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LANE 462

Critical Thinking? By: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 7/25/2010

http://SBANJAR.kau.edu.sa/ http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.com Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Everyone thinks ‌.. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, unclear, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Poor thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. - Richard Paul 7/25/2010

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Critical Thinking History

•Socrates – 400 BC 2,500 years ago Socrates established the importance of asking deep questions, seeking evidence, analyzing basic concepts before we accept ideas as worthy of beliefs .

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Socrates • • • •

Questioning Inquiring Search for meaning Search for truth

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•Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skeptics emphasized that things are often very different from what they appear to be and that only the trained mind is prepared to see though the way thing look to us on the surface.

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In the middle ages

•Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica) ensures that his thinking met the tests of critical thinkers by answering criticisms of his ideas.

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15th & 16th C. (Renaissance)

•European scholars

(Colet, Erasmus, More in England) started thinking critically about religion, art, society, human, law, and freedom.

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Francis Bacon in England • wrote The Advancement of Learning, the 1st book in critical thinking. •argued for the importance of studying the world empirically. •laid the foundation for modern science with his emphasis on the informationgathered process.

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Francis Bacon • Father of the Scientific Method • “We must become as little children in order to enter the kingdom of science”

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50 years later

•Descartes in France •Sir Thomas More in England

Descartes in France • wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind - developed a method of critical thought based on the principle of systematic doubt. •In the same period, Sir Thomas More: - developed a model for a new social order Utopia in which every domain the present world was subject to critique. 7/25/2010

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16th &17th C. Hobbes & Locke - not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs dominant in the thinking of their day as being rational and normal. - everything in the world should be explained by evidence and reasoning.

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17th & 18th C. • Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry & nature • other French thinkers in sociology & politics Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in economics

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19th C.

• Darwin's Descent of Man in the biological domain focused on the history of human culture and the basis of biological life • Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious domain. •Plus other studies in the Anthropological & Linguistics domains.

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20th C. •Number of thinkers have increased in every domain of human thought and within which reasoning takes place. •Dewey – 1930’s •Ennis – 1980’s

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Dewey Reflective Thinking • Dispositions of thinking

• Native Resources

– Open mindedness – Whole heartedness – Intellectual Responsibility

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– Curiosity – Suggestion – Orderliness

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Ennis • Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do.”

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Ennis -

Actions a learner usually must take in order to think critically • Judge the credibility of sources • Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions • Judge the quality of an argument including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence • Develop and defend a position on an issue

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Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in order to think critically • • • • • •

Ask appropriate clarifying questions Plan experiments and judge experimental designs Define terms in a way appropriate for the context Be open-minded Try to be well-informed Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution

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Thus‌ Students in school should be taught how to think critically. Classes should be designed based on reasoning and rational grounds and not as series of facts.

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What Is Critical Thinking?

“Critical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning and logic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations. Thinking critically involves seeing things in an openminded way. This important skill allows people to look past their own views of the world and to adopt a more aware way of viewing the world.� What is Critical Thinking? http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-critical-thinking.htm 7/25/2010

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HOW DO YOU DEFINE CRITICAL THINKING?

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Definition of Critical Thinking

• •

Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Another way to describe it is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. 7/25/2010

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•information Critical thinking is not being able to process well enough to know to stop for red lights or whether you received the correct change at the supermarket. Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; most individuals master this.

•

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•enabling True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming. Critical thinking enables an individual to be a responsible citizen who contributes to society, and not be merely a consumer of society's distractions.

•

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•questions, A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be taught. Most individuals never learn it.

•

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•students Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably to by peers or by most parents. •necessary Trained and knowledgeable instructors are to impart the proper information and skills. •scientific Critical thinking can be described as the method applied by ordinary people to the ordinary world.

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This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: a question is identified, an hypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered, the hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable conclusions are drawn from the result. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday life rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. Critical thinking is scientific thinking. A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science instructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking.

• ••

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• •

Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one's life. Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose new answers that challenge the status quo, discover new information that can be used for good or ill, question authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing power in society greater than their numbers.

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•

It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claim special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think critically.

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•

Critical thinking has many components. Life can be described as a sequence of problems that each individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills are nothing more than problem solving skills that result in reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions.

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A GOOD CRITICAL THINKER Raymond S. Nickerson (1987) characterizes a good critical thinker in terms of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and habitual ways of behaving. Here are some of the CHARACTERISTICS of such a thinker: uses evidence skillfully and impartially organizes thoughts and articulates them concisely and coherently distinguishers between logically valid and invalid inferences suspends judgment in the absence of sufficient evidence to support a decision understands the difference between reasoning and rationalizing attempts to anticipate the probable consequences of alternative actions 7/25/2010

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understands the idea of degrees of belief sees similarities and analogies that are not superficially apparent can learn independently and has a long-lasting interest in doing so applies problem-solving techniques in domains other than those in which learned can structure informally represented problems in such a way that formal techniques, such as mathematics, can be used to solve them can strip a verbal argument of irrelevancies and phrase it in its essential terms

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habitually questions one's own views and attempts to understand both the assumptions that are critical to those views and the implications of the views is sensitive to the difference between the validity of a belief and the intensity with which it is held is aware of the fact that one's understanding is always limited, often much more so than would be apparent to one with a noninquiring attitude recognizes the fallibility of one's own opinions, the probability of bias in those opinions, and the danger of weighting evidence according to personal preferences This list serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be 7/25/2010

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A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.

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• Critical thinking –A set of conceptual tools used to make decisions • Intellectual skills and strategies • Reasonable process –A mental ability • Disciplined intelligence • Problem solving 7/25/2010

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Why Critical Thinking? “It is human irrationality, not a lack of knowledge that threatens human potential” (Nickerson cited in Kurfiss, 1986).

• • • •

It . . . underlies listening and speaking, reading and writing, the basic language skills. plays an important part in social change. All institutions in any society: courts, governments, schools, businesses, are the products of critical thinking. plays a key role in technological advances. frees the human mind from false beliefs and deceptions. 7/25/2010

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Who Uses Critical Thinking?

• STUDENTS !!! • Parents • Nurses • Doctors • Athletic coaches • Teachers/Professors • Air Traffic Controllers • Military Commanders • Lawyers, Judges • Supervisors • Day Care Workers 7/25/2010

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W ho

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SH O U LD

think critically?

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Types of thinkers Novice thinkers

Expert thinkers

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Novice Versus Expert Thinker • Expert thinkers – Quickly identify relevant information. – Can formulate a solution with “sketchy” information .

• Novice thinkers – Consider all information equally important. – Develop hypothesis, test hypothesis. – Cannot focus on central issues.

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Cultivated Critical Thinkers Well cultivated critical thinkers: • are able to raise vital questions and problems, as well as formulate and present them clearly. • can gather and assess information and interpret it effectively. • can reach well-reasoned conclusions and solutions to problems while testing them against relevant criteria and standards. • can be open-minded. • can communicate effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. 7/25/2010

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Benefits of critical thinking Critical thinking empowers and improves chances of success • in a career • as a consumer • in social roles in our community – personally, essential to personal autonomy – socially, essential to democratic system

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Pitfalls…… • Teaching for critical thinking takes more time to prepare. • Teaching for critical thinking will reduce the amount of “material” covered. • Teaching for critical thinking is not popular with students in the beginning. • BUT…

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How Can One Become a Critical Thinker?

• By(of asking pertinent questions self as well as others); • Byarguments; assessing statements and • Byobservation developing a sense of and curiosity; • Byfinding becoming interested in new solutions; • Byassumptions, examining beliefs, and opinions •

and weighing them against truth. By developing a “thinker’s vocabulary”. 7/25/2010

• Byothers, listening carefully to thinking about what

they say, and giving feedback;

• Bymind; observing with an open • on By making assertions based sound logic and solid evidence;

• By sharing ideas with others; • Bylistener becoming an open-minded and reader; • Byandengaging in active reading active listening! Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar

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Critical thinking begins when you question beyond what is given. You want to know more: • how something happens, • why it happens, and further • what will happen if something changes. Critical thinking therefore requires a conscious level of processing, analysis, creation and evaluation of possible outcomes, and reflection.

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If you’re a critical thinker, you think.

….No surprise…. •You are willing to examine your beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts. • You are willing to evaluate the generalizations and stereotypes you have created and are open to change, if necessary. 7/25/2010

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Critical thinkers listen carefully.

•If you’re a critical thinker, you listen carefully to what others are saying and are able to give feedback. •You are able to suspend judgment until all the facts have been gathered and considered. 7/25/2010

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Critical thinkers look for evidence….

•If you’re a critical thinker, you look for evidence to support your assumptions and beliefs. • You examine problems closely and are able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant. 7/25/2010

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Critical thinkers are curious.

They are interested in knowing all there is about a topic. They look for new and better ways to do everything. They are not the person who will settle for “…because that is the way we have always done it.”

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Therefore…through experience, as a critical thinker, you will: • identify information that is being put forth as an argument and break it down to its basic components for evaluation. • construct alternative interpretations • be willing to explore diverse perspectives • be willing to change personal assumptions when presented with valid information • be willing to ask difficult questions and the ability to receptive to opposing viewpoints. 7/25/2010

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• Critical

thinking is, in short, self-directed, selfdisciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. • It requires accurate standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. • It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.

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A CRITICAL THINKER CONSIDERS THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING:

1. Purpose, Goal, Objective, or End in View 2. Question at Issue (or Problem to Be Solved) 3. Point of View, Frame of Reference, Perspective, Orientation 4. Assumptions (presuppositions, what is taken for granted) 5. Information (data, facts, observations, experiences) 6. Concepts (theories, definitions, axioms, laws, principles, models) 7. Interpretation & Inferences (conclusions, solutions) 8. Implications & Consequences (Where does this thinking lead? What will result if this thinking is turned into action?) 7/25/2010

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UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT Whenever we think, we think for a purpose, within a point of view, based on assumptions, leading to implications and consequences. We use data, facts, and experiences, to make inferences and judgments, based on concepts and theories, in attempting to answer a question or solve a problem.

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QUESTIONS IMPLIED BY THE UNIVERSAL STRUCTURES OF THOUGHT: [Use these questions when beginning work] •What is my fundamental purpose? •What is the key question I am trying to answer? •What information do I need in order to answer my question? •What is the most basic concept in the question? •What assumptions am I using in my reasoning? •What is my point of view with respect to the issue? •What are my most fundamental inferences or conclusions? •What are the implications and possible consequences of my reasoning (if my reasoning is valid? 7/25/2010

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Universal Intellectual Standards • Clarity : If a statement is unclear we cannot evaluate its fit with the other standards. • Accuracy : Accuracy = TRUTH. Is it true? • Precision : Is there enough detail to completely understand the statement. • Relevance : Is the information connected to the question at hand?

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• Depth: Does the statement, fact, etc. address the complexity of the issue? • Breadth: Are there other points of view or other ways to consider this question? Are you considering the key factors? • Logic: Does it make sense? Can you make that conclusion based on the information and evidence? • Significance: Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? • Fairness: Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? 7/25/2010

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Robert Platt Crawford 1931 provides a list that can serve as a bridge to creative thinking

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The intent of Crawford’s Attribute Listing was to enable students to operate at the creativity or synthesis level of Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy. Additional cognitive operations, however, are needed to implement the four-step process. The steps are: Select a problem, product, or system (problem designation) Break it into key attributes or stages or parts (analysis/synthesis/creative thinking) Identify various ways to achieve each attribute or part (brainstorming or any idea-generating technique) Design or create a solution by manipulating and recombining the variables (structured synthesis)

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Application Comprehension Knowledge

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Evaluation Synthesis Analysis

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Decision Making Problem Solving Concept attainment

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Critical Thinking Dispositions • Engagement – Looking for opportunities to use reasoning – expecting situations that require reasoning – Confident in reasoning ability • Innovativeness – Intellectually curious – Wants to know the truth • Cognitive maturity – Aware that real problems are complex – Open to other points of view – Aware of biases and predispositions 7/25/2010

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To understand reasoning properly, however, we need to understand how it differs from mere thinking. •When we are merely thinking our thoughts simply come to us, one after another: when we reason we actively link thoughts together in such a way that we believe one thought provides support for another thought. •This active process of reasoning is termed inference. • Inference involves a special relationship between different thoughts: when we infer B from A, we move from A to B because we believe that A supports or justifies or makes it reasonable to believe in the truth of B.

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The difference between mere thinking and reasoning or inference is easy to understand through examples. Consider the following pairs of sentences: 1. Alan is broke, and he is unhappy. Alan is broke, therefore he is unhappy. 2. Anne was in a car accident last week, and she deserves an extension on her essay. Anne was in a car accident last week, so she deserves an extension on her essay. 3. This triangle has equal sides and equal angles. This triangle has equal sides; hence it has equal angles. Notice that the first sentence in each pair simply asserts two thoughts but says nothing about any relationship between them, while the second sentence asserts a relationship between two thoughts. This relationship is signaled by the words therefore, so, and hence. These are called inference indicators: words that indicate that one thought is intended to support (i.e., to justify, provide a reason for, provide evidence for, or entail) another thought. 7/25/2010

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Critical Thinking skills and sub-skills • Interpretation – categorization, decoding, clarifying meaning – Notes, matrices, charts, patient history • Analysis – examining ideas, identifying arguments, analyzing arguments – Elements of reasoning, listening, data • Evaluation – assessing claims, assessing arguments – Questioning, credibility, reasonableness, trust. 7/25/2010

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• Inference –Querying claims, conjecturing alternatives, drawing conclusions – Problem solving, decision making, differential, diagnosis • Explanation – Stating results, justifying procedures, presenting arguments – Elements of reasoning, stating the case, clarity • Self-regulation – Self examination, self correction – Self critique, questioning, changing, recognizing personal errors in thinking

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Aspects of critical thinking • Issues – – – –

factual interpretive evaluative mere verbal dispute

• Claims – truth-statement with adequate support – assumption: claim without support • hidden assumptions undermine reliability of reasoning

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Resolving Obstacles To Critical Thinking Obstacle—relativism or subjectivism • Remedy—patience and tenacity in pursuit of the truth Obstacle—egocentrism and ethnocentricity • Remedy— intellectual humility Obstacle—intimidation by authority • Remedy—intellectual independence Obstacle—conformism • Remedy—intellectual courage Obstacle—unexamined and inferential assumptions, and presuppositions • Remedy—examination of assumptions 7/25/2010

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Characteristics of Critical Thinkers: • • • • • •

Strive for understanding Are honest with themselves Base judgment on evidence Are interested in other people’s ideas Control their feelings/emotions Recognize that extreme views are seldom correct.

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• Keep an open mind • They are very observant • Identify key issues and raise questions • Obtain relevant facts • Evaluate the findings and form judgments

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What does the absence of critical thinking look like? • We blindly accept at face value all justifications given by organizations and political leaders. • We blindly believe TV commercials. • We blindly continue to hold on to old beliefs.

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Young girl? Or old women?

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Man playing horn? Or a woman’s silhouette?

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A face of a native American? Or an Eskimo’s back?

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Thinking Barriers – Emotions • Anger • Passion • Depression – Stress – Bias (values and beliefs)

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Personal Barriers to thinking (Ego Defenses) • Denial – Refuse to accept reality.

• Projection – We see in others what is really happening to us.

• Rationalization – Lying to ourselves about the real reasons for our behaviors and feelings.

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Thinking Errors • Personalization – Thinking in which the world revolves around an individual

• Polarized Thinking – There is only black or white – no gray

• Catastrophizing – Always consider the worst possible outcome (all the time) 7/25/2010

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• Selective abstraction – Focusing on one detail of a situation and ignoring the larger picture

• Overgeneralization – Drawing broad conclusions on the basis of a single incident.

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Five Phases of Critical Thinking • Phase 1: Trigger Event – Usually an unexpected event that causes some kind of inner discomfort or confusion.

• Phase 2: Appraisal – A period of reflection and the need to find another approach to deal with the issue.

• Phase 3: Exploration – People start asking questions and gathering more information. 7/25/2010

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• Phase 4: Finding Alternatives –Also called the transition stage when old ideas are either left behind and a new way of thinking begins. • Phase 5: Integration –Involves fitting new ideas and information into everyday usage. 7/25/2010

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Key Questions to Critical Thinking • • • • •

What are the issues and the expected conclusions? What are the reasons? What words or phrases are ambiguous? What are the value conflicts and assumptions? What are the assumptions?

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• • • • • •

Are there any fallacies in the reasoning? How good is the evidence? Are there rival causes? Are the statistics deceptive? What significant information is omitted? What reasonable conclusions are possible?

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Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth

• Verbal Reasoning – Understanding and evaluating the persuasive techniques found in oral and written language

• Argument Analysis – Discriminating between reasons that do and do not support a particular conclusion

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Critical thinking involves evaluating information or arguments in terms of their accuracy and worth • Decision Making – identifying and judging several alternatives and selecting the best alternative

• Critical Analysis of Prior Research – evaluating the value of data and research results in terms of the methods used to obtain them and their potential relevance to particular conclusions.

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Problem Solving Procedure • • • • • •

Define the problem (not the symptom) Remove thinking barriers (bias and logical) Gather all relevant facts Generate solutions (brainstorming, creative thinking) Select a solution and have a back up plan Implement and evaluate

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Characteristics of Critical Thinking & Decision Making • University of Phoenix Model – Framing the question – Making the decision – Evaluating the decision

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University of Phoenix Model

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How to Apply Bloom’s Six Levels • • • • • •

Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

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Level 1 – Recall Remembering previously learned material, recalling facts, terms, basic concepts from stated text

• • • • •

Name List Recognize Choose Label

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Relate Tell Recall Match Define

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Level 2 – Understand Demonstrating understanding of the stated meaning of facts and ideas

• • • • •

Compare Describe Outline Organize Classify

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Explain Rephrase Show Relate Identify

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Level 2 1/2 – Infer Demonstrating understanding of the unstated meaning of facts and ideas

• • • • •

Speculate Interpret Infer Generalize Conclude

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Level 3 – Put to Use Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, and techniques in a different situation

• • • • •

Apply Construct Model Use Practice

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Dramatize Restructure Simulate Translate Experiment

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Level 4 – Break down Examining and breaking down information into parts

• • • • •

Analyze Diagram Classify Contrast Sequence

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Simplify Summarize Relate to Categorize Differentiate

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Level 5 – Put together Compiling information in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern

• • • • •

Compose Design Develop Propose Adapt

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Elaborate Formulate Originate Solve Invent

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Level 6 – Judge Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information based on criteria

• • • • •

Judge Rank Rate Evaluate Recommend

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Defend Justify Prioritize Support Prove

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Active learning Active learning …. • Appeal to a variety of learning styles • Emphasis on development of skills over transmission of information • Emphasis on ‘higher order’ thinking skills • Learning experiences are ‘active’ (reading, discussing, writing) • Explore students’ attitudes, values 7/25/2010

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Active learning • • • • • • • • •

Participants like it More fun and interesting for the instructor Research literature supports it Provides time to process information Effective transfers to long-term memory Greater retention of skills & information Leads to higher cognitive learning Leads to affective learning Very effective for adult learning 7/25/2010

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Active learning • Match important objectives to active learning exercises • If using groups, provide clear instructions on: – forming groups – objectives – time limits – reporting back

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Active learning • Be prepared—everything will take longer than expected • Hand out exercises as students enter • Limit number of choices • Plan efficient strategies for forming groups • Circulate among groups during group work (to keep on task, assist)

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Active learning You need to ….. • Ask groups to take discussion notes • Provide time for reporting back • Ensure all can hear (repeat remarks if necessary) • Summarize after group reports

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Working Assumptions • Active learning is necessary for the teaching of critical thinking. • Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of the educational process. • Students should be made aware of the thinking process. • Critical thinking must be taught explicitly. • Process is as important as content.

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Working Definitions • Active Learning - “students involved in doing things & thinking about the things they are doing” • Critical Thinking - “reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to do and what to believe” OR “interpreting, analyzing or evaluating information, arguments or experiences with a set of reflective attitudes, skills, and abilities to guide our thoughts, beliefs and actions” OR “examining the thinking of others to improve our own” 7/25/2010

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Thinking Tools

• A Thinking Tool is an instrument that can help us in using our minds systematically and effectively. • With the use of thinking tools, the intended ideas will be arranged more systematically, clearly, and easy to be understood. There are 4 types of THINKING TOOLS: • Questioning • Concepts • Mindmaps • Cognitive Research Trust 7/25/2010

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1

Questioning

Questioning is one approach to motivate others to: • Get information • Test understanding • Develop interest • Evaluate the ability of individuals towards understanding certain things. “A person who asks questions is a person who thinks.”’ - William Wilen 7/25/2010

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Questioning - Bloom’s Taxonomy Evaluation

Higher-Level Thinking

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Interpretation Lower-level Thinking Knowledge 7/25/2010

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2

Concepts

Concepts are general ideas that we use to identify and organize our experience. Words are the vocabulary of language; Concepts are the vocabulary of thought. Structure of Concepts:

PROPERTIES

• Sign - word/symbol that names the • •

concept Referents - examples of the concept Properties - qualities that all examples of the concept share in common. 7/25/2010

CONCEPT SIGN

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3

Mindmaps

A mindmap can be defined as a visual presentation of the ways in which concepts can be related to one another.

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4

Cognitive Research Trust Thinking Method

• The essence of the (Cognitive Research Trust) Thinking Method is to focus attention directly on different aspects of thinking and to crystallize these aspects into definite concepts and tools that can be used deliberately. • It is designed to encourage students to broaden their thinking.

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Final Words CRITICAL THINKING is the active and systematic process of • Communication • Problem-solving • Evaluation • Analysis • Synthesis • Reflection both individually and in community to • develop understanding • Support positive decision-making and • Guide action 7/25/2010

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References Crawford, R. P. (1964). The techniques of creative thinking: How to use your ideas to achieve success. Burlington, VT: Fraser Publishing Co. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. New York: D. C. Heath. Ennis, R. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory Into Practice, 32(3). Retrieved October 25, 2006, from Academic Search Premier database. Johnson, S. (1998). Skills, Socrates, and the Sophists: Learning from history. British Journal of Educational Studies 46(2). Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JSTOR database. Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2006b). The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools (4th ed.). Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Pedersen, O. (1997). The first universities: Stadium Generale and the origins of university education in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Critical Thinking: Basic Theory and Instructional Structures. Sonoma, California: 1998.)

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Internet Resources: www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/definitions.htm www.criticalthinking.org www.chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/critthnk.html www.calpress.com/critical.html www.coping.org/write/percept/intro.htm www.utexas.edu/student/utlc/handouts/1414.html www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/crit.html

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Critical Thinking, by Dr. Shadia Y. Banjar