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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile:

Research Areas and Capabilities State of the Art Report


The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile:

Research Areas and Capabilities State of the Art Report


Table of contents 1. Introduction........................................................................................................................................6 1.1 Chile at a Glance............................................................................................................................................. 8 1.2 National Science, Technology and Innovation System........................................................................................ 9 1.3 Funding schemes for Science, Technology and Innovation............................................................................... 12

2. The environmental and climate change sectors in Chile..................................................................16 2.1 Role in Chile’s economy and society............................................................................................................... 16 2.2 Actors and institutions................................................................................................................................... 17 2.3 Environmental indicators............................................................................................................................... 18 2.3.1 Air, atmosphere and climate change..................................................................................................... 18 2.3.2 Freshwater resources........................................................................................................................... 22 2.3.3 Soils.................................................................................................................................................... 24 2.3.4 Marine and coastal ecosystems............................................................................................................ 26 2.3.5 Forest.................................................................................................................................................. 30 2.3.6 Biodiversity.......................................................................................................................................... 32 2.3.7 Natural hazards................................................................................................................................... 33 2.4 Challenges and opportunities........................................................................................................................ 34

3. Research capabilities in relation to the environment and climate change......................................38 3.1 The scientific community: the map of excellence............................................................................................. 38 3.2 Role of Environmental Non Governmental Organisations................................................................................ 41 3.3 Role of the private sector............................................................................................................................... 43 3.4 The public sector........................................................................................................................................... 45 3.5 Topics and working areas.............................................................................................................................. 46 3.6 Funding sources............................................................................................................................................ 47 3.7 Opportunities for international cooperation and with the European Union...................................................... 48

References.......................................................................................................................................................... 51 Glossary of acronyms.......................................................................................................................................... 51 Appendix............................................................................................................................................................ 52

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Published by the European Union Programme of the International Relations Department at CONICYT Santiago, December 2010 This document was developed with funds of the European Union under the scope of the CHIEP II project (Grant Agreement 222705) of the Capacities programme under the Seventh Framework Programme. The content of the document is the sole responsibility of CONICYT and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union.

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


1. Introduction

C

hile’s increasing commercial opening to external markets, new cooperation and free trade agreements with the northern hemisphere, and the recent incorporation of Chile into the OECD imply important challenges for national environmental standards and policies. At the same time, this greater involvement represents unique opportunities for the country to enhance existing expertise, scientific and technological development, technological transfer, and innovation with respect to environmental matters. In this context, this publication –aimed at researchers, entrepreneurs, and institutions both in Chile and abroad– seeks to familiarise readers with Chile’s environmental issues (including climate change). In particular, the report provides information about Chile’s research and science & technology capabilities, including the existing research centres and the specialists devoted to work in this field. The main purpose of this report is to identify opportunities for scientific cooperation between Chile and the European Union. Specific objectives of the report are: 1. To improve the EU scientific community’s knowledge about existing opportunities for collaboration with Chile. 2. To improve the EU Programme’s targeting of dissemination and cooperation activities between Chile and the EU. The overall framework of this state of the art report is the theme of environment (including climate change) of the 7th Framework Programme (FP7) which is divided into 4 research areas: 1) Climate change,

pollution and risks, 2) Sustainable management of resources, 3) Environmental Technologies, and 4) Earth observation and assessment tools. The first two have been prioritised in the case of Chile (and this report), due to the critical mass of researchers and institutions working on them. The European Commission has subdivided these two first areas into the five subareas illustrated in Table 1. Aiming at higher distinctiveness, the subarea Conservation and sustainable management of natural and man-made resources and biodiversity has been divided into two categories, leading to six research priorities1: climate change, environment and health, natural hazards, natural resource management, biodiversity, and marine environments.

1

6

For more details on research areas, see http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/index_en.cfm?pg=environment

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Table 1: Chile’s priorities within the 7th Framework Programme environmental research areas. Environmental Research 1. Climate change, pollution and risks

2. Sustainable Management of Resources

Pressures on the environment and climate

Environment and health

Natural hazards

Conservation and sustainable management of natural and manmade resources and biodiversity

Management of marine environments

Climate Change

Environment and health

Natural hazards

Nat. resources management

Marine Environments

Biodiversity

This document is available on www.chiep.cl. The contents of the document are: ● Basic information about Chile ● A description of the Chilean science & technology system ● A brief characterisation of Chile’s environmental and climate change research areas ● A description of the science & technology sector in relation to the environment and climate change The report also includes Annexes containing a Data Base of institutions, researchers and practitioners, and projects in the environmental and climate change sectors in Chile.

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1.1 Chile at a Glance Chile se ubica al sur oeste de América del Sur, en una longitud de 4.200 kilómetros en su territorio continental, la que alcanza hasta 8.000 kilómetros si se incluye el territorio Antártico. El territorio continental se extiende entre los 17.50º y los 56.50º de latitud sur, en tanto que la superficie antártica llega hasta el Polo, en los 90º de latitud sur.

América del Sur South America

Chile

Capital City

Santiago

Population (2010)

17.09 million people

Gross Domestic Product (2010)

US$ 203,300 million

GDP per capita (2010)

US$ 11,958

PPP GDP per capita (2009 est.) (PPP: Purchasing Power Parity)

US$ 15,400

Currency

Chilean peso CLP $

Approximate equivalence

US$ 1= $ 483; € 1= $ 667 Sept.2011

Labour force

7.4 million people

Literacy rate

96%

Main industries

mining, aquaculture, forestry,-agro-industry, telecommunications,-banking

Main exports

copper, fruit, fish, wine, forest products

Chile is a unitary State with its central government located in the capital, Santiago, in the central and landlocked Región Metropolitana. The rest of the territory is divided into 14 administrative regions, all of which have access to the Pacific Ocean. These regions were traditionally ordered from North to South, from I (on the border with Peru) to XII (including the Chilean Antarctic territory). The recently created XIV and XV regions were inserted as a result of the division of other regions and therefore do not follow the same geographical criteria.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


1.2 National Science, Technology and Innovation System

XV Región de Arica y Parinacota: Arica I Región de Tarapacá: Iquique

The National Science, Technology and Innovation System in Chile is composed of public and private entities such as government agencies, companies, universities, technological institutes and research centres which aim at developing research, technology, human capital training and innovation, as well as creating policies to support this.

II Región de Antofagasta: Antofagasta

III Región de Atacama: Copiapó

As part of this system, the government formulates public policies, develops research at the national level and supports

IV Región de Coquimbo: La Serena V Región de Valparaíso: Valparaíso VI Región del Libertador General Bernardo O´Higgins: Rancagua VII Región del Maule: Talca VIII Región del Biobío: Concepción IX Región de la Araucanía: Temuco IXV Región de los Ríos: Valdivia XIV Región de los Lagos: Puerto Montt

XI Región Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo: Puerto Montt

XII Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena: Punta Arenas

RM Región Metropolitana de Santiago: Santiago

research and innovation performed in companies and universities through different funding schemes and financial incentives. State participation is essential for the coordination of the different actors of the System and the development of networks. The State establishes priorities and objectives in this area and defines the National Innovation Strategy to orient the System. Although industry does not conduct a significant amount of research, they finance an important percentage of the research performed by universities and private institutions. Enterprises are where innovation is produced and used. Therefore, a higher participation of the industry sector in research projects must be encouraged since they play a fundamental role in technological innovation by developing the concepts, ideas and knowledge produced by scientific institutions. The education sector forms specialised human capital who later participates in innovation processes at universities and private companies. Universities and research centres develop most of the fundamental research and contribute in applied research and technological development. This activity is financed through direct government contributions, government grants, private company funds and international resources. In Chile there are several public sector agencies in charge of executing Science, Technology and Innovation activities. Some of these are independent institutes and others are under the supervision and dependence of a Ministry. These

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agencies focus on research, development, transfer and dissemination of technologies in different areas such as agriculture, forestry, mining, fisheries, defence, and public health. The National Science, Technology and Innovation System is regulated by a series of norms2 related to research and innovation such as norms on scientific intellectual property, industrial property, on funds for financing scientific and technological research and tax incentives for scientific and technological research among others. In 2005, The National Council of Innovation and Competitiveness was created to propose guidelines for a National Innovation Strategy. Council members include high level authorities from the public, scientific, academic and private sectors. Taking into consideration the opinion of the academic and productive sectors, representatives from different regions and the civil society, the Council integrates diverse visions in order to define national priorities for strategically oriented scientific activities, public policies and to develop an efficient National Innovation System. Following a recommendation of the Council, the Interministerial Committee for Innovation and Competitiveness was formed in 2007 and is integrated by representatives of seven ministries to serve as a counterpart of the Council and implement public innovation policies for competitiveness. The Committee of Ministers defines the National Innovation Strategy after consideration of the recommendations of the authorities from the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT) and the Chilean Economic Development Agency (CORFO).

President of Chile

National Council of Innovation

Human Capital Science and Technology

Interministerial Committee for innovation

Innovation

MINEDUC CONICYT

Innovation strategy and guidelines

MINECON CORFO (Innova Chile)

Promotes the formation of advanced human capital Strengthens the scientific and technological base

Promotes innovation and technological diffusion

National Science, Technology and Innovation System

http://www.bcn.cl/leyes_temas/leyes_por_tema.2007-09-03.7728937048

2

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


The National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT) is in charge of promoting the formation of advanced human capital, disseminating scientific and technological research and strengthening the country’s scientific and technological foundation. CONICYT is an autonomous public institution which is part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation System and which relates administratively with the government through the Ministry of Education (MINEDUC). The Chilean Economic Development Agency (CORFO) is responsible for increasing competitiveness in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises through innovation and technological dissemination. With this main aim, CORFO finances entrepreneurship, technology transfer and innovation in SMEs, seeks to attract foreign investment, and supports optimisation of management of procedures. CORFO is part of the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (MINECON). As part of the National Innovation Strategy, five economic sectors have been identified as the ones which offer more development potential for the future: Aquaculture, Agri food, Mining, Global Services and Special Interest Tourism. A large amount of the research CONICYT supports and funds corresponds to the areas of Environment and Energy due to their importance for the development of the country in general, and in the areas of Education and Health since these significantly impact the population’s quality of life. CONICYT also focuses on Chile’s unique natural conditions in order to develop research in the areas of Earth Sciences and Oceanography, and Astronomy. It is in the country’s best interest to increase the number of professionals working in science to a level comparable to countries of similar size and productive profile which excel for their economic growth and innovation. In this sense, the National Innovation Strategy aims at forming advanced human capital that will contribute to the economic, social and human development of the country. In 2009 the National Statistics Institute of Chile (INE) conducted the first national R&D survey which complies with OECD standards. The survey presented that in 2008 the national expenditure allocated for R&D in Chile was of USD 674 million representing 0.4% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product. In more advanced countries, a close relationship is observed between levels of development and of quality of life and the relevance that RTD has in governmental policies. Chile should continue increasing its investment in science, technology and innovation for the forthcoming years and achieve a higher participation and contribution of the business sector in this effort. It is noticed that in countries with a high RTD investment, the participation of the private productive sector is essential and reaches more than 60% of the total3. The aforementioned survey revealed that the industry sector in Chile financed 43.7% of the expenditure in R&D in 2008. According to the National Innovation Council for Competitiveness, Chile’s RTD expenditure should reach 2.3% of the GDP by 2020 and about half of the resources should be contributed by the private sector4.

http://www.conicyt.cl/573/article-35902.html

3

http://www.conicyt.cl/573/article-35902.html

4

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1.3 Funding schemes for Science, Technology and Innovation There are various national funding schemes for science, technology and innovation. The Chilean Economic Development Agency (CORFO) and the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT) play a key role in the system in financial terms. CONICYT’s programmes and funding schemes are divided into two separate lines: the promotion and strengthening of the national scientific and technological foundation and the formation and training of advanced human capital. Scientific and Technological Foundation ● National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FONDECYT): It is the country’s main public fund aimed at supporting and strengthening individual basic research. It finances research projects of excellence in all areas and has caused a significant impact in the generation of a critical mass of researchers. ● Fund for Financing Research Centres of Excellence (FONDAP): This funding scheme supports the establishment or strengthening of centres in research areas which are relevant for the country and where basic national science has reached a high development level. Besides promoting research of excellence, these centres are oriented towards the training of advanced human capital and collaborative networking. ● Fund for the Promotion of Scientific and Technological Development (FONDEF): This funding scheme aims at promoting a relationship among research institutions and companies for the development of applied research projects, precompetitive development and technology transfer. All projects must have a high socio-economic impact and be oriented to creating or improving products, processes and services. ● Astronomy Programme: It seeks to support and strengthen the development of astronomy in Chile by providing grants in this field, managing observation time at telescopes in the north of the country, and managing doctoral and post doctoral scholarships in astronomy among others. ● National Fund for Research and Development in Health (FONIS): FONIS was created as a result of a joint effort by the Ministry of Health and CONICYT. Its mission is to create greater technological and scientific development, which in turn will allow better public health decisions to be made in the country at both policy level and clinical and management level. In order to achieve its objective, this programme finances projects which contribute to the improvement of decision-making in health. FONIS’ beneficiaries are universities, research centres related to health or academics or health personnel directly. ● Associative Research Programme (PIA): This programme aims to promote the articulation and partnership between different groups of researchers and other national and/or international groups from the academy and/or the private and public sectors. PIA supports the strengthening of structured groups in research areas of excellence at national level, thus contributing to the economy and competitiveness

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


of the Chilean society. The programme is founded on four lines of actions that provide support for: Research Rings, Research and Development Centres, Scientific and Technological Equipment, and Articulation and Liaison. â—? Regional Programme for Scientific and Technological Development: This scheme supports units of scientific and technological development located in the different regions of the country to promote decentralised research. Training of Human Capital â—? Advanced Human Capital Formation Programme: This programme focuses its actions on supporting and strengthening the formation of advanced human capital in every area of knowledge, both in Chile and abroad. In order to achieve its goals, this programme has several postgraduate and complementary scholarships. Since 2008, the advanced human capital formation programme has been the executing agency for all postgraduate international scholarships under the BECAS CHILE programme. â—? Attraction and Insertion of Advanced Human Capital Programme: Its purpose is to increase the scientific, technological and academic capabilities of Chilean institutions devoted to science and technology, by means of attracting international researchers and by inserting highly qualified professionals in academia and productive sectors. In terms of innovation, through a variety of funding schemes, CORFO promotes technology innovation for companies, technological transference and dissemination, pre-competitive innovation, public-oriented innovation, and innovating entrepreneurship among others. In the past years, the country has set forth high-level initiatives, with diverse funding schemes, aimed at scientific and technological development and innovation. These intend to create an impact on productive sectors and knowledge by integrating the best capabilities of the country linking universities, technology centres, research groups and in some cases, enterprises. The Millennium Institutes and Millennium Nuclei are examples of the most outstanding ones. These are integrated by associate researchers and young researchers, and aim at developing cutting-edge research, training young researchers, and working with collaborative networks with foreign centres. These focus their projects towards the industrial sector, education, the public sector and society as a whole. Both Millennium Institutes and Millennium Nuclei are financed through the Millennium Scientific Initiative, a government entity which is part of the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism (and which was formerly part of the Ministry of Planning). Apart from being financed by the Millennium Scientific Initiative, Millennium Institutes also receive funds from the Innovation Fund for Competitiveness (FIC). Chile is currently implementing through the International Relations Department at CONICYT three multilateral cooperation agreements in science and technology, as well as various bilateral agreements with European countries. The multilateral agreements are: i) STIC-Amsud with Argentina, Brazil, France, Peru and Uruguay in the area of Information and Communication Technologies, ii) MATH-Amsud with Argentina, Brazil, France, Peru and Uruguay in the area of Mathematics and iii) CYTED with Iberoamerican

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countries in the areas of food/agriculture, health, industrial development, sustainable development, ICT, social sciences and energy. Regarding the bilateral cooperation, Chile has signed agreements with institutions in Germany (DAAD, BMBF, Max Planck Society, Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation and DFG), with France (INRIA, INSERM, IRD, ANR, and the French Embassy), with the Region of Wallonia in Belgium and with AKA of Finland. International experience shows that tax incentives are effective instruments for increasing the private sector´s expense in research and development. Also, a strong relationship between the private sector and research centres is essential for orienting the capacities of research centres towards the satisfaction of companies’ needs. In Chile, the ties between these sectors are still weak. In Chile, law N° 20,241 of the 19th of January 2008 regulates tax incentives for private investment in research and development. This law has the objective of increasing private investment in research and development and to strengthen the ties amongst universities or research centres and companies. It allows enterprises to obtain a tax credit equivalent to 35 per cent of the total payments of research and development contracts signed with Research Centres registered in the Research Centres Registry and certified by CORFO. This law will be in force until December 31, 2017.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


2. The environmental and climate change sectors in Chile 2.1 Role in Chile’s economy and society In the last decades, Chile has experienced a rapid, increasingly diversified, export-led economic growth, with more than 110% rise in GDP (1989-2009). This economic development was supported by sound macroeconomic and social policies and resulted in significant reductions in poverty. However, this process also put considerable pressure on Chile’s natural resources, particularly in booming sectors such as mining, forestry and aquaculture. Environmental conditions in Chile should be understood in the context of its rapid pace of development. Figure 1: Chile’s exports in 2009 (source: Central Bank of Chile)

Drinks (wine) and tobacco 5%

Other 1%

Chemicals 7% Fisheries and aquaculture 11%

Forestry products and wood pulp 14%

Agriculture and livestock 16%

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

Mining and metals 46%


Chile has progressively diversified its economy in the last few decades. From an export-oriented commodity based economy, it is moving towards the consolidation of the country as a services platform within Latin America. Services are one of the most dynamic economic sectors in Chile, accounting for more than 60% of the GDP according to the World Trade Organization. However, renewable and non-renewable natural resources are still the basis of Chile’s income. As illustrated in Figure 1, from a total of US$ 50,000 MM goods exports in 2009, more than 90% correspond to the utilisation and exploitation of minerals, soils, watersheds and coasts. In addition, the tourism industry plays an emerging role in the Chilean economy. In 2004 the sector generated revenues of around US$ 1,400 MM. National parks, nature conservation and historical sites are the greater attractions for foreign and national tourists in Chile, generating growing pressures on ecosystems. In this context, environmental and natural resources sciences are particularly important in Chile due to the country’s highly diverse ecosystems, climates and physiographic conditions, and its large number of endemic species –as a biogeographic island. An important part of Chilean territory is among the 34 priority sites or “hotspots” for the world’s biodiversity conservation established by Conservation International5.

2.2 Actors and institutions Chile developed and strengthened its environmental policy on the basis of a multisectoral co-ordination model established in 1994, embodied in the National Environmental Commission (CONAMA). Fourteen ministries with environmental competencies integrated the CONAMA Committee, including the Ministries of Economy, Public Infrastructure, Public Property, Agriculture, Housing and Urbanism, Health, Mining, and Planning, among others. In 2009, a deep legal and institutional reform was enacted towards the creation of the Ministry of Environment. Thereby, the coordination model is replaced by an independent institution with higher management and protection powers and responsibilities over national resources and ecosystems. The reform also includes the creation of the Environmental Evaluation Service to address environmental impact assessments of development projects, the Environmental Superintendency in charge of environmental regulation enforcement, plus the Biodiversity and Protected Areas Service focused on the administration of national parks, reserves, and natural heritage sites.

5

For further information see www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/hotspots/chilean_forests/Pages/default.aspx and www.conservation.org

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The Ministry of Environment is the main institution for the definition, implementation, and coordination of national policies regarding climate change, biodiversity conservation and natural resources management. However, other sectorial institutions have played key roles on environmental and resources management in Chile. In the context of this report, for instance, SUBPESCA (the Undersecretariat of Fisheries) is in charge of the administration and regulation of fisheries and aquaculture (under the Ministry of Economy). Water resources are managed by DGA (the Water General Agency, under the Ministry of Public Infrastructure) and irrigation is administered by CNR (the National Commission for Irrigation, a multi-ministry body). Concerning forest resources and soil management, CONAF (the National Forest Corporation) and SAG (Agricultural and Livestock Service) represent the core agencies, respectively (both dependent on the Ministry of Agriculture). Environmental health concerns are among the functions of the Regional Health Secretariats (regional agencies of the Ministry of Health). Finally, national prevention, early alerts, and response and recovery coordination in the event of natural disasters are responsibilities of the ONEMI (the National Emergency Office), a unit of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Under the new environmental institutional arrangement, the actors and functions outlined above are likely to be revised and restructured. This process is currently in its early phases of implementation and there are great expectations for it.

2.3 Environmental indicators 2.3.1 Air, atmosphere and climate change6 Three main air quality problems in Chile have been underlined: ● Severe air pollution in the Región Metropolitana de Santiago (e.g., PM10, PM2.5 and CO) with significant consequences on human health. The problem is caused by industry and transport emissions, and is worsened by particular geographical conditions of the valley and other seasonal factors. Multiple measures have been implemented since 1990, such as fixed and mobile emissions sources control, emergency procedures during critical climatic/pollution conditions, and emission reduction plans with concrete objectives. ● Mining sector emissions in the north of Chile (mainly SO2, arsenic and PM10) particularly in the II Región de Antofagasta. This problem implied specific health impacts on resident population of adjacent cities, and also potential economic losses due to international dumping charges. Site-specific pollution reduction plans and sound technology have been progressively implemented since the late 1980s and have reduced more than 70% of SO2 emissions.

6

18

This section is mostly based on the OECD Environmental Performance Review for Chile (2005).

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


â—? Firewood combustion emissions in the southern regions and cities of Chile (e.g., Temuco, Osorno, and Valdivia). Between 7 and 10 metric tons of firewood are burned every year for heating purposes in the country. Since 1997 several control and mitigation plans have been implemented, including firewood certification schemes, improved stove technology, and education campaigns. The efforts implemented to solve these problems and to improve air quality in Chile, such as urban emission assessments and inventories, have achieved significant goals in the last decade. However, economic and population growth have added new sources of pollution and more complex environmental threats. Even though Chilean carbon emissions are lower than those in other developing and developed countries, SOx and NOx emission standards are higher than the desirable OECD benchmarks (see Figure 2). Figure 2: Country emissions by GDP unit in the early 2000s (source: OECD 2005).

SOx Chile

6.1

Canada

2.7

Mexico

1.6

France

0.4

Poland

4.1

Spain United Kingdom

2.0 0.8

European OECD

1.0

OECD

1.3 0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Kg / US$ 1,000

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NOx Chile

2.2

Canada

2.8

Mexico

1.6

France

1.0

Poland

2.2

Spain

1.9

United Kingdom

1.2

European OECD

1.2

OECD

1.5 2.0

0.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

Kg / US$ 1,000

CO2 Chile

0.34

Canada

0.58

Mexico

0.47

France

0.26

Poland

0.82

Spain

0.40

United Kingdom

0.40

European OECD

0.40

OECD

0.50 0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

tons / US$ 1,000

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Chile is a vulnerable country to climate change and is being active in responding to it. The country is responsible for only 0.2% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. However, the constant increase of its emissions in the last decades has raised national public concern. As shown in Figure 3, overall CO2 equivalent emissions have dramatically grown since 1984. The highest emissions correspond to the energy, agriculture, industrial processes, and waste disposal sectors. By contrast, the Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forests sector (LULUCF) represents an important carbon sink. As a Kyoto Protocol signatory, Chile has fostered mitigation and adaptation measures. The National Action Plan 2008-2012 has been enacted to articulate a number of multi-sectoral policies, and to orient the private sector, academic institutions, and ENGOs. Chile has actively promoted projects incorporating Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) and has increasingly participated of carbon markets. At present, more than 48 CDM projects have been approved by the national designated authority, and other instruments and incentives have been implemented. However, there is still room for growth and broader participation of actors with this regard, considering that a 20% reduction of national greenhouse gas emissions for 2020 is committed. Figure 3: CO2 equivalent emissions by economic sectors in Chile (source: Ministry of Environment 2010).

70.000 60.000 50.000 40.000 30.000 20.000 10.000 19 84 19 85 19 86 19 87 19 88 19 89 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06

0 -10.000 -40.000 -20.000 -30.000 -40.000 Energy

Industrial Processes

Agriculture

LULUCF

Waste disponsal

Balance

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Among the national priorities to support decision-making related to climate change, the development of a knowledge baseline, sustained by integrated research and systematic observation of climate, has been underlined. Capacity building, education, and awareness rising of citizenry are also pillars of the national plan.

2.3.2 Freshwater resources7 Chile faces more problems related to the geographical distribution of freshwater than to the overall availability of the resource. In general, Chile has a stable supply of freshwater and higher per capita annual water availability than the world average. However, this trend varies dramatically among northern and southern regions. As illustrated in Figure 4, per capita water availability varies 800 times when comparing regional maximum and minimum data. From the Región Metropolitana to the country’s northern border, water demand considerably overpasses available volumes of the resource. Water scarcity is particularly critical in northern cities and regions due to human needs and the mining industry consumption. Figure 4: Regional annual per capita freshwater availability in 1999 (source: DGA 1999 as cited in U. de Chile 2010)

180.000 150,000 120,000 90,000 60,000 30,000 0 I & XIV

7

22

II

III

IV

V

RM

VI

VII

VII

IX

This section is mostly based on Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2008 GEO CHILE (2010).

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

X & XV


Multiple and variable factors determine heterogeneous water availability conditions along the country. Contrasting rainfall regimes and evapotranspiration levels define surpluses in the south and shortfalls in the north. Global environmental changes are also associated with likely effects on water availability in a vulnerable country as Chile. Steady decrease in rainfall patterns from the northern regions to Santiago in the 20th century has been documented. In contrast, from Santiago to the south, regions have experienced either steadiness or subtle increases in the last five decades. In addition, lower temperatures have risen in central Chile, with evident impacts on watersheds and river streams. Higher low temperatures in winter lead to increased melting and decrease of water reserves in the highlands (e.g., snow and glaciers). Concerning water quality, there are contrasting cases and increased concern about the deterioration of a number of river basins and freshwater conditions. Main sources of pollution of superficial and ground water are domestic sewage water, mining effluents, liquid industrial wastes, and fertilisers and pesticides from agriculture. Rivers with regular water quality are, for instance, Lluta (XV Región de Arica y Parinacota), Loa (II Región de Antofagasta), Elqui (IV Región de Coquimbo), Aconcagua (V Región de Valparaíso), Maipo (Región Metropolitana), Rapel (VI Región de O’Higgins) and Serrano (XII Región de Magallanes). In contrast, basins with excellent water quality are Lauca (XV Región de Arica y Parinacota), Pupio (IV Región de Coquimbo), Mataquito (VII Región del Maule), Maullin (X Región de Los Lagos), Aysen (XI Región de Aysen), Cisnes (XI Región de Aysen) and Side (XII Región de Magallanes). Regarding water quality of inland waters, several lakes have been identified showing worrisome water conditions. Lakes of the IX Región de la Araucanía, the X Región de Los Lagos, and of the northern zone of Patagonia exhibit increased and accelerated eutrophication levels. Moreover, some of them, such as Villarrica, Calafquen, Rinihue and Llanquihue lakes show mesotrophic states. These trends represent potential social, economic and environmental threats and may affect future economic opportunities (e.g., tourism). The recent implementation of water treatment plants is progressively reducing inland water pollution. Water demands and consumption by economic sectors in Chile have substantially increased in the last two decades. Between 1990 and 2006 total water consumption in agriculture, domestic supply, industry, mining and energy incremented more than twofold, from 1,822 to 4,710 m3/sec. The pressure of the different sectors varies considerably among Chilean regions as illustrated in Figure 5. This complex situation demands the design and implementation of integrated and diverse sustainable management responses.

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Figure 5: Sectorial water consumption in the Regions of Chile (source: U. de Chile 2010)

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% I & XIV

II

III

IV Mining

V

RM Industry

VI Domestic

VII

VII

IX

X & XV

XI

XII

Irrigation

A number of policies have been designed and introduced to improve freshwater conditions in Chile. Basic measures implemented include the closure of additional applications for groundwater user rights in regions XV to Regi贸n Metropolitana. Broader responses have included the design of a national strategy for integrated basin management. In the same vein, the DGA has announced the formulation of a new National Policy for Water Resources to enhance the overall water management framework. The policy would focus on the improvement of public access to information, the creation of a water use register, and the implementation of more effective regulation enforcement measurements. Systematic and comprehensive assessments of ecological conditions and carrying capacity of Chilean freshwater ecosystems are national priorities.

2.3.3 Soils8 Chilean soils are notably diverse, including more than ten types. Only 6% of the national territory is arable land (4.6 million hectares), from which only one fifth is fully exploitable without limitations (e.g., excluding cattle areas and forest ecosystems). Less than 50% of potential cropland is actually exploited. However, the country faces severe soil loss and degradation problems caused by human-led and natural drivers.

8

24

This section is mostly based on Informe Pa铆s: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2008 GEO CHILE (2010).

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Soil degradation is a serious environmental problem in Chile. More than two thirds of the national territory (48.3 million hectares) are affected or threatened by desertification, drought and erosion. More than 45% of Chile’s continental territory is affected by different levels of soil erosion (see Figure 6). In addition, degraded land increases 40,000 hectares every year, and the annual advance of desertification is estimated in 6,000 hectares or 0.4 km (from north to south), with dramatic consequences on people, productivity and ecosystems. Figure 6: Erosion levels of Chile’s eroded land (source: IREN-CORFO 1979 as cited in U. de Chile 2010)

Mild 22%

Severe 33%

Moderated 45%

Soil degradation is related to environmental and socioeconomic consequences. In Chile, observed environmental impacts include the extinction of native flora, particularly in the north, such as Plazzia cheirantifoli and Menodora linoides. Socioeconomic impacts of desertification affect nearly 1.3 million Chileans. The most affected areas are located in the centre north of the country and are characterised by high levels of rural poverty (e.g., more than 30% of rural population under the poverty line in municipalities of Combarbalá, Canela, and Punitaqui). Multiple, complex and interconnected factors are commonly associated with soil problems. In the case of Chile, these include the dramatic reduction of rainfall patterns since the early 20th Century, unsustainable agricultural management practices, deforestation and land-use change, forest fires, over-grazing, farming use of forest land, and inefficient irrigation systems, among others. Chile is a vulnerable country to climate change, and current soil conditions and trends may worsen as a consequence of global environmental changes. Thus, the implementation of sustainable management practices on arid and semiarid zones is crucial. Chile participates in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), and adopted in 1997 a National Action Plan to respond to increasing problems. Actions have been focused on eight geographical areas: Norte Chico (III Región de Copiapó and IV Región de Coquimbo), Puna (High Andean Plateau), Secano (rainfed areas), Precordillera (foothills), Araucanía (IX Región de la Araucanía), Patagonia, Oceanic Islands (Isla de Pascua, Archipiélago de Juan

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

25


Fernández) and the Atacama Desert. The implementation of this Plan has involved multiple stakeholders and includes reforestation and irrigation incentives, and soil recovery mechanisms; however, the severity of the problems demands enhanced and sustained government monitoring and investment.

2.3.4 Marine and coastal ecosystems9 Chile has an extended and diverse coast and a vast maritime territory with high socioeconomic, cultural and biological importance. Chile’s linear coast is nearly 4,200 km long (distance which increases manifold if the irregular southern coastline between 44°S— 56°S is considered). A number of coastal cities, such as Arica, La Serena, Valparaíso, Talcahuano and Puerto Montt, host more than 20% of the population. Its Exclusive Economic Zone is 3,150,739 km2 wide, containing highly diverse ecosystems and enormous natural resources reserves. More than 160 species are currently exploited in Chile (Figure 7). The extractive fisheries and aquaculture sectors have represented around 2% of GDP in the last years and provide more than 118,000 jobs (2% of the national labour force). In this context, the understanding, protection and sustainable management of marine and coastal ecosystems become national priorities. Figure 7: Number of species and distribution of the total national catch in Chile, 2007 (source: U. de Chile 2010; SERNAPESCA 2007).

Other species 1% Crustaceans 0,8% Seaweed 7% Molluscs 7%

9

26

Fish 85% Target Species Fish

Nº of species 81

Molluscs

37

Crustaceans

24

Seaweed

17

Other species

4

Total

163

This section is mostly based on Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2008 GEO CHILE (2010).

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Marine and coastal ecosystems have been studied using topographic, climatic, oceanographic, and biological (flora and fauna) approaches. Four broad components of marine environments are relevant to introduce the Chilean case: ● Terrestrial coastal ecosystems with direct interactions with and influenced by marine ecosystems, including estuaries, lagoons and wetlands. They are greatly important for biodiversity conservation, hosting more than 150 species of birds, and many endemic small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Table 2 provides examples of coastal terrestrial ecosystems along the regions of Chile. Four of these cases have been officially declared RAMSAR sites. ● Intertidal habitats, including rocky and sandy shores nationwide. These habitats are extremely diverse in terms of species (e.g., seaweed, molluscs10, and crustaceans) and have been affected by human exploitation and transformations since ancient times. In present days, due to increasing human pressures, –particularly inshore gathering11, beach tourism and real estate developments—intertidal ecosystems are permanently threatened. Also, natural and environmental factors such as the presence of birds and El Niño events (ENSO), intervene on intertidal ecological processes. Several use and management policies have been put in place to protect and regulate the multiple activities in these zones, such as the recent regional Coastal Border Use Plans (Planes de Uso del Borde Costero). ● Sub tidal (or submarine) habitats, including rocky and sandy seabed areas, are characterized by highly complex and diverse biological communities and the presence of multiple economically valuable marine resources. Various types of seaweed and macro algae forests are the basis of trophic chains and sustain numerous fish and benthic species, which are relevant for the artisanal fishery (see Table 3). Also sandy seabed areas host varied traditionally exploited bivalve molluscs. Subtidal marine resources have suffered the overexploitation of key species in the past, such as locos, erizos, and machas. Currently, these fisheries have been recovered and extractive pressures are relatively under control by means of the Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR) coastal co-management system. However, open-access areas tend to be depleted and are threatened by artisanal divers, speargun fishing, and pollution (e.g., port, industrial and urban sources).

More than 90 species of molluscs have been indentified in central-southern Chilean intertidal ecosystems.

10

In Chile, inshore gatherers represent a subcategory of artisanal fishers.

11

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

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Table 2: Coastal terrestrial ecosystems with marine influence in Chile (U. de Chile 2010) Coastal Regions

Ecosystems (E: Estuaries; L: Lagoons; W: Wetlands)

XV

W: Río Lluta

III

W: Río Copiapó

IV

W: Boca de los Choros; Laguna Saladita; Laguna Adelaida; Salina Chica; Salina Grande; Laguna El Teniente; Laguna Conchalí*; Elqui, Limari and Choapa (river mouths); Pachingo, El Culebron, Tongoy, Chigualoco and Quilimari (creeks).

V

W: Yali* (Complex wetland including: Laguna Matanzas, Estero Tricao, Estero Maitenlahue, Estero and Laguna El Yali)

VI

L: Bucalemu, Topocalma W: Cahuil

VII

E: Río Maule L: Vichuquén, Torca W: Río Mataquito and Río Maule (river mouths); Reloca

VIII

E: Río Itata, Río BioBio, Río Andalién, Río Lenga, Río Tubul, Río Carampangue, Río Lebu, Río Paicaví, Río Lleulleu, Río Quidico, Río Tirúa L: Price, Redonda, Las Tres Pascualas, Lo Galindo, Lo Custodio, Lo Pineda, San Pedro Grande, San Pedro Chica W: Los Batros, Rocuant-Andalien, Lenga

IX

E: Río Imperial, Río Toltén L: Budi W: Río Budi, Río Boroa, Río Mahuidanchi, Río Toltén

XIV

E: Río Mehuín, Río Valdivia, Río Cruces (Santuario Carlos Anwandter*)

X

E: Río Bueno, Río Maullín

XII

W: Tres Puentes, Bahía Lomas*

Note: (*) ecosystems that are among the eleven RAMSAR sites in Chile.

● The Continental Platform is an extended submarine plain (from tectonic origin) with average depths of 200-300 metres and an estimated total surface of 27,427 square kilometres. The platform is characterised by rocky reliefs in the north, and sedimentary ocean floors in the southern regions. Most of the industrial and artisanal fisheries are developed in this vast maritime zone. The abundance of fish resources is explained mostly by coastal upwelling events in the central-southern zone of Chile. More than 50% of the national catch and 4% of world’s total catch is sourced in Chile’s Continental Platform. The distribution and abundance of pelagic marine resources (see Table 3) is influenced by complex interactions among oceanic currents and the ENSO phenomenon. However, the most significant pressure on marine ecosystems is the intensive exploitation of resources, mainly by the industrial, but also by the artisanal fleet. Total fish production increases every year around 9 percent.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Another important activity related to marine ecosystems in Chile is aquaculture, due to its environmental impacts. Chile became one of the world leaders in the salmon aquaculture industry and produced 31% of the world’s production of farmed Atlantic salmon in 2007. The salmon industry became a key source of employment in southern regions of Chile. But the industry has been the focus of permanent attention and complaints from the scientific community and environmental sectors due to its environmental impacts. The intensive use of antibiotics and other supplies, and the generation of massive organic material around salmon farms can provoke severe ecosystem damages. Additionally, the recent strong impact of the infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, a disease which started in 2007, generated national controversy and led to the closure of many aquaculture centres in the X Región de Los Lagos, a dramatic loss of jobs and a substantial reduction of Chile’s production. Table 3: Most economically valuable marine resources in Chile (U. de Chile 2010) Fishery

Common name

Scientific name

Benthic

Loco Erizo

Concholepas concholepas Loxechinus albus

Demersal

Merluza común Merluza austral Congrio dorado Bacalao de profundidad Raya volantín Langostino amarillo Camarón nailon

Merluccius gayi gayi Merluccius australis Genypterus blacodes Dissostichus eleginoides Dipturus chilensis Cervimunida johni Heterocarpus reedi

Pelagic

Sardina española Sardina común Anchoveta Jurel

Sardina pilchardus Clupea bentincki Engraulis ringens Trachurus symmetricus

A number of positive initiatives in terms of marine conservation and management have been implemented in the last decades. These include the development of public, private, and public-private mechanisms for conservation and sustainable use of marine ecosystems, such as marine and submarine reserves and parks, and marine areas of multiple uses (promoted by the Global Environmental Fund, GEF). In sum, Chile has more than 9 million hectares of marine ecosystems under some kind of official protection (0.81% of the national maritime territory). In addition, an increased number of Management and Exploitation Areas of Benthic Resources - MEABRs (currently more than 670) have been highlighted as an innovative mechanism to integrate users in resource management, contributing to fishers’ livelihoods with positive ecosystem conservation outcomes.

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2.3.5 Forest Chilean forests are highly important in economic and environmental terms. Forest resources account for 3.5% of GDP and more than 13% of exports in 2009. The forest cover represents 21.8% of the national land area, accounting for approximately 15.6 million hectares. This area includes two different contexts, namely native forests and plantations. There are 13.4 million hectares of native forests in Chile (86% of total forested land). Their importance is associated with the conservation of biodiversity (e.g., flora and fauna) and the provision of ecosystem services (e.g., freshwater provision) and resources (e.g., timber and other products). Ninety-five percent of native forests are concentrated to the south of the VIII Región del Bío-Bío, as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8: Regional distribution of native forests, in thousands of hectares (source: U. de Chile 2010)

IV 2 I & XV 7 XII 2,625

V 95

RM 93

VI 118 VII 370 VIII 786 IX 909

XI 4,816

XIV 850

X 2,736

Land-use change represents a main threat to native forest cover in Chile. More than 84,000 hectares of native species were substituted for plantations and more than 39,000 were transformed into farmland between 1995 and 2005. The regions mostly affected by land-use change are the VIII Región del Bío-Bío and the IX Región de la Araucanía. Considering new forest areas (approximately 29,000 hectares), the estimated overall native forest loss during the last 15 years in Chile is of 96,206 hectares. Forest fires also threaten native forests. An estimate of 8,200 hectares were lost between 2005 and 2009.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Despite increased awareness about the value of native forest in Chile, significant exploitation pressures still exist: ● Firewood consumption: This is the main product obtained from native forests in Chile, which consumption has increased twofold in the last 20 years. Native tree species represent more than 60% of the firewood used in Chile. The main consumers are rural households (44%), the industrial sector (27%), and urban homes (25%), particularly between the VII Región del Maule and X Región de Los Lagos (including XIV Región de Los Ríos) regions. Firewood is the cheapest source of energy, compared to fossil fuels, and therefore future pressures over forest resources are likely to remain constant. ● Industrial use of native timber: The exploitation of native species for the sawmill industry in Chile reached its peak in 1995, with more than 4 million cubic metres of chips exported. Afterwards, driven by national and international factors, the production decreased steadily, reaching only 516,000 cubic metres in 2007. At present, exported chips are produced mostly from plantation timber and industrial waste, and the pressure on native species is considerably lower. ● Non timber products: Native forests provide rural communities in the south of Chile with a variety of non timber products, including roasted nuts, wild berry jam, and willow handicrafts, among others. These goods have been traditionally produced for self-consumption but some of them have reached national and international markets. Non timber exports have doubled in the last two decades (US$72 million in 2008), representing a potential sustainable source of income for small-scale land owners. After 18 years of legislative and stakeholders’ debate, the Native Forest Law was enacted in 2008. The law includes a number of conservation measures, incentives and payments for sustainable management practices, and a forestry ecosystem research fund. However, these new regulations and instruments have received several critiques from user and expert groups, suggesting that their implementation will require on-going monitoring, consultation and adjustments. With respect to forest plantations in Chile, they represent 2.2 million hectares (14% of total forested land), including mainly Monterey Pine (Pinus radiate) and Eucaliptus. Chile is the world’s third-largest exporter of wood chips and sixth-largest of pulp. Harvest in plantation forests has increased by 180% and the volume of traded timber augmented 225% since 1990. This trend is expected to continue until 2020 when most plantations will be commercially mature. Positive and negative effects of the promotion of plantations in Chile must be taken into account. On the one hand, an important part of them was accompanied with actions to prevent soil degradation, such as compulsory reforestation after forest harvesting, selective thinning on heavy slopes, and soil classification to avoid conversion to farming. In addition, more than 50% of Chilean forest plantations (1.5 million hectares) have sustainable forest certifications (CERTFOR and/or FSC) and the ISO 14001. However, even though the intensification of plantations may have reduced the pressure for harvest in native forests, native forest substitution has in fact occurred. Moreover, forest plantations have raised other environmental problems and concerns. For instance, reduced genetic diversity of tree plantations, and increased risk of epidemics due to the growing reliance on clonal eucalyptus plantations for pulp

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production. In addition, the questionable environmental performance of some pulp plants –the destination of most planted trees- have triggered major environmental conflicts in the south of Chile. Also forest fires affect plantations more frequently than other kind of forested land. Lack of regulation enforcement and the avoidance of EIAs of plantations are also frequent problems in Chile.

2.3.6 Biodiversity As mentioned before, Chile’s territory is highly heterogeneous in terms of environmental conditions for the evolution of biological diversity and its components: ● In terms of ecosystems, 17 terrestrial vegetation formations and 127 vegetation belts have been proposed, 9 marine zoogeographic zones defined, and more than 11,000 wetlands numbered. The state of conservation of Chilean ecosystems varies notably and is driven by several factors. Terrestrial ecosystems are affected by habitat loss and transformation, illegal trade and exploitation, pollution, and the introduction of exotic organisms. Marine ecosystems are threatened by overexploitation, certain fishing techniques, and pollution. ● As of species diversity, more than 30,000 native species have been identified (a figure that is likely to increase manifold after recent research), from which a significant proportion are endemic species (see Table 4). More than 800 species have been classified as affected by conservation problems, from which 97% are considered endangered or rare. ● Regarding genetic diversity, as a consequence of ecosystem variety and species endemism, Chile’s great diversity is acknowledged. However, systematic knowledge of the genetic richness in Chile is limited. Further efforts must be carried on to study, register and protect national terrestrial, aquatic, and marine genetic resources, including those with economic potential.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Table 4: Species diversity and endemism of vascular plants and vertebrates in Chile (source: GEO CHILE 2005 as cited in CONAMA 2009). No. of species

No. of endemic species

% of endemic species

5,105

2,630

51.5

Ferns

114

19

23.8

Gymnosperms

16

5

69.2

Monocotyledons

1,069

424

39.7

Dicotyledons

3,906

2,182

55.9

Angiosperms

4,975

2,606

52.4

Fish

1,027

-

-

Amphibians

43

33

76.7

Reptiles

94

55

58.5

Birds

456

10

2.2

Mammals

170

17

10.0

Group Plants (only continental Chile)

At present, the National Strategy and the National Plan for Biodiversity are being implemented. These policies involve a large number of public institutions that participate in the Operative Committee for Biodiversity and include actions and commitments of most of them. Moreover, three complementary policies have been created with synergetic effects on biodiversity conservation: the National Wetlands Strategy, the National Policy of Protected Areas, and the National Policy for Endangered Species.

2.3.7 Natural hazards Chile is a natural disaster vulnerable country given its geological, geographical and climatic conditions. Also urban and rural settlement patterns and lack of planning contribute to increase its vulnerability. Main natural hazards that have historically affected the territory include earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrometeorological risks (floods, alluviums and landslides), volcanic eruptions, and forest fires. Between 1982 and 2008 the most frequently reported natural disasters in Chile were floods (23), storms (9), and earthquakes and tsunami (8). The ten most harmful events in terms of people affected in that period are shown in Table 5, underscoring the severity of earthquake impacts in Chile. An updated list would certainly include the magnitude 8.8 February 2010 earthquake and tsunami that affected more than 1.8 million people in Araucanía, Bio-Bio, Maule, O’Higgins, Región Metropolitana and Valparaíso.

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

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Table 5: Top ten Natural Disasters reported in Chile, 1982-2008 (source: the Hyogo Framework for Action website www.preventionweb.net) Disaster

Date

People affected

Earthquake (incl. tsunami)

1985

1,482,275

Storm

1984

242,345

Flood

2002

221,842

Flood

2000

139,667

Flood

1987

116,364

Flood

2008

104,755

Flood

2006

95,862

Mass movement wet

1991

82,811

Flood

1987

81,000

Storm

1984

80,828

As a UN member, Chile has adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action. This guideline has informed national prevention and management plans and policies to reduce societal vulnerability to natural disasters. ONEMI is currently the national focal point, which is supported by the Technical and Scientific Committee (see Appendix) and the National Seismologic and Volcanic Surveillance Networks. However, the National Emergency Agency, a new institution, is being proposed and designed to strengthen Chile’s efforts to enhance responsive capacities and resilience to natural hazards and other risks.

2.4 Challenges and opportunities Since mid 1990s, Chile made notorious progress in implementing and improving environmental institutions and policies, both to meet national objectives and to achieve convergence with the highest international standards. This effort led, for instance, to the creation of the Environmental Impact Assessment System (SEIA), to concrete pollution control and protection of air, freshwater, and soils, and to diverse terrestrial and marine biodiversity conservation mechanisms. It can also be highlighted, that Chile has made promising advances towards the achievement of the 7th Millennium Development Goal (MDG7), aimed at ensuring environmental sustainability. Associated compliance indicators were assessed in 2008, and a high likelihood of fulfilment in all minimum environmental targets was reported.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


However, the coordination model encountered its limitations and weaknesses. As underlined by the OECD environmental assessment of 2005, due to its structure, CONAMA was not the most effective institution to assure policy and regulation compliance. The implementation and consolidation of the Ministry of Environment, an institutional reform highly influenced by the OECD’s report and suggestions, is probably one of the most important challenges faced by Chile related to the environment and natural resources. This is, at the same time, the greatest opportunity to enhance the country’s environmental performance. The OECD also identified important tasks in continuing with environmental management progress and integrating environmental concerns in sectoral policies (e.g. concerning agriculture, energy, transport, primary industry, tourism and taxation), and offered 52 recommendations. Box 1 presents a selection of specific recommendations generated by the OECD in 2005 related to some issues covered in this document. In 2009, Chile became OECD’s 31st member and the first in South America. Accordingly, the Chilean Government committed further improvement of policies and regulations to align with OECD standards. Regarding the environment, Chile presented eight specific commitments to improve the implementation of its environmental policies. These commitments should be implemented within a four year period, and are the following: i) Waste management: implementation of the Clean Municipal Plan in pilot cities and a waste management regulation for industries. ii) Chemical management: enactment of a National Policy for Chemical Safety, and a capacity-building programme for workers’ leaders of the chemistry sector. iii) Environmental indicators and information: creation of a national cadastre of industries that manage and produce chemicals substances. iv) Water resources management policies: development of an integrated basin management strategy. v) Environment and tourism: creation of a national system of protected areas, employing economic instruments for their administration. vi) Pollution prevention and control: enactment of a PM 2.5 regulation and environmental decontamination plans in various cities. vii) Improvements to the public information system of SERNAC (Consumers’ National Service). viii) Improvements to the data protection system: enhance public access to scientific information developed with public funds.

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Chile is expected to provide progress reports to the OECD Environment Policy Committee within two years after accession and periodically thereafter, if required. BOX 1: OECD recommendations to Chile’s environmental performance (2005). AIR • make further progress with the implementation of air quality programmes, including those concerning the mining sector and those focusing on PM2.5, PM10 and ozone; monitor progress and the programmes’ impact on health through appropriate indicators; • develop nationwide emission standards (e.g. for industrial sources and for toxic air pollutants); • develop air monitoring in all major cities and an integrated air data management system; • develop energy efficiency measures for all aspects of energy consumption; • review the future energy supply mix (including contingency plans), taking into account environmental concerns (such as emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases); • implement air, traffic and transport management plans in the Metropolitan Region; develop and implement improved plans to reduce emissions from transport in all cities. WATER • continue to invest in sewerage, waste water treatment and other sanitation infrastructure in urban and rural areas; • increase the effective treatment of industrial effluents, and strengthen water inspection and enforcement capacities; • reduce the effects of agriculture (e.g. those related to irrigation, nutrients, pesticides and salinisation) on water quality and quantity; • develop an integrated watershed approach to improve water and forest resource management and to provide environment-related services more efficiently; • give greater weight in water management to protection of aquatic ecosystems; improve the integration of nature concerns in water management by setting up a robust regime for minimum ecological flows and biological water quality standards; • improve the information and knowledge base for water management (e.g. monitoring of ambient water quality, registry of water rights, data on expenditure and financing). AQUACULTURE • improve environmental and health protection in aquaculture (e.g. as regards eutrophication, salmon escapes, ecological balance of lakes, antibiotics, epidemiological vigilance, eradication of infectious disease), particularly through strengthened enforcement capacities; • apply the polluter pays principle in the aquaculture industry in the context of the General Environmental Framework Law; • complete a precise aquaculture coastal zoning plan; adopt integrated environmental management for coastal areas. FORESTS • promote agreement among stakeholders on strategic national orientations concerning forest resources (protection, sustainable management, plantation); • adopt and implement measures to assure sustainable management of native forest, including rewards for environmental services, cross-compliance mechanisms, partnerships and co-operation among stakeholders on overall management; • strengthen the enforcement capacities of the National Forestry Corporation (CONAF)

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


3. Research capabilities in relation to the environment and climate change The environment and global change are, by definition, cross-cutting themes that pose increasing challenges to most human activities. Traditional disciplinary boundaries and the gap between experts/scientists and other citizens have become less important when it comes to identifying and developing problem-oriented environmental research capabilities. There is an increasing consensus around the idea that a combination of different stakeholders’ capabilities is required to cope with current environmental problems and to improve societal capacity to respond and adapt to environmental changes. In this section, existing research expertise and skills of scientists, decision-makers, professionals, and practitioners are presented. This multidisciplinary and multi-sectoral outlook includes the academic, public, private, and environmental NGOs sectors.

3.1 The scientific community: the map of excellence Chilean universities and academic centres have acknowledged expertise in environmental and climate change research. In the last 20 years, in particular, the scientific community devoted to the environment has experienced extraordinary progress. This progress is reflected in terms of an increased number of qualified scientists and research institutions, scientific productivity, the diversification of sub disciplines and areas of interest, and expanded international involvement and networking. A broad set of traditional scientific disciplines developed in Chile are related with environmental and climate change research. Even though it is difficult to identify and separate the sub disciplines and researchers with a specific environmental focus and with a particular problem-oriented approach, these disciplines concentrate the core of Chilean research capabilities and represent the cornerstones for future developments. Four main fields are considered in the following description: environmental sciences, marine sciences, earth sciences, and agronomic and forestry sciences (see summary in Table 6). At present, more than 680 active researchers work in Chile in the environmental and/or climate change fields. A database of researchers is presented in Annex 1. Between 75% and 80% of them have reached a PhD level, whereas 16% have obtained a Masters’ degree. Chilean scientists’ most preferred PhD study programmes are based in Europe (30%), North America (28%), and Chile (26%).

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Table 6: Overview of environmental and climate change scientific activity and performance in Chile, 2000-2004 (based on Academia de Ciencias 2005). Environmental Sci.

Marine Sci.

Earth Sci.

Agronomic and Forest Sci.

Disciplines

Botany Zoology Ecology Applied Ecology Entomology Genetics Limnology Microbiology Natural Resources

Marine Ecology Aquaculture Taxonomy Marine Geophysics Oceanography

Geology Geophysics (Solid ground and Atmospheric) Geography

Applied Biology Agro-forestry Plant Biotechnology Phyto-sanitation

No. of active researchers

170

157

155

206

PhD

136

116

124

146*

Master

22

32

23

ND

Undergrad

12

9

8

ND

ISI publications 2000-2004

819

1,172

680

395**

Academic level

Legend: (*) The figure is an estimate projection based on a sample; (**) The period considered was between 1995 and 2004.

With regards to academic institutions hosting environmental and climate change studies, ten universities (and their associated centres and institutes) concentrate near 70% of researchers (Table 7). However, a number of emerging institutions both in the capital city and at the regional level, such as those included in Table 8, are developing capabilities and generating expertise. A database of universities and research centres in the environmental field is presented in Annex 2. Also a relatively small number of active researchers work in public agencies or private companies, except in the Agronomic and Forest Sciences. In this case, the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), dependent on the Ministry of Agriculture, concentrates an important group of active researchers in agro sciences.

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

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Table 7: Ranking of universities concentrating the majority of active Chilean environmental researchers by fields (based on Academia de Ciencias 2005) Environmental Sci.

Marine Sci.

Earth Sci.

Agronomic and Forest Sci.

Universidad de Chile

1

4

1

1

Universidad de Concepción

2

1

2

3

Universidad Austral de Chile

3

2

-

2

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

4

5

-

5

Universidad Católica del Norte

-

3

3

-

Universidad de Los Lagos

-

6

-

-

Universidad de Antofagasta

-

7

-

-

U. Católica de la Santísima Concepción

-

8

-

-

P. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

-

9

-

-

Universidad de Talca

-

-

-

4

The academic sector in Chile is characterised by the highest international standards. The academic performance of Chilean environmental researchers is reflected in the productivity of scientific publications. Between 2000 and 2004 more than 2,600 papers were published in ISI journals by Chilean scholars of environment-related disciplines (including climate change). Table 8: Other universities with environmental research groups by fields (based on Academia de Ciencias 2005). Environmental Sci.

Marine Sci.

Earth Sci.

Universidad Andrés Bello

P. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

Universidad Arturo Prat

Universidad de la Frontera •

Universidad de Magallanes

Universidad de Santiago

• •

• •

Universidad T. Federico Santa María Universidad Santo Tomás

40

Universidad de Temuco Universidad de Valparaíso

Universidad de La Serena

Universidad de Talca

Agronomic and Forest Sci.

• •

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


In a sense, the scientific sector has been developing a key knowledge base for a better understanding and management of Chile’s natural resources and ecosystems. The extent to which this knowledge has been actually considered by decision-makers in order to design long term environmental policies in Chile is still yet to be seen. Moreover, there are still remaining challenges for many scientific disciplines in Chile and elsewhere. These challenges are to balance the production of basic and applied knowledge, and to advance towards integrated and multidisciplinary approaches.

3.2 Role of Environmental Non Governmental Organisations Environmental Non Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) have played an important and complementary role in the development of the environmental (and climate change) concern in Chile. The first Chilean ENGOs emerged in the 1960s and 1970s to respond to increasing needs to identify and protect national endangered flora and fauna. In present days, the non governmental and non profit sector involved in environmental issues has grown and diversified considerably. This heterogeneous set of actors includes organisations with varied focuses and interests: research and development (R&D), land and species conservation, and environmental justice and advocacy. In many cases, the involvement of institutions in environmental issues is a natural consequence of other related themes, such as rural or community development, land use planning, and capacity-building and environmental education. Most of the ENGOs in Chile do not conduct scientific research on their own (with some exceptions), but the function they perform is to channel knowledge and information, demands and interests between actors at different levels with a focus on local communities and resource users. NGOs in general have been depicted as bridging organisations, and their role is to help bringing problems, decision-making, and possible solutions together, and to promote dialogue and participation to improve environmental democracy. Hence, ENGOs possess key capabilities and experience in order to integrate applied science, policies, and people. Here we present an overview of ENGOs and the areas in which they are mostly involved in Chile, with an emphasis on those developing research and producing either scientific publications or grey literature12. Forty-nine consolidated ENGOs operating in Chile have been identified, including national and international organisations. As shown in Table 9, the city of Santiago and the Región Metropolitana concentrate near 70% of ENGOs, followed by the Región de Los Ríos and Los Lagos (20%). Other organisations were identified in the XV, I, IV, V, VIII and XII regions. Few of the ENGOs located in Santiago have regional offices (Corporación El Canelo de Nos, Chile Ambiente, and Fundación Sendero de Chile13). A database of these ENGOs is presented in Annex 3.

The report excludes a large number of community environmental organisations. Frequently, these organisations work in partnership with the ENGOs described here. They can be contacted through the following associations and networks: ONG Chile (Portal de ONG) www.ong.cl, Acción AG www.accionag.cl, RENACE www.renace.cl, Asociación de Organizaciones no gubernamentales ASONG www.asong.cl

12

Fundación Sendero de Chile has territorial representatives throughout the regions of Chile, which are not counted separately in Table 9.

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Table 9: Geographical distribution of consolidated ENGOs Number of ENGOs XV Región de Arica y Parinacota

1

I Región de Tarapacá

1

IV Región de Coquimbo

1+1*

V Región de Valparaíso

3

RM Región Metropolitana de Santiago

33

VIII Región del Bío Bío

1*

XIV Región de los Ríos

6

X Región de los Lagos

3+1*

XII Región de Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena

1

TOTAL

49

Legend: “*” stands for regional offices of institutions with headquarters in Santiago.

The profile of ENGO members is extremely varied. A low but significant number of active researchers in environmental sciences and related disciplines work in ENGOs, whereas most of their membership includes professionals and technicians with backgrounds in the natural, agronomical, engineering and social sciences. With respect to the environmental research areas defined in FP7, the most frequent ones are Biodiversity (82%) and Natural resources management (76%) as shown in Table 10. Other important focus areas are Marine environments (43%), Environment and health (20%) and Climate change (20%). It is noticeable that the Natural hazards topic is considerably less covered despite the high vulnerability of the country. As mentioned before, many ENGOs focus on other cross-cutting aspects of the environment, including capacity-building and environmental education, environmental conflicts and campaigns, and local and indigenous development.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Table 10: Focus areas of Chilean ENGOs Frequency

%

Biodiversity

40

82

Natural Resources Management

37

76

Marine Environment

21

43

Climate Change

10

20

Environment and health

10

20

Natural Hazards

3

6

Other

34

69

Under the areas of Natural resources management and Biodiversity, a number of ENGOs focus on sustainable management and conservation of forests. With this regard, it is worthwhile highlighting the involvement of ENGOs in private conservation efforts and policies. Also wetlands, coastal ecosystems, and sustainable soil management and desertification are among the most frequently covered areas. ENGOs working and researching on resources management are also commonly concerned with terrestrial, aquatic and coastal and marine biodiversity. Livelihoods and participation of local communities in management is a frequent component of their projects. The cases classified under Environment and health include those ENGOs specialized in pollution of water and soils, or in transgenic agriculture and GMOs.

3.3 Role of the private sector The private sector has played an important role in the generation of environmental information and knowledge in Chile. A relevant criterion followed here to explore this role is that the research produced must be public and accessible. Three forms of direct private contribution to environmental research are discussed as follows14. Medium and large firms proposing and implementing development projects: Under Chilean environmental law, any development project with likely environmental impacts is required to go through the SEIA. This is, depending on the type of project, an EIA or an Environmental Impact Declaration (DIA) must be carried on to ensure that all the national regulations and standards are observed, and that the impacts are well-known, and if possible minimised or compensated. EIA and DIA must be evaluated and approved by COREMAs (Regional Environmental Commissions) before the initiation of projects.

The existence of private donations and funding to indirectly support research/academic institutions must be acknowledged. In addition, extensive applied environmental research carried on by companies, with likely positive environmental effects, but with private productive objectives exists in Chile. These kinds of private involvement are beyond the scope of this report.

14

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Since 1992, 857 EIA and 15,620 DIA have been submitted to SEIA, which represent massive volumes of baselines and studies covering all components of the surrounding environment of projects. Even though an important part of supporting data corresponds to secondary sources, many cases are based on primary information gathered. All these technical reports are electronically available and publically accessible from the SEIA website15. However, this information has not yet been unified and systematised to facilitate its utilisation at spatial and temporal scales beyond the context of individual development projects and studies. Potentials of such databases are enormous, for instance in the characterization of species and the study of biodiversity. Environmental firms carrying on consultancy work for the Chilean State and other companies: These studies may include EIA and DIA, but also resources stock inventories, management plans design, monitoring, and basic and applied science required within private productive processes or to support public decision-making. Consultancies operating under high quality standards represent an important national asset due to the ongoing enhancement of research, management, and development capabilities with respect to the environment. Some of them also foster scientific publications of relevant research findings. The newly created Environmental Assessment Service is working on a directory of environmental consultants, which will be available online once the functioning rules are enacted. A sample of private consultants, identified by public sector interviewees, is included in the list of private actors in Annex 4. Long-term partnerships between firms and research/academic institutions to foster and support research and sustainable resource management: Under corporate social and environmental responsibility schemes, some companies have established permanent alliances with the scientific community to develop independent basic and applied environmental science, such as PIMEX (Marine Research Excellence Programme) Nueva Aldea (ARAUCO-Universidad de Concepci贸n) and Centro de Estudios de Humedales (Wetland Research Centre, Collahuasi-Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo). In other cases, industrial associations have created associated agencies to represent common interest and to carry on supportive research on the environment and resources, such as CORMA (Chilean Timber Corporation) and INTESAL (Technological Salmon Institute). These and other cases are included in the list of private actors in Annex 4.

http://www.sea.gob.cl/contenido/busqueda-de-proyectos

15

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


3.4 The public sector In Chile there are several technological institutes of the public sector associated to various ministries. These institutes focus on research, development, transfer and diffusion of technologies in different areas including the environment and natural resources. Following are examples of a few of these: the Ministry of Agriculture has the Natural Resources Information Centre (CIREN), the Agricultural Research Institute (INIA) and the Forest Research Institute (INFOR); the Ministry of Mining has the Mining and Metallurgy Research Center (CIMM) and the National Geology and Mining Service (SERNAGEOMIN); besides, the Ministry of Economy has the Fishing Development Institute (IFOP) and the National Standardization Institute (INN). In addition, three other agencies that contribute to the study of resource and environmental issues covered in this study are the Chilean Antarctic Institute (INACH), Natural History National Museum (MNHN), and the Military Geographical Institute (IGM). A number of other cross-sectoral state institutions (listed in section 2.2) have developed indirect environmental research capabilities, mostly associated with policy making and public administration. Until recently, these institutions and agencies participated in the design and implementation of the multisectoral environmental policy, under the coordination of CONAMA, and will certainly play important complementary roles in the new environmental institution. In fact, for instance, specific national environmental policies and strategies associated with international environmental conventions signed by Chile, have multisectoral advisory or operative bodies integrated by experts and representatives from various ministries and agencies. These committees are the following: Multisectorial bodies

Conventions

Environmental areas

Comité Operativo Nacional de Biodiversidad

Convention on Biological Diversity

Biodiversity (terrestrial, aquatic and marine)

Comité Consultivo Nacional del PANCCD-Chile

Convention to Combat Desertification

Natural resources management (soils, forests)

Comité Nacional Asesor en Cambio Global

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Climate change

Comité Nacional de Humedales

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

Biodiversity Natural resources management (water resources)

Comité Científico Técnico ONEMI

Hyogo Framework for Action

Natural hazards

The institutional members of these committees, and their representatives and contact information, are included in Tables A1 to A5 in the Appendix.

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

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3.5 Topics and working areas Environmental research and working areas developed in Chile are diverse. Within traditional environmental related scientific disciplines, several sub disciplines and topics can be highlighted to have an overview of more frequent scholarly specialisation. Other less frequent areas underline developed opportunities to be addressed. Table 11 contains a list of subfields with the highest and lowest concentration of active researchers in Chile. Table 11: Sub disciplinary concentration of researchers within the scientific environmental and climate change sector in Chile, 2000-2004 (based on Academia de Ciencias 2005). Environmental Sci.

Marine Sci.

Earth Sci.

Agr&For Sci.

Highest concentration

Community ecology, Ecosystems

Oceanography, Biology, Aquaculture

Geology, Atmospheric sciences

Phyto-sanitation, Phyto-technology, Plant Biotechnology

Lowest concentration

Pollution and Toxicology, Conservation biology

Geological, physical and chemical Oceanography

Geophysics, Physical geography

Applied Biology

The National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research – CONICYT administrates the allocation of some of the most important permanent research funds in Chile, namely FONDECYT and FONDEF. These programmes have also funded a significant proportion of environmental and climate change research in Chile (see next section). The revision of CONICYT databases with more than 3,800 research projects within 33 (sub) disciplines, with potential relation to the environment, provides a solid base to identify ongoing trends in environmental scientific research in Chile. The assessment is based on multiple keywords search in project titles16. More than 420 research projects with environmental content have been carried on in the last 15 years. With regard to the six subthemes or research priorities defined by the FP7, the assessment provides an overview of the distribution of research projects carried out in Chile. Also based on keyword search, Figure 9 shows that studies have focused more frequently on Climate and Global Change (48%). Other important areas covered are Marine Environments (16%), Environmental Health (13%), and Natural Resources Management (13%). A list of these and other research projects is presented in Annex 5.

Keywords were selected from FP7 Environmental Research Areas description.

16

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Figure 9: Classification of FONDECYT and FONDEF projects under FP7 Environmental Research Areas, 1995-2010 (based on CONICYT database)

Natural Hazards (14) 4% Biodiversit (19) 19,6% Nat. Res. Mgmt (40) 13% Climate Change (148) 48% Env. Health (40) 13%

Marine Env (51) 16%

3.6 Funding sources Table 12 includes an overview of the main funding sources of environmental scientific research in Chile. Table 12: Main funding sources of environmental and climate change research, 2000-2004 (based on Academia de Ciencias 2005). Environmental Sci.

Marine Sci.

Earth Sci. -

Agr & For Sci.***

Total funding

US$42,9 M

US$116 M

Sectorial sources*

• State and host institutions (64.6%) • International sources (26.7%) • National private sources (8.8%)

• State or private foundations (70%) • Private counterparts or host institutions (30%)

-

Most important regular public funding programmes **

FONDECYT FONDEF FONDAP FIA

FONDEF FIP CORFO FONDAP FONDECYT

FONDEF FDI-CORFO FIA FONDECYT FONTEC

FONDEF

CLP$78,8 MM

Notes: * The criteria used by the authors of the four book chapters are different and comparisons are impossible. ** See Glossary of Acronyms. *** The period considered was between 1995 and 2004.

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47


3.7 Opportunities for international cooperation and with the European Union The Chilean academic sector has been permanently involved in the international scientific community. Environmental scientists, for instance, participate in more than 100 international scientific societies, including the Ecological Society of America, the American Society of Mammalogists, and the Species Survival Commission. They also have active members of important Scientific Committees, such as DIVERSITAS, GTOS, and GMBA. Half of post doctoral marine scientists in Chile are funded by international agencies such as the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). Earth sciences in Chile have extended international funding and research networks, including the EU. For example, the Research Institute for Development (IRD, formerly ORSTOM) in France, the DAAD, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), and the German Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) in Germany, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Hokkaido Institute in Japan, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in the USA. There has been considerable involvement of Chilean institutions and researchers in projects funded by the EU Framework Programmes. Twenty-four projects developed in consortium with European partners are among FP6 and FP7. Tables 13 and 14 provide the lists of these projects, and the institutions and researchers involved.

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The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

49

TWINLATIN

network of excellence for OCean EUR-OCEANS EURopean Ecosystems Analysis

2004

2003

Oscar Parra

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Universidad de Concepción Universidad de Concepción Universidad de Chile

Implementation of high-throughput genomic approaches to investigate the functioning of marine ecosystems and the biology of marine organisms

Implementation of high-throughput genomic approaches to investigate the functioning of marine ecosystems and the biology of marine organisms

Assessing LArge-scale environmental Risks with tested Methods

A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies

MARINE GENOMICS

MARINE GENOMICS

ALARM

CLARIS

2002

2002

2002

2002

Humberto Fuenzalida

Eduardo Ugarte

Juan Correa

Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada Rodrigo Rodrigo – SHOA (Hydrographical and Oceanographic Service Nuñez of the Navy)

GRAND GOOS Regional Alliances Network Development

GRAND

2002

Universidad de Concepción

Twinning European and third countries river basins for development of integrated water resources management methods

TWINBAS

2002

German Oyola

Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente – CONAMA (National Environmental Commission)

TWINBAS

2002

Twinning European and third countries river basins for development of integrated water resources management methods

DESURVEY

2003

Fernando Santibáñez

Centro de Investigación Oceanográficas en el Pacifico Sur-Oriental – COPAS (Center for Oceanographic Renato Quiñones Research in the eastern South Pacific)

Universidad de Concepcion

Carlos Ovalle

A Surveillance System for Assessing and Monitoring Universidad de Chile of Desertification

Twinning European and Latin-American River Basins for Research Enabling Sustainable Water Resources Management

Contact researcher

Centro del Agua para Zonas Áridas y Semi Áridas de América Latina y El Caribe – CAZALAC (Centre for Guido Soto Water in Arid and Semiarid Zones in Latin America and the Caribbean)

Institution

Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of Land Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias – INIA - a global approach for local solutions (Agricultural Research Institute)

DESIRE

2005

Catchment Management and Mining Impacts in Arid and Semi-Arid South America

Project name

CAMINAR

Acronym

2007

Year

6th Framework Programme

Table 13: Chilean participation in Environmental Projects within the 6th Framework Programme

hfuenzal@dgf.uchile.cl

edugar@udec.cl

jcorrea@bio.puc.cl

rnunez@armada.cl

goyola.8@conama.cl

fsantiba@uchile.cl

rquinone@udec.cl

oparra@udec.cl

covalle@inia.cl

gsoto@cazalac.org

E-mail


50

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

Acronym

Project name

2007 ACQWA

2007 ACQWA

2008 PRACTICE

2008 ice2sea

2008 COMPASS

2008 QUINOA (KBBE/MA)

2009 EO-MINERS

2009 FUME

2009 SERELAREFA

2009 SERELAREFA

2009 KODKOD

2010 ERA-CLIM

2010 AQUAPHAGE

Contact researcher

Anglo American Chile Ltda.

marcia.agurto@mop.gov.cl

jarumi@udec.cl

bona@uc.cl

jorge.carrasco@meteochile.cl

brivas@udec.cl

henrik.hansen@usm.cl

hector.jensen@usm.cl

romilio.espejo@gmail.com

E-mail

virarrazaval@anglochile.cl

Andrés Rivera

Vincent Favier

Julio Gutierrez

Gino Casassa

Marcia Morales

arivera@cecs.cl

vincent.favier@ceaza.cl

jgutierr@userena.cl

gc@cecs.cl

dirproyectos@ codesosursinergias.cl

Enrique Martínez enrique.martinez@ceaza.cl

Vicente Irarrazabal

Mauro Gonzalez maurogonzalez@uach.cl

Marcia Agurto

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección de Obras Públicas (Ministry of Public Infrastructure) Universidad Austral de Chile

Jose Arumi

Cristian Bonacic

Jorge Carrasco

Bernabe Rivas

Knud Henrik Hansen

Universidad de Concepción

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Universidad de Concepción Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (Chilean Meteorological Agency)

Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria

Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos Romilio Espejo (Nutrition and Food technology Institute) Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria Hector Jensen

Institution

Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas – CEAZA (Advanced Research Centre for Arid Zones) Comparative Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea- Centro Estratégico para el Desarrollo Sostenible Level Rise at Continental Scale (Strategic Centre for Sustainable Development) Ice2sea - estimating the future contribution of continental Centro de Estudios Científicos – CECS (Center for ice to sea-level rise Scientific Studies) Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (Ecology and Desertification. An Integrated Assessment. Biodiversity Institute) Assessment of Climatic change and impacts on the Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas – Quantity and quality of Water CEAZA (Advanced Research Centre for Arid Zones) Assessment of Climatic change and impacts on the Centro de Estudios Científicos – CECS (Center for Quantity and quality of Water Scientific Studies)

Dynamic aspects of biodiversity management of Quinoa

Forecasting conservation needs for endangered fauna: integrating landscape ecology and ethnoecology to predict habitat quality for the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) in the Chilean temperate rainforest SEmillas REd LAtina Recuperación Ecosistemas Fluviales y Acuáticos- (Seeds of a Latin network on fluvial and aquatic ecosystems restoration) SEmillas REd LAtina Recuperación Ecosistemas Fluviales y Acuáticos- (Seeds of a Latin network on fluvial and aquatic ecosystems restoration) Forest fires under climate, social and economic changes in Europe, the Mediterranean and other fire-affected areas of the world Earth Observation for Monitoring and Observing Environmental and Societal Impacts of Mineral Resources Exploration and Exploitation

European Re-Analysis of global Climate observations

Network for the development of phage therapy in aquaculture 2010 ADERS Analysis and Design of Earthquake Resistant Structures Electrokinetics across disciplines and continents: an 2010 ELECTROintegrated approach to finding new strategies to ACROSS sustainable development 2010 CHILTURPOL2 Innovative materials and methods for water treatment

Year

7th Framework Programme

Table 14: Chilean participation in Environmental Projects within the 7th Framework Programmes


References Academia de Ciencias (2005). Análisis y Proyecciones de la Ciencia Chilena. Allende, J., J. Babul, S. Martínez y T. Ureta. Eds.. 427 pp. Academia Chilena de Ciencias. Santiago, Chile. Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (2009). Convenio sobre Diversidad Biológica. Cuarto Informe Nacional de Biodiversidad. Gobierno de Chile. Santiago, Chile. Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (2008). Plan de Acción Nacional de Cambio Climático 2008-2012. Gobierno de Chile. Santiago, Chile. Corporación Nacional Forestal (2006). Tercer Informe Nacional 2006. Implementación en Chile de la Convención de Naciones Unidas de Lucha Contra la Desertificación en los países afectados por sequía grave o desertificación, en Particular en África. Gobierno de Chile. Santiago, Chile. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2005). Environmental Performance Reviews – Chile. CEPAL/OECD. The World Bank (2010). The Little Green Data Book 2010. The World Bank. Washington DC, USA. Universidad de Chile (2010). Informe País: Estado del Medio Ambiente en Chile 2008 GEO CHILE. Centro de Análisis de Políticas Públicas, Instituto de Asuntos Públicos. Santiago, Chile.

Glossary of acronyms CERTFOR

Sistema Chileno de Manejo Forestal Sustentable – Chilean System of Sustainable Forest Management

CONAMA Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente - National Environmental Commission CONAF

Corporación Nacional Forestal - National Forest Corporation

CONICYT

Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica - National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research

COREMA

Comisión Regional del Medio Ambiente - Regional Environmental Commissions

CORFO

Corporación de Fomento de la producción - Chilean Economic Development Agency

DIVERSITAS International Programme of Biodiversity Science DGA

Dirección General de Aguas - General Water Agency

ENGO

Environmental Non Governmental Organisation

ENSO

El Niño-Southern Oscillation

FDI

Fondo de Desarrollo e Innovación

FIA

Fundación para la Innovación Agraria – Agricultural Innovation Foundation

FIP

Fondo de Investigación Pesquera – Fisheries Research Fund

FONDAP

Fondo de Investigación Avanzada en Áreas Prioritarias – Fund for Financing Research Centres of Excellence

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FONDECYT Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico – National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development FONDEF

Fondo de Fomento al Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico –Fund for the Promotion of Scientific and Technological Development

FONTEC

Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Tecnológico y Productivo

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

GMBA

Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (a DIVERSITAS network)

GMO

Genetically Modified Organisms

GTOS

Global Terrestrial Observing System (a FAO Programme)

IREN

Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Naturales (actual CIREN) – Natural Resources Research Institute

NGO

Non Governmental Organisation

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

ONEMI

Oficina Nacional de Emergencias - National Emergency Office

PM

Particulate matter

RAMSAR

The RAMSAR Convention of Wetlands

SERNAPESCAServicio Nacional de Pesca - Fisheries National Service SEIA

Sistema de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental - Environmental Impact Assessment System

SUBPESCA Subsecretaría de Pesca - Undersecretariat of Fisheries UNCCD

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification

APPENDIX Table A1: Comité Operativo Nacional de Biodiversidad (National Biodiversity Committee) Institution

Representative

Armada de Chile, DIRECTEMAR (Navy of Chile)

Betsabé Hurtado

bhurtado@directemar.cl

Carabineros de Chile (Police of Chile)

Héctor Ibarra Suárez

hector.ibarra@carabineros.cl

Carabineros de Chile (Police of Chile)

Claudia Salazar Rivera

claudia.salazar@carabineros.cl

Carabineros de Chile (Police of Chile)

Francisco Flores M.

francisco.floresm@carabineros.cl

Carabineros de Chile (Police of Chile)

Depto. Forestal

departamento.forestal@carabineros.cl

Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales – CIREN (Natural Resources Information Centre)

Antonieta Donoso

adonoso@ciren.cl

Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales – CIREN (Natural Resources Information Centre) Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales – CIREN (Natural Resources Information Centre) Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales – CIREN (Natural Resources Information Centre)

52

E-mail

ciren@ciren.cl Claudia González

cgonzalez@ciren.cl ciren@ciren.cl

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Institution

Representative

Comisión Nacional de Riego – CNR (National Irrigation Commission)

Velia Arriagada

Comisión Nacional de Riego – CNR (National Irrigation Commission)

E-mail varriagaz@cnr.gov.cl varriag2@cnr.gob.cl

Corporación Chilena del Cobre COCHILCO (Chilean Copper Corporation)

Sarita Pimentel

spimentel@cochilco.cl

Corporación Nacional de Desarrollo Indígena – CONADI (National Indigenous Development Corporation)

Ivette Lincoqueo

ilincoqueo@conadi.gov.cl

Corporación Nacional de Desarrollo Indígena – CONADI (National Indigenous Development Corporation)

Luis Enrique Cáceres

lcaceres@conadi.gov.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal – CONAF (National Forest Corporation)

Claudio Cunazza

ccunazza@conaf.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal – CONAF (National Forest Corporation)

Catalina Zamorano

czamoran@conaf.cl

Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONICYT – (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research)

Fabiola Cid

fcid@conicyt.cl

Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, División de Desarrollo Urbano – DDU-MINVU (Ministry of Housing and Urbanism)

Teodosio Saavedra

tsaavedra@minvu.cl

Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, División de Desarrollo Urbano – DDU-MINVU (Ministry of Housing and Urbanism)

Angela Soriano

asoriano@minvu.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección General de Aguas - DGA-MOP (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

Sonia Mena J.

sonia.mena@mop.gov.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección General de Aguas - DGA-MOP (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

Marysol Azócar

marysol.azocar@mop.gov.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección General de Obras Portuarias (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

Ivo Kovacic

ivo.kovacic@mop.gov.cl

Ejército de Chile (Army of Chile)

Jorge Gil

departamento.medioambiente@ ejercito.cl

Ejército de Chile (Army of Chile)

Mª Angélica Mardones

maria.mardonesr@ejercito.cl

Fuerza Aérea de Chile (Air Force of Chile)

Ignacio Baeza

ibaezac@fach.cl

Instituto de Fomento Pesquero - IFOP (Fishing Development Institute)

Antonio Aranis

aaranis@ifop.cl

Instituto Antártico de Chile – INACH (Chilean Antarctic Institute)

Marcelo Leppe

mleppe@inach.cl

Instituto de Desarrollo Agropecuario – INDAP (Agricultural Development Institute)

Arturo Osvaldo Vergara

overgara@indap.cl

Instituto de Desarrollo Agropecuario – INDAP (Agricultural Development Institute)

David Aracena

daracena@indap.cl

Instituto Forestal – INFOR (Forest Research Institute)

Juan José Aguirre

jaguirre@infor.cl

Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias – INIA (Agricultural Research Institute)

Ivette Seguel

iseguel@inia.cl

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53


Institution

54

Representative

E-mail

Ministerio de Educación – MINEDUC (Ministry of Education)

Octavio Gajardo

octavio.gajardo@mineduc.cl

Ministerio de Educación – MINEDUC (Ministry of Education)

Magdalena Garretón

magdalena.garreton@mineduc.cl

Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales (Ministry of Public Property)

Pamela Fernández

pfernandez@mbienes.cl

Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales (Ministry of Public Property)

Mariano Riveros

mriveros@mbienes.cl

Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales (Ministry of Public Property)

Cristóbal Gática

cgatica@mbienes.cl

Ministerio de Defensa Nacional (Ministry of National Defense)

Carlos Molina

cmolina@defensa.cl

Ministerio de Economía (Ministry of Economy)

Juan Ladrón de Guevara

jladrondeguevara@economia.cl

Ministerio de Minería (Ministry of Economy)

María de la Luz Vásquez

mvasquez@minmineria.cl

Ministerio de Planificacion – MIDEPLAN (Ministry of Planning)

Mª Isabel Kornfeld

mkornfeld@mideplan.cl

Ministerio Secretaria Gral. de Gobierno (General Secretary of Government)

Daniela Tudela

daniela.tudela@msgg.gov.cl

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, DIMA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Nancy Céspedes

ncespedes@minrel.gov.cl

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Natural History National Museum)

Hernán Núñez

hnunez@mnhn.cl

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Natural History National Museum)

José Yañez

jyanez@mnhn.cl

Ministerio de Agricultura, Oficina de Estudios y Políticas Agrárias ODEPA-MINAGRI (Ministry of Agriculture)

Teresa Aguero

taguero@odepa.gob.cl

Policía de Investigaciones (Investigations Police)

Comisario Richard Oliva

rolivag@investigaciones.cl; bidema@investigaciones.cl

Policía de Investigaciones (Investigations Police) Darwin García

dgarcia@investigaciones.cl

Policía de Investigaciones, JENAMA (Investigations Police, Environmental Office)

Andrés Barrios

abarriosr@investigaciones.cl; jenama@investigaciones.cl

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero – SAG (Agricultural and Livestock Service)

Cecilia Gonzalez

cecilia.gonzalez@sag.gob.cl

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero – SAG (Agricultural and Livestock Service)

Miguel Angel Trivelli

miguel.trivelli@sag.gob.cl

Servicio Agrícola Ganadero – SAG (Agricultural and Livestock Service)

Fernando Baeriswyl

fernando.baeriswyl@sag.gob.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minas SERNAGEOMIN (National Geology and Mining Service)

Jorge Campos

jcampos@sernageomin.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minas SERNAGEOMIN (National Geology and Mining Service)

Carlos Arias

carias@sernageomin.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minas SERNAGEOMIN (National Geology and Mining Service)

Cecilia Adasme

cadasme@sernageomin.cl

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Institution

Representative

E-mail

Servicio Nacional de Pesca- SERNAPESCA (Fisheries National Service)

Antonio Palma

apalma@sernapesca.cl

Servicio Nacional de Pesca- SERNAPESCA (Fisheries National Service)

Leonardo Nuñez

lnunez@sernapesca.cl

Servicio Nacional de Turismo – SERNATUR (National Tourism Service)

Arlette Levy

alevy@sernatur.cl

Subs. para las FFAA (Undersecretary for Armed Forces)

Beatriz Farías

bfarias@defensa.cl

Subs. para las FFAA (Undersecretary for Armed Forces)

Rodrigo Guijón

rguijonb@defensa.cl

Subs. para las FFAA (Undersecretary for Armed Forces)

Of. borde costero

ssmbcos@defensa.cl

Subsecretaria de Pesca - SUBPESCA (Undersecretary of Fisheries)

Francisco Ponce

franciscoponce@subpesca.cl

Subsecretaria de Pesca - SUBPESCA (Undersecretary of Fisheries)

Gustavo San Martín

gsanmartin@subpesca.cl

Table A2: Comité Consultivo Nacional del PANCCD-Chile (National Advisory Committee for the National Action Plan to Combat Desertification) Institution

Representative

E-mail or webpage

Comisión Medio Ambiente Senado (Environment Commission of the Senate)

medasen@senado.cl

Comisión Medio Ambiente Cámara de Diputados (Environment Commission of the Deputies)

recurcam@congreso.cl

Comisión Nacional de Riego (National Irrigation Commission)

Gastón Sagredo

Lgaston.sagredo@cnr.gov.cl

Comisión Nacional de Sequía (National Drought Commission) Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Ministry of the Environment)

Leonel Sierralta Miguel Stutzin Daniel Álvarez

lsierralta@mma.gob.cl mstutzin@mma.gob.cl dalvarez@mma.gob.cl

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, DIMA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

http://www.minrel.gov.cl/prontus_ minrel/site/edic/base/port/medio_ ambiente.php

Ministerio de Planificación MIDEPLAN (Ministry of Planning)

www.mideplan.cl

Departamento de Desarrollo Regional Instituto Nacional de la Juventud (INJUV)

www.injuv.gob.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas – MOP (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

www.mop.cl

Dirección General de Aguas (DGA)

www.dga.cl

Dirección de Obras Hidráulicas (DOH)

www.doh.gov.cl

Ministerio de Agricultura (Ministry of Agriculture)

Antonio yaksic

antonio.yaksic@minagri.cl

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

55


Institution

Representative

E-mail or webpage

Oficina de Estudios y Políticas Agrarias (ODEPA)

Daniel Barrera

www.odepa.cl

Instituto de Desarrollo Agropecuario (INDAP)

David Aracena

daracena@indap.cl

Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG)

Mario Lagos Germán Ruiz

mario.lagos@sag.gob.cl german.ruiz@sag.gob.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF)

Wilfredo Alfaro Jorge Marín Mauricio Lemus

walfaro@conaf.cl metropolitana.oirs@conaf.cl mauricio.lemus@conaf.cl

Instituto Forestal (INFOR)

Sandra Perret

www.infor.cl

Centro de Agricultura y Medio Ambiente (AGRIMED)

Fernando Santibáñez

fsantiba@uchile.cl

Centro de Estudios de Zonas Áridas (CEZA)

Alejandro León

aleon-a@uchile.cl

Facultad de Arquitectura, Departamento de Geografía

Claudio Meneses

cmeneses@uchile.cl

Facultad de Derecho, Departamento de Ambiente.

Milka Castro

mcastro@abello.dic.uchile.cl

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Pilar Cereceda

dcereced@puc.cl

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso

Manuel Cerda

mcerda@ucv.cl

Centro Regional del Agua para Zonas Áridas y Semiáridas de América Latina y El Caribe CAZALAC (Centre for Water in Arid and Semiarid Zones in Latin America and the Caribbean)

Guido Soto

gsoto@cazalac.org

Red Internacional de ONG’s adscritas a la Convención UNCCD - RIOD (International Network of NGOs members of the UNCCD Convention)

Lucio Cuenca

observatorio@olca.cl

Universidad de Chile Vicerrectoría de Investigación y Desarrollo. Programa de Interculturalidad. Facultad de Ingeniería Forestal Facultad de Agronomía

Universidad Austral de Chile

Red Nacional de Acción Ecológica - RENACE (National Network for Ecological Action) Acción por la Tierra – Earth Action

Vivianne Castro

contacto@accionporlatierra.cl

Corporación El Canelo de Nos

Alejandro Salinas

canelo@elcanelo.cl

Comité Nacional pro-Defensa de la Flora y Fauna de Chile - CODEFF (Chilean Committee for the Advocacy of Flora and Fauna)

José Miguel Torrico

desertifica@codeff.cl

RIDES (Resources and Research for Sustainable Development) JUNDEP

www.jundep.cl

ONG CECOEMA Parlamento Aymara (Aymara Parliament)

56

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Institution

Representative

Alianza Estratégica “Aymaras sin fronteras” (Strategic Alliance “Aymaras Without Borders”)

E-mail or webpage www.aymarasinfronteras.org

Asociación de Municipios del Secano VI Región (Municipalities Association of Rainfed Areas) Aguas Andinas

www.aguasandinas.cl

Consejo Minero (Mining Council)

www.consejominero.cl

Table A3: Comité Nacional Asesor en Cambio Global CNACG (National Advisory Committee for Global Change) Institution

Representative

E-mail

Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Departamento de Cambio Climático (Ministry of the Environment)

Andrea Rudnick

arudnick@mma.gob.cl

Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Asuntos Internacionales (Ministry of the Environment)

Javier Garcia

jgarcia@mma.gob.cl

Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Ministry of the Environment)

Paula Alvear

palvear@mma.gob.cl

Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, División Recursos Naturales, Renovables y Biodiversidad Leonel Sierralta (Ministry of the Environment)

lsierralta@mma.gob.cl

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

José Luis Balmaceda

jbalmaceda@minrel.gov.cl

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Dirección de Medio Ambiente, Antártica y Asuntos Marítimos (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Nancy Céspedes

ncespedes@minrel.gov.cl

Ministerio de Agricultura, U.M.A. ODEPA (Ministry of Agriculture)

Daniel Barrera

dbarrera@odepa.gob.cl

Comisión Nacional de Energía, Departamento de Energías Renovables (National Energy Commission)

Jaime Bravo

jbravo@cne.cl

Comisión Nacional de Energía (National Energy Commission)

Andrea Varas

avaras@minenergia.cl

Comisión Nacional de Energía (National Energy Commission)

Claudio Huepe

huepe.minoletti@minenergia.cl

Comisión Nacional de Energía (National Energy Commission)

Hernán Sepúlveda

hsepulveda@minenergia.cl

Dirección Metereológica de Chile (Chilean Meteorological Agency)

Jorge Carrasco Cerda

jorge.carrasco@meteochile.cl

Dirección Metereológica de Chile (Chilean Meteorological Agency)

Gastón Torres

gtorres@meteochile.cl

Academia Chilena de Ciencias (National Academy of Science)

Ministerio de Economía (Ministry of Economy)

Juan Manuel Ladrón de Guevara

jladrondeguevara@economia.cl

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

57


Institution

Representative

E-mail

Ministerio de Defensa, Subse Marina (Ministry of National Defense)

Comandante Fernando Almuna M.

falmuna@defensa.cl

Ministerio de Defensa, Subse Marina (Ministry of National Defense)

Camelia Parada

cparada@defensa.cl

Ministerio de Educación (Ministry of Education) (Evelyn Miller)

evelyn.miller@mineduc.cl

Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (Ministry of Housing and Urbanism)

María Eugenia Betsalel

mbetsalel@minvu.cl

Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo (Ministry of Housing and Urbanism)

Leonardo Dujovne

ldujovne@minvu.cl

Table A4: Comité Nacional de Humedales (Wetlands National Committee) Institution

58

Representative

E-mail

Ministerio Medio Ambiente, Coordinador Nacional Comité de Humedales (Ministry of the Environment, National Coordinator)

Alejandra Figueroa

afigueroa@conama.cl

Dirección de Medio Ambiente, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Punto Focal Administrativo (Ministry of the Environment, National Focal Point)

Nancy Céspedes

ncespedes@minrel.gov.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal (National Forest Corporation)

Catalina Zamorano Burgos

czamoran@conaf.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal, Pto. Focal Técnico (National Forest Corporation, National Technical Focal Point)

Claudio Cunazza

ccunazza@conaf.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección Obras Hidráulicas (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

Daniel Rivera

silvio.rivera@mop.gov.cl

Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección General Sonia Mena de Aguas (Ministry of Public Infrastructure)

sonia.mena@mop.gov.cl

Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Agricultural and Livestock Service)

Mario Ahumada

mario.ahumada@sag.gob.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (National Geology and Mining Service)

Cecilia Adasme

cadasme@sernageomin.cl

Ministerio de Bienes Nacionales (Ministry of Public Property)

Cristóbal Gatica

cgatica@mbienes.cl

Universidad de Chile; Facultad de Ciencias

Irma Vila

limnolog@uchile.cl

Comité Oceanográfico Nacional (National Oceanographic Committee)

Matilde López

mlopezm@uchile.cl

Universidad de Concepción/EULA

Claudio Valdovinos Zarges

cvaldovi@udec.cl

Comisión Nacional de Riego (National Irrigation Commission)

Gastón Sagredo

gaston.sagredo@cnr.gob.cl

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Natural History National Museum)

Juan Carlos Torres

jtorres@mnhn.cl

Ministerio de Minería (Ministry of Mining)

Maria de la Luz Vázquez

mvasquez@minmineria.cl

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report


Institution

Representative

E-mail

Servicio Nacional de Pesca (Fisheries National Service)

Cristian Andaur

candaur@sernapesca.cl

Servicio Nacional de Pesca (Fisheries National Service)

Leonardo Nuñez

lnunez@sernapesca.cl

Dirección del Territorio Marítimo y Marina Mercante (Maritime Territorial and Merchant Navy Agency)

Betzabé Hurtado

bhurtado@directemar.cl

Subsecretaría de Pesca (Undersecretary of Fisheries)

Francisco Ponce

franciscoponce@subpesca.cl

Subsecretaría de Pesca (Undersecretary of Fisheries)

Marcelo García

mgarcia@subpesca.cl

CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research)

Fabiola Cid

fcid@conicyt.cl

Subsecretaría de Marina (Undersecretary of Marine)

María Beatríz Farías

bfarias@defensa.cl

Subsecretaría de Marina (Undersecretary of Marine)

Cynthia Pizarro

cpizarror@defensa.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (National Geology and Mining Service)

Rosa Troncoso Vásquez

rotroncoso@sernageomin.cl

Table A5: Comité Científico Técnico de la ONEMI (Scientific and Technical Committee of the National Emergency Office ONEMI) Institution

Representative

E-mail

Universidad de Chile -Servicio Sismológico Nacional

Sergio Barrientos

cgloria@dgf.uchile.cl

Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (National Geology and Mining Service)

Jorge Muñoz

jmunoz@sernageomin.cl

Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (Chilean Meteorological Agency)     

Benjamín Cáceres

www.meteochile.cl

Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra

Klaus Bataille

bataille@udec.cl

Servicio Hidrográfico y Oceanográfico de la Armada (Hydrographical and Oceanographic Service of the Navy)

Capitán de Corbeta Miguel Vásquez

shoa@shoa.cl

Corporación Nacional Forestal (National Forestry Corporation)

Hugo Knockaert

Ministerio del Medio Ambiente (Ministry of the Environment)

Marcelo Gamboa

Fundación para la Transferencia Tecnológica – UNTEC (Foundation for Scientific Transfer)

Andrés Pavéz

The Environmental and Climate Change Sectors in Chile: Research Areas and Capabilities. State of the Art Report

59


State of the Art: Environmental and Climate Change sector in Chile  

Research areas an capabilities on the subject in Chile

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