sore. The third type of muscle growth is a little different than the previous two. During exercise, when your muscles are worked Metabolic growth is what you feel when you feel a hard enough, they are broken down. This may not “burn” during exercise. It is actually the strengthenfeel good, but it is a necessary part of becoming ing of the connective tissue between muscles due to stronger. After the fibers that make up your muscles the release of glycogen, so it’s not exactly the same are broken down, your body responds by creating as muscle growth. However, it is definitely strengthnew, stronger muscle fibers and combining them to ening your body, and it is the reason that your musmake bigger, thicker muscles. It is important to cles may appear larger or more defined during or imnote that this process occurs after exercise, not dur- mediately after exercise. ing. This is why it so so important to eat after a This video gives a scientific take on muscle workout, because protein is a growth. It also gives the answer to why some people major component of those fi- just appear to be stronger than others. Rememberbers, and your body needs it to Don’t get discouraged, you will build muscle at an build stronger muscles. optimal level for your body! There are three main ways in Muscle Growth Video which muscle grows. The first is through muscle tension. If you lift the same weight over and over again, eventually your muscles will adapt and you won’t get stronger. If you lift heavier weights, the added tension will allow your muscles to continue to grow. The second way is through muscle damage. When muscles are damaged, your body respond by releasing certain cells to repair them, bigger and stronger. This is typically associated with

How Exercise Builds Muscle


Chapter Summary In this chapter you should have learned several important things: -The 3 types of exercise (cardio, strength, and flexibility), and what are the defining characteristics and example of each. -Understand the state of health in America’s adolescents and see how this needs to change. -Know some of the diseases that are a result of a lack of exercise, and know the benefits of regular exercise. -Understand how fat is deposited, stored, and burned in your body -Understand how muscle grows, and recognize that each individual person’s muscles will not grow the same

Why Exercise is Important

This video discusses from an evolutionary viewpoint why physical activity is important. It also discusses how exercise directly enhances our health.

Why should we exercise?

A. To help prevent many diseases B. To make our bodies, strong, efficient, and flexible C. To burn off excess fat and create strong, powerful muscles D. All of the above!

Check Answer



Body Systems Chapter 2 focuses on the eleven systems of the body and their functions.

All of the functions of the human body are controlled by eleven systems. Think of the human body as a complex organization that has to get a lot of jobs done on a very tight deadline. In order to get everything done efficiently and on time, the body uses systems. By understanding how the body systems work, you will be able to better take care of yourself so that you can lead a healthy, productive life. These systems allow us to operate on a daily basis. Each one has a specific purpose that is crucial to our survival.

The eleven body systems are: Circulatory System Digestive System Endocrine System Immune System Integumentary System Lymphatic System Muscular System Nervous System Reproductive System Respiratory System Skeletal System Urinary System


The Circulatory System

The circulatory system is responsible for transporting blood throughout the body. The heart pumps blood into the arteries and veins, which then transport the blood to where it needs to go in the body. It is important to remember that arteries carry oxygen-rich blood and veins carry used blood back to the heart. This is a never-ending cycle. Oxygen-rich blood coming from the heart is transported through the aorta, the biggest artery in the body. The aorta branches into a system of smaller arteries which branch into even smaller vessels. The smallest blood vessels are called capillaries. Capillaries take the nutrient-filled blood to the cells to be used. The

blood that no longer contains oxygen is then returned to the heart through veins. The veins carry waste away from the cells and bring the used blood back to the heart. The heart pumps the blood through the lungs to be oxygenated and then the cycle repeats itself. Test your knowledge of the circulatory system by playing this interactive game!



The Digestive System

removed from the body. This process occurs every time food enters the body.

The digestive process can be broken down into six simple steps:

1. Ingestion of food

2. Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes

3. Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body

The digestive system is responsible for breaking down food into nutrients and energy for the body to use. When food is swallowed, it moves down the esophagus and enters the stomach. Once it is in the stomach, the food is further broken down by powerful acids. From the stomach, the food moves through the small intestine where it is broken down further. Inside the small intestine is where the food is broken down into the essential nutrients that enter the bloodstream. Any food that the body does not need or cannot digest is turned into waste and

4. Digestion of food into smaller pieces

5. Absorption of nutrients

6. Excretion of wastes

Let’s take a look at each one of these processes in detail.


The mouth and stomach are the two organs responsible for this function. Food is ingested through the mouth and stored in the stomach where it waits to be digested. The storage capacity allows us to eat only a few times


each day and to ingest more food than can be processed at one time.


In the course of a day, the digestive system secretes around 7 liters of fluids. These fluids include saliva, mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes, and bile. Saliva helps to moisten dry food. Mucus serves as a protective barrier to the inner walls of the digestive tract. Hydrochloric acid helps to break down food and kills any harmful bacteria. Enzymes help disassemble the particles of food into smaller components, like proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Bile is used to break down large amounts of lipids for digestion.

Mixing and Movement

Mixing and movement involves three different processes. They are swallowing, peristalsis, and segmentation. Swallowing is the process of pushing food out of the mouth and into the esophagus. Peristalsis is a muscular wave that moves food along the gastrointestinal tract. Segmentation occurs in the small intestine. It helps to increase the absorption of nutrients by mixing food and increasing its contact with the intestinal wall.

Digestion is the process of breaking down the food particles into smaller pieces to be used as nutrients for the body. Digestion occurs as both mechanical and chemical in the body.


Food is ready to be absorbed into the bloodstream when it has been reduced to its building blocks. Most absorption occurs in the small intestine where nutrients enter the bloodstream to be used throughout the body.

Excretion The final process of the digestive system is excretion. This is when the body rids itself of waste products and parts of the food it did The Human Digestive System not use as nutrients through defecation.

Digestion 14


The Endocrine System The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions like growth and metabolism. The glands that are involved in the endocrine system are the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. Each of these glands release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones throughout the body.

This video goes into detail about how the endocrine system works.

Answer the following question after watching the video

Which of the following is a function of the endocrine system?

A. Produce hormones B. Maintains homeostasis C. Regulates other systems D. All of the above

Check Answer

Are you having fun yet? Let’s keep going!



The Immune/Lymphatic System The immune and lymphatic systems both fight against disease, but they have different functions. Below we will go into detail about each of them. Immune System The immune system is the body’s defense system against disease and illness. It is made up of a network of cells, organs, and tissues that work together to protect the body. The immune system responds when a threat is imposed on the body, like a virus or bacteria. There are three types of response systems in the immune system. They are the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response.

Finally, if the inflammatory response cannot rid the body of all bacteria, the immune response takes over. The immune response releases white blood cells that go to work to fight the bacteria. These white blood cells do a great job of keeping the body healthy. Sometimes the body cannot rid itself of bacteria and infection. One of the most famous diseases for causing this is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Once contracted, the HIV virus attacks your body’s white blood cells and T-cells. Your body has to have these cells in order to fight disease. HIV invades these cells, uses them to make more copies of itself, and then destroys them. Over time, HIV can kill so many of your T-cells that you cannot fight any more infections or diseases. When this happens, the HIV infection can lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection.

The anatomic response is the body’s first attempt at getting rid of the invader. The anatomic response is found through the mucus membranes on your skin. These membranes try to keep bacteria from entering the body. If the anatomic response fails, the inflammatory response goes into effect. The inflammatory response tries to excrete the bacteria from the body. Examples of the inflammatory system at work are sneezing, runny noses, and fever.

This picture shows the HIV virus (green) budding from a lymphocyte. 16

Lymphatic System The lymphatic system is a subset of the circulatory system. It is also a disease-fighting system. It is responsible for creating white blood cells and producing antibodies to fight bacteria. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels. These vessels carry lymph, which is a clear, watery fluid containing protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances, throughout the body. One of the major jobs of the lymphatic system is to collect excess lymph fluid from body tissues and return it to the blood. This is an important function because if the lymphatic system did not do this, the lymph fluid would build up in body tissues and they would swell.

This video shows how the lymphatic system works.

This picture shows a diagram of a lymph vessel. 17


The Integumentary System The integumentary system contains the largest organ in the body, the skin. It also contains the hair, nails, and exocrine glands of the body. The skin forms the body’s outer covering and serves as a shield for the vital organs. There are three layers to the skin. They are the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The epidermis is the surface layer of the skin that does the majority of the protecting. The dermis is directly below the epidermis and provides the skin with elasticity and strength. Finally, the hypodermis is loose connective tissue that serves as a fat storage area. Hair and nails extend from the skin to further protect the body from damage. The exocrine glands produce sweat, oil, and wax to cool, moisturize, and protect the skin’s surface.

Answer the following question about the integumentary system

What is the outermost layer of the skin?

A. Hypodermis B. Dermis C. Epidermis D. None of the above

Check Answer



The Muscular System The muscular system is responsible for the majority of movement in the body. Muscles attach to bones of the skeletal system. There are about 700 named muscles in the human body that perform specific actions. Muscles can contract either concentrically, eccentrically, or isometrically. Some common actions that muscles perform are flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. There are three types of muscles. They are visceral, cardiac, and skeletal. Visceral muscle is found inside of organs, such as the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels. The primary function of visceral muscles is to make organs contract to move substances through the organs. Cardiac muscle is found in one place: the heart. Cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood through the body. The last type, skeletal muscle, is the only type of muscle that we can control. Everything we do with our bodies requires skeletal muscle movement! These skeletal muscles contract to allow movement.

The above picture shows a few of the major skeletal muscles of the body. There are many more, but these are responsible for a large portion of the movements we make each day.

The following website allows you to view where the skeletal muscles are located at in the body and what their specific actions are. u/menu.html 19


The Nervous System The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that are found throughout the body. The nervous system controls the body’s communication within itself. For example, when you stub your toe, the brain sends a signal to your toe that makes it feel pain. The brain and spinal cord form the control center called the central nervous system, or CNS. The impulses the brain sends your nerves tell the body how to respond to certain situations. There are three parts of the nervous system that all work together. They are the central nervous system (CNS), as talked about earlier, the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). It was stated earlier that the CNS is the control center of the body. Basically, all of our sentences are controlled by the CNS. The PNS consists of the nerves that branch off of the spinal cord. These nerves send impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands. The ANS helps to regulate the involuntary muscle movements such as heartbeat and digestion. 20


The Reproductive System

The male and female reproductive system explained.

The reproductive system is what allows humans to produce children. Males and females have different sexual reproductive organs. In order to sexually reproduce, sperm from a male’s testes fertilizes the female’s egg during intercourse. The female’s egg gets fertilized in the fallopian tube, where it then travels to the uterus. Inside the uterus is where the fetus is developed for a period of about nine months.

As you can see, the reproductive system is one of the most important body systems. Without it, all human life would cease to exist. It is especially important that women understand how the reproductive system works so you know what is happening to your body during the time of pregnancy.



The The Respiratory SysThe respiratory system’s main function is to bring oxygen into the body and get carbon dioxide out. There is a constant cycle that restarts each time we inhale. When we inhale, the oxygen is passed through a long tube called the trachea, which branches into the lungs. Once in the lungs, the oxygen enters the bloodstream and goes through the functions of the circulatory system. At the same time that the oxygen is going into the lungs, carbon dioxide passes through the lungs and is exhaled.

Sometimes, the airway can be blocked by foreign objects, usually food. When this happens, the body can no longer receive oxygen to transport to the cells. It is important that the airway be open at all times so the body can stay regularly oxygenated.

What is the formal name for the windpipe?

A. Trachea B. Larynx C. Lungs D. Pharynx

Check Answer

Explore the respiratory system further by playing this interactive game! 22


The Skeletal System The skeletal system is made up of the bones and joints in the body. There are 206 bones in the human body. The skeleton provides protection for the vital organs in the body. It also provides attachment points for muscles.

The Skeletal System

There are five types of bones in the human body. There are long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones. Long bones generally have a shaft, such as the femur or humerus. Short bones can be found in the carpals or the tarsals. An example of a flat bone would be the skull. Irregular bones are just that, irregular in shape. The most common irregular bones are the vertebrae. Sesamoid bones are typically round in shape, such as the patella (knee cap). Do you think learning the names of all 206 bones is intimidating? It doesn’t have to be! Watch this video and see how easy it can be!

That wasn’t so bad, was it? Learning can be easy and fun if you have the right mindset!



The Urinary System The urinary system contains the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys filter the blood to remove waste products, and this produces urine.

kidneys to a person that has two failing ones. It is better for each person to have one than for one person to die because of kidney failure. When people have issues with their kidneys filtering blood, they go through dialysis. Dialysis machines act as kidneys by filtering blood through them and getting rid of waste.

The urinary tract is formed by the ureters, bladder, and urethra. The urinary tract essentially acts as a plumbing system for the kidneys to drain the urine. About 1-2 liters of urine are produced each day by a healthy human. It is important to stay hydrated so that the urinary system can function correctly. Once your body gets dehydrated, it starts to shut down. Try to drink the recommended eight glasses of water per day to stay adequately hydrated. The best thing that we can drink is water. Soda pops are loaded with sugar and other chemicals that are not good for the body to ingest in large quantities. Even diet sodas are not good for you because of the chemical aspartame. To the right you will find a picture of the urinary system. It is an interesting fact that you can live with only one kidney. One functioning kidney is enough to keep the body healthy. It happens often that people donate one of their 24


Chapter Summary It is very important that we understand how our body functions so that we know how to properly take care of it. Now that you have an understanding about how each body system functions, try this game out! You will be asked to identify which organs belong to which system.

Body Systems Rap! After reading this chapter, you should have a good understanding of how your body systems work and the different functions each one is responsible for. This chapter provided you with many resources for you to further expand your knowledge of the eleven body systems. To sum everything up, please watch the following video. It is a rap about the body systems and their respective functions. Enjoy!

Now it’s time to move on to nutrition!



Nutrition This Chapter focuses on the nutritional requirements of the body, the importance of nutrition, health benefits of a good nutritional lifestyle and how to make eating healthy fun. Be sure to click on all of the red tabs as you read for additional information!

Why is Nutrition Important? Nutrition is important because the leading causes of obesity and overweight, and in some cases death is due to poor nutritional habits and lack of exercise. Exercise was covered in previous chapters, now we will go into an exciting analysis of what kinds of nutrition people need, how to obtain proper nutrition, and the benefits of a good nutritional lifestyle.



MyPlate is the new health model that illustrates the five food groups and also provides ways Americans can live healthy lives. The MyPlate model replaced the old MyPyramid Model.

According to the MyPlate model, we should:

Make at least half of our plate Fruits and Vege tables

Make at least half of all Grains whole grains

Make leaner and more varied selections of pro teins

Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk 27


Food Groups

As humans, we are required to obtain food from five major food groups in order to live. Those food groups are:

1)Fruits 2) Vegetables 3)Grains 4)Protein foods 5) Dairy Each one of the above food groups will be discussed in detail in the coming pages. It is important to know about the aspects of each food group because they all provide our body with different nourishment. 28



Tips on eating fruit: • Keep a bowl of whole fruit on the table, counter, or in the refrigerator. • Refrigerate cut-up fruit to store for later.

According to, Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may be whole, cut-up, or pureed. Facts about Fruits: 1. Fruits are sources of many essential nutrients that are underconsumed, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid).

• Buy fresh fruits in season when they may be less expensive and at their peak flavor. • Buy fruits that are dried, frozen, and canned (in water or 100% juice) as well as fresh, so that you always have a supply on hand. Fun with Fruits!

2. Eating foods such as fruits that are lower in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake. 3. Dietary fiber from fruits, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fibercontaining foods such as fruits help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories. Whole or cut-up fruits are sources of dietary fiber; fruit juices contain little or no fiber. How much fruit do we need?




3. Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke. How much Vegetables do we need? Tips on eating vegetables: • Buy fresh vegetables in season. They cost less and are likely to be at their peak flavor. • Stock up on frozen vegetables for quick and easy cooking in the microwave.

According to, any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/ dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed. Facts about vegetables: 1. Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, and vitamin C.

• Buy vegetables that are easy to prepare. Pick up pre-washed bags of salad greens and add baby carrots or grape tomatoes for a salad in minutes. Buy packages of veggies such as baby carrots or celery sticks for quick snacks. • Use a microwave to quickly “zap” vegetables. White or sweet potatoes can be baked quickly this way. Cooking Vegetables!

2. Most vegetables are naturally low in fat and calories. None have cholesterol. (Sauces or seasonings may add fat, calories, or cholesterol.)



Grain According to, any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product. Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products. Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, Whole Grains and fined Grains.


Whole grains contain the entire grain kernel ― the bran, germ, and endosperm. Facts about Grains: • Eating grain products fortified with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development. • Consuming foods containing fiber, such as whole grains, as part of a healthy diet, may reduce constipation. • Grains are important sources of many nutrients, including dietary fiber, several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals (iron, magnesium, and selenium).

• Whole grains are sources of magnesium and selenium. Magnesium is a mineral used in building bones and releasing energy from muscles. Selenium protects cells from oxidation. It is also important for a healthy immune system. How much Grains do we need? Tips on eating Grains: • To eat more whole grains, substitute a whole-grain prod uct for a refined product – such as eating whole-wheat bread instead of white bread or brown rice instead of white rice. It’s important to substitute the whole-grain product for the refined one, rather than adding the whole-grain product. • For a change, try brown rice or whole-wheat pasta. Try brown rice stuffing in baked green peppers or tomatoes and whole-wheat macaroni in macaroni and cheese. • Use whole grains in mixed dishes, such as barley in vegetable soup or stews and bulgur wheat in casserole or stir-fries. • Create a whole grain pilaf with a mixture of barley, wild rice, brown rice, broth and spices. For a special touch, stir in toasted nuts or chopped dried fruit. • Experiment by substituting whole wheat or oat flour for up to half of the flour in pancake, waffle, muffin or other flour-based recipes. They may need a bit more leavening. The Grain Chain: How it is made



Protein Foods According to, all foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group.Select a variety of protein foods to improve nutrient intake and health benefits, including at least 8 ounces of cooked seafood per week. Young children need less, depending on their age and calorie needs. The advice to consume seafood does not apply to vegetarians. Vegetarian options in the Protein Foods Group include beans and peas, processed soy products, and nuts and seeds. Meat and poultry choices should be lean or low-fat. Facts about Protein: • Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds supply many nutrients. These include protein, B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, and B6), vitamin E, iron, zinc, and magnesium. • Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins. Proteins are one of three nu-

trients that provide calories (the others are fat and carbohydrates). • A high intake of fats makes it difficult to avoid consuming more calories than are needed. • B vitamins found in this food group serve a variety of functions in the body. They help the body release energy, play a vital role in the function of the nervous system, aid in the formation of red blood cells, and help build tissues. How much Protein do we need? Tips on Eating Protein foods: • The leanest pork choices include pork loin, tenderloin, center loin, and ham. • Choose extra lean ground beef. The label should say at least “90% lean.” You may be able to find ground beef that is 93% or 95% lean. • Choose seafood at least twice a week as the main protein food. • Choose unsalted nuts as a snack, on salads, or in main dishes. Use nuts to replace meat or poultry. • Do not wash or rinse meat or poultry. • Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food item and before going on to the next one. 32


Dairy Foods According to, all fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of this food group. Most Dairy Group choices should be fat-free or low-fat. Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group. Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not. Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) is also part of the Dairy Group. Facts about Dairy: • Intake of dairy products is linked to improved bone health, and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. • The intake of dairy products is especially important to bone health during childhood and adolescence, when bone mass is being built. • Intake of dairy products is also associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and with lower blood pressure in adults.

• Calcium is used for building bones and teeth and in maintaining bone mass. Dairy products are the primary source of calcium in American diets. Diets that provide 3 cups or the equivalent of dairy products per day can improve bone mass. • Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Dairy products, especially yogurt, fluid milk, and soymilk (soy beverage), provide potassium. • Vitamin D functions in the body to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorous, thereby helping to build and maintain bones. Milk and soymilk (soy beverage) that are fortified with vitamin D are good sources of this nutrient. Other sources include vitamin D-fortified yogurt and vitamin D-fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. • Milk products that are consumed in their low-fat or fat-free forms provide little or no solid fat. How much Dairy do we need?


Tips on enjoying Dairy: • Include milk or calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage) as a beverage at meals. Choose fat-free or low-fat milk. • If you usually drink whole milk, switch gradually to fat-free milk, to lower saturated fat and calories. Try reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).

R EVIEW 3.1 Lorem Ipsum dolor amet, consectetur Which of the following is not a dairy product?

• If you drink cappuccinos or lattes — ask for them with fatfree (skim) milk. • Add fat-free or low-fat milk instead of water to oatmeal and hot cereals. • Use fat-free or low-fat milk when making condensed cream soups (such as cream of tomato).

A. Milk B. Eggs

• Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.

C. Cheese

• Make a dip for fruits or vegetables from yogurt.

D. Yogurt

• Make fruit-yogurt smoothies in the blender. Dairy Fun Facts Making Milk Products Check Answer



Foods in their Groups In the next few pages, you will find a listing of the common foods that are available from each food group. Please browse the listing and try to find the foods you eat! **All Food Group Listing is taken from** Commonly eaten fruits:

◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Apples Apricots Bananas Cherries Grapefruit Grapes Kiwi fruit Lemons Limes Mangoes Nectarines Oranges Peaches Pears Papaya Pineapple Plums Prunes Raisins Tangerines

• Berries ◦ strawberries ◦ blueberries ◦ raspberries • Melons ◦ cantaloupe ◦ honeydew ◦ watermelon • Mixed fruits ◦ fruit cocktail • 100% Fruit juice ◦ orange ◦ apple ◦ grape ◦ grapefruit Commonly eaten vegetables in each subgroup ◦ Dark Green Vegetables ▪ bok choy ▪ broccoli ▪ collard greens ▪ dark green leafy lettuce ▪ kale ▪ mesclun ▪ mustard greens ▪ romaine lettuce ▪ spinach ▪ turnip greens ▪ watercress 35

◦ dry) ◦ ◦

Starchy vegetables ▪ cassava ▪ corn ▪ fresh cowpeas, field peas, or black-eyed peas (not ▪ green bananas ▪ green peas ▪ green lima beans ▪ plantains ▪ potatoes ▪ taro ▪ water chestnuts Red & orange vegetables ▪ acorn squash ▪ butternut squash ▪ carrots ▪ hubbard squash ▪ pumpkin ▪ red peppers ▪ sweet potatoes ▪ tomatoes ▪ tomato juice Beans and peas* ▪ black beans ▪ black-eyed peas (mature, dry) ▪ garbanzo beans (chickpeas) ▪ kidney beans ▪ lentils ▪ navy beans

▪ pinto beans ▪ soy beans ▪ split peas ▪ white beans ◦ Other vegetables ▪ artichokes ▪ asparagus ▪ avocado ▪ bean sprouts ▪ beets ▪ Brussels sprouts ▪ cabbage ▪ cauliflower ▪ celery ▪ cucumbers ▪ eggplant ▪ green beans ▪ green peppers ▪ iceberg (head) lettuce ▪ mushrooms ▪ okra ▪ onions ▪ turnips ▪ wax beans ▪ zucchini Commonly Eaten Grain Products •

Whole Grains ◦

amaranth 36

◦ brown rice ◦ buckwheat ◦ bulgur (cracked wheat) ◦ millet ◦ oatmeal ◦ popcorn ◦ rolled oats ◦ quinoa ◦ sorghum ◦ triticale ◦ whole grain barley ◦ whole grain cornmeal ◦ whole rye ◦ whole wheat bread ◦ whole wheat crackers ◦ whole wheat pasta ◦ whole wheat sandwich buns and rolls ◦ whole wheat tortillas ◦ wild rice Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals ◦ whole wheat cereal flakes ◦ muesli

Refined Grains ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

cornbread* corn tortillas* couscous* crackers* flour tortillas*

◦ grits ◦ noodles* ◦ pitas* ◦ pretzels ◦ white bread ◦ white sandwich buns and rolls ◦ white rice • Pastas ◦ spaghetti ◦ macaroni Commonly Eaten Protein Foods • 


Lean cuts of ◦ beef ◦ ham ◦ lamb ◦ pork ◦ veal 

Game Meats ◦ bison ◦ rabbit ◦ venison 
 Lean Ground Meats ◦ beef ◦ pork ◦ lamb 
 Lean luncheon or deli meats

Organ Meats ◦ liver ◦ giblets • Poultry ◦ chicken ◦ duck ◦ goose ◦ turkey ◦ ground chicken and turkey • Eggs ◦ chicken eggs ◦ duck eggs • Beans and Peas ◦ bean burgers ◦ black beans ◦ black-eyed peas ◦ chickpeas (garbanzo beans) ◦ falafel ◦ kidney beans ◦ lentils ◦ lima beans (mature) ◦ navy beans ◦ pinto beans ◦ soy beans ◦ split peas ◦ white beans • Processed Soy Products ◦ tofu (bean curd made from soybeans)


◦ veggie burgers ◦ tempeh ◦ texturized vegetable protein (TVP) • Nuts and Seeds* ◦ almonds ◦ cashews ◦ hazelnuts (filberts) ◦ mixed nuts ◦ peanuts ◦ peanut butter ◦ pecans ◦ pistachios ◦ pumpkin seeds ◦ sesame seeds ◦ sunflower seeds ◦ walnuts Seafood
 Finfish such as: ◦ catfish ◦ cod ◦ flounder ◦ haddock ◦ halibut ◦ herring ◦ mackerel ◦ pollock ◦ salmon ◦ sea bass 38

◦ snapper ◦ swordfish ◦ trout ◦ tuna 
 Shellfish such as: ◦ clams ◦ crab ◦ crayfish ◦ lobster ◦ mussels ◦ octopus ◦ oysters ◦ scallops ◦ squid (calamari) ◦ shrimp 
 Canned fish such as: ◦ anchovies ◦ clams ◦ tuna ◦ sardines Commonly eaten dairy products ◦ Milk*

All fluid milk:

▪ ▪ ▪ ▪

fat-free (skim) low fat (1%) reduced fat (2%) whole milk

◦ ◦

▪ flavored milks: ▪ chocolate ▪ strawberry ▪ lactose-reduced milks ▪ lactose-free milks Milk-based desserts ▪ puddings ▪ ice milk ▪ frozen yogurt ▪ ice cream Calcium-fortified soymilk (soy beverage)

◦ ◦

Cheese ▪ hard natural cheeses: ▪ cheddar ▪ mozzarella ▪ Swiss ▪ Parmesan ▪ soft cheeses: ▪ ricotta ▪ cottage cheese ▪ processed cheeses: ▪ American Yogurt
 All yogurt: ▪ fat-free ▪ low fat ▪ reduced fat ▪ whole milk yogur 39


Reading A Food Label

Start here. Note the size of a single serving and how many servings are in the package. Check total calories per serving. Look at the serving size and how many servings you’re really consuming. If you double the servings you eat, you double the calories and nutrients, including the Percent Daily Value (% DV). Limit these nutrients. Remember, you need to limit your total fat to no more than 56–78 grams a day — including no more than 16 grams of saturated fat, less than two grams of trans fat, and less than 300 mg cholesterol (for a 2,000 calorie diet). Get enough of these nutrients. Make sure you get 100 percent of the fiber, vitamins and other nutrients you need every day. Quick guide to % DV. The % DV section tells you the percent of each nutrient in a single serving, in terms of the daily recommended amount. As a guide, if you want to consume less of a nutrient (such as saturated fat, cholesterol or sodium), choose foods with a lower % DV — 5 percent or less is low. If you want to consume more of a nutrient (such as fiber), seek foods with a higher % DV — 20 percent or more is high.



Eating Healthy When Eating out

If main portions at a restaurant are larger than you want, try one of these strategies to keep from overeating: 9.

Order an appetizer-sized portion or a side dish instead of an entrĂŠe.

10. Share a main dish with a friend. 11. If you can chill the extra food right away, take leftovers home in a "doggy bag." 12. When your food is delivered, set aside or pack half of it to go immediately.


As a beverage choice, ask for water or order fat-free or low-fat milk, unsweetened tea, or other drinks without added sugars.

13. Resign from the "clean your plate club" - when you've eaten enough, leave the rest.


Ask for whole-wheat bread for sandwiches.

To keep your meal moderate in calories, fat, and sugars:


In a restaurant, start your meal with a salad packed with veggies, to help control hunger and feel satisfied sooner.

14. Ask for salad dressing to be served "on the side" so you can add only as much as you want.


Ask for salad dressing to be served on the side. Then use only as much as you want.

15. Order foods that do not have creamy sauces or gravies


Choose main dishes that include vegetables, such as stir fries, kebobs, or pasta with a tomato sauce.


Order steamed, grilled, or broiled dishes instead of those that are fried or sautĂŠed.


Choose a small" or "medium" portion. This includes main dishes, side dishes, and beverages.


Order an item from the menu instead heading for the "allyou-can-eat" buffet.

16. Add little or no butter to your food. 17. Choose fruits for dessert most often. 18. On long commutes or shopping trips, pack some fresh fruit, cut-up vegetables, low-fat string cheese sticks, or a handful of unsalted nuts to help you avoid stopping for sweet or fatty snacks.



Chapter Summary After reading this chapter, you should now have a better understanding of the five food groups and what kinds of foods are in each one. You should also now be familiar with reading a food label. Having these skills are necessary for living a healthy life. To review, please watch the video below that talks in detail about each food group. Healthy Eating - The Food Groups

Which of these is not a food group?

A. Grains B. Vegetables C. Gluten D. Dairy

Check Answer


About The Book This eBook is intended for high school students, or anyone with a desire to learn more about health. It can be used to learn more about how regular physical activity, proper nutrition, and the systems of body can be incorporated into a healthy lifestyle.

Brad Moorhead, Luke Miller, Drew McKenzie

About the Authors Brad Moorhead is a sophomore at Indiana University studying Secondary Health and Middle Grades Math Education. Brad has a strong desire to teach and coach basketball like his father and grandfather. He would one day like to be an educational administrator. Luke Miller is a freshman at Indiana University in the School of Education. He is majoring in Secondary Education, Life Science/Biology. He hopes to teach high school biology while coaching Track and Field and Cross Country. Drew McKenzie is a sophomore at Indiana University, majoring in Health and Physical Education. He hopes to become a Secondary Education teacher in inner city schools, while coaching football and doing Christian ministry.


Resources Chapter 1 Resources (How Muscles Grow) (4/21/14) (why exercise is important) (4/21/14) (Beginner’s Yoga Video) (4/15/14) (Pull ups) (4/15/14) (Pushups) (4/15/14) (Beginner Running Tips) (4/16/14) (Running Workouts) (4/16/14) (Stats about exercise and obesity) (4/17/14) *=( Body Fat Basics) (4/21/14) (SCAI - How to Get Fit) (4/15/14)

Chapter 2 Resources (Your Body’s Systems) (4/14/14) (Muscular System Anatomy) (4/14/14) 44 (Body Systems Interactive Game) (4/14/14) (What is HIV/AIDS?) (4/16/14) (Picture of Urinary System) (4/16/14) (Respiratory System Game) (4/16/14) (Skeletal System Game) (4/16/14) (Integumentary System and Skeletal System Pictures) (4/16/14) (Respiratory System Picture) (4/16/14) (Reproductive System Picture) (4/21/14) (Reproductive System Video) (4/21/14) (Nervous System Picture) (4/21/14) (Muscular System Picture) (4/21/14) (Lymph Vessel Picture) (4/21/14) (Lymphatic System Video) (4/21/14) (Lymphocyte Picture) (4/21/14) (Endocrine System Picture) (4/22/14) s/digestive_system%20accessory%20organs.htm (Digestive System Picture) (4/22/14) (Circulatory System Picture) (4/22/14) (Digestive System Video) (4/22/14) 45 (Body Systems Rap) (4/22/14)

Chapter 3 Resources (Fruits 04/20/14) (Vegetables 04/20/14) (Grains 04/20/14) (Protein Foods 04/20/14) (Dairy Foods 04/20/14) (Goodbye Mypyramid) (04/20/14) (Fruit bowl 04/20/14) (vegetable bowl 04/20/14) (Grains pg. 4 04/20/14) (Protein foods 04/20/14) (Fruit facts 04/20/14) (Fruit eating tips 04/20/14) (Stiff Milk) (Dairy fun facts) (Healthy Protein Snacks 04/20/14) (Facts about vegetables 04/20/14) 46 (Facts about Grain 04/20/14) (Eating Grain 04/15/14) (Eating Protein 04/15/14) (Facts about Protein Foods 04/15/14) (Facts about Dairy 04/15/14) (Eating Dairy foods 04/15/14) (Food Group Video 04/20/14) (Fun with Fruits 04/20/14) (How much Fruit is needed 04/20/14) (How much Vegetables are needed 04/20/14) (How much Grains are needed 04/ 20/14) How much Protein Foods are needed 04/20/14) much Dairy is needed 04/20/14) (Cooking vegetables 04/15/14) (The Grain Chain 04/15/14) (Facts about Protein 04/ 15/14) 47 (Healthy Protein Snacks 4/15/14) (Dairy Fun Facts 04/15/14) (Making Milk Products 04/15/14) (Eating Healthy while eating out 04/15/14) M_300132_Article.jsp (Reading Food Labels) (4/15/14)


Do You Know Your Body?  
Do You Know Your Body?  

This E-Book is designed to help High-School students understand their body a little better. It is comprised of 3 chapters, Exercise, Nutriti...