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Smita A. Desai, Ph.D 2010 Drishti


To study the relationship between intellectual  functioning and academic achievement  (Reading, Written language & Math).  To explore important predictors of academic  achievement  (Reading, Written language &  Math).  To explore the patterns of cognitive functioning  in a population diagnosed with Learning  Disabilities 

Smita Desai, PhD


Research in the field of Learning disabilities is  very scarce on the population of Indian children.  The study aims to contribute towards an  understanding of the learning profile of an  indigenous population.  This (and similar research) could provide  important guidelines for intervention programs  for learning disabilities. 

Smita Desai, PhD


Population: Students from an urban environment  diagnosed as having Learning disabilities  through comprehensive psycho­educational  assessment.  Size of sample: 250 children  Age group: 6­16 years  Sex distribution: ◦Males: 176 ◦Females: 74 

Smita Desai, PhD


Research design:

◦ Predictor variable: Performance on Intelligence test ◦ Criterion variable: Performance on Achievement test

Procedure:

◦ Retrospective study ◦ Selection of students having a diagnosis of Learning disabilities ◦ Demographic data, developmental data, and data from standardised  Intelligence and Achievement tests analysed for purpose of study

Tools:

◦ Weschler’s Intelligence Test for children –WISC (Indian adaptation) ◦ Woodcock Johnson Psycho­educational battery­Revised (WJ­R)

Statistical analysis:

◦ Descriptive statistics, Anova, Correlation coefficients, Multiple Regression  analysis

Smita Desai, PhD


ď ˝

Gender distribution

30% 70%

Male Female

Smita Desai, PhD


Age distribution

16%

16%

6-7.11

19%

20%

8-9.11 10-11.11 12-13.11

29%

14-15.11

Smita Desai, PhD


Grade distribution

12%

13%

20%

1-2 3-4

22%

5-6 7-8 9-10

33%

Smita Desai, PhD


History of failure

29%

Yes

71%

No

Smita Desai, PhD


Mean VIQ, PIQ, GIQ

V I.Q. P I.Q. G I.Q.

Mean 101.43 109.81 106.16

S.D. 15.49 15.43 15.86 Smita Desai, PhD


Mean Achievement Standard scores (SS)

SS-RDG SS-MATH SS-WRTG

Mean 91.1 92.45 85.86

S.D 13.49 17.11 14.78 Smita Desai, PhD


Mean scores on Verbal subtests

15 10

12.72 12.47

10.82 7.58

10.75

7.12

MEAN 5

H IT R A E R P M O C

B A C O V

IM S

S D

0 O F IN

Smita Desai, PhD


ď Ž

Mean scores on Performance subtests 15 11.06

11.8

11.48

12.65 9.99

11.63

10 MEAN 5 0 P.C

P.A

B.D

OA

CDG

Smita Desai, PhD

MZS


Gender differences on different variables

150 100 Mean (M)

50

Mean (F)

S -M H T A

IQ G

IQ P

A O

D B

.A P

0 .C P

Unit Value

H IT R A

Smita Desai, PhD


Correlation between variables

◦All the verbal scale subtests showed significant  relationship with R, W, M. ◦Information subtest (factual knowledge, long term   memory & recall) showed highest correlation with  Reading  (r=0.50; p<0.01) and writing (r=0.45; p<0.01) ◦Arithmetic subtest showed expectedly highest correlation  to Math achievement (r=0.43; p<0.01)

◦Specific performance subtests of BD and OA  showed significant correlations with all the three  achievement areas

Smita Desai, PhD


Predictors contributing to variation in Reading  performance CODING DIGIT SPAN

64%

INFORMATION

25%

4% 6%

1%

OTHERS (unknown) VOCABULARY

Smita Desai, PhD


Predictors contributing to variation in Written  language performance ARITHMETIC DIGIT SPAN

68%

INFORMATION

6%

20% 2%

3%

OTHERS (unknown)

1%

SIMILARITIES VOCABULARY

Smita Desai, PhD


Predictors contributing to variation in Math  performance ARITHMETIC

67%

BLOCK DESIGN CODING DIGIT SPAN

7% 2%

1% 18%

5%

OTHERS (unknown) VOCABULARY

Smita Desai, PhD


Cross tabulations between the variables of VIQ  &Achievement, PIQ &Achievement, GIQ  &Achievement indicate that the Reading, Math  and Written language achievement scores are  higher for those with higher Intelligence scores.  Research studies in the western world also  indicate this pattern.

Smita Desai, PhD


History of failure seen in almost 30% of population  diagnosed with LD. An important warning sign still being  ignored. Highest frequency of diagnosis seen in age group 10­12  years/5­6 grade. Considerable accumulation of deficits  seen by this age. Intervention becomes difficult. Need for  earlier nominations for assessments. Chief referring complaint was of difficulties with written  language. Below average SS in written language confirm  the difficulties faced with written language.

Smita Desai, PhD


Low average SS in Reading performance underscores  the need for strengthening of Reading skills as first step  in improving achievement performance. Above statement also indicates that remedial programs  cannot just cater to the referring complaint of deficits in  written language (as is being done) but must move along  the language acquisition hierarchy (speaking, listening,  reading, writing).  This is particularly important in the bilingual scenario  where English is the medium of instruction, yet in most  cases is not the root language.

Smita Desai, PhD


The predictors seen to enter the regression  equation for variance in reading, written language  & math need to be investigated further as  components for inclusion in intervention programs  for learning disabilities.  Need to study the nature of the other factors  contributing to variance in performance. 

Smita Desai, PhD


Assessment is to be understood  as a means to an end; not an  end in itself. Thank­you!! Smita Desai, PhD

Patterns of Cognitive functioning and Academic achievement in children with LD  

Patterns of Cognitive functioning and Academic achievement in children with Learning Disabilities, Bombay Psychological Association, 2010

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