Page 1

Vol 1 ● No. 1 ● Year: 2012

ISSN: 2277-1700

Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI)

Scientific Research Journal of India ( SRJI ) Dr.L.Sharma Campus, Muhammadabad Gohana, Mau, U.P., India. Pin- 276403 Email: editor.srji@gmail.com Cont: +91-9320699167, 8822485959, 9305835734

Web: http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Table of Content ● Editorial ● Vermicompost: a source of soil fertility management in organic farming ● Growth Status among Females of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh ● Exploration of the History of Physiotherapy ● Effectiveness of Proprioceptive Training over Strength Training in Improving the Balance of Cerebral Palsy Children with

2 (Agriculture )

3

(Anthropology )

10 19

(Physiotherapy )

23

Impaired Balance

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Editorial Dear Readers, It is my immense pleasure to present the first issue of the first volume of the Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI). This journal is the official organ of Dr. L. Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society. Scientific Research Journal of India is a Multidisciplinary, peer reviewed and open access Journal of science. The scope of this journal is therefore necessarily broad to cover recent discoveries in structural and functional principles of scientific research. It encourages and provides a forum for the publication of research work in different fields of pure and applied sciences. The Journal will publish selected original research articles, reviews, short communications and book reviews in the various fields of science like Botany, Zoology, Medical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Anthropology and any other branch of related sciences. The Journal will be regularly published and issued quarterly. We shall also publish special issues based on specific themes at the suggestion of the executive committee of Dr. L. Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society and members of editorial of SRJI. I hope you shall appreciate our effort.

Dr. Popiha Bordoloi, Ph.D. Email: popiha@gmail.com

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Vermicompost: A Source of soil fertility management in organic farming P. Bordoloi*, A. Arunachalam**, K. Arunachalam*** & S.C. Garkoti****

Abstract: Use of vermicompost in crop field can reduce the cost of cultivation by replacing chemical fertilizer and it maintains sustaimentnable agriculture by improving soil texture and its enrichment. Vermicompost can convert waste in to money, so, it is rapidly becoming a growth business with an overall mandate of organic farming. Most of the farmers of India in general and Arunachal Pradesh in particular are marginal and poor. For them it is sometimes not possible for construct a cemented vermicomposting tank for producing vermicompost due to lack of Government subsidy. A low-cost bamboo beam vermicomposting unit was prepared and productivity was analyzed. The economics of bamboo beam vermicomposting unit was worked out and compared with that of the cemented tank vermicomposting unit as collected from different sources. In bamboo beam vermicomposting unit, the cost of production of one quintal vermicompost for first year was Rs. 79. For second year it was Rs. 6 and for the third year it was Rs. 14.40. In cemented tank vermicomposting unit the cost of production of one quintal vermicompost for first year was Rs. 632 and for second year onwards it was Rs. 10. Thus it is concluded that low-cost vermicomposting technology can be used as a source of income generation for the rural people by recycling and utilizing the locally available biodegradable wastes. Key words: Vermicomposting technology, biodegradable waste, Arunachal Pradesh.

Introduction Arunachal Pradesh is a ‘biodiversity rich

cropped areas are also available annually,

hot spot’ in the Indian Eastern Himalayas.

which

The agro climatic condition and variation

cultivation in the subsequent years. The

in elevation and latitude caused the

estimated amount of agricultural crop

occurrence

distinct

waste in Arunachal Pradesh was 261865

vegetation types of this region. Huge

tonne (t) per year which could be

amount of agricultural crop residues, weed

harvested from the cereals and legumes

biomass from both cropped and non-

cultivated.

of

different

and

are

usually

In

burned

addition,

a

for

crop

substantial

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Scientific Research Journal of India

amount of wastes are also arising from

overcome productivity crisis in agriculture

livestock. For instance, about 2221440 t of

and play a multifaceted role in the

wet dung per annum, and 1382520 t of

improvement of soil texture through its

urine per annum were arising from total

influence in soil pH, as agent of physical

number of livestock available (Bordoloi et

decomposition

al., 2007). In all, these agro-wastes could

formation by improving soil texture and its

be utilized successfully for compost

enrichment

preparation and recycled for integrated

Desai (1993) reported that by using

nutrient

vermiculture the cost of production could

management

for

enhancing

production and maintaining productivity.

by

promoting

(Venkateshwarlu,

humus 1995).

be substantially reduced by way of

While using organic materials as

replacing chemical fertilizers.

manures for crop production, the farmers

In

totality,

vermicompost

can

are faced with the problems of organic

convert waste in to money, so, it is rapidly

materials being bulky, with a low nutrient

becoming a growth business with an

content in relation to their volume, and

overall mandate of organic farming. Most

being often messy and has bad odour.

of the farmers of India in general and

Therefore there is a need to develop an

Arunachal

eco-friendly and appropriate technology to

marginal and poor and may not afford to

maximize economic value of nutrients of

construct cemented vermicomposting tank.

agro-waste

utilization.

So, it is envisaged to have a low- cost unit

Decomposition reduces much of organic

for the resource poor farmers of this

substances due to physical breakdown of

region. By considering all these views, for

substrate, leaching of soluble materials,

maintaining sustainable crop production as

and catabolism or oxidation (Seastedt,

well as to reduce the cost of fertilizer

1984).

of

application an attempt was made to

composting takes relatively higher time

prepare a non-tank vermicomposting unit

and produce low quality manure. Use of

(bamboo

earthworm for degradation of organic

available materials and resources. It can

waste and production of vermicompost is

also be viably used as a source of income

becoming

generation for the rural people by utilizing

for

sustainable

Conventional

popular

methods

and

is

being

Pradesh

beam)

commercialized. Use of vermicasting as

locally

biofertilizer can be one of the measure to

materials.

available

in

by

particular

utilizing

biodegradable

are

locally

waste

Material and Methods http://www.srji.co.cc


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An experiment was conducted to evaluate

Industries Commission (KVIC), Midpu,

a low-cost bamboo beam structure for

Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 1500

vermicompost preparation. The specific

earthworms (750 earthworms; size < 0.7 g,

objective of the study being to test the

750 earthworms size > 0.7 g) was

efficiency of some plant waste material as

inoculated for each bed and the bed was

a source of compost as well as to test the

covered by a gunny cloth. Moisture was

efficiency

compost

maintained at 40-50%. Each of the

preparation and also to develop a low-cost,

treatments was replicated three times to

eco-friendly bio-composting technique.

reduce the error of measurement of

of

methods

of

Three types of compost namely

particular

parameters.

Among

all,

simple compost, enriched compost and

vermicompost was found more nutritious,

vermicompost were prepared from easily

less time consuming and more productive.

available agricultural waste i.e. rice straw,

The structure of bamboo beam unit and

weeds from rice field and kitchen waste.

different stages of vermicomposting are

Cow dung was mixed for all the compost

presented in Figure 1.

in the ratio of 1:1 (by weight). Bamboo

The economics of bamboo beam

were

vermicomposting unit was worked out and

prepared. The beam was covered with

compared with that of the cemented tank

polyethylene sheet to check the nutrient

vermicomposting unit as collected from

loss and to provide proper temperature for

different sources. The cost of cemented

quick decomposition. In vermicomposting,

tank vermicomposting unit was calculated

after 25 days of decay the partial

by personal observation and by having

decomposed materials were transferred to

interviews with different farmers which

the

size

have their own vermicomposting units

of

prevailing in Papum Pare district and from

earthworms. The identified suitable strain

the Department of Agriculture, Govt. of

of earthworm i.e. Eisenia foetida (Sav.)

Arunachal Pradesh. The net cost of

was collected from Multi-Disciplinary

production per kilogram per year was

Training Centre (MTDC), Khadi Village

calculated.

beam

of

size

1m×1m×0.5

vermicomposting

2m×1m×0.3

m

for

bed

m

of

inoculation

Results and Discussion http://www.srji.co.cc


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For construction of low cost bamboo beam

takes very low-cost compared to a concrete

vermicomposting unit of 1 tonne capacity

tank. The cost of production of one tonne

per harvesting a total of 60 piece bamboos

vermicompost can be reduced by 87.5 % in

was needed for construction of shed and

the first year. For second year cost of

bamboo beam, which was cost around Rs.

production could reduce to 40%. Third

600. The total cost of thatch and polythene

year it needs some what more that is 44%

sheet comes around Rs. 600. Labour cost

more cost of production due to repairing of

for construction of the unit was Rs. 350.

bamboo beam and bamboo shed for

The initial cost of earthworm was Rs.

production

2000. The total cost including maintenance

subsequent years. On an average, the

and packaging for first year was Rs. 3950.

production

For second year it was Rs. 300 and for

vermicompost in bamboo beam was Rs.

third year it was Rs. 720. In one year 5

33.13 and in cemented tank it was Rs. 217

harvesting was done, so total of 50 q of

in first three years.

compost was harvested from the unit. Net

Low

of

vermicompost

cost

of

cost

one

for quintal

vermicomposting

profit for first year was Rs. 31,050, for

technology can help the marginal and

second year it was Rs. 34,700 and for third

resource poor farmers of the North East

year it was estimated Rs. 34,280. In the

India. The cost of cultivation of crops can

first year, the cost of production of one

also

quintal vermicompost was Rs. 79, for

vermicomposting technology by replacing

second year it was Rs. 6 and for the third

the need of chemical fertilizers. Most of

year it was Rs. 14.40 (Tables 1 and 2).

the peoples of North East India depend on

be

reduce

by

popularizing

The construction cost of one tonne

Agriculture. Vermicompost not only helps

capacity per harvesting cemented tank type

to increase the productivity of crops but

of vermicomposting unit was Rs. 31,600.

also helps as income generation for the

An expenditure of Rs. 500 was required

youth of North East India. By utilizing

for maintenance and packaging from the

locally available resources and waste

second year onwards. Thus the production

material available by their own, the

cost for one quintal vermicompost was Rs.

farmers

632 in the first year. And from second year

vermicomposting unit and can utilize it as

onwards it was Rs. 10 only (Tables 3 and

a source of income generation. Now a

4).

days, it is a great concern to popularize the From the data it is seen that non-

can

construct

a

small

organic farming. The demands of organic

tank bamboo beam vermicomposting unit, http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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products are increasing not only in the

local market but also in global market.

a

b

c

d

Figure 1: (a) Bamboo beam structure (partial decomposition tank), (b) Placing of agricultural waste material in partial decomposition tank, (c) Earth worm collection from rearing bed, (d) Vermicomposting bed after inoculation of earthworm.

Table 1. Cost of production of non tank vermicomposting unit (bamboo beam) Parameters

Construction of shed (Bamboo 20 pieces @Rs. 10 per culm), (Size of shed 14m×16 m) Bamboo beam 12 numbers (size 1 m ×1m×0.5 m), and bed 6 numbers (size 2 m × 1 m × 0.3 m), (Bamboo 40 pieces @Rs. 10 per culm) Thatch Polyethylene sheet Man days for construction ( @ Rs. 70) Miscellaneous Cost of earthworm Packaging cost Sieve Total cost Cost of production of 1 q vermicompost

Cost 1st year 200.00

2nd year -

400.00 400.00 200.00 350.00 100.00 2000.00 200.00 100.00 3950.00 Rs. 79.00

3rd year 40.00 40.00

100.00 200.00 300.00 Rs. 6.00

100.00 100.00 140.00 100.00 200.00 720.00 Rs. 14.40

(Production capacity per harvesting 10 quintal)

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Table 2. Production of vermicompost in non-tank vermicomposting unit (bamboo beam) 1st year Production in one harvesting

2nd year

3rd year

10q

10q

10q

5 harvesting in one year Market price for 1 kg vermicompost Gross income after 1 year Sale of earthworm Gross income after 1 year

50 q Rs. 5.00

50 q Rs. 5.00

50 q Rs. 5.00

Rs.25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Rs.25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Rs.25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Net profit

Rs. 31050.00

Rs. 34700.00

Rs. 34280.00

Table 3. Cost of production of tank type vermicomposting unit (cemented type) Parameters

Cost 1st year

Construction of shed (11m ×3m) Construction of tank of size ( 3m× 1m ×1m) total 3 numbers of tank Miscellaneous

Cost of production of 1 q vermicompost

3rd year

14,000 15,000

-

-

300.00

300.00

300.00

2000.00

-

-

200.00 100.00 31,600.00

200.00 500.00

200.00 500.00

Rs. 632.00 Rs. 10.00

Rs. 10.00

Cost of earthworm Packaging cost Sieve Total cost

2nd year

(Production capacity per harvesting 10 quintal)

Table 4. Production of vermicompost in tank type vermicomposting unit (cemented type) 1st year

2nd year

3rd year

Production in one harvesting 5 harvesting in one year Market price for 1 kg vermicompost Gross income after 1 year Sale of earthworm Gross income after 1 year

10q 50q Rs. 5.00

10q 50q Rs. 5.00

10q 50q Rs. 5.00

Rs. 25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Rs. 25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Rs. 25,000.00 Rs. 10,000.00 Rs. 35,000.00

Net profit

Rs. 3,400.00

Rs. 34,500.00

Rs. 34,500.00

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References -Bordoloi,

D.,

-T. R. (1984). The role of microearthopods in

Arunachalam, A., Arunachalam, K. and

decomposition and mineralization processes.

Garkoti, S.C. (2007). Agricultural waste

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 29: 25-46.

management for sustainable crop Production:

-Venkateshwarlu, B. (1995). Composing the

A

Pradesh.

decomposed. Indian Silk, September, 1995, 5.

Biodiversity Conservation- The Post-Rio

-Desai A. (1993). Congress of Traditional

Scenario in India. Assam University, Silchar.

Science and Technology of India, I. I. T.

Seastedt,

Bombay, 28 November to 3 December, 1993.

case

P.,

study

Balasubramanian,

in

Arunachal

CORRESPONDENCE *KVK,

NRC

on

Pig,

Indian

Council

of

Agricultural

Research,

Dudhnoi,

Goalpara,

Assam,

**A.Arunachalam, Division of Natural Resources Management, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan II, Pusa, New Delhi. ***School of Environment and Natural Resources, Doon University, Dehra Dun, Uttarnchal, **** School of Environmental Sciences, Jowaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.

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Scientific Research Journal of India

Growth Status among Females of Solan District of Himachal Pradesh Trinayani Bordoloi*

Abstract: The study aims to see the age related changes in anthropometric and physiological characteristics and association between adiposity measures and cardiovascular functions among preadolescent and adolescent females. Growth pattern diverge at time of preadolescence and adolescence. The present study was conducted by cross-sectional method among 125 growing Rajput females ranging from 9 years to 16 years of Solan district, Himachal Pradesh. The adiposity assessed by BMI, WHR, GMT. There is an increase in BMI with age in the present study and the highest mean value is found at the age of 16. As far as correlation between cardiovascular functions and adiposity measure are concerned there is a significant correlation between blood pressure with BMI, GMT and WHR till 12 years, but in the later years no such pattern was observe.

Key words: Anthropometry, Rajput females, Body Mass Index.

INTRODUCTION Many changes both structural and functional in

Increasing body fatness is accompanied by

the human body are witnessed with the

profound changes in physiological functions.

increasing age. These

changes could be

These changes are to a certain extent, associated

attributed to growth and development which

with the regional distribution of adipose tissue.

starts right from conception and also due to

Body fatness and its distribution is a useful

environmental conditions such as nutritional

epidemiological and clinical marker of health

pattern, physical activity level, health status etc

risk among humans. Adiposity is the result of an

experienced by the human body.

excessive number and/or size of white adipose http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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cells. At an individual level, a combination of

blood pressure was designed in the Solan

excessive caloric intake and a lack of physical

district of Himachal Pradesh.

activity are thought to explain most cases of adiposity (Lau et al 2007). A limited number of Materials and methods

cases are due primarily to genetics, medical reasons, or psychiatric illness (Bleich et al

Keeping in mind the objective of the study, data

2008). Anthropometry is the widely accepted

on

tool for measures the adiposity of the human.

measurements were collected by using cross-

Studies in this regard reveal that BMI, WC,

sectional method on 125 preadolescent and

WHR, GMT are the good indicators of the

adolescent females in the age groups 9 to 16

adiposity measures of the preadolescent and

years of Solan district, Himachal Pradesh. The

adolescent females. According to Barness et al

data was collected from the schools in that area;

(2007) adiposity is a leading preventable cause

besides some data was also collected from home

of

with

visits. Age was recorded by the verbal response

and children,

of the subjects. An exhaustive proforma was

and is viewed as one of the most serious public

catered to obtain general data of the population

health problems of the 21st century. Excessive

under study. The general information collected

body weight is associated with various diseases,

from the mating pattern (constructed using

particularly cardiovascular

diseases, diabetes

maternal and paternal subcastes) established the

mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain

fact that the Rajputs follow the rule of caste

types of cancer, and osteoarthritis (Haslam et al

endogamy and sub-caste exogamy. Different

2005). It has been very recently observed by

body measurements were taken on each

Kotchen et al. (2008) that blood pressure levels

individual such as height vertex, body weight,

and the prevalence of hypertension are related to

mid

adiposity, the main components of adiposity

circumference, maximum hip circumference,

being BMI, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio

skinfold

(WHtR) and percent body fat.

subscapular, suprailiac, calf posterior, blood

death worldwide,

increasing prevalence in

adults

Taking the above issues into consideration, the present study on the association of different anthropometric parameters of adiposity and

anthropometric

upper

arm

thickness

and

physiological

circumference, at

biceps,

waist triceps,

pressure both systolic and diastolic, heart rate, pulse rate and breadth holding time. These measurements were taken according to the standard recommendations of Weiner and http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Lowrie (1981). For assessing the adiposity

analyzed by SPSS version 15 evaluation product

measures of preadolescent and adolescent

package and excel program itself.

females

we

have

adopted

various

anthropometric indices, body mass index, waist-

Results

hip ratio and grand mean thickness and statistical methods were used to calculate mean,

The basic information of the Rajput females of

standard deviation, t-test value and correlation

the Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (Table 1)

to draw meaningful conclusions. Mean standard

indicates a gradual increase in mean stature,

deviation and t-value were used to assess the

body weight with age. The increase in height

changes in successive ages, while an attempt has been made to correlate adiposity measures with blood pressure. The analysis of the data was done by using the Windows Vista basic version of Windows. The calculation of data was done in the Microsoft Excel program. The data was

vertex from 9 to 12 years was found to be statistically significant and increase in body weight from 13 to 14 years and 14 to 15 years also found to statistically significant. An increasing trend was observed in mid upper arm circumference but at the age of 12 years a slight decreasing pattern was observed.

Table1: Basic information of Rajput females in different age groups. Variables N

Height (cm) Mean±SD

Age(yrs)

t- value

Weight(kg) Mean±SD

t-value

Mean±SD

t- value

9

8

123.0±4.06

10

8

128.2±4.24

2.488*

22.6±4.75

1.875

19.1±9.1

.937

11

12

135.8±6.78

2.799*

26.7±5.4

1.742

17.4±1.7

.633

12

13

141.0±5.95

2.070*

27.6±6.0

.468

17.0±1.4

.605

13

9

143.9±5.70

1.114

31.0±5.5

1.601

17.3±1.5

.367

14

25

150.0±5.98

2.671*

36.5±5.3

2.679*

19.6±1.6

3.778***

15

16

152.2±10.90

.858

41.5±4.3

3.198**

20.0±3.2

.533

16

34

154.8±5.55

1.108

44.0±5.4

1.624

21.9±1.7

2.728**

*p<0.05

18.9±2.90

MUAC(cm)

16.1±1.0

**p<0.01 ***p<0.001

MUAC- Mid Upper Arm Circumference

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Table 2 displays a various adiposity measures

ratio was found at 10 years (.879cm). The

among Rajput females in different age group. In

increase in body mass index and waist

this table BMI and WC showed an increasing

circumference and grand mean thickness from

trend with age but WHR and GMT does not

14 to 15, 15 to 16 were found to be statistically

show consistent pattern in subsequent age

significant.

groups. The maximum mean value of waist-hip-

Table2: Adiposity assessed by BMI, WHR, WC, GMT BMI

Variables

2

(kg/m )

N Age(yrs)

*p<0.05

t-value

Mean±SD

WHR

t-

WC (cm)

Mean±SD

value

Mean±SD

.83±.08

GMT t-value

(mm)

t-value

Mean±SD

9

8

12.6±1.7

50.1±2.6

7.1±1.5

10

8

13.6±2.3

1.188

.88±.21

.614

55.2±11.2

1.246

6.0±1.8

1.312

11

12

14.3±1.4

.842

.85±.13

.325

54.7±4.9

.133

6.9±2.0

1.051

12

13

13.8±1.5

.894

.80±.11

1.183

54.2±7.9

.183

6.9±1.4

.096

13

9

14.9±1.8

1.497

.78±.04

.576

55.4±4.9

.410

6.3±2.2

.738

14

25

16.1±1.5

2.070

.78±.07

.339

59.6±3.8

2.622*

7.2±2.1

1.109

15

16

18.0±2.2

3.198**

.77±.06

.566

62.4±3.4

2.351*

7.3±2.2

.077

16

34

18.3±1.5

.529

.74±.10

1.108

84.4±4.9

.069

9.0±2.1

2.556*

**p<0.01 ***p<0.001

BMI- Body Mass Index WHR- Waist- Hip Ratio WC- Waist Circumference GMT- Grand Mean Thickness

Table 3 displays mean values of various

systolic blood pressure and breathes holding

physiological variables along with their standard

time. The diastolic blood pressure, heart rate

deviation among Rajput females of different age

and pulse rate declined and inclined pattern was

group. An increasing trend was observed in

found with advancing age. The increase in http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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systolic blood pressure from 12 to 13 years was

value mean value was found at 13 years of age.

statistically significant and the maximum mean Table3: The various physiological variables of the subjects. Vari able s

SBP N

(mm/hg) Mean±SD

Age (yrs )

HR

DBP tvalue

(mm/hg) Mean±S D

tvalue

Mean±S D

tvalue

Mean±S D

t-value

77.5±4.8

Breath holding time(sec) Mean±SD

tvalue

100.5±6.7

10

8

108.0±11.5

1.60

72.1±7.2

.037

81.5±5.3

.301

76.6±4.4

.378

21.2±7.9

2.114

11

12

109.7±8.3

.384

68.6±6.1

1.187

76.5±7.2

1.674

73.4±7.3

1.105

16.1±5.4

1.764

12

13

105.8±9.6

66.3±4.6

1.058

81.2±8.1

1.507

78.2±7.2

1.652

21.8±13.1

1.430

13

9

115.7±8.0

66.2±9.7

.028

77.6±7.0

1.079

75.7±7.2

.816

22.2±10.8

.016

14

25

104.4±21.3

1.095 2.536 * 1.533

70.4±7.9

1.266

79.7±4.9

75.8±6.1

.054

25.9±11.2

.858

15

16

112.6±9.6

1.446

72.4±9.3

.742

76.2±3.6

72.9±3.8

1.691

25.8±10.9

.032

34

114.7±14.4

.527

71.7±7.3

.307

72.9±7.1

.996 2.452 * 1.735

69.2±6.2

2.207*

27.8±11.4

.612

*p<0.05

80.6±6.3

(p/min)

8

16

72.0±6.2

PR

(b/min)

14.6±3.7

**p<0.01 ***p<0.001

SBP- Systolic Blood Pressure

PR- pulse Rate

DBP- Diastolic Blood Pressure HR- Heart Rate

In table 4 shows the correlation coefficient of

concluded that correlation vary from variable to

blood pressure with body mass index, waist hip

variable in all the groups. There is a significant

ratio and grand mean thickness of Rajput

correction between blood pressure with body

females in advancing age. In this table

mass index, grand mean thickness and waist hip

attempted was made to correlate the various and

ratio till 12 years but in later years no such

blood pressure in different age groups and it is

pattern was observed.

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Table4: Correlation coefficient of blood pressure with BMI, WHR, GMT of the participants. 2

Variable

BMI(kg/m ) N

Age(yrs)

GMT(mm)

WHR

SBP

DBP

SBP

DBP

SBP

DBP

9

8

.541

.273

.758*

.452

.964**

.736*

10

8

.154

.348

.059

.365

.267

.534

11

12

.852**

.420

.492

.124

.233

.291

12

13

.617*

.535

.039

.042

.571*

.576*

13

9

.645

.353

.181

.155

.350

.365

14

25

.131

.040

.173

.061

.048

.051

15

16

.378

.095

.083

.003

.341

.107

16

34

.038

.066

.133

.101

.093

.121

*p<0.05

**p<0.01 ***p<0.001

BMI- Body Mass Index WHR- Waist- Hip Ratio GMT- Grand Mean Thickness

Discussion

in study conducted by the Abbassi (2000). It is observed that there is an increase in body weight

The variables considered in this present study

from 9 years to 16 years in the present study.

show an increasing trend from 9 to 16 years but

The weight of the girls increases with age in

all parts of the body do not grow at the same

study the conducted by the Abbassi (2000).

rate. Some body parts or dimensions increase more than others during the adolescent period (Tanner 1962).

According to the study conducted by Tyagi et al (2005) the increase in weight with age could be due to imbalance of energy in

Mean value of height vertex (stature)

favour of energy intake. The circumference

increased among the growing Rajput females of

measurement

that

is

mid

upper

arm

the Solan district of the Himachal Pradesh.

circumference show gradual increase with age

Similar findings were observed by Sinha and

which indicates musculature development and

Kapoor (2009) where there was an increase in

the similar results is found by Nadia et al (2009)

stature of adolescent girls aged 11-17 years. The

the mean

mid upper arm circumference

height increases in girls from the age of 9 years http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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(MUAC) and arm muscle area (AMA) for girls

faster rate than the numerator of the ratio

gradually increased with age up to 17 years.

(Malina, 1974).

BMI and GMT of skinfold do not show

With age physiological fitness also starts

steady increase with age. There is fluctuation,

stabilizing. But at the present study there is

but a definite trend of increase witnessed would

relative decline in heart rate and pulse rate.

entail this due to increase in fat mass. This

Comparatively higher heart rate and pulse rate

increase in fatness established the fact that there

at an earlier age could be imputed to higher

continues to be increase in fat content in females

metabolic rate as well as relatively low blood

throughout life. The fluctuation could be a

pressure. Breath holding time displays a steady

reflection of fluctuation for fat stores as fat is

increase with age.

depleted incase of faster growth phase (Kapoor

An attempt was made to correlate the

et al 1998, Parizkova 1977, Sinha and Kapoor

various adiposity measures and cardiovascular

2006). There is an increase in BMI from 9 years

functions in different age groups and it was

to 16 years in the present study on preadolescent

concluded that the correlations vary from

and adolescent girls of Solan, Himachal Pradesh

variable to variable in all the groups. The

with a slight dip from 11 years to 12 years.

correlation coefficients reflect an inconsistent

Waist/hip ratio (WHR) is used as index

pattern.

As

far

as

correlations

between

of obesity and regional fat distribution in

cardiovascular functions and adiposity measure

epidemiological studies. The decreases of mean

are concerned there is significant correlation

of waist-hip ratio in the age group 9 years-16

between blood pressure and BMI, GMT and

years among the growing Rajput females

WHR till 12 years, but in later years no such

implies gynoid fat distribution during the

pattern is observed.

growing period. During adolescence, there is

found strong correlation between systolic blood

widening of the pelvis resulting into broader

pressure and diastolic blood pressure with body

hips

mass index and waist circumference in Wardha

relative

to

their

waist,

hence

the

ratio decreases as the denominator increases at a

Deshmukh et al (2006)

district of Central India.

Acknowledgement Authors gratefully acknowledge Prof. A. K.

are indebted to Rajput females of Solan district,

Kapoor,

Himachal Pradesh for their cooperation and help

Department

of

Anthropology,

University of Delhi for timely suggestions. They

during data collection. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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REFERENCES: Abbassi Val 2000 The National Center for

2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines

Health Statistics.

on the management and prevention of

Barness L A., Opitz J M., Gilbert-Barness

obesity in adults and children. CMAJ

E .2007. Obesity: genetic, molecular, and

.176(8): S1–13.

environmental aspects. Am. J. Med. Genet.

R.M. Malina, 1974. Adolescent changes in

143A(24): 3016–34

size, build, composition, and performance.

Bleich S, Cutler D, Murray C., Adams A.

Human Biology 46:117-131

2008. Why is the developed world obese? Annu Rev Public Health. .29: 273–95 Deshmukh P R., Gupta. S S, Dongre A R, Bharambe M S., Maliye C, Kaur S, Garg B S. 2006. Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels in Rural Wardha. India J Med Res. 123: 657664 Haslam D W, James W P. 2005.Obesity. Lancet 366(9492): 1197–209. Kapoor S, Patra P K, Sandhu S and Kapoor A K. 1998 Fatness and its distribution pattern among Jat Sikhs. J.Ind. Anthrop. Soc. 33:223-228. Kotchen TA, Grim CE, Kotchen JM, Krishnaswami S, Yang H, Hoffmann RG, McGinley EL 2008. Altered relationship of blood pressure to adiposity in hypertension. Am J Hypertens, 21b: 284-289. Lau D C, Douketis J D, Morrison K M, Hramiak I M, Sharma A M, Ur E .2007.

Gharib Nadia M. and Rasheed P. 2009. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain. Ann Saudi Med. 29(4): 258–269. Parizkova J. 1977 Body fat and physical fitness. The Hague, Martinus Nijhiff, B V Med. Div. Sinha R and Kapoor S. 2006 Parent-Child Correlation for Various Indices of Adiposity in an Endogamous Indian Population. Coll. Antrop. 30: 291-296. Sinha R and Kapoor S 2009 Gender difference in fat indices as evident in two generations. Anthrop. Anz. 67: 153-163. Tanner J M. 1962. Growth at adolescence, 2nd edition Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford. Tyagi R, Kapoor S, Kapoor A K. 2005. Body composition and fat distribution pattern of elderly females, Delhi, India. Coll. Anthropol..29(2):493-498.

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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18

CORRESPONDENCE *Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India.

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Scientific Research Journal of India

Exploration of the History of Physiotherapy Krishna Nand Sharma* BPT, MPT (Neuro) Abstract: Physiotherapy or Physical Therapy or PT, is a conservative science of the treatment and management after the clinical examination, assessment and diagnosis of the diseases for restoration of the neuro-musculo-skeletal and Cardio-pulmonary efficiencies, managing pain and certain integumentary disorders with the help of physical means like radiation, heat, cold, exercise, current, waves, manipulation, mobilization etc. Many organizations describe physiotherapy in their ways. This paper explores the historical roots of physiotherapy.

INTRODUCTION Physiotherapy or Physical Therapy

The Maharashtra OT PT Council defines

or PT, is a conservative science of the

the physiotherapy as: “ a branch of

treatment and management after the

medical

clinical

and

examination, assessment, interpretation,

diagnosis of the diseases for restoration of

physical diagnosis, planning and execution

the neuro-musculo-skeletal and Cardio-

of treatment and advice to any person for

pulmonary efficiencies, managing pain and

the purpose of the preventing correcting,

certain integumentary disorders with the

alleviating and limiting dysfunction, acute

help of physical means like radiation, heat,

and chronic bodily malfunction including

cold,

life

examination,

exercise,

assessment

current,

waves,

manipulation, mobilization etc.

science

saving

which

measures

includes

via

chest

physiotherapy in the intensive care unites,

Various organizations have defines

curing physical disorders or disability

the Physiotherapy in their own words. Few

promoting physical fitness, facilitating

definitions of them are given below:

healing and pain relief and treatment of

The APTA defines the physiotherapy as:

physical and psychosomatic disorders

“clinical applications in the restoration,

through modulating physiological and

maintenance, and promotion of optimal

physical response using physical agents,

physical function. ” 1

activities and devices including exercises, mobilization,

manipulation,

therapeutic

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Scientific Research Journal of India

ultrasound, electrical and thermal agents

Sweden. The Swedish word for physical

and electrotherapy for diagnosis, treatment

therapist is “sjukgymnast” (sick-gymnast).

and prevention. ”

2

Per Henrik Ling who is called he Father of

Physiotherapists use the patient’s

Swedish Gymnastics founded the Royal

history and physical examination to make

Central Institute of Gymnastics (RCIG) in

the diagnosis and establish a management

1813 for massage, manipulation, and

plan and in necessity they incorporate the

exercise. The

results of laboratory, imaging studies and

first

physiotherapy

Electrodiagnostic testing.

is

use

of

found

the in

word

German

Physiotherapy is concerned with

Language as the word “Physiotherapie” in

identifying and maximizing the quality of

1851 by a military physician Dr.Lorenz

life and movement potential within the

Gleich.5

spheres

of

promotion,

Physiotherapists

prevention,

were

given

treatment or intervention, habilitation and

official registration by Sweden’s National

rehabilitation

Board of Health and Welfare in 1887

which

encompasses

the

physical, psychological, emotional, and

which

was then followed

by other

social well being.

countries. The word “Physiotherapy” was the

coined by an English physician Dr.Edward

physiotherapy was rooted in 460 B.C.

Playter in the Montreal Medical Journal in

when the physicians like Hippocrates and

1894 after 43 years of the German term

later Galenus who may be believed to have

“Physiotherapie”. In his words- “The

been the first practitioners of physical

application of these natural remedies, the

therapy used to advocate massage, manual

essentials of life, as above named, may be

therapy techniques and hydrotherapy to

termed natural therapeutics. Or, if I may be

The

treat people.

texts

reveals

that

3

In the 18

permitted to coin from the Greek a new th

century, after the

term, for I have never observed it in print,

development of orthopedics, machines like

a term more in accordance with medical

the Gymnasticon were developed for the

nomenclature than the word hygienic

treatment of gout and similar diseases by

treatment commonly used, I would suggest

systematic exercise of the joints, similar to

the term, Physiotherapy” .6

later developments in physical therapy.4 The earliest documented origin of the actual physiotherapy is found to be in

In the same year four nurses Lucy Marianne

Robinson,

Rosalind

Paget,

Elizabeth Anne Manley and Margaret http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Dora Palmerin in Great Britain formed the

March 1921 in “The PT Review”. In the

Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.7

same year, Mary McMillan organized the

The first documented professional

physiotherapy

association

named

the

institution for Physio- therapy training was

American Women’s Physical Therapeutic

School of Physiotherapy at the University

Association which is currently known as

of Otago in New Zealand which run an

the

entry level program in physiotherapy.8

Association (APTA).

After this the next year or in 1914

American Primarily

Physical in

the

Therapy 1940s

the

in United States, Reed College in Portland,

treatment consisted of exercise, massage,

9

and traction but later in the early 1950s the

The establishment of the modern

Manipulative procedures to the spine and

physical therapy is thought to be in Britain

extremity joints began to be practiced

towards the end of the 19th century. The

especially in the British Commonwealth

American orthopedic surgeons started

countries, in the early 1950s.10, 11

Oregon, graduated “reconstruction aides”.

treating the disable children and started employing women trained in physical education, massage, and remedial exercise. It was promoted further during the Polio outbreak of 1916 and during the First World War when the women were working with the injured soldiers. The first physical therapy research was published in the United States in

REFERENCES 1. http:/ / www. apta. org/ / AM/ Template.

4.

American

cfm?Section=& WebsiteKey=

Association.

2. Maharashtra Act No. II of 2004.

Therapy. What is physical therapy ”

Mharashtra Govern- ment Gazzet. 12 Jan

(http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?S

2994. Part 8:5-29

ection= Consumers1& Template=/ CM/

3. Wharton MA. Health Care Systems I;

HTMLDisplay. cfm& ContentID=39568).

Slippery Rock University. 1991

American Physical Therapy Asso- ciation.

Physical

Therapy

Discovering

Physical

. Retrieved 2008-05-29. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

22

Scientific Research Journal of India

5. Tertouw TJA. Letter to editor-the origin

asp). School of Physiotherapy Centre for

of the term “ Physiotherapy ” . Physiother

Phys- iotherapy Research. University of

Res Int. 2006; 11:56-57

Otago. Archived from the original (http:/ /

6. Playter E. Physiotherapy First: Nature’s

physio. otago. ac. nz/ about/ history. asp)

medicaments

on 2007-12-24. . Retrieved 2008-05-29.

particularly

before relating

drug to

remedies;

hydrotherapy.

9. Reed College (n.d.). “ Mission and

Montreal Medical Journal. 1894;xxii:811-

History ” (http:/ / www. reed. edu/

827

about_reed/ history. html). About Reed.

7. Chartered Society of Physiotherapy

Reed College. . Retrieved 2008-05-29.

(n.d.). “ History of the Chartered Society

10. McKenzie, R A (1998). The cervical

of Physiotherapy ” (http:/ / www. csp. org.

and thoracic spine: mechanical diagnosis

uk/ director/ about/thecsp/ history. cfm).

and

Char- tered Society of Physiotherapy. .

Publications Ltd..pp. 16–20. ISBN 978-

Retrieved 2008-05- 29

0959774672.

8. Knox, Bruce (2007-01-29). “ History of

11. McKenzie, R (2002). “ Patient Heal

the School of Physiotherapy ” (http:/ /

Thyself ” . World- wide Spine &

web. archive. org/ web/ 20071224020426/

Rehabilitation

therapy.

New

2

Zealand:

(1):

Spinal

16–20.

http:/ / physio.otago. ac. nz/ about/ history. CORRESPONDENCE *Academic Chairman: Institute for Health & Wellness Address: Institute for Health & Wellness, Dr.L.Sharma Campus, Muhammadabad Gohana, Mau, U.P., India. Pin-276403. Email: dr.krisharma@gmail.com Cont: +91-9320699167

.

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Effectiveness of Proprioceptive Training over Strength Training in Improving the Balance of Cerebral Palsy Children with Impaired Balance Kuki Bordoloi* MPT (Neuro), Nidhi Sharma** MPT (Neuro)

Abstract: This is an experimental study with same subject design. Proprioceptive training and strengthening exercises is a promising therapy to improve the balance in CP subjects with impaired balance.The study intended to find out the effectiveness of Proprioceptive training and strength training exercises on balance of the CP subjects and which of them is more effective. 30 male or/and female patient of CP with impaired balance will be taken and randomly divided in to two groups. Group A will be treated with by proprioceptive training and group B will be treated with strength training for 12 week. Both group will assess with Timed-Up and Go (TUG) scale and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) in starting and at the end of 12 weeks. The result will be statically analyzed using t-test for significance between the two groups. After a 13-week training period, the ‘t’ test and ‘p’ values were found significant with values 4.747 & 0.003 for TUG&PBS score respectively stating that there is significant effect when using Proprioceptive training than giving strength training for improving balance in geriatric subject with impaired balance. The result states that there is a significant effect when using Proprioceptive Training than giving Strength Training for improving balance in the C.P. subjects. So the proprioceptive training should be emphasized in the daily exercise regime of C.P. subjects to improve their balance.

Key words: Balance, fall prevention, Strength training, Proprioceptive training.

INTRODUCTION Cerebral palsy is an umbrella term

It is caused by damage to the motor

encompassing a group of non-progressive

control centers of the developing brain and

[1]

can

, non-contagious motor conditions that

cause

physical

disability

in

occur

during

pregnancy,

during

human

childbirth or after birth up to about age

development, chiefly in the various areas

three.[4] The motor disorders of cerebral

of body movement.[2] It is a non-

palsy

progressive disorder of motor function.[3]

disturbances

are

often of

accompanied

sensation,

by

perception,

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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cognition, communication, and behaviour,

ways and to varying degrees in each

by

secondary

individual. Impairments present in children

It used to

with CP as a direct result of the brain

epilepsy,

and

by [5]

musculoskeletal problems.

describe diverse group of disorders of

injury

movement, posture and tone due to central

compensate

[4]

nervous system insult.

or

occurring for

indirectly

underlying

to

problems

In developed

include abnormal muscle tone; weakness

countries, the overall estimated prevalence

and lack of fitness; limited variety of

of CP is 2-2.5 cases per 1000 live births.

muscle synergies; contracture and altered

[34]

The prevalence of CP among preterm

biomechanics, the net result being limited

and very preterm infants is substantially

functional ability.[10] Other contributors to

higher.[6]

the

Balance can be defined as a

motor

disorder

include

sensory,

cognitive and perceptual impairments.[10]

complex process revolving the reception

Proprioception is a sense produced

and integration of sensory input, and the

by the sensory receptors that are sensitive

planning and execution of movement, to

to pressure in the tissues that surround

achieve

upright

them.[11] They are also present in the bones

posture.[7] The control of balance requires

of the legs, arms or other parts of the body

the

from

and these receptors response to stretches of

multiple sensory and motor systems by the

the muscle surrounding them and send

central nervous system (CNS).[8] Balance

impulse through the sensory nerve fibers

receptors in the inner ear (vestibular

to the brain.[11] Decline in dynamic

system) provide information to CNS about

position sense is associated with decrease

a

goal

integration

required of

in

information

the head and body movements.

[9]

The eye

in the balance of C.P. children and this

(visual system) provides input regarding

decline in proprioception can be prevented

the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s orientation and motion within

or improved by Proprioceptive training.[12]

the environment.[7] The position and

In a study Edward R Laskowski et al

motion sensory of the muscle and joints,

(1997) shown that proprioception based

and the touch receptors of the extremities

rehabilitation

(proprioceptive

signals

objectives measurements of functional

regarding bodily position particularly in

status, independent of changes in joint

system)

send

relation to the supporting surface.

[7]

The balance disorder of cerebral

programs

improved

laxity and proprioception can be improved through Proprioceptive training.[12]

palsy (CP) is expressed in a variety of http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Muscle strength is another factor

Recent research has focused on muscle

that plays an important role in balance and

weakness. ‘Wiley and Damino’ and Ross

mobility.

[7]

Muscle weakness can be major

and Engsberg’ described muscle is more

problem for many young people with

pronounced distally and found imbalance

[7]

cerebral palsy. strength

and

Training of muscle

coordination

has

across joints. Balance control is important

been

for competence in the performance of most

recommended to improve motor function.

functional skills, helping a child to recover

[13]

from unexpected balance disturbances,

Bobath considered spasticity to be the

main

problem

in

spastic

C.P.

and

either due to slips and trips or to self

suggested that resistance training should

induced

be avoided, but Carr stated that it is not the

movement that brings them towards edge

presence of spasticity but the negative

of their limit of stability.[16]

feature of weakness and loss of skills which are the major barriers to improve function. Many studies have reported positive result in strength training in spastic

children.[14]

Possible

factors

interfering with normal gait pattern in cerebral child includes spasticity, muscle contracture, bony deformities loss of selective motor and muscle weakness.[15]

instability

when

walking

a

Many studies have been conducted to

show

the

Proprioceptive

individual training

effect

and

of

strength

training to improve the balance of C.P. subjects. Hence this studies aims to analyze the effectiveness of both treatment technique

and

prove

the

better

effectiveness by comparing Proprioceptive training and Strength training.

METHODOLOGY Sample selection

Children below 8 years and above 14

The selection criteria are listed below.

years,

Inclusion Criteria: CP subjects with age

neurological impairment, Children with

group of 8-14 years, With normal I.Q.

audio visual impairment, Non ambulatory

(assessed by psychologist), Can follow

patients.

commands, Both boys and girls subjects, CP subjects who had fall at least twice a day, Subject who scored greater than 20

Children

with

any

other

Measurement tools Timed up and go scale

second in TUG test. Exclusion Criteria: http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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Timed up and go scale provides a reliable

they

were

quick screening measure. Many researches

department by neurologist.

indicate that most adult can complete the

referred

to

physiotherapy

Method

test in 10 seconds. A score of 11 to 20 seconds are considered within normal limit

The children were randomly divided in

for frail elderly or individual with a

two groups of 15 children each. All the

disability whereas score over 20 seconds

subjects were measured for functional

are indicative of impaired functional

balance using Timed Up & Go Test and

mobility. To perform this, the subject is in

Pediatric Balance Scale before start the

sitting position and a visible object is

training period and at the end of thirteen

placed 3 meter away from the patient. The

weeks of training.

subject is instructed to get up and walk down till the object and return to the seat. During this task timing is maintained with a stopwatch and the time taken for it is

Group A was trained with the Proprioceptive training whereas the Group B was trained with the Strength training.

recorded. A score greater than 20 seconds is associated with high risk in community dwelling older adults.

Protocol Strength training

Berg Balance Scale

All the subjects were treated with lower

The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), a

extremity strengthening exercises using

modification of Berg's Balance Scale, was

weight cuff. A standardized weight of one

developed as a balance measure for

repetition

school-age children with mild to moderate

considered for the subjects. 1RM was

motor impairments.It is used to assess

determined before the training for all the

balance and mobility which has 14

subjects.

functional tasks commonly performed in everyday life with scores ranging from 04, with a maximum score of 56.

maximum

(1RM)

was

A repetition of 8 to 15 times were done for all the strengthening exercises for duration of 30 minutes per session; with 5 minutes rest period in between for five

Procedure Patients were selected on the assessment and diagnosis of their condition and put on the inclusion and exclusion criteria after

days a week and were continued for 13 weeks. The following exercises were then given and it was ensured that the position http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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of subjects in all form of exercises were

kept on the thigh or on the side of the

comfortable.

chair, and then the right leg with the

1. Side leg rising

weight cuff was extended slowly in front, parallel to the floor for a period of 3

Subjects were made to lie in side lying

seconds. With right leg in that position, the

position and instructed to abduct the upper

foot was flexed so that the toes were

leg tied with weight cuffs slightly about 6-

pointing towards head; the foot was held in

12 inches. This position was held for

that position for 1-2 seconds. Duration of 3

sometime and then the leg was lowered.

seconds was taken to lower the leg back to

Same exercise was repeated with the other

the starting position, so that the balls of the

leg.

foot rested on the floor again. The same

2. Knee flexion exercise Subjects were made to sit on high chair or

procedure was repeated with the other leg. 5. Ankle Dorsiflexion

table, the knee was bent slowly as far as

Sitting on the chair with back support, the

possible, so that the foot with the weight

subject was asked to lift the foot tied with

cuff was bent behind. The subject was

a weight cuff so that the toes were pointing

asked to hold the position and then the foot

towards the head. Then the subject was

was lowered slowly all the way back

asked to hold and slowly return to the

down. The same procedure was repeated

original position. The same procedure was

with the other leg.

repeated with the other leg.

3. Hip Extension Exercise

Proprioceptive Training

Subjects were made to lie on prone

Subjects in Group A were given proper

position and one leg with weight cuff was

warm up for 5-10 minutes before starting

lifted slowly straight upwards. The subject

the treatment in the form of simple

was asked to hold the position and then the

stretching

leg was lowered. The same procedure was

stretch) and free exercises (knee flexion

repeated with the other leg.

and extension in side lying and high

4. Knee Extension Exercise Sitting on the chair with back support, the subject was asked to rest the balls of the feet & toes on the floor. The hands were

(Quadriceps

and

hamstring

sitting).[63] All the proprioceptive exercises were performed for duration of 30 minutes per session; with 5 minutes rest period in http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

between for three days a week and were

4. To perform one leg standing with

continued for 13 weeks.

one foot raised to the back and to maintain the position for minimum

The Proprioceptive training included the

3 seconds. This procedure was

following exercises

performed with eyes closed also.

1. Stair climbing up and down (a

5. Same exercise as above performed

regular 3 steps staircase).

but with one foot raised to the

2. Standing with feet approximately

front. This procedure was then

shoulder-width apart and arms extended

19

Scientific Research Journal of India

out

slightly

performed with eyes closed.

forward

6. Walking heel to toes.

lower than the shoulder, then

7. Rising from a standard chair (4

lifting both heel off the floor and to

times) without arm support.

hold the position for 10 seconds, followed by climbing regular steps staircase.

This

procedure

was

Data analysis Data analysis was performed using the

performed with eyes closed also.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences

3. Standing with feet side by side &

(SPSS) for windows version 17 (SPSS

holding the arms in same position

Inc., Chicago, U.S.A.). The data were

as described above, one foot is

analyzed using parametric (dependent‘t’

placed

test

on

the

inside

of

the

and

independent‘t’

test)

and

opposing ankle and to hold the

nonparametric (Wilcoxon Signed Ranks

position for 10 seconds. Followed

and Mann-Whitney Test) test to find the

by climbing regular steps staircase.

significance of the interventions used

This procedure was performed with

within and between the group A and B.

eyes closed also.

The significant level set for this study was 95% (p<0.05).

RESULTS & INTERPRETATION:

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Thirty Cerebral Palsy patients were part of

In Group A, 15 subjects with an

the study. Both the groups (A and B)

average age of 12.4 yrs (SD=1.96) and in

included 15 patients each, with 11 male

Group B, 15 subjects with an average age

and 4 females in group A and 12 male and

of 12.1 yrs (SD=1.79) completed the

3 females in group B. Age group taken

study.

was between 8-14 yrs with mean age of 12.33 yrs (SD=1.85).

Table 1.1: Comparison of Gender of patients in both groups Male

Female

Group A

11

4

Group B

12

3

Total

23

7

Table 1.2: Comparison of Mean and SD of Age of Patients in both groups Mean

SD

Male

12.8

1.25

Female

11.3

3.20

Male

11.8

1.80

Female

13

1.73

Group A

12.4

1.96

Group B

12.1

1.79

Group A

Group B

Total

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.1 â&#x2014;? 2012

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Scientific Research Journal of India

Table 1.3 Descriptive statistics of TUG Tests prior to and post study Mean

N

Std. Deviation

TUGAPR

23.667

15

1.799

TUGAPS

19.933

15

1.534

TUGBPR

23.333

15

1.676

TUGBPS

21.000

15

1.414

Table 1.4 Descriptive statistics of PBS Tests prior to and post study Mean

N

Std. Deviation

PBSAPR

42.1

15

1.792

PBSAPS

47.3

15

2.086

PBSBPR

43.1

15

1.685

PBSBPS

45.9

15

1.995

Interpretation

pre and post test means values for TUG

The table 1.1 states that total 30 patients

test It clearly shows that individually both

including 7 females were kept in two

Proprioceptive

groups A and B. The group A included 11

training

males and 4 females whereas the group B

Cerebral palsy patients with respect to

included 12 males and 3 females. Stating

TUG test but the improvement in the A

that the mean age of total patients was 12.4

which had had the Proprioceptive training

in group A and 12.1 in group B the table

showed more improvement. This is again

1.2 shows the mean age of male and

confirmed with the findings of PBS test in

female in group A and the male and

table 1.4 which states that although both

female in group B as 12.8, 11.3, 11.8, and

the groups showed improvement, the

13 respectively. The table 1.3 shows the

group A had better findings than group B.

training

produced

and

Strength

improvement

in

.Timed Up and Go Test:

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

19

Scientific Research Journal of India

Table 2.1 Dependent ‘t’ test performed with the pre & post values of TUG test for significance within the groups Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference`

Within Group

T

Df

P

Std. Mean

SD

Error

Lower

Upper

Mean TUG A Pre – TUG A Post

3.73333

.88372

.22817

3.24395

4.22272

16.362

14

0.003*

TUG B Pre – TUG B Post

2.33333

.72375

.18687

1.93254

2.73413

12.486

14

0.002*

*-Significant

Table 2.2: Independent ‘t’ test performed with the pre & post values of TUG test for significance between the groups Independent Samples Test t-test for Equality of Means

Levene's Test for

95% Confidence

Equality of

F

TUG ATUG B

Interval of the

Variances

Between Group

Sig.

Difference

T

Df

Mean

P

Diff.

Std. Error

Lower

Upper

.79586

2.004

Diff.

Equal variances

.429

.518

4.747

28

1.4000

0.003*

.29493

assumed

*-Significant

Interpretation The table 2.1 shows that the value of ‘t’ as 16.362 and 12.486 for TUG Test in Group

improvement in Cerebral palsy patients within their group with respect to TUG test.

A and Group B respectively in dependent

The table 2.2 shows that the value

‘t’ test. The ‘t’ value is significant at

of ‘t’ as 4.747 in independent ‘t’ test. The

p<0.5. Graph 4 representing the mean

value of ‘t’ is greater even at p<0.05,

values of Pre and Post values of Timed Up

which is significant. Hence there was

& Go test show improvement within the

significant difference in improvement

group A and B respectively. Hence

between

Proprioceptive

individually both Proprioceptive training

Strength

training

and Strength training produced significant

patients with respect to TUG test.

in

training Cerebral

and Palsy

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Pediatric Balance Scale test: Table 3.1: Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test Within Group

PBSAPR - PBSAPS

PBSBPR – PBSBPS

Z

-3.442

-3.432

P

0.002*

0.002*

*-Significant

Table 3.2: Mann-Whitney Test

PBS

GROUP

N

Mean Rank

Sum of Ranks

A

15

21.97

329.50

B

15

9.03

135.50

Total

30

*-Significant

Table 3.3: Mann-Whitney and Wilicoxon test performed with the pre & post values of PBS test for significance between the group Between Group

PBS

Mann-Whitney U

15.500

Wilcoxon W

135.500

Z

-4.083

P

0.003*

*-Significant

Interpretation: The table 3.1 shows that the value of ‘p’ as 0.002 for Group A and Group B when compared within the group respectively. Graph 5 representing the mean values of Pre and Post values of

PBS show improvement within the group A and B respectively. Thus there is significant improvement on PBS in Cerebral

palsy

patients

after

Proprioceptive training and Strength training within their group respectively. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

21

Scientific Research Journal of India

The table 3.3 shows that the value

between Proprioceptive training and

of ‘p’ as 0.003 and hence significant.

Strength training in Cerebral Palsy

Hence we can state that there was

patients with respect to PBS test.

significant difference in improvement

Table – 4.1 Mean of improvement in all the parameters between group a & Group B Parameters

Group A

Group B

TUG

3.73

2.33

PBS

5.19

2.73

Interpretation: The above table 4.1 and the graph 6, clearly indicates that the Proprioceptive training produced more improvement in the selected parameters (TUG, PBS) when compared with Strength training in

Graph 2: Comparison of Mean and SD

Cerebral palsy patients.

of Age of Patients between both groups and total.

Graph 1: Comparison of both the groups and the total on the basis of

Graph 3: Comparison of Mean and SD

gender of Patients

of pre study values of both groups

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

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Scientific Research Journal of India

Graph 6: Comparison of ‘Mean of Graph 4: Comparison of Mean and SD

Improvement’ in all the parameters

of Pre and Post values of Timed Up &

between Group A and Group B.

Go test

Graph 5: Comparison of Mean and SD of Pre and Postt values of Pediatric Balance Scale

DISCUSSION: In this study, better improvements in

tool are standard tools to analyze balance.

balance outcome were analyzed using

Proprioceptive training exercises were

proprioceptive

strength

given to improve the balance by improving

training. This study was done on 30 CP

the decreased sense of proprioception in

children with impaired balance who were

older age group where as Strength training

divided in to experimental Group Group-A

was given to improve the balance by

treated with Proprioceptive training and

improving the strength of lower extremity

Group-B with Strength training.

muscles.

training

and

The balance was taken as the

The improvements in functional

dependant endant variable which was measured

balance due to Proprioceptive training may

using Timed Up & Go test (TUG) and

be attributed to the improvemen improvement of

Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Both this

mechanoreceptor

activation.

Structural

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Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

23

Scientific Research Journal of India

changes in the muscle, bone and joints

These results were in accord with

during old age accounts for the decreased

Gauchard GC et al (1999) to improve

efficiency

proprioceptors.

balance by proprioceptive training. Studies

Researchers reason that proprioceptive

done by Pierre Gangloff et al (2003) also

training can

joint and

supports our results, which prove that

kinesthetic sensation to a greater extent

proprioceptive training exercises, improve

that the falls and risk of fall can be reduced

balance in subjects with impaired balance.

among the subjects.

This supports the experimental hypothesis

of

the

improve the

Edward R Laskowski et al also

hence the null hypothesis was rejected.

stated that the decline in dynamic position

The result of the present study

sense is associated with decrease in the

indicates that effect of proprioceptive

balance of C.P. children and this decline in

training had a proven effect over strength

proprioception

training.

can

be

prevented

or

All

participants

in

the

improved by Proprioceptive training.My

proprioceptive training group declared that

study confirms the study by Edward R

their balance had improved and most of

Laskowski et al (1997) which showed that

them were motivated to continue with the

proprioception

rehabilitation

training. Hence proprioceptive training

objectives

should be emphasized in the daily exercise

programs

based improved

measurements

of

functional

status,

independent of changes in joint laxity and

regime of CP subjects to improve their mobility

and

functional

status.

proprioception can be improved through proprioceptive training. [68] REFERENCES: 1. Cerebral Palsy. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, October 3, 2002

Augmentative

Alternative

and

Communication:

Management

of

communication

disorders

Paul

H

Brookes

Publishing Co. pp. 246–249. 3. Davis DW. Review of cerebral

2. Beukelman, David R.; Mirenda (1999).

Baltimore:

severe in

children and adults. Pat (2 ed.).

palsy,

part

I:

Description,

incidence, and etiology. Neoratel Netw 1997; 16(3): 7-12. 4. “Cerebral

Palsy

Topic

Overview”. http://children.webmd.com/tc/cereb http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.1 ● 2012

ral-palsy-topic-overview. Retrieved 2008-02-06.

12. Edward R.Laskowski, MD; Karen newcomer-Aney, MD; Jaysmith,

5. Anonymus (2007). “Definition and classification of cerebral palsy, Feb 2007”. Developmental medicine and child neurology 49 (8): 8. 6. Vincer MJ, Allen AC, Joseph KS, et

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Scientific Research Journal of India

al. Increasing

prevalence of

MD.Refining

rehabilitation

withproprioceptive

training:

expecting return to play; The physician and sports medicine; 1997 Oct;Vol.25, No. 10. 13. C Andersson et al. Adults with cerebral palsy: walking ability after

cerebral palsy among very preterm

progressive

infants:

segunda-feira, 10 de maio de 2010

a

population-based

study. Pediatrics. Dec 2006;118(6): e1621-6. Rehabilitation.

Mosby

Publications. Fourth edition. 2001. National

JF,

MacPhail

training. HEA.

Relationships among measures of

7. Darcy A Umphred. Neurological

8. Balance

14. Kramer

strength

Procedures Health

and

Manual, Nutrition

walking

efficiency,

gross

motor

ability, and isokinetic strength in adolescents

with

cerebral

palsy.

Pediatr Phys Ther 1994; 6:3 Á/8. 15. Phil

Page.Knee

osteoarthritis:

Examination Survey, Inhanes, May

strength training for pain relief and

2001

functional

9. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Arthur C. Guyton, John E. Hall. 10th Edition. ISBN: 0721602401

improvement;

ICAA

Publication, Vol.1 No.6, September 2003. 16. Mutch LW, Alberman E, Hagberg B,

10. Margaret J. Mayston. People With

Kodama K, Velickovic MV. (1992).

Cerebral Palsy: Effects of and

Cerebral palsy epidemiology: where

Perspectives for Therapy. Neural

are we now and where are we going?

Plasticity. Volume 8, No. 1-2, 2001

Developmental Medicine and Child

11. Vestibular Disorders Association.

Neurology 34: 547-555.

Official Website. Retriebed on 10/6/2011

CORRESPONDENCE: *Neuro-Physiotherapist, GNRC, Guwahati, Assam. Email: kukzzmail@gmail.com Cont: +91-8822485959. **HOD, Dept of Physiotherapy, AIER, Ghaziabad, U.P., India

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Postal Address: Scientific Research Journal of India, Dr.L.Sharma Campus, Muhammadabad Gohana, Mau, U.P., India. Pin- 276403 Email: editor.srji@gmail.com Cont: +91-9320699167, 8822485959, 9305835734

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