BLOOD 1- The amount of plasma proteins (=P.P.) is near to: 1) 10 gm%. 2) 7gm %. 3) 7 mg %. 4) 30 gm %. 2- The plasma proteins perform all the following functions EXCEPT: 1) They exert an osmotic force. 2) They have buffering action. 3) They help maintenance of the arterial blood pressure (=A.B.P.). 4) They play no role in the body defence mechanisms. 3- The plasma albumin is specially needed for : 1) Immunity. 2) Production of osmotic pressure. 3) Blood coagulation. 4) All of the above. 4- The A/G ratio is important clinically in detecting : 1) Liver disease. 2) Cardiac disease. 3) Nervous disease. 4) Lung disease. 5- The viscosity produced by plasma proteins is mainly due to : 1) Prothrombin. 2) Albumin. 3) Fibrinogen. 4) All of the above. 6- Regarding the osmotic function of plasma proteins, the following statement are true EXEPT: 1) Is due mainly to albumin. 2) Is important for tissue fluid formation and blood volume regulation. 3) It exerts an oncotic pressure across the wall of the capillaries. 4) The total osmotic pressure of plasma proteins equals 4000 mmHg.
Blood 7- As regards the osmotic function of albumin:
Blood 1) 2) 3) 4)
It is the least effective for the fluid exchange at the capillaries. It is due to permeability of the capillary membrane to albumin. It draws the tissue fluid to blood. Cystalloids in plasma possess a very small osmotic pressure compared to albumin.
8- For the buffer function of plasma proteins. The following statements are true EXCEPT: 1) It represents 15% of the total buffering power of blood. 2) It is caused by its amphoteric property. 3) The plasma proteins buffers are in the form of proteinic acid-K proteinate. 4) Can buffer acids or alkalies added to the blood. 9- A hematocrite of 40% means that in the sample of blood analyzed: 1) 40% of the hemoglobin is in the plasma. 2) 40% of the total blood volume is made up of blood plasma. 3) 40% of the total blood volume is made up of red blood cells. 4) 40% of the hemoglobin is in red blood cells. 10- The following statements about the viscosity of blood are true EXCEPT: 1) Viscosity of the blood increases as the haematocrite increases.
Blood 2) Viscosity of blood is essential in maintenance of normal ABP especially systolic blood pressure. 3) The viscosity is more at 25oC than at 37oC. 4) Viscosity of the blood usually increases in acclimatized mountaineers. 111) 2) 3) 4)
Gamma globulins: Are decreased in liver diseases. Are increased by infections. Migrate to the cathode during electrophoresis. Are the primary proteins responsible for plasma viscosity.
121) 2) 3) 4)
Viscosity of blood: Is increased in acclimatized mountaineers. Is increased in people with iron deficiency. Is increased when the heamatocrite value equals 40%. Is caused by fibrinogen only.
131) 2) 3) 4)
Hematocrit ratio: Is the percentage ratio of hemoglobin in blood. Is higher in newborn than in the adult. Is equal in both males and females. Is higher in arterial than in the venous blood.
Blood 141) 2) 3) 4)
The polypeptides in the globin part of normal adult Hb consists of: 2 alpha and 2 beta chains. 2 alpha and 2 gamma chains. 2 alpha and 2 delta chains. 2 beta and 2 gamma chains.
151) 2) 3) 4)
The normal value of the: Packed cell volume (haematocrit) is 20%. Blood pH is 6.6. Mean corpuscular volume is about 87 cubic microns. Plasma volume is about 5 litres.
161) 2) 3) 4)
About iron metabolism in normal adults: The human body contains about 20 gm of iron. Iron deficiency anaemia is microcyte. Iron absorption in the GIT does not require any proteins. The solubility of iron is increased by platelets.
17- Erythropoietin is essential for: 1) Blood clotting.
Blood 2) Leukopoiesis. 3) Formation of prothrombin. 4) Formation of red blood corpuscles. 181) 2) 3) 4)
Blood cell destruction occurs mainly in the: Bone marrow. Blood vessels. Kidneys. Spleen.
19- Erythropoiesis in adult individuals occurs normally in the: 1) Liver. 2) Red bone marrow. 3) Yellow bone marrow. 4) Spleen. 20-The red cells in iron deficiency anaemia are: 1) Normocytic normochromic. 2) Spherocytic cells. 3) Microcytic hypochromic. 4) Macrocytic hyperchromic.
Blood 21-Improper maturation of the red blood corpulses can be caused by: 1) Vitamin B12 deficiency. 2) Hypoxia. 3) Iron deficiency. 4) Destruction of bone marrow. 22-The main site of production of erythropoietin is the: 1) Liver. 2) Bone marrow. 3) Spleen. 4) Kidneys. 23-All the following are normal values EXCEPT: 1) The mean corpuscular Hb is 120 pg. 2) The mean corpuscular Hb concentration is 33 %. 3) The average R.B.C.s diameter is 7.5 microns. 4) The Hb content in adult males averages 16 gm%. 24-Heamolytic anaemia may be caused all of the following EXCEPT: 1) Malaria. 2) Iron deficiency.
Blood 3) Abnormal haemoglobin. 4) Congenital spherocytosis. 25-The intrinsic factor: 1) Is found in the liver. 2) Is produced by the gastric parietal cells. 3) Is secreted by the terminal ileum. 4) Aids absorption of folic acid. 26-Pernicious anaemia may be all the following EXCEPT: 1) Sometimes the result of the malabsorption syndrome. 2) Treated with iron. 3) The cause of peripheral neuropathy. 4) Associated with carcinoma of the stomach. 27-All the following substances are essential for the normal development of R.B.C.s EXCEPT: 1) Folinic acid. 2) Ascorbic acid. 3) Nicotinic acid. 4) Cyanocobolamine.
Blood 28-About iron deficiency anaemia: 1) It is more common in the men than in women. 2) It is characterized by large pale erythrocytes. 3) It is typically found following chronic blood loss from the body. 4) It occurs in gastric diseases associated with lack of intrinsic factor. 29-The production of erythrocytes: 1) Is decreased in high altitudes. 2) Occurs in the spleen in normal adults. 3) Is decreased if the stomach loses the ability to produce a normal gastric juice. 4) Requires the integrity of the nervous system. 30-About erythrocytes: 1) They contain no enzymes. 2) They are responsible for the major part of blood viscosity. 3) Their life span is about 2 months. 4) Their Hb content carries only O2. 31-An anaemic subject has R.B.C.s count 3.5 million/mm 3, PCV 42 % & Hb 14 gm%, by using the blood indices this subject most probably has: 1) Aplastic anaemia. 2) Macrocytic hyperchromic anaemia. 3) Normocytic normochromic anaemia. 4) Microcytic hypochromic anaemia. 32-All the following conditions cause anaemia EXCEPT: 1) Erythroblastosis fetalis. 2) Destruction of the bone marrow. 3) Vitamin B12 deficiency. 4) Living at high altitudes.
Blood 331) 2) 3) 4)
Severe depression of the bone marrow may result in: Microcytic hyopochromic anaemia. Increased number of granulocytes. Aplastic anaemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Increased coagulability of the blood.
341) 2) 3) 4)
The function of the lymphocytes is: Phagocytosis. Heparin formation. Antibody formation. Release of serotonin.
351) 2) 3) 4)
Neutrophils are attracted to infection areas by the process of: Phagocytosis. Diapedesis. Opsonization. Chemotaxis.
361) 2) 3) 4)
Immunoglobulin are produced by the: Granulocytes. Monocytes. Erythrocytes. Plasma cells.
371) 2) 3) 4)
About the white blood cells, all the following is true EXCEPT: B and T lymphocytes are concerned with humoral and cellular immunity. Eosinophils increase in allergic conditions and parasitic infections. Basophils contain heparin and histamine. Neutrophils are the least abundant leukocytes.
381) 2) 3) 4)
In the normal human blood: The eosinophils are the most common white blood cells. The iron is mostly in Hb. There are more lymphocytes than neutrophils. There are more white cells than red cells.
391) 2) 3) 4)
The most important function of neutrophils & monocytes is: Phagocytosis. Blood coagulation. Diapedesis. Antibody production.
Blood 401) 2) 3) 4)
Microphages are characterized by all the following EXCEPT: They are actively motile. They are actively phagocytic. They contain many lysosomal granules. They can produce immunoglobulins.
41- The reticuloendothelial system performs all the following functions EXCEPT: 1) Defense action. 2) Repair of injured tissues. 3) Destruction of old blood cells. 4) Synthesis of haemoglobin. 421) 2) 3) 4)
The immune responses against the body’s own proteins produce: Haemophilia. Purpura. Autoimmune diseases. Heart failure.
431) 2) 3) 4)
Blood type O persons are considered universal donors because: Type O blood has the commonest distribution. Their R.B.C’s contain neither A nor B agglutinogens. Their R.C.C’s may contain the Rh factor. Their plasma contain both α & β aggulitinins.
441) 2) 3) 4)
Incompatible blood transfusion may cause all the following EXCEPT: Haemolytic jaundice. Anuria. Hypertension. Renal tubular damage.
451) 2) 3) 4)
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs with: Rh –ve mother & Rh +ve fetus. Rh –ve mother & Rh -ve father. Rh +ve mother & Rh -ve fetus. Rh +ve mother & Rh -ve father.
461) 2) 3) 4)
If a man’s plasma agglutinates both A & B red cells, he is group: B. A. AB. O.
Blood 47-Blood agglutination would occur in all the following cases EXCEPT: 1) If the donor group is O & the recipient group AB. 2) If the donor group is AB & the recipient group O. 3) If the donor group is B & the recipient group O. 4) If the donor group is A & the recipient group B. 48-All the following about erythroblastosis fetalis is true EXCEPT: 1) It is common with Rh +ve fathers & Rh –ve mothers. 2) Jaundice of the newborn is a major manifestation. 3) It can be avoided by giving the mother anti-Rh antibodies immediately after labor. 4) It can not affect the first baby of Rh –ve mothers. 49-Before blood transfusion, which of the following should be done: 1) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. 2) Osmotic fragility of R.B.C.’s. 3) Blood indices. 4) Cross matching test. 501) 2) 3) 4)
The activation of prothrombin into thrombin is achieved by: Factor Xa. Factor III. Factor VIII. Factor Ixa.
511) 2) 3) 4)
All the following about coagulation factor VII is true EXCEPT: Its synthesized in the liver. It is activated by a tissue factor . It is present in the serum. It is important for the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting.
52-Calcium is essential for all of the following steps in the clotting EXCEPT: 1) Activation of factor IX by factor XI. 2) Activation of factor XI by factor XII. 3) Activation of factor X by factor IX. 4) Formation of thrombin from prothrombin.
Blood 53-Which one of the following would NOT contribute to local hemostasis? 1) Exposure of platelets to collagen. 2) The conversation of prothrombin to thrombin. 3) The conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. 4) The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. 541) 2) 3) 4)
The conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is promoted by: Factor X. Thrombin. prothrombin. Platelets.
55-The platelets produce haemostasis by releasing all of the following substances EXCEPT: 1) ADP. 2) Platelet factor 3 (PL). 3) Thromboxane A2. 4) Thrombopoietin. 56-About the coagulation mechanism, all the following is true EXCEPT: 1) The intrinsic system occurs both in vivo & in vitro. 2) Intravascular thrombosis occurs by the extrinsic system. 3) The intrinsic system utilizes factors 8,9,11 & 12. 4) Factors 5 & 10 are needed for both the extrinsic & intrinsic systems. 571) 2) 3) 4)
Blood platelets: Are normally formed in the spleen. Are the main source of thrombin. Their average count is 10.000/mm3. Produce haemostasis by releasing serotonin, ADP, thromboxane & platelet factor 3.
581) 2) 3) 4)
As regard intrinsic system of blood coagulation: It is activated within 12 - 20 seconds. Occurs in vivo only. Triggered by tissue damage. Needs factor XII, XI, X, IX, VIII, Ca++ & PL.
Blood 59- About the action of anticoagulants , all the following is true EXCEPT: 1) Dicumarol interferes with the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver. 2) Oxalates form insoluble salts with Ca++. 3) Citrates & other chelating agents bind Ca++. 4) Heparin blocks the action of antithrombin III. 601) 2) 3) 4)
The haemorrhagic tendency in obstructive jaundice is due to: Deficiency of platelets. Deficiency of factor VIII. Increased serum bilirubin. Lack of factor 2, 7, 9 & 10.
611) 2) 3) 4)
Citrate is a useful anticoagulant because of its ability to: Buffer basic groups of coagulation factors. Bind factor XII. Bind vitamin K. Chelate calcium.
62-Antithrombin III: 1) Is a protease inhibitor that blocks activated factors IX, X,XI & XII. 2) Acts as a cofactor of active protein C. 3) Inactivates factors V & VIII. 4) Inactivated by heparin. 63-Heparin is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT: 1) Has lipaemia clearing effect. 2) Combines with antithrombin III & increases its action. 3) Acts in vivo & in vitro. 4) Can be given orally or by injection. 64-Dicumarol acts as an anticoagulant by: 1) Precipitation of Ca++. 2) Inhibition of vitamin K action. 3) Inhibition of thrombin. 4) Preventing activity of factor IX.
Blood 651) 2) 3) 4)
Purpura is caused by deficiency of: Factor VIII. Prothrombin. Vitamin K. Platelets.
66- The clotting time is prolonged in all of the following conditions EXCEPT: 1) Haemophilia. 2) Hypoprothrombinaemia. 3) Vit. K deficiency. 4) Purpura. 671) 2) 3) 4)
Prolonged bleeding time occurs in: Haemophilia. Vitamin K deficiency. Hypoprothrombinemia. Thrombocytopenia.
681) 2) 3) 4)
Haemophilia: Leads to prolongation of bleeding time. Results from deficiency of factor VIII or IX. Is due to decreased blood platelets. Is associated with normal coagulation time.
69- Factors II , VII, IX & X are decreased in all the following conditions EXCEPT: 1) Obstructive jaundice. 2) Vitamin K deficiency. 3) Overdoses of dicoumarol. 4) Haemophilia. 70- A female carrier of haemophilia is married to a haemophilic male may produce any of the following EXCEPT: 1) A normal daughter. 2) A normal son. 3) A haemophilic daughter. 4) A haemophilic son.
Blood 711) 2) 3) 4)
About protein C, all the following is true EXCEPT: Its activator is formed from thrombin by the action of thrombomodulin. It is a natural anticoagulant protein. It activates the inhibitor of TPA. It inactivates both factors V and VIII.
721) 2) 3) 4)
The blood volume can be measured by: Evanâ€™s blue. Labelled plasma proteins with radioactive iodine. Chromium labelled RBCs. All of the above.
731) 2) 3) 4)
A 25 years-old 70 kg male should have about: 10 litres of whole blood. 3000 ml of plasma. 5000 ml of plasma. 4000 ml of cells.
Answer Key 1- B 2- D 3- B 4- A 5- C 6- D 7- C 8- C 9- C 10111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637-
D B A B A C B D D B C A D A B B B C C C B B D C C D D D
B A D D C B C A D A D D A D B C B D B D D D D D A D B D D D B D A C D B