frames reflects one theme (e.g. a person or an object) in different moments of time, and time flows progressively from one to the next. 2. From action to action. Frames reflect one theme during different but interconnected actions, but the time interval can be longer than in the first type. 3. From theme to theme. Frames reflect different themes during one scene, e.g. two people talking and topics of their conversation. 4. From scene to scene. As you can guess, in this case the frames depict quite different scenes. The reader can observe significant differences in time or place (or both) 5. From aspect to aspect. Frames reflect different elements of place, mood or idea. A reference to feelings or thoughts has the main role, and time and place between frames tend to be very different. This type is very popular in manga. 6. Illogical transition: frames change with no obvious connection between them. This type of transition is quite rare in narrative comics. Page The foundation of every comic book is a spread – two facing pages – after which a reader would want to turn the page. This is why there are two main rules for combining frames on a page and creating an interesting spread: 1. A spread needs be relatively complete in terms of plot and visual form.
2. The last frame should imply further action or an unexpected development. The reader’s curiosity should be tickled. These rules are useful for workshop participants and members of a comics drawing group; for example a group creating and publishing a school magazine. Guidelines for panel composition There are several rules of thumb that can help when composing frames and panels. 1. Start each scene, or ‘chapter’, with a general frame. A big frame with lots of details invites examination and sets the scene for action. 2. The left side of the frame represents ‘home’ or safe place, whereas threats are often shown on the right – and so is adventure, and the important people met by the main character. 3. The main action develops from left to right, since this is how we are accustomed to reading in English and other European languages. 4. If the action is shown to move from right to left, it may signify a. Interference, resistance to the main action (see Section 7.4) b. The main person meeting danger and running home to safety 5. Horizontal frames slow down the action, whereas vertical frames help to speed it up. 6. A sequence of tiny frames conveys tension and fast tempo.
A guide for leaders of workshops for comics for sustainable development