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About Us: Scientific Research Journal of India(SRJI) is the official organ of Dr.L.Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society. It was founded by Dr. Krishna N. Sharma. It is funded by the Dr. L. Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society. It is a Multidisciplinary, Peer Reviewed, Open Access Journal of science. The intended audiences of this journal are the professionals and students. The scope of journal is broad to cover the recent inventions/discoveries in structural and functional principles of scientific research. The Journal publishes selected original research articles, reviews, short communication and book reviews in the fields of Botany, Zoology, Medical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Anthropology and any other branch of related sciences. Frequency: The issues will be regularly published quarterly. Special Issue: Special issue based on specific themes may be published at the suggestion of the executive committee of Dr. L. Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society and the members of editorial of SRJI. Disclaimer: • • •

Information provided on the site is meant to complement and not replace any advice or information from a health professional. We do not make claims relating to the benefit or performance of a specific medical treatment, commercial product or service. All the papers published are claimed to be original by the authors. The editors, publisher, and reviewers will not be responsible for plagiarism.

Contact Us: Scientific Research Journal of India, Dr.L.Sharma Campus, Muhammadabad Gohana, Mau, U.P., India. Pin- 276403 Website: http://www.srji.co.cc Email: editor.srji@gmail.com Cont: +91-9320699167, 8822485959, 9305835734

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Index

Editorial

Dr. Popiha Bordoloi

5

Perception of students for laptop ergonomics and its use in the learning centre of Sheffield Hallam University, U.K.

Mayank Pushkar, Shobhit Sagar

7

Effectiveness of Educational Sessions on Reducing Diabetes in Women with PCOS— A Pilot Study

B. Sharmila, B. Arun

Efficacy of McKenzie Approach combined with Sustained Traction in improving the Quality of life following low Back Ache – A Case Report

A.Sridhar, S.Vimala

Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis by Laboratory Standardized IgM and IgG ELISA

Rajeswari Shome, M. Nagalingam, K. Narayana Rao, B.Jayapal Gowdu, B. R. Shome, K. Prabhudas

Microbiology

40

Study of Non-Isothermal Kinetic of Austenite Transformation to Pearlite in CK45 Steel by Ozawa Model Free Method

Mohammad Kuwaiti

Metallurgical Engineering

53

Face Exposure Technology

Thanigaivel.V

Recovery of Decayed Species through Image Processing

K.Priyadharsan, S.Saranya

Physiotherapy

23

34

60 Computer Technology 70

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Editorial Dear Readers, I am very pleased to present the third issue of the Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI). This multidisciplinary and open access Journal of science is the official organ of Dr. L. Sharma Medical Care and Educational Development Society. The previous issues had covered three disciplines of science Physiotherapy, Agriculture, Anthropology and Computer science. In this current issue we are covering two new branches of science- Microbiology and Metallurgical engineering. I would like to mention that this journal is intended to publish selected original research articles, reviews, short communications and book reviews etc. in the various fields of science like Botany, Zoology, Medical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Anthropology and any other branch of related sciences and we’ll be more than happy to recognize any of your works in these field too. Your comments and suggestions are very valuable for us.

Happy Reading.

Regards,

Dr. Popiha Bordoloi, Editor in Chief

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Perception of students for laptop ergonomics and its use in the learning centre of Sheffield Hallam University, U.K. Mayank Pushkar. BPT, MSAPT (Musculoskeletal)*, Shobhit Sagar. BPT, MSAPT (Musculoskelatal)**

Abstract: Background and purpose: Laptop ergonomics is one of the most concerned topics which result in high number of symptoms. The aim of this study is to find out student’s perception about laptop ergonomics and how to make the learning centre more laptop friendly. Methodology: A Qualitative survey with questionnaire consisting of both open and close ended questions was used. 80 volunteer participants participated in this study. Convenience Sampling was used for the selection of participants. Qualitative Content Analysis has been used for the analysis of the data. Results: It was observed that most of the students use laptop but they also get musculoskeletal problems (Laptopitis) because of the extended use and adopting improper posture while using laptop. Poor adaptation of posture was mainly because of unawareness about laptop ergonomics and also because of poor set-up in the learning centre. Conclusion: Laptop can be used in more friendly way without causing any discomfort if both the factors (awareness and ergonomics setup) will be considered. Also the awareness about the laptop ergonomics and proper posture should be spread among student populations as most of students from other faculties (0ther than related with health faculty) was not aware about the proper posture and ergonomics.

Keywords: Laptop Ergonomics, Library Setup, Workplace Ergonomics, Laptopitis/ Laptop Related Injury

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INTRODUCTION Now a days, technological advances such as

numbness,

use of personal computers directly affect the

sensation5.Laptops induced injuries have

life of people1. As per the National Centre

become

for Education Statistics (2000), the number

encompassing term has been used to refer to

of students using computers has increased

them

by more than 50% between 1985 and 1999

musculoskeletal

in the United Kingdom alone. With 98% of

disorders6. Laptops construction and usage

universities having internet facilities, the

result in users assuming improper posture

number of students opting for use of laptops

resulting in body discomfort, visual and

to

also

mental strains2. Moreover, workstations

increasing2.In fact, 80% of British students

configured for laptop computers, unsuitable

own a laptop in which 40% spends 3 – 4

furniture faulty lightings, further contribute

hours daily on internet3. Laptops are widely

to the physical injuries resulting from use of

being used by professionals who need to

laptops5.

travel and work in different places like

Hence, there is a great need to study the

office or college4. This phenomenon is

ergonomics of laptops. Laptop ergonomics

occurring largely because of the many

is a sub discipline under the broad umbrella

benefits accruing from laptops.

Laptop

of ergonomics that postulates the optimal

offers high technology performance in a

manner of working on laptops and the

compact, light, portable and self-sufficient

design of workspaces, where they are used

2

in order to keep related injuries to a

conduct

their

activities

is

with battery provided .

as

swellings,

so

common

“Laptopitis”, and

and

that

tingling

an

all-

which

includes

vision

related

minimum and optimize performance7. This It may be noted though, that the laptop was 2

study is focused on the views of students

not configured for long or constant use .

about the laptop ergonomics and how to

However,

increasingly

modify or redesign the learning centre, so

replacing desktops, students do use them for

that laptops can be used in their preferred

extended periods of time. This has resulted

way in the learning centre for extended

in a series of illnesses affecting different

periods of time without causing any

parts of the body which include pain in the

physical discomfort or injury.

since

they

are

neck, upper back, hands and wrists,

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employers. It was found that laptop users

LITERATURE REVIEW Few

studies

have

9

been

previously

adopt a posture with increased neck,

undertaken on ergonomics related to the use

shoulder

of laptops or computers. This report has

difference was not significant as compared

tried

of

to desktop users. Similar results were

participants about laptop ergonomics and

observed by Harbinson and Forrester (1995).

their views about the lack of resources in

The study concluded that laptop users

learning centre for use of laptop in

required

ergonomic way.

inclination in order to operate the laptop due

Straker and Harris (2000) have completed a

to lack of its adjustability.

mixed study with both qualitative and

Gold et al. (2011) quantitatively studied

quantitative data in order to establish the

postural characterisation in Laptop users in

physical ergonomics issues associated with

non-desk setting with 20 asymptomatic

the use and carry of laptop computers by

right-hand

school children. In total 314 participants

between

aged between 10 and 17 years participated,

participants were assessed in 3 postures

and filled the questionnaire in phase 1 of the

with two minute typing task followed by 5-

study and 20 participants were observed

minute editing task on laptop. The study

using the laptop in various locations in

has used MaxMATE motion data analysis.

second phase of study. The result found that

It was found that subjects reported greater

the participant's discomforts were resulted

intensity of discomfort while using laptop in

from using the laptop in a variety of non-

prone lying.

traditional work postures and also depend

Price and Dowell (1998) conducted a

on the model of laptop they use and carry.

quantitative

The study identified the potential physical

participants to evaluate the effect of laptop

implications associated with the use of

configuration and external input device on

laptops.

posture and comfort of laptop users. Each

Straker et al. (1997a) had studied the

participant was asked to work on 6 different

adoptive posture while using laptops and

computer configuration and anthropometric

desktops. The study was a cross-over study

data and baseline Nordic Discomfort Scale

with 16 participants, who were government

was completed before the start of the task.

to

discover

the

perception

and

an

elbow

increased

dominant 18

flexion

and

study

but

forward

participants 25.

on

The

14

the

head

aged

selected

volunteer

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The study concluded that use of extra

to find out the solution so that people can

peripherals in laptop seems to be more

use laptop in more comfortable and in their

comfortable

preferred way for prolonged time without

and

thus

decrease

the

discomfort associated with laptop usage.

causing any discomfort. Hence, this study

Kumari and Pandey (2010) have conducted

aims to focus on the ergonomics of laptops

a cross-sectional study to analyse the health

and what modification can be done in the

problems associated with computer usage

learning

and role of ergonomic factors. A total of

University, so that students can use their

200 participants were selected by stratified

laptop in learning centre in their preferred

random

way without any discomfort.

sampling

from

different

IT

centre

of

approval

Sheffield

was

obtained

Hallam

industries. Close ended questionnaire were

Ethical

from

used as data collection tool. The analysis of

Dissertation Management Group (Sheffield

the data was done by using SPSS software.

Hallam University). Participants were given

A standardized Nordic Questionnaire was

the information sheet and completion of an

use to assess musculoskeletal problems and

anonymous questionnaire was considered as

Zung’s self-rating scale was used to assess

consent from the participants.

depression. The study concluded the various problems

associated

with

laptops

or

METHODOLOGY

desktops use and also the effects of underlying

factors

like-

environment,

Research Design

lighting and setup of the work place on

A

laptop ergonomics.

questionnaire survey was used to obtain the

Several studies on ergonomic research with

student's

desktops while the same cannot be said for

ergonomics. A qualitative research is the

laptops,

best means of generating in-depth ideas and

through

some

studies

have

indicated the development of physical

Qualitative

developing

study

perception

hypothesis

design

about

which

with

laptop

may 8

symptoms associated with laptop use. Few

eventually decide to test quantitatively . As

of the researches have been done, which

the main aim of this study was to gather in-

found the symptoms associated with the use

depth information and generate ideas so the

of laptop

2,4,5

. As per the researcher’s

knowledge till now none of the studies tried

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Sampling

fast method of sampling if the population is

A total of 80 participants were selected

very large9. Convenience Sampling is said

based on inclusion criteria by ‘convenience

to be more appropriate for the study in

sampling’ as it was not possible to approach

which

the

aim

is

to

get

in-depth

10

all the student population in Sheffield

information .

Hallam University. It is practically easy and TABLE 1- INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION CRITERIA: INCLUSION CRITERIA Students of Sheffield Hallam University.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA Students who were not using laptop/Desktop.

Students who were using Laptop/ Desktop for their course work.

Students who were not student of Sheffield Hallam University.

Students who knew English Language.

Data collection:

among the colleagues to check for content

The data was collected through the survey

validity and suggestions were considered

method

a

while reframing the questionnaire. The

questionnaire as it is the essential form of a

questionnaire was pilot tested with 7

by

using

a

tool

called 11

survey to a large sample population . A

participants and the information was taken

questionnaire is an important method of

into consideration while making final

11

survey to a large sample population . The

questionnaire. Changes were made in 7

questionnaire consisted of both close and

questions after piloting of the study. The

open

evidence

ended

questions.

Close

ended

suggested

that,

for

the

questions were objective and unambiguous.

questionnaire to be valid and reliable, it

Open ended questions were used for

should go through the formal pilot of the

collection of larger amounts of information.

questionnaire

The questionnaires were developed on the

population12.

by

the

same

sample

basis of Environmental and Occupational Health

and

Computer

Safety

Service

Workstation

(EOHSS)

Data Analysis:

Ergonomics

The main purpose of data analysis is to

Questionnaire. Prior to the implementation

identify what the texts of participants talk

of questionnaire, they were circulated

about. The qualitative content analysis is http://www.srji.co.cc


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used to process and analyse the information

5. Code all the text: Involves coding

given in text format or from an open ended

all the data which have been.

13

questions . The data gathered was more

Different

descriptive, hence it was suitable for

similar sense were given single code

14

qualitative content analysis . Hence,

the

qualitative

with

6. Assess coding consistency: This content

step

data

15

analysis was used for data analysis, which

involves

rechecking

the

consistency of coding.

involves the following steps:

7. Draw conclusion from the coded data: This step involves making

1. Prepare the data: Present all the

sense of themes and identified their

data collected in a chart format.

properties.

2. Identifying the unit of analysis: Identify

units/keywords

the

different

Rigour of analysis was enhanced by a several-stage

Units/keywords from the text.

process

of

defining and

a

refiningthemes, by constant comparative

coding scheme: It can be derived

analysis between scripts and themes until

from

data,

final themes were developed. This analysis

previous related studies, and theories.

produced 7 key themes, which are listed

3. Developing

categories

three

sources:

and

the

4. Code testing on a sample of text: It is

used

for

the

clarity

with their definition in Table 2.

and

consistency of category definitions.

TABLE- 2: Main Themes from Data Analysis. THEMES

DEFINITION

Factors which facilitates the use of

Reasons because of which students use

LC.

LC.

Preference of use of Laptop/Desktop in

What’s the reason for preference of

LC

using Laptop/Desktop.

Symptoms faced while

Which all symptoms the participants

using Laptop/Desktop

suffer and what’s its cause?

Posture Awareness

Awareness about the posture in participants.

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Environment/ Infrastructure of LC

13

How is the environment and setting of LC for the use of laptop.

Interference with extra

How does the extra computer-accessories

Computer-accessories.

interfere the level of comfort and increase the work efficacy.

Recommendation to Improve LC

What changes can be done to improve the LC for the use of Laptop.

RESULT:

“psychological motivation they get in

The questions which were related were put

learning centre for study”.

into similar themes and then the results were presented on the basis of sub-themes.

Preference of use of laptop or desktop in learning centre

Factors that facilitates use of Learning

When the participants were asked whether

Centre

they use laptop or desktop in learning centre,

Almost all participants were using the

42 participants said that they use desktop as

learning centre for their course work

they feel it convenient and comfortable.

because of better facilities or resources like-

They said that they "do not have to bring

"Books,

IT

laptop and it is easy for them to use desktop

equipment/resources, café etc.", while many

than laptop". Some of them said that, they

participants said that they prefer Learning

"prefer desktop because of big screen of

Centre because they like the environment of

desktop and also there is less space and

Learning Centre as it is "Quite place and

plug points for laptop in learning centre…".

easy to concentrate for the study". Some of

Few of the participants said that it is "easy

the

Centre

to work on desktop as the desktop is fast

because of the convenience and comfort,

and more comfortable" and also they "can

like- they can "use leisure hours between

use it for prolonged period of time…". Only

the lecture, the convenient opening and

11 participants said that they use laptop in

closing hours of Learning Centre and group

learning centre because they "prefer to use

study/work". Few of participants said about

laptop" and also it is "convenient for them

Journals,

participants

use

area,

Learning

to save their data". Some of the participants http://www.srji.co.cc


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said that they use laptop as they "can use it

Posture Awareness

anywhere in learning centre, comfortable,

Out of 80 participants, 55 participants stated

easy to use and it is more portable…".

a positive response and defined posture in their own words, while 25 participants have

Problems

or

symptoms

faced

by

given negative response as they were not

participants while using laptop or desktop

aware with the correct position or posture

From the result it was observed that, the

for the use of laptop. The participants who

most experienced symptoms were “Tight,

were not aware about the posture were

sore neck and shoulder muscles”, followed

mainly from the faculty other than health

by “Pain or aching in wrists, forearms,

related courses such as: Criminology,

elbows,

Events management, Information system

neck,

or

back

followed

by

discomfort”, and then “General fatigue or

management,

Law

etc.

tiredness”, then “Blurred or double vision”.

participants said, usually posture means: sit

Also it was found that, the least faced

straight, back support, hip and knee flexed,

symptom was “Swelling or stiffness in the

and screen at eye level. Some of the

hand or wrists”.

statements

Most of the participants said that, these

participants to define posture for laptop are

symptoms are because of their bad or poor

presented below:

given

by

Most

the

of

the

different

posture like- (Keeping laptop on knee, using laptop while lying down, Slouched posture

“Screen in line with eyes, elbow flexed to

etc.), continuous position such as: (Sitting

90°, knee at 90°, hip at 90°, shoulder flexed.”

for prolonged, focusing on small screen for

(2)

long period, no interval between work etc.), and ergonomics setup like- (Desks and

“Back support, Hip + Knee supported,

chairs not adjusted, Too close to screen for

Appropriate Height.” (39)

long period etc.). Some of the participants said that there might be some other reasons

“Sit erect, avoid neck flexion, sitting at

for the symptoms like- (weak joint, poor

comfortable distance, and avoid excessive

posture throughout the day, Back and neck

elbow bending.” (62)

pain from exercise).

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Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012 Environment

or

Scientific Research Journal of India Infrastructure

of

15

fewer resources such as: “Area, less table and chairs, less space around the table”.

Learning Centre (LC) More than half of participants found environment of learning centre to be

Interference

comfortable

accessories like- keyboard and mouse on

for

the

use

of

Laptop.

with

extra

computer-

Participants found environment of learning

laptop work

centre comfortable because of different

Out of 80 participants, some of the

resources like- “Tables, adjustable chairs,

participants answered that, use of extra

more space for laptop, plug points, proper

equipment like- mouse and keyboard could

lighting and easily accessible resources”.

provide more comfort and can work with

While less than half of the participants

greater ease. Participants answered that use

found the environment of Learning Centre

of extra equipment can provide more

is

use.

comfort, free movement and also they can

Participants said that, there is “less space,

modify their position accordingly. Some of

less number of tables for laptop, tables and

the participants said that “mouse is better

chairs are not setup at proper height or not

than touchpad” and they can “work faster

adjustable, and also there is less charging

and in more comfortable way”. Few

plug/points for laptop use”.

participants answered that use of keyboard

When asked about the infrastructure/ setting

and can provides “more comfort to them

of Learning centre, most of them said that

and they do not have to negotiate with

the environment of learning centre is

posture”.

comfortable

and

participants answered that, they do not find

adjustable chairs, proper lighting and quite

any difference in comfort level with the use

area”. While one quarter of participants did

of extra keyboard and mouse in the Laptop.

not find the infrastructure of LC to be

Some of them said that they “do not want to

comfortable because of different difficulties

carry keyboard and mouse and also they

such as: “Limited space around the table,

can manage fine without it”.

not

comfortable

because

for

of

laptop

“tables

While

more

than

half

of

uncomfortable chairs, cold environment, chairs do not have armrest, very much

Recommendation to improve Learning

crowded”. Some of them said that there are

Centre for use of Laptop

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16

have

condition16. Student population use laptops

suggested with different recommendation

in the learning centre because of the many

for the use of laptops in learning centre so

benefits of the laptop. It is easy to carry and

that laptop can be used for extended period

use laptop as the participants can save their

of time. Most of them want “proper

data17.

ergonomic setup for laptop users, more

It was observed that most of the participants

laptop

table,

experienced some of the symptoms while

comfortable chairs with neck and back

using either laptop or desktop. From the

support,

laptop

data gathered by questionnaire, it was found

changing”. Some of the participants have

that the participants faced problems related

suggested for the “Laptop stand, specific

to neck, shoulder, hand, back and eyes. The

type of table for laptop and dock station for

most common symptoms were “Pain or

laptop”. Few of the participants said that

aching in wrists, forearms, elbows, neck, or

there should be “more tables for laptop in

back followed by discomfort” (42%) and

silent area and also individual/ separate

eye strain (42%). Similar type of results was

booth/ room for laptop users”.

found by Kumari and Pandey (2010) and

Major

number

area,

and

of

participants

more

plug

spacious

points

for

said that the common causes of these DISCUSSION

symptoms were sitting for prolonged in

This qualitative study obtained student’s

awkward or poor posture (Fig-1). Also the

perception about laptop ergonomics and its

literature suggested that the participants

use in the learning centre of SHU. Almost

should take eye break every after 20 min to

all participants use learning centre for their

reduce strain on eye while working on

course

laptop18. It was also found that participants

work

environment

because and

of

different

the

better

types

of

who use laptop faced more symptoms than

resources available. The environment of

the one who use desktop. This could have

learning centre provides more comfort and

been in order to adjust the posture to use

motivation to the students for the study,

desktop and laptop in more comfortable

because the setup of the environment is

position3.

study oriented. It has also been shown that

participants adopt poor posture because of

hot and noisy environment directly affects

the lack of adjustability of the laptop as the

the work productivity and ergonomic

screen and keyboard are attached2. This was

Even

evidence

proves

that

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supported by another study by Straker et al.

communal table which are being used for

(1997a), they have suggested that usually

laptop use are of very low height so it is

laptop users tried to assume posture that

difficult to adjust the chairs accordingly. As

would

by

the evidence by Straker and Harris (2000)

increased neck, shoulder and elbow flexion.

suggested that the participants experienced

They adopt this posture in order to see a

physical discomfort because of the physical

lower screen and reach a higher keyboard.

ergonomic issues as they use the laptop in

The main factors judged by the participants

poor posture. This was supported by Moffet

as cause of their symptoms while using

et al. (2002) in their study; evaluated the

laptop or desktop were “Sitting in same

impact of two work station (desktop and

posture

hours”,

laptop) on neck and upper posture, muscle

“Awkward and poor posture”, and the

activity and productivity. The study said

“setup

that the workstation setup influenced the

compromise

for

for

their

continuous

laptop”

posture

long

which

was

not

ergonomically correct.

physical exposure variable while working

As the height of table in the learning centre

on laptop.

is not appropriate, and also some of the

Fig-1: Shows the poor and good posture for Laptop.

Some of the participants who were not

of lack of awareness about ergonomics

related with health course, they did not

among that students population. So the

know about the correct position or posture

participants adopt the poor posture while

for the use of laptops. They have not

working on laptop, because it has been

defined the posture. This might be because

found that lack of knowledge about posture http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â—? No.3 â—? 2012

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18

can leads to symptoms as they do not adopt

Kumari and Pandey (2010) found that the

the proper posture while working on

use of various computer accessories like-

5

desktop or laptop .

adjustable keyboard tray, foot rest, best-fit

From the result it was also found that use of

computer mouse design, task lighting and

extra computer- accessories can provide

docking station can help in preventing the

more comfort, and can ease the symptoms

health related symptoms. Even some of the

and increase the work efficacy of the

participants have suggested for the use of

participants. This is because the extra

laptop stand or docking station (Fig-2). It

equipment

adjustability

might be helpful because they can fix the

according to the posture and the users do

laptop and can use it in ergonomic way so

not have to compromise with the posture.

that the symptoms can be prevented.

provides

the

This was supported by a study done by

Fig-2: Show the ideal Laptop stand/Docking station for laptop. According to the ergonomic advice by

The study has suggested the use of docking

Stanford University, Environment Health

station, so that the subjects do not have to

and Safety, the laptop workstation has been

adopt the poor posture and can use laptop in

suggested, so that the laptop could be used

effective way.

as workstation if working for long hours

The study had several limitations. Many of

and the symptoms can be minimized.

the participants have not answered all the

Moffet et al. (2002) have given some

questions which might be because of lack of

advices to prevent pain while using laptop.

interest, lack of time or the structure of the http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â—? No.3 â—? 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

questions. All the analysis and calculations

spread

were done manually so there might be some

distributing leaflets,

chances of manual error. It was not possible

seminar.

to

of

recommendation in improving learning

participants as the method of data collection

centre can be given into the notice to the

was questionnaire. The sample size (n=80)

learning centre authority Dept., so that they

in the study was relatively large, which was

can use the finding as feedback in

the strength of the study. The participants

improving the learning centre for better use

were from different faculties, which might

for students and staffs. And also the

have result in variable data as the students

students will be benefited by these changes

from

and they might be able to use learning

explore

different

in-depth

course

perception

have

different

though

19

the

The

means

of

Poster,

and

induction

or

findings

about

the

perception about the ergonomics. Rich

centre in more efficient way.

informative data were gathered through the

The data of this study also has a further

open-ended questionnaire, which was one of

clinical relevance; Symptoms are mainly

the aims of qualitative research.

because of poor posture and wrong setup of workstation of laptop, so in order to prevent

CLINICAL IMPLICATION:

those symptoms, both the factors should be

Laptop ergonomics is very applicable for all

corrected.

who use laptops. The result of this study might help not only the student populations

FURTHER RESEARCH:

but also the general population who use

As this was the first study to researcher's

laptop. As it was found that there is lack of

knowledge done on the student population

awareness about the proper posture for

in SHU about laptop ergonomics, so an

laptop use among students, so the measure

obvious need for more research in this area

should be done to spread the awareness.

is observed. More research should be done

Mainly the student population, who are not

in order to find out the actual ergonomic

from health related courses, should be

setup of the working environment in the

focussed. It might be very helpful if there

learning centre.Also a quantitative study

should be some induction about the posture

could be suggested as further research in

for the student population before start of the

order to find out the effectiveness of

course. Awareness about the posture can be

ergonomics training program on posture http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

20

while working on laptop. Looking to the

From the research done, it can be seen that

current scenario it seems that in coming 10

students population prefer to use learning

years laptop or i-pad or tablet will be

centre because of the different facilities and

replacing the desktop so the study should be

environment. But they also get symptoms

conducted in order to find out how the

by using the resources like- desktop or

learning

laptop, which is because of wrong posture

centre

should

be

designed

ergonomically for laptop or i-pad or tablet

they adopt

while working.

So

these

use.

resources should be set-up on the basis of

CONCLUSION:

ergonomics way and awareness about the posture should be spread among students.

REFERENCES: 1. Gulek, J. C. and Demirtas, H. Learning

4. Moffet, H. et al. Influence of laptop

with technology: The impact of laptop use

computer design and working position on

on

physical

student

achievement.

Journal

of

Technology, Learning, and Assessment,

exposure

variables.

Clinical

biomechanics, 2002;17(5):368-375.

2005;3(2). 5. Kumari, G. and Pandey, K.M. Studies on 2. Harris, C. and Straker, L. Survey of

health problems of software people: A case

Physical Ergonomics Issues Associated with

study of Faculty of GCE and GIMT

School

Gurgaon, India. International Journal of

Children’s

Computers.International

Use

of

Laptop

Journal

of

Innovation,

Management

and

Industrial Ergonomics, 2000;26;337-346.

Techonology,2010;1(1):388-397.

3. Thrasher, M. and Chesky, K. Medical

6. Blome, M., Johansson, C. R. and

Problems of Clarinetists. Results from the

Odenrick, P. Visualization of ergonomic

UNTMusician Health Survey. Texas Music

Guidelines –A comparison of two computer

Education Research. 1998. Last Accessed

aided

19th

design.International Journal of Industrial

Dec

2011

at

http://www.tmea.org/080_College/Research

systems

to

support

vehicle

Ergonomics,2005.

/thr1998.pdf. http://www.srji.co.cc


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Scientific Research Journal of India

21

7. Szeto, G. and Lee, R. An Ergonomic

their applications in nutrition education.

Evaluation Comparing Desktop, Notebook,

Journal

and Sub-Notebook Computers. Arch. Phys.

Behavior, 2002;34: 224-230.

of

Nutrition

Education

and

Med. Rehabilitation, 2002;83: 527-532. 14. Ffiman, A., Ebbeskog, B. and Klag, 8. Kumar, R. Research Methodology, A

B.Wound

step-by-step guide for beginners. 1st edn.,

care:district nurses’needs for co-operation

SAGE,London, New Delhi, 2005.

and

care

in

primary

well-functioning

health

organization.

J.

Interprof Care,2010; 24: 90–99. 9. Marshall, M.N. Sampling for qualitative research. Family Practice,1996;13: 522-525.

15. Mayring, P. Qualitative content analysis. Forum:

10. Patton, M.Q. Qualitative evaluation and research

methods.

Newbury

SAGE

Park

Qualitative

Social

Research,2000;1(2).

Publications.

London

New

Delhi,1990:169-186.

16. Ashraf, Shikdar, Naseem, and Sawaqed. Worker health

productivity, and

safety

and

occupational

issues

in

selected

11. Paul, H.P., Yeowa, Rabindarnath, and

industries;

Sen. Quality, productivity, occupational

Engineering, 2003;45( 4): 563-572.

Computers

&

Industrial

health and safety and cost effectiveness of ergonomic

improvements

test

17. Shears, L. and McDonald. Computers

workstations of an electronic factory.

and Schools. Victoria. Australian Council

International

for Educational Research.1995.

Journal

in

of

the

Industrial

Ergonomics,2003; 32: 147–163. 18.

Ergonomic

Recommendations

for

12. Williams, A. (2003). How to write and

Laptop Computer Use. Stanford University

analyse

Ergonomic program.[Online]. Last assessed

a

questionnaire.

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of

orthodontics,2003;30:245-252.

on

17th

Dec,

2011

at

http://www.stanford.edu/dept/EHS/prod/gen 13. Kondracki, N. L. and Wellman, N. S.

eral/ergo/documents/laptop_guide.pdf

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Scientific Research Journal of India

22

19. Environmental and Occupational Health

21. Price, J.M. and Doewell, W.R. Laptop

and Safety Service (EOHSS). Computer

Configuration in office: Effects on posture

workstation

and

Last

Ergonomics

Accessed

19th

Questionnaire. Dec,

2011

at

Discomfort.Human

factors

and

Ergonomics Society,1998;42:629-633.

http://www.umdnj.edu/eohssweb/publicatio ns/directory.htm#Office

22. Straker, Leon, Jones, Kerry J.,Miller, an Jenni. A comparison of the postures

20. Gold, J. E., et al. Characterization of

assumed when using laptop computers and

posture and comfort in laptop users in non-

desktop

desk

ergonomics,1997a;28(4): 263-268.

settings.

Applied

ergonomics,

computers.

Applied

2012;43(2): 392-399.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT: A special thanks to my family and friends for their continuous support. Also thanks to the management of Sheffield Hallam University for giving me opportunity to complete my study.

CORRESPONDENCE: * Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom. Email: physio.mayank.pushkar@gmail.com **Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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23

Effectiveness of Educational Sessions on Reducing Diabetes in Women with PCOS— A Pilot Study B. Sharmila, BPT, MSc (Yoga)*, B. Arun, MPT**

Abstract: PCOS (Poly cystic ovarian syndrome) is one of the common syndromes in females, around 10 % of females in world having PCOS. PCOS have a strong link on Diabetes. Study is a descriptive study to find out the effect of educational session on diabetes for women who has PCOS. Around 20 females with PCOS were selected, an Educational session was conducted for duration of 4 weeks, and Diabetic Questionnaire was given to analyze the knowledge of diabetes. Following the 4 weeks of educational sessions, all participants have gained a good knowledge on PCOS and Diabetes. This study concludes that educational session is very important for the management of Diabetes and especially for females who has PCOS.

Key words: Type II diabetes, PCOS, Educational Session, Diabetic Questionnaire.

INTRODUCTION Diabetes is one of the most common health

family members due to the constant need

problems in the world. India is the capital of

for decision-making and actions to promote

diabetes. Many studies conducted in India

good

showed that prevalence of type 2 diabetes

acknowledged as the foremost goal in

was more and it is increasing in urban

diabetes care and treatment3.

populations1, 2. Diabetes exerts a significant

The burden of diabetes on women is unique,

impact on the lives of individuals and their

because the disease can affect both mothers

glycemic

control,

an

outcome

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

24

and their unborn children. Diabetes can

glucose intolerance in PCOS women has

cause difficulties during pregnancy such as

been reported to occur at an earlier age than

a miscarriage or a baby born with birth

in the normal population (approximately by

defects. Women with diabetes are also more

the 3rd-4th decade of life). However, other

likely to have a heart attack and at a

risk factors such as obesity, a positive

younger age than women who do not have

family history of type 2 diabetes and

diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is strongly

hyperandrogenism

associated with Women who suffer from

increasing the diabetes risk in PCOS4.

PCOS (Poly cystic ovarian syndrome).

Dr.Geoffrey Redmond said that “There is

PCOS is a leading cause of menstrual

no question about the association” one of

irregularity and female infertility. The

the problems is that people haven’t put the

Statistical links between diabetes and PCOS

pieces together” He added that there is a

are

strong association between PCOS and

very

strong

about

5%--10%

of

may

contribute

to

reproductive age women have PCOS and 50%

Insulin resistance. While focusing the

--70%

also

infertility and menstrual changes, health

experience insulin resistance and 20%--40%

care professionals should also look for the

obese women with PCOS may have insulin

chance of diabetes, and screening of

resistance and diabetes.

diabetes is much desirable.

of

women

with

PCOS

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome

affecting

(PCOS) are insulin resistant, have insulin

women in reproductive age, characterized

secretory defects, and are at high risk for

by

and

glucose intolerance. PCOS women are at

hyperandrogenism. The etiology of PCOS is

significantly increased risk for IGT and type

still unknown. However, several studies

2 diabetes mellitus at all weights and at a

have suggested that insulin resistance plays

young age, The prevalence rates are similar

an important role in the pathogenesis of the

in 2 different populations of PCOS women,

syndrome. The risk of glucose intolerance

suggesting that PCOS may be a more

among

be

important risk factor than ethnicity or race

approximately 5 to 10 fold higher than

for glucose intolerance in young women,

normal and appears not limited to a single

and the American Diabetes Association

ethnic group. Moreover, the onset of

diabetes diagnostic criteria failed to detect a

common

endocrine

chronic

PCOS

disorder,

anovulation

subjects

seems

to

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â—? No.3 â—? 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

significant number of PCOS women with 5

diabetes by post challenge glucose values . Type 2 Diabetes has pancreas that produces little or no insulin. As the pancreas

25

cholesterol) and triglyceride levels in the blood stream, as well as decreasing HDL cholesterol (high-density density lipoprotein - the "good" cholesterol.)

struggles to keep up with the body's need

While there is no cure for diabetes, a

for more insulin, excessive levels of glucose

number of steps can be taken to prevent

and insulin build up in the blood stream,

complications. plications. Research showed that losing

often leading directly to Type 2 Diabetes.

5-7% 7% of body fat and increasing physical

Certain factors actors that figure in the onset of

activity by taking a brisk walk 4-5 4 times a

PCOS

week can reduce risk of developing Type 2

are

also

implicated

in

the

development of Type 2 Diabetes: excessive

Diabetes by almost 60%.

abdominal fat, high LDL "bad" blood cholesterol and low HDL "good" cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides and hypertension

DIABETES PCOS LINK

(high blood pressure). Although PCOS is much perceived as gynecological disorder because it impairs

PCOS EXCESSIVE ANROGEN SECRETION

fertility and can cause irregular periods or no periods at all. Evidences suggest that PCOS is more of a disorder of the endocrine system with gynecological consequences.

HORMONAL IMBALANCE INSULIN RESISTANCE

Diabetes Prevention Program study 2001, study shows that all of the factors associated

with

Insulin

Resistance,

Polycystic ic Ovarian Syndrome and PrePre

STIMULATE THE PANCREAS TO SECRETE MORE INSULIN HYPER INSULINEMIA

Diabetes are interrelated. Obesity and lack of exercise worsen Insulin Resistance, which then has a negative effect on blood lipid production, increasing VLDL (very

CELL DYSFUNCTION

DIABETES

low-density density lipoprotein), LDL cholesterol (low-density

lipoprotein ein

-

the

"bad" http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

26

damage and blindness. Overweight women INSULIN RESISTANCE

do not, however, have a monopoly of Polycystic Ovarian

HIGH SUGAR IN BLOOD

Syndrome and its

related disorders because females of normal weight and even lean women are also prone

STIMULATE THE PANCREAS TO SECRETE MORE INSULIN

to these conditions. Insulin Resistance occurs when the body produces enough insulin but its cells lack

INCREASE PRODUCTION OF ANDROGEN

enough

receptor

sites

to

allow

the

absorption of insulin at a cellular level. Type 2 Diabetes develops when the body either doesn't produce enough insulin or it

PCOS

can't process the insulin that is produced. Aim of the study:

Need for the study: It's important to understand the distinction between Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is one of the top fatal disorders in the World. In 2000, it was the sixth leading cause of death and has been

associated

with

long

term

complications affecting almost every part of the body, including blindness, heart and blood vessel disease, stroke, kidney failure, amputations and nerve damage.

Obese

Study Objectives: To educate the patient about disease (PCOS) and teach on link between PCOS and Diabetes To make the patient learn about the preventive methods To reduce the risk of getting diabetes To

make

patient

to

understand

the

importance of Diet, Exercises etc.

women are particularly susceptible to PCOS and Type 2 Diabetes. A vicious cycle quickly forms because these conditions, in turn, put women at dramatically increased risk of Cardiovascular Disease, as well as the development of many other serious health conditions, including stroke, kidney

METHODOLOGY: The study is a descriptive study design, 100 women with PCOS were examined by the Gynecologist and 20 women were selected for the study. The subjects were selected based on age group of 25—33years, http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

27

Married females, Married within 2 years,

questionnaire and their performance was

Obese or female in Borderline obesity. No

assessed. At the end of the 4 week class the

history

other

questionnaire was repeated and assessed the

irregular

knowledge on diabetes for women with

of

gynecological

conception, problems

No like

menstrual periods or small uterus. No other

PCOS.

relevant medical problems. Before initiating the study Blood test was conducted to check

RESULTS:

their random blood sugar levels. Clear

The demographic data about the subjects

instructions

were mentioned in Table 1.

were

given

to

all

the

Table 1 Demographic Data

participants. The educational class is for 4 weeks of duration and the Diabetic educator role is to make all participants attending all

Age Group

25—27

28—30

31—33

7

6

7

the sessions. Prior to the class a Diabetic knowledge Questionnaire was distributed to

Figure 1

all individuals and to find out how much knowledge on Diabetes and PCOS. The questionnaire was a single paged one which

7

includes the questions about the knowledge

7

on diabetes and the knowledge on PCOS. The participants were asked to fill up the

6

questionnaire with Yes or No. Questions are valued as 1 point for Yes and 0 point for No. Educational Classes conducted on Every

Age

25-27

28-30

31-33

Sunday Morning (10 am —1 pm). The content of the Classes include 1) What is

The Table 2 shows the result using students ‘t’ test.

PCOS 2) What are the Causes 3) Symptoms of Diabetes with PCOS 4) Diabetes Link with PCOS 5) Prevention Methods. The

Groups

Pre Test mean

Post Test mean

S.D

3.8

7.85

0.285

Paired ‘t’ Value 14.19 (P<0.05%)

questions asked by the women participants were clarified. At the end of the programme all participants were instructed to fill up the http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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Figure 2

28

be prevented as well as prevent the complications following diabetes. 157

200 150

Women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) who become pregnant may

76

100

experience more health problems than the

50

general population, including gestational

0

diabetes, pregnancy-induced pregnancy high blood Pre

Post

pressure,

miscarriage

and

premature

delivery. Table 2 shows the paired t values of the Diabetic

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a

Questionnaire. This shows that the educational

common

programme has shown positive effect on the

women in reproductive age, ag characterized

participant’s attitude. It also shows that there was a significant improvement on the knowledge on

by

endocrine

chronic

disorder,

affecting

anovulation

and

hyperandrogenism. The etiology of PCOS is

diabetes mellitus.

still unknown. However, several studies DISCUSSION: Women

with

have suggested that insulin resistance plays PCOS

generally

an important role in the pathogenesis of the

Overweight or Obese. Because of obesity

syndrome. The risk of glucose intolerance intoleranc

they have more chance of insulin resistance.

among

Usually women with PCOS don’t have a

approximately 5 to 10 fold higher than

regular check up on diabetes. But screening

normal and appears not limited to a single

for diabetes is very important in prevention

ethnic group. Moreover, the onset of

of diabetes. A root cause of Polycystic

glucose intolerance in PCOS women has

Ovarian

obesity-

been reported to occur at an earlier age than

linked Insulin Resistance, which can also

in the normal population popul (approximately by

increase the risk of developing Pre-Diabetes Pre

the 3rd-4th 4th decade of life). However, other

and Type 2 Diabetes. All are disorders that

risk factors such as obesity, a positive

may result in Cardiovascular

family history of type 2 diabetes and

Syndrome

are

(PCOS) is

Disease

PCOS

subjects

seems

leading to a heart attack or stroke. Creating

hyperandrogenism

self awareness in people with PCOS is very

increasing the diabetes risk in PCOS

may

to

contribute

important, so that the Type 2, diabetes can http://www.srji.co.cc

be

to


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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29

The link of PCOS with insulin resistance

lack of uniformity between patients, thus

was subsequently established by clinical

reflecting the heterogeneity of PCOS.

studies characterizing the profound insulin

Impaired insulin action and/or beta-cell

resistance in obese and lean PCOS patients.

dysfunction

Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and

clearance of insulin have been implicated so

beta-cell dysfunction are very common in

far.

PCOS, but are not required for the diagnosis.

The overall risk of developing diabetes

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a

mellitus and glucose intolerance seems to be

major risk factor for impaired glucose

higher in women with polycystic ovary

tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus

syndrome (PCOS) than in healthy women.

(T2D). Several studies have examined

Limitations of this study include, no control

possible mechanisms related to glucose

group, it was a pilot study; need a bigger

metabolism and insulin secretion that may

study to evaluate the effectiveness of the

be responsible for the high prevalence of

programme. Blood report investigations can

disorders of glucose metabolism in women

show some reliable information. Efficacy of

with

the treatment can also be evaluated through

PCOS.

The

actual

pathogenic

mechanisms appear to be complex and

and/or

decreased

hepatic

objective methods.

multifactorial, possibly characterized by the

REFERENCE: 1. Mohan V, Shanthirani S, Deepa R, et al. Intra urban differences in the prevalence

of

the

Int J Obes 2001; 25: 1-8.

metabolic

syndrome in southern India - The Chennai

slum population in northern India.

Urban Population Study

3. Brown S: Studies of educational interventions

(CUPS). Diabet Med 2001; 18; 280-

diabetic

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adults: Patient

outcomes a

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meta-analysis Educ

Counsel

16:189–215, 1990. 2. Misra A, Pandey RM, Rama Devi J, et al. High prevalence of diabetes,

4. Pelusi B, Gambineri A, Pasquali R..

obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban

Type 2 diabetes and the polycystic http://www.srji.co.cc


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ovary syndrome. Minerva Ginecol. 2004 Feb;56(1):41-51.

9. Canadian (1998).

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guidelines for the management of 5. R. S. Legro et al. “Prevalence and predictors of risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Canadian

Medical Association Journal, 159, S1-S29.

ovary

syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 165–169, 1999.

10. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT, Roccella EJ: The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection,

6. Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ: Definition, diagnosis diabetes

and

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mellitus

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Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 289:2560–2572, 2003

complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional

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for

Polycystic

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consultation. Diabet Med 15:539–

syndrome and ovarian morpholly in

553, 1998

women with Type II diabetes, Endocrine Med : Jun 91 (6): 2250-6.

7. American

diabetic

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(1999), American association guide to medical notional therapy and diabetes.

12. Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forsen B, Lahti K, Nissen M, Taskinen

MR,

Cardiovascular 8. Balkau B, Charles MA: Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation. Diabet Med

mortality

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metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24:683–689, 2001

16:442–443, 1999

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13. Kitzinger C, Willmott J: ‘The thief of

womanhood’:

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17. Reaven GM: Banting lecture: Role

women’s

of insulin resistance in human

experience of polycystic ovarian

disease. Diabetes 37:1595– 1607,

syndrome. Soc Sci Med 54:349–361,

1988

2002 18. Sarah Wild, Mb Bchir, Phd, Gojka 14. Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka

Roglic, Md, Anders Green, Md, Phd,

TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E,

Dr Med Sci, Richard Sicree, Mbbs,

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19. Taylor AE, 2000, Insulin Lowering medications in Poly cystic ovarian

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women, J clin endocrine metan: 84:165—169.

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32

APPENDIX I DIABETIC QUESTIONNAIRE Name

:

Age

:

Occupation

:

Address

:

Weight

:__________ Kgs.

Height

: __________CMS

BMI

:

Do you have Diabetes

Date

:

: YES / NO

If YES, How long

:___________ Months/ Years.

Are you in medications for Diabetes

: YES / NO

If YES, Specify medicines : ________, ___________, ___________ Do you have PCOS

: YES / NO

If YES, Since when

: ____________ Months / Years

Are you in medications for PCOS

: YES / NO

If YES, Specify medicines : ________, ___________, ___________ Please fill up the given statement with Yes or No. S.No

STATEMENT

1.

Do you know symptoms of Diabetes

2.

Do you know about PCOS

3.

Do you know Obesity may cause Diabetes

4.

Do you know Obesity may cause PCOS

5.

Do you know relation between PCOS & Diabetes

6.

Do you know the Risk factors for Diabetes

7.

Do you think it is good to do Exercises regularly

8.

Do you think intake of Rice may cause Diabetes

9.

Do you think you can get Diabetes

10.

Do your Parents or Relative have Diabetes

Signature of the Participants

Yes

No

Signature of the Assessor

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Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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33

CORRESPONDENCE: *Physiotherapist, K.M.C.H Hospital, Coimbatore. Email: sharmibala85@gmail.com. **Physiotherapist, K.G. Hospital, Coimbatore.

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Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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34

Efficacy of McKenzie Approach combined with Sustained Traction in improving the Quality of life following low Back Ache – A Case Report A.Sridhar MPT (Neuro)*, S.Vimala BPT**

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of traction combined with McKenzie approach for the sub acute low back ache (LBA) patient and evaluating the quality of life post treatment. Design: Single Case Report Setting: PSG Hospitals Participant: A 45 years old female with the complaint of LBA with 6 month duration, gait problem, participatory problem in social activities and also with the impairment of function. Intervention: One hour session of physiotherapy including traction and McKenzie exercises interrupted with rest period. Outcome Measures: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (Pain), Quality of life (QOL) (American chronic Pain Association). Result: There is a significant reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life after one month of treatment. Conclusion: McKenzie exercises combined with traction plays a major role in reducing pain and improving the quality of life following Low Back Ache patient.

Key words: LBA, McKenzie, Traction, Quality of Life, Visual Analogue Scale.

INTRODUCTION LBP affects 70–80% of adults at some point

pain is a common disorder. Nearly everyone

in their lives, with peak prevalence in the

is affected by it at some time. The acute low

fifth decade. The drastic increase in LBP in

back pain may develop to chronic pain and

the past two to three decades. Low back

disability. The treatment of low back pain http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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35

remains as controversial today as it was

Basically she is from rural area and there is

fifty Years ago. Over the years the medical

no facility for her to go for hospitals. But

profession used a wide range of treatments,

she went to nearby physician and she got

such as heat or cold, rest or exercise, flexion

some

or

or

ointments for pain relief. As time goes on

immobilization, manipulation or traction.

she is complaining of severe pain in the

Nearly always drugs were prescribed, even

back and unable to walk for even 10

when

purely

minutes continuously. She feels weakness

mechanical in origin. Amazingly, most of

of bilateral lower limb and restricted her

the patients recovered, very often inspite of

participation in the social activities and also

treatment rather than because of it. But

reducing the usual work what she is doing

McKenzie

on

regularly. She could not do even carrying

mechanical basis and he assessed the

the drinking water from a distance place as

movements of spine and also the treatment

their primary need.

extension,

the

Mobilization

disturbance

approach

in

proved

LBA

is

pain

medications

and

tropical

is based on the patient complaints of pain whether in flexion or extension or lateral

Misdiagnosis:

flexion. So we had tried to apply this

After she felt more discomfort she went to

technique coupled with traction for LBA

various hospitals and diagnosed as GBS,

patient.

and someone diagnosed as disc herniation and advised her to go for surgery. She was

METHODOLOGY:

confused and she refused to undergo surgery. Finally she came to our hospital

Case History:

and she got medications. In the mean time

A 46 years old female came with the

we send her for the neuro consult but the

complaints of pain in the bilateral lower

neurologist also advised her to take MRI

limb, difficulty in walking, getting up from

and after the he also advised her to go for

the floor, and toileting activities for 6 month

surgery.

duration. But she doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t complaints of any

Being a low economic status she could not

sensory loss over the bilateral lower limb

spend more money and she refused for

and also in anal area.

surgery and come back to our hospital with the reports. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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36

Its is widely used to measure the severity of Our Views:

pain from patient feeling of pain. Zero

As we (Physician, Junior Doctors and

indicates no pain and 10 indicate severe not

Physical therapist Team) read the MRI and

tolerable pain.

also observed her complaints of pain. We taught that she does not need surgery at this

Quality of Life:

stage and we make her bed rest for one day

American Chronic Pain Association created

and we started our own assessment and

this measure with the following explanation.

treatment procedures.

Pain is a highly personal experience. The

We underwent observational, palpation, and

degree to which pain interferes with the

examination

movements

quality of a person’s life is also highly

including reflex, muscle strength, balance,

personal. The American Chronic Pain

coordination and Activities of daily living.

Association Quality of Life Scale looks at

We came to the conclusion that she had a

ability to function, rather than at pain alone.

derangement syndrome one with complaints

It can help people with pain and their health

of symmetrical pain across L4, L5, no

care team to evaluate and communicate the

radiating pain and no deformity so it comes

impact of pain on the basic activities of

under the first type of derangement so we

daily life. This information can provide a

decided to treat her

basis for more effective treatment and help

approach

and

of

various

traction.

with McKenzie As

McKenzie

to measure progress over time.

exercises are very much appreciated in

Scoring

treatment of lower back ache population in

functioning and ten indicates normal quality

world wide. we tried our traditional

of life.

approach

of

traction

and

system

zero

indicates

non

McKenzie

approach

Treatment protocol:

Outcome Measures:

Traction:

1. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).

Sustained Traction

2. Quality of Life (QOL).

This term denotes that a steady amount of traction is applied for periods from a few

Visual Analogue Scale:

minutes up to ½ hour. This shorter duration http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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37

Table 1.1 Comparing omparing the visual analogue

is usually coupled with stronger poundage.

scale on the first visit and 4th week

This method thod is most widely used in Europe and much of the literature describes various

Visual Analogue Scale (Pain)

applications of sustained traction. Sustained traction is sometimes referred to as static traction. As per the patient’s weight we

1st visit

2nd Week

3rd Week

4th Week

9

7

4

0.5

applied 15kg of lumbar static traction for 30 minutes.

McKenzie Exercises:

Graph 1.1 comparing the values of visual analogue scale

This is a set of exercises we asked her to do for 30 min. 1. Prone Lying. 2. Extension in prone lying (forearm support). 3. Extension in prone lying ( hand support). 4. Extension in prone lying with belt fixation.

10 8 6 4 2 0 1st visit 2nd Week 3rd Week 4th Week Visual Analogue Scale (Pain)

5. Sustained extension in tilt bed. 6. Extension in standing. 7. Extension Mobilization (Therapist doing passively)

Initially when we assess in VAS she complaints of pain as nine and at the end of 4th week she complaints of 0.5 which means near normal.(table (table 1.1)(graph 1.1)

RESULT AND INTERPRETATION: The assessment is taken on the first visit,

Table 1.2 Comparing the quality of life

2nd week, 3rd week, and 4th week.

scale on the first visit and 4th week

According to McKenzie approach at any time of disease the particular particul form of Quality of Life ( American chronic Pain

exercise may worse the condition so we are assessed her at one week interval.

Association)

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012 1st

2nd Week

Scientific Research Journal of India 3rd Week

38

4th Week

visit

DISCUSSION:

1

4

8

10

There are various treatment procedures p are widely used in treating the LBA cases. On

Graph 1.2 comparing the values of Quality Of

reviewing 21 papers in 1995, only one paper was found to be of

Life Scale cale

high quality, Van der Heijden concluded no

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

inferences could be drawn(Phys Ther 1995). A trial by Cherkin (N Eng J Med 1998) compared

threee

manipulation,

groups:

McKenzie

chiropractic exercise,

vs

education leaflet. He did not find any difference among the three groups with regard to pain recurrence or days off work. 1st Visit 2nd Week 3rd Week 4th Week Quality of Life ( American chronic Pain Association)

Initially when we assess in QOL she complaints of 1, and at the end of 4th week she complaint of 9 which means she can work for 8 hours and she actively participate

in

family

and

social

activities.(table 1.2) (graph 1.2) From the above mentioned table and graph its clearly seen that patient’s pain is reduced and her quality of life is improved a lot. Thereby this

case

report is strongly

recommending that traction coupled with McKenzie exercises are very much helpful in treating the disc herniation condition.

The

chiropractic

significantly

group

better

than

performed the

minimal

intervention rvention group at 4 weeks, but not at 3 months and the 11-year. But as per the complaints of the patient we have to choose the technique and apply with precautions and assess the patients periodically to get the knowledge of patients pain and related features. es. This case report is a eye opening for

the

new

physio

to

apply

these

procedures widely for most of the LBA patients and thereby improving the patient condition. Static lumbar Traction is useful for this patient as there is narrowing of the disc space, after fter applying traction there will be a reduction of the nerve impingement. McKenzie had classified the low back pain http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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39

in 3 categories viz. dysfunction, postural

This case report supports that traction

and derangement syndrome. As this patient

combined with McKenzie exercises plays a

had complaint of derangement symptoms so

major role in reducing pain and improving

we applied the treatment protocol for

the quality of life.

derangement syndrome one. Conclusion:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks to my client & PSG Hospitals and

in treating the patients who need physical

also to our superintendent and deputy

therapy.

superintendent for having confident with us

REFERENCES: 1. Lumbar spine, mechanical diagnosis and therapy,(1981) R.A. McKenzie, pages 122-150

3. Low Back Pain, royal college of practitioners pages 3-39. 4. Lumbar traction, journal of orthopaedic

2. Orthopaedic rehabilitation, assessment and enablement , John C.Y.Leong et al.

and sports therapy 1979, H.duane saunders pages 36-40

pages 481-488.

CORRESPONDENCE *Neurophysiotherapist- TLM Naini, UP.

sriarusaro@gmail.com Cont: +91-8765152734. **Physiotherapist

Trainer- TLM Naini, UP.

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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40

Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis by Laboratory Standardized IgM and IgG ELISA Rajeswari Shome*, M Nagalingam*, K. Narayana Rao*, B.Jayapal Gowdu**, B. R. Shome* and K. Prabhudas*

Abstract: Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by facultative intracellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, which are capable of surviving and multiplying inside the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system. ELISA is rapid, robust, coast effective and is most commonly used diagnostic technique for brucellosis. Our present research communication deals with optimization of IgM and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of brucellosis in human beings. In the present investigation, out of the 179 sera samples from risk groups screened for brucellosis, 10(5.58%) and 4(2.23%) were positive for anti Brucella antibodies by RBPT and STAT respectively. Seropositivity by IgM and IgG ELISAs were 2.23% (4/179) and 17.3% (31/179) respectively. In case of blood donors, out of 123 serum samples 1.62% and 4.87% were positive by RBPT and IgG ELISA respectively. No antibodies were detected by STAT and IgM ELISA in blood donors. Among serum samples from Pyrexia of Unknown Origin patients tested, 7. 61% (15/197) by RBPT, 1.01% (2/179) by STAT and 0.5% (1/197) by IgM ELISA and 11.67% (23/197) IgG ELISA respectively were found positive.

INTRODUCTION Brucellosis is a

zoonosis caused

by

surviving and multiplying inside the cells of

facultative intracellular bacteria of the

mononuclear phagocytic system and are

genus Brucella, which are capable of

widely distributed in both humans and http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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41

animals1. Human brucellosis varies from an

linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and

acute fabrile illness to chronic, low grade ill

indirect fluorescent assays, to the recent

defined disease. It is a systemic disease

molecular techniques such as polymerase

characherized

by

chain reaction (PCR) are available.5, 6, 7.

accompanied

with

pausity nocturnal

of

signs

sweating,

2

Isolation from blood, bone marrow and

malaise, fatigue and backache . The disease

other

can be a very debilitating, despite the fact

diagnostic (gold standard) method for

that the fatality rate is generally low. It

brucellosis. However, this microbiological

often becomes sub-clinical or chronic,

technique is having the draw back of time

especially if not diagnosed early and

consumption as the organism is having

properly treated. The incidence in humans

incubation period of 6 weeks and possibility

ranges widely between different regions,

of contamination to personnel cannot be

with values of up to 200 cases per 100,000

avoided8. Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) is

populations with high prevalence in Middle

commonly used for the screening of

East, Mexico, Central and South America

brucellosis however results may at times

and the Indian subcontinents2, 3. High-risk

inconclusive9.

groups include those exposed through

agglutination test (STAT), interpretation of

occupation

animal

the result is difficult due to false positive

infection occurs, such as slaughterhouse

reaction with Salmonella, Yersinia and

workers, hunters, farmers and veterinarians.

Vibrio

The diagnosis of

molecular technique which is employed for

in

contexts

where

brucellosis can

be

tissues

species.

of

suspect

In

is

classical

standard

Further

PCR

tube

is

the

challenging, and its diagnosis demands

the detection of brucellosis,

epidemimology, clinical and laboratory

technique is uneconomic and poorly suited

information. Its routine biochemical and

for the laboratory with limited resources. In

hematological laboratory tests also overlap

view of these limitations,

with those of many other pathogens such as

effective and rapid ELISA has been found

4

but the

robust , coast

Salmonella, Yersinia, and Vibrio . Many

an ideal tool for the diagnosis .

tests are reported for diagnosis of Brucella,

In brucellosis, titre of IgM usually raises

ranging from microbilogical culture to

from day 5 to 7 with peak titre and IgG

serodiagnostic tests such as slide or tube

starts to appear from day 14 to 21, reaching

agglutination, indirect coombs test, enzyme-

peak during next 2 to 3 weeks in the http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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42

infected individuals. Clinical applications

according to standard procedures12. Briefly,

of IgM and IgG ELISA in human disease

for the RBPT , undiluted serum sample (30

. This manuscript

µl) was mixed with an equal volume of

deals with the study on diagnosis of

colored antigen on a glass slide. The results

Brucella

laboratory

were rated negative when agglutination was

standardized IgM and IgG ELISA protocol

absent and 1+ to 4+ ratings as positive,

and

according

have been reported

its

10, 11

infection

by

comparison

to

conventional

serological tests.

to

the

strength

of

the

agglutination within 1 to 3 min. RBPT

positive

samples

were

further

Materials and methods:

evaluated by STAT and 2ME STAT by

Collection of sera samples

preparing two-fold serial dilutions of the

During the course of the study, 2 ml of

serum samples starting at a dilution of 1:20

blood samples without anticoagulant was

in the test tube and the addition of an equal

collected aseptically in vaccutainers. The

volume of plain antigen according to

samples were sourced from risk group

Weybridge technique12. The 2ME test is

(veterinarians,

farm

identical to STAT except that 2ME was

workers, animal-handlers and farmers),

added to each test tube to a final

blood donors and patients with pyrexia of

concentration of 0.05 M, and 0.85% saline

unknown origin (PUO). The pyrexia may be

was used to dilute the antigen.

due to systemic cause of rheumatic fever,

mixtures were incubated

jaundice, C reactive protein, hepatitis etc.,

37°C and read by visual inspection for

The

transparency

samples

para

were

veterinarians,

allowed

to

clot,

of

The

for 24 hours at

suspension

and

mat

transported to laboratory immediately at

formation. The highest dilution of the serum

4°C.

by

which showed 50 percent agglutination was

centrifuging the sample at 2500 r.p.m for 5

taken as end point titre and titre of 1:160

min and stored at –20°C for further use.

(320 IU/ml) and above was considered as

The

serum

was

separated

positive for humans brucellosis13, 14. The B. Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and

abortus S99 colored and plain antigens were

Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STAT)

procured from Institute of Animal Health

Sera

and Veterinary Biologicals (IAH&VB),

samples

subjected

to

received rapid

were

screening

initially RBPT

Hebbal, Bangalore, India. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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43

Preparation sLPS antigen extraction Smooth

Lipopolysaccharide

(sLPS)

Wet cells of Brucella (5 gm) were

antigen extraction

suspended in 17 ml of distilled water and

Standard strain

followed by the addition of 19 ml of 90%

Standard antigenic strain of B. abortus S99

(v/v) phenol at 66°C.

procured from Indian Veterinary Research

stirred continuously at 66°C for 15 min,

Institute,

and

cooled and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for

confirmed as B. abortus by biochemical

15 min at 4°C. The brownish phenol in the

tests, PCR, cloning and sequencing in our

bottom layer was aspirated with a long

was used for antigen extraction15.

micro tip and large cell debris was removed

Large scale bacterial culturing

by filtration (using a Whatman No.1

Freshly

Izatnagar,

grown

U.P.,

pure

India

colonies

were

The mixture was

filter).The sLPS was precipitated by the

suspended in 10 ml of sterile PBS, after

addition

vortexing, the bacterial suspension was

containing 0.5 ml methanol saturated with

overlaid on Ttyptose Agar (TA) in Roux

sodium acetate. After 2 hours incubation at

flasks. Thirty flasks were simultaneously

4°C, the precipitate was removed by

inoculated from the same master plate to

centrifugation at 10,000 r.p.m for 10 min,

provide the identical bacterial population

stirred with 8 ml of distilled water for 18

originating from a single colony. After one-

hours and centrifuged at 10,000 r.p.m for 10

hour adsorption, Roux flasks were inverted

min. The collected supernatant solution was

and incubated for 72 hours at 37oC. The

kept at 4°C and

purity of the culture in every flask was

twice for the best recovery of antigen. Then,

confirmed by Gram’s staining

after 48

0.8 g of trifluroacetic acid was added to the

hours. To each flask, 30 ml of 2% phenol

16 ml of crude sLPS, stirred for 10 min and

saline was added, gently agitated and

the

incubated for 24 hours at 37oC.

The

centrifugation. The translucent supernatant

pooled,

solution was concentrated and dialyzed

centrifuged at 14,000 r.p.m at 4oC for 20

against distilled water (two changes of at

min. The centrifugation was repeated and

least 4000 ml each) and then freeze dried to

pellets were carefully collected, weighed

get the final yield of 10 ml of sLPS

suspensions

were

collected,

of

50

precipitate

ml

chilled

methanol

this step was repeated

was

removed

and used for antigen extraction. http://www.srji.co.cc

by


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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44

containing the antigen concentration of 3

The polysorp micro titer plates (Nunc,

mg/10ml. [16].

Germany) were coated with 1:300 dilution

The optimum concentration of antigen for

of sLPS antigen at 100 µl per well in

ELISA was standardized by checkerboard

carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and

titration against 1:100 and 1:200 dilution of

incubated 4°C for overnight. Antigen coated

strong positive convalescent sera. The OD

plates were washed three times with PBST

values were plotted on a graph and the point

wash buffer (Phosphate buffered saline

where there was sharp fall on the line graph

containing 0.05 % Tween 20) pH 7.2. Test

was taken as the optimum dilution of

and control sera diluted in PBST blocking

antigen.

buffer (1:100) containing 2% bovine gelatin was added to respective wells (100 µl) of

Controls for ELISA

the plates in duplicates (test sera) and

The convalescent sera for IgM and IgG

quadruplicate (controls) and incubated at

ELISA

by RBPT

37°C for 1hour. The plates were then

screening, the strong RBPT positive sera

washed as mentioned earlier. The anti-

showing the 2 ME- STAT titer of 1:640

human IgG and IgM HRP conjugates

(1280IU /ml) and

STAT titre of 1:1280

(Pierce, Germany), diluted 1:8000 and

was considered positive control for IgM

1:4000 respectively in PBST buffer were

ELISA and STAT titres of 1:1280 (2560IU

added to all the wells (100 µl) and incubated

/ml)

positive

for 1 hour at 37°C on orbital shaker (300

convalescent sera control for IgG ELISA.

r.p.m./min). After washing, freshly prepared

These sera samples were further confirmed

o-Phenylenediaminedihydrochloride (OPD)

by DOT-ELISA antibody detection Kit

(Sigma, Germany) solution containing 5 mg

(DRDE

The

OPD tablet in 12.5 ml of distilled water and

undiluted sera were used as strong positive

50 µl of 3% H2O2 was added and kept for

controls and sera from healthy donors as the

color development for 10 min. Enzyme-

negative control. The moderate positive

substrate reaction was stopped by adding

control was prepared by diluting strong

1M H2SO4 (50 µl) and color development

positive sera with 1:500 dilutions donor sera.

was read at 492 nm using an ELISA micro

were selected first

was

considered

Jhansi,

Gwalior,

as

India).

plate reader (Biorad). The optical density Standard ELISA protocol

(OD) obtained for the negative and positive http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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45

samples were interpreted by cutoff values

tested, 2 (1.62%) and 6 (4.87%) were

set at 3 standard deviations above the

positive

arithmetical mean of the OD obtained for

respectively. In case of PUO sera samples, a

17

the healthy controls .

by

RBPT

and

IgG

ELISA

total 197 samples were analyzed, out of which, 34(17.25%), 2(1.01%), 1(0.5%) and

RESULTS

23 (11.26%) were found positive by the

To obtain 5 gm wet weight of bacteria,

RBPT, STAT, IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA

fifteen Roux flasks were used and from 5 g

respectively (Table 1).

wet weight of bacterial cells, 10 ml of sLPS

positive samples, only one sera (0.5%) was

was extracted (3mg). The convalescent sera

found positive by 2ME-STAT.

positive

by

RBPT,

DOT-ELISA

Out of 27 RBPT

and

showing 2ME-STAT titer of 1:640 (1280IU

DISCUSSION

/ml) and STAT titres of 1:1280 (2560IU /ml)

The true incidence of human brucellosis

were considered as positive convalescent

however, is unknown for most countries and

sera

no data are available for many parts of India.

controls for IgM ELISA and

IgG

ELISA respectively. In

ELISA,

the

It has been estimated that the true incidence 1

in

200

antigen

may be 25 times higher than the reported

concentration was found optimum at serum

incidence due to misdiagnosis and under-

concentration of 1 in 100 (Fig 1). Similarly,

reporting. Several publications indicate that

the conjugate dilutions were established by

human brucellosis can be a common disease

checkerboard titration and

IgM conjugate

in India. The ELISA was first developed by

of 1 in 4000 and IgG conjugate at 1 in 8000

Carlson et al, for the diagnosis of human

were found optimum dilutions for the test

brucellosis and since then, a large number

(Fig. 2)

of variations have been described18. ELISA

Among the 179 sera samples from risk

have a distinct advantage over conventional

groups screened for brucellosis, 10(5.58%)

serological tests in that, they are primary

and 4 (2.23%) were positive for Brucella

binding assays that do not rely on secondary

antibodies by RBPT and STAT respectively.

properties of antibodies such as their ability

In IgM and IgG ELISA, 4 (2.23%) and 31

to agglutinate or to fix complement.

(17.3%) were detected positive respectively.

Secondly, ELISA can be tailored to be more

In case of blood donors, out of 123 samples http://www.srji.co.cc


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46

specific by using highly purified reagents

at concentration of 1 in 200, serum

such as antigens and monoclonal antibodies.

concentration of 1 in 100 and conjugate

The sLPS antigen of Brucella is considered

concentrations of 1 in 4000 and 1 in 8000

the most important antigen during immune

for IgM and

response and is the target for many

concentrations/ dilutions for the test.

serological and immunological studies. The

Currently, RBPT is regarded as one of the

strains that are pathogenic for humans carry

essential procedures for initial screening of

sLPS involved in the virulence of these

livestock and humans for brucellosis. This

bacteria. It gives better sensitivity and

test is sensitive, rapid and simple as well as

specificity with good reproducibility. It also

it gives high throughput to localize the

possesses a convenient cut off value for

range and frequency of the disease, but

diagnostic purposes. Finally, it is not

suffers from low specificity13, 23. Similarly,

restricted to bovines alone and can be

STAT is most preferred for serodiagnosis of

adapted to different species of animals as

brucellosis in many countries, however,

well as to humans beings3.

OIE recommended for its discontinuation,

The sLPS antigen coated passively on to a

as the test is susceptible to false positive

polystyrene matrix is the method commonly

reaction by cross reacting antibodies (IgM).

employed in the ELISA19. The indirect

In our investigation, out of the 179 sera

ELISA

seen

samples from risk groups screened for

standardized by several researchers using

brucellosis, 10(5.58%) and 4(2.23%) were

sLPS antigen from B. abortus S99 to screen

positive for anti Brucella antibodies by

the livestock and humans for brucellosis15, 19,

RBPT and STAT respectively.

20, 21

investigation

and

AB-ELISA

have

. According to Guarino et al.22, the high

IgG were

reports

from

optimum

Latest

Karnataka

percentage of positivity was due to the

revealed the similar findings of higher

ability of ELISA to detect very low levels

prevalence in the risk group ranging from

of antibodies present in the early stage of

2.26% to 15.69% positivity among 618

infection, while RBPT and STAT cannot

human samples

detect it. Keeping this in view, a pilot study

ELISA respectively21. A extensive study by

was aimed to develop and evaluate ELISA

Mantur et al, reported the prevalence of 1.6%

for diagnosis of human brucellosis. In this

and 1.8% by STAT (â&#x2030;Ľ 1:160) in 93 children

investigation, it was observed that, antigen

and 495 adult patients

by RBPT and indirect

respectively in

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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Bijapur24, 25. Further the incidence rate from

infection in the donors might be due to the

other parts of the country has been reported

exposure of the donors unintentionally to

26, 27, 28,

to be ranging between 0.9 and 18.1%

the animals or due to the consumption of

29

. The higher prevalence rates reported by

raw milk, or may be due to the cross

various researchers are in accordance with

reacting antibodies such as vibrio or

our present findings in the high risk groups

yersinia.

21, 25, 30

. High sero prevalence in the risk

Brucellosis has fluctuating manifestations

group is attributed to constant exposure to

with similarities to other un-diagnosable

infection due to contamination of hands and

fevers, these patients were considered under

arm while handling animals and also human

the category of PUO. These patients

infection

generally

referred

occupational exposure of abattoir workers,

laboratory

investigations,

veterinarians and laboratory technicians. In

Brucella testing. The presence of Brucella

addition, consumption of infected raw milk,

antibodies in 197 PUO patients

raw milk products and raw meat can result

ranged from 15 (7. 61%) and 2 (1.01%) by

in infection25.

RBPT and

The transmission of brucellosis to man is

and 11.67% by IgM and IgG ELISA

primarily by direct contact with infected

respectively.

animals or their products. However, the

seroprevalence of 3.30% out of 121 PUO

organisms can also be transmitted by

cases27,

transfusion of infected blood31. The blood

and 0.8% seropositive cases in a group of

donors tested in the study, showed 1.62%

3,532 patients with PUO34 have been

positivity by RBPT and 4.87%, by IgG

reported. In the present study, the higher

ELISA. Two such similar reports from

sero prevecelance of anti Brucella antibody

Karnataka, revealed the prevalence ranging

was detected ranging from 7.61% (RBPT)

from 1.8% (out of 26,948 adult donors )

to 11.67% (IgG ELISA). This is attributed

25

by

to the collection of samples from diagnostic

These findings are relatively

laboratories located in Bangalore rural areas

identical to our findings. The higher

where intensive dairy is practiced. So

prevalence of 4.87%, in case of IgG ELISA

exposure might be due to animal handling

can

occur

through

aerosol,

to 14.7% (out of 353 donors) 32

RBPT .

for

various but

other

not

for

tested

STAT respectively and 0.5%

A

Similar

studies

on

6.8% of 414 patients with PUO33

signifies the better efficiency of test. This http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

48

(farmers) or consumption of unpasteurized

of the disease in humans and to identify

milk

active infection (IgM ELISA). The use of

In general, overall prevalence of the disease

sLPS as antigen in the I-ELISA might be

by RBPT and STAT tests were 5.14% and

one of the reasons for higher sensitivity as

1.2% respectively whereas, 1.00% and

the stronger immune responses are elicited

12.02%

against sLPS in infected individual.

by

IgM

and

IgG

ELISA

respectively. All the 27 RBPT positive sera

advantage

samples were found positive by either of the

developed kit/tests is that the large number

two

of samples can be analyzed economically

ELISAs

confirming

the

100%

it

of

will

using

also

the

The

help

indigenously

agreement of the test with the classical test

and

to

generate

(RBPT. This numerical data is the evidence

seroepidemiological data of the disease in

for the higher efficiency of the ELISA over

the country. Screening of large number of

RBPT and STAT. The basic knowledge of

sera samples and validation as per OIE

this study will help us for the development

guidelines is underway.

of indigenous ELISA kit for sero screening REFERENCES: 1. Jarvis BW, Harris TH, Qureshi N, Splitter

GA:

Rough

lipopolysaccharide from Brucella

blood donors. Indian J Med Micro 2007; 25:302-304. 3. Salmani AS, Siadat S, Fallahian MR,

coli

Ahmadi H, Norouzian D, Yaghmai

differentially activates the same

P, Aghasadeghi MR, Mobarakeh JI,

mitogen-activated

kinase

Sadat

tumor

Kheirandish

abortus

signaling

and

Escherichia

protein

pathways

for

SM,

Zangeneh M.

M,

Serological

necrosis factor alpha in RAW 264.7

evaluation of Brucella abortus S99

macrophage-like cells. Infect Immun

Lipopolysaccharide extracted by an

2002; 70:7165-7168.

optimized method. Am J Infe Dis

2. Vaishnavi C, Kumar S. Investigation for

of

4. Fadeel MA, Wasfy MO, Pimental G,

agglutinins among the

Klenna JD, Mahoney FJ, Hajjeh RA.

background

Brucella

2009; 5:11-16.

prevalence

Rapid

enzyme

linked

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012 immunosorbent

Scientific Research Journal of India assay

for

the

diagnosis of human brucellosis in

49

brucellosis . Clin Lab 2003; 49:577589.

surveillance and clinical settings in

10. Queipo-Ortuno MI, Morata P, Ocon

Egypt. Saudi Med J. 2006; 27:975-

P, Manchado P, Colmenero JD.

981.

Rapid

5. Baily G, Krahn G, Drasar JB, Stoker NG.

Detection

of

Brucella

melitensis and Brucella abortus by DNA amplification. J Trop Med Hyg 1992; 95:271–275. 6. Bricker

BJ,

diagnosis

of

human

brucellosis by peripheral-blood PCR assay. J Clinic Microbiol 1997; 35: 2927–2930. 11. Morata

P,

Queipo-Ortuño

MI,

Reguera JM, García-Ordoñez MA,

Halling

SM.

Cárdenas

A,

Colmenero

JD,

Differentiation of Brucella abortus

Development and evaluation of a

bv. 1, 2, and 4, Brucella melitensis,

PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent

Brucella ovis, and Brucella suis bv.

assay

1 by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1994;

brucellosis.

32:2660-2666.

2003;41:144-148.

for

diagnosis J

Clin

of

human

Microbios

7. Ouahrani-Bettach S, Soubrier MP,

12. Alton GG, Jones LM, Angus RD,

Liautard JP. 1S6501- anchored PCR

Verger JM, Techniques for the

for the detection and identification

Brucellosis Laboratory. 1st Edn.,

of Brucella species and strains. J

Institute Nationale de le Rech,

Appl Biotechnol 1996; 81:154-160.

France, Paris, 1988. pp: 174

8. Srikantiah P, Girgis FY, Luby SP,

13. Smits HL, Kadri SM. Brucellosis in

Jennings G, Wasfy MO, Crump JA

India: A deceptive infectious disease.

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Indian J Med Res 2005; 122:375-

typhopid fever in Egypt. Am J Trop

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Med Hyg 2006; 74:114-119.

14. Moreno S, Ariza J, Espinosa F J.

9. Dahouk SA, Tomaso H, Nockler K, Neubauer

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17:319–326.

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competitive enzyme immunoassay

Desai GS. Patil SS, Bhure SK,

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brucellosis Indian

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risk group

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Fusco G,

Scaramuzzo A, Gallo P.. Detection

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AA. Enzymelinked immunosorbent

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19. Nielsen KH, Kelly L, Gall D,

Mulimani MS, Veerappa, Kariholu P,

Nicoletti P, Kelly W. Improved

Protean clinical manifestations and http://www.srji.co.cc


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Scientific Research Journal of India

diagnostic challenges

of human

brucellosis in adults: 16 years' experience in an endemic area. J Med Microbiol 2006; 55:897-903

thrombocytopenia. Saudi Med J 2000; 21:877-879. 31. Khorasgani

MR,

Pourkarim

26. Mathur TN. A study of human

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brucellosis based on culture isolated

antibodies

from man and animals. Indian J Med

Boushehr, Iran. Comp Clinic Pathol

Res 1968; 56: 250-258

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blood

donors

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27. Handa R, Singh S, Singh N, Wali JP.

32. Nagrathna S, Sharmada S, Veena

Brucellosis in north India: results of

kumari HB, Arvind N, Sunder P,

a prospective study. J Commun Dis

Sangeeth

1998; 30: 85-87.

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N,

Ramasastry

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2009;

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MR.

52:457-458.

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human

33. Sen MR, Shukla BN, Goyal RK.

Andhra

Pradesh.

Seroprevalence of brucellosis in and

Indian Vet J 2004; 81:744-747. 29. Ajay

Kumar

Seropositivity

of

MS,

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in

Seroprevalence

Reddy

Seroepidemiology brucellosis

S.

VJ, of

Nanu

brucellosis

around Varanasi; J. Commun. Dis E.

2002; 34:226–227.

in

34. Kadri SM, Rukhsana A, Laharwal

human beings. Indian J Public Healt

MA, Tanvir M. Seroprevalence of

2005; 49:22-24.

brucellosis

30. Hussain I, Gokul BN, Paul A. Brucellosis

associated

with

in

Kashmir

(India)

among patients with pyrexia of unknown origin. J Indian Med Assoc 2000; 98:170-171.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are thankful to Deputy Director General, (Animal Sciences) ICAR, New Delhi for his moral support and encouragement. The laboratory help from Hanumantharaju B (supporting staff) is also acknowledged.

CORRESPONDENCE http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

52

*Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring And Surveillance, (PD-ADMAS), Hebbal Bangalore-560 024. Email: krishnamsetty1@gmail.com. ** Asst Professor, Dept of Microbiology, Yogi vemana University Kadapa, Andhra pradesh

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Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

53

Study of Non-Isothermal Kinetic of Austenite Transformation to Pearlite in CK45 Steel by Ozawa Model Free Method Mohammad Kuwaiti*

Abstract: In recent years, many researchers have been done about the kinetics of thermal decomposition processes. In this study, The Ozawa model free method were used to study the Non-Isothermal kinetic of Austenite Transformation to Pearlite. DTA o

method was used at cooling rates of 5, 10 and 20

min , under argon atmosphere.

Activation energy as a kinetics parameter was determined by using of Ozawa model free method. The results show that the Activation energy in Ozawa model free method is in range of 44.8-45.6 KJ mol . Keywords: Kinetic, Non-Isothermal, Austenite, Pearlite, Ozawa model, DTA, Activation Energy.

INTRODUCTION

Heterogeneous

chemical

reactions

are

ferrite. In kinetic study of heterogeneous

reactions that the components of reaction

reactions, is assumed that the equation of

are in different phases, these phases that

rate is also true in the homogeneous gas

make up the interfaces and usually reactions

reactions2. In the effect of cooling, in

are performed in interfaces1. Reactions are

diagram of equilibrium of Iron – Carbon,

started in Austenite transformation to

austenite transformation to pearlite occurs at

pearlite from interface of austenite and

the temperatures near 727°C

3, 4

. In this

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Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

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54

study, Ozawa and Friedman models free

energy in the various progresses fraction of

method were used for kinetic of austenite

reaction11.

transformation to pearlite in non-isothermal conditions. Using model free methods begin to investigate non-isothermal kinetics from 60 A. D.5, 6. In model free methods, is assumed that changing rate of heating the sample,

do

not

change

the

reaction

ln( β i ) = C −

(1)

Eα RTα ,i

In equation 1, C is the constant, Tα ,i is the temperature in the fraction of distinguished progress, R is the gas constant, β i

is

mechanism and rate reaction is only a

cooling rate and Eα is activation energy in

function of temperature. Today, determining

the fraction of reaction progress. For

parameters of kinetics are used by model

calculating

free methods and the development of

fraction of the distinguished progress (α ) ,

equipment7. On the base, these methods are

 1 changing of Ln β i are drawn vs.   Tα‫و‬i

8

obtained from STA or DTA . Freeman, Carroll to calculation parameters of kinetic, use from equation of gases rate, although these equations are correct from the standpoint of mathematical, but from the standpoint of practical are excited some limitations9. In addition, Coats and Redfern use from the approximation of temperature function in integral equations, although this approximation has some limitation to

activation

energy

in

each

  

and the activation energy is calculated according to slope of the drawn line. Model of fraction of the converter was proposed by Friedman, in this method, is necessary that the experiments are performed at least three different heating rates5. In this method, from Equation 2 is used for calculating the activation energy in the various progresses fraction of reaction.

convert data into logarithms, but it can be a suitable method for the evaluation initial of the

models

of

10

kinetic .

Ozawa

for

E  dα  ln βi ( )α  = ln[Af (α )] − ( )α RT  dT 

(2)

calculating the activation energy proposes his own method in a fraction of the distinguished converter. In this method, equation 1 is used for calculating activation

In this equation, α is the fraction progress of reaction, T is the temperature, R is the gas constant, β i is the cooling rate, A is the http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

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55

pre-exponential factor, f (α ) is the reaction mechanism and E is the activation energy. For calculating the activation energy in each

α

dα , changing ln  β i ( ) α  is drawn vs. dT  

1  T 

  and similar Ozawa method, the slope  α

of the drawn lines, will be determined the activation energy. In this study, by using Ozawa and Friedman model free methods, activation

energy

of

austenite

transformation to pearlite in CK45 steel was calculated at cooling rates of 5, 10 and 20 o

C

min

Figure 1. Microstructure austenite transformation to pearlite of CK45 steel a) 500X b) 100X

50 mg samples of the steel was used for the

.

DTA experiments, by apparatus STA 503, o for cooling rates of 5, 10 and 20 C

METHOD OF RESEARCH

min

, in

The simple of CK45 steel, with the

non-isothermal conditions and under argon

specified chemical composition in Table 1,

atmosphere. The used range for the DTA

was used as basic material.

experiments was 1200 to 650 o C .

Table 1. Chemical composition of CK45 steel used in this study %S

%Mn

<0.03

0.5-0.8

%Si <0.4

%P 0.35

%C

steel Heat treatment

0.42-0.5

CK45

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 2 is shown the results of the DTA experiments at cooling rates of 5, 10 and 20 o

C

min

.

Figure 1 shows microstructure of the sample which is used.

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No. 3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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56

fraction progress of reaction vs. time at different cooling rates.

Figure 3. The fraction progress of reaction vs. time In this Method, not only parameter of time but also temperature is important, values of the fraction progress of reaction and the transformation temperatures were calculated at different cooling rates that are specified in Table 2.

Figure 2. Used peaks to calculate the fraction progress of reaction of austenite transformation to pearlite in the cooling o rates (a) 5, (b) 10 and (c) 20 C . min According to this figure, the start and finish temperatures of austenite transformation to pearlite are calculated and with increasing the cooling rate, the starting temperature of transformation is reduced from 883 to 679 o

C . For calculating the fraction progress of

reaction, the area under peak of DTA curve calculated at any moment and is divided on the area of peak total. Figure 3 shows, the

Table 2. Values of the fraction progress of reaction at different cooling rates 10 C fraction progress of reaction 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

5C

min

min

T (o C )

T (o C )

883 879 877 876 875 875 874 873 872 871 867

886 882 881 880 879 878 877 876 874 872 867

20 C

min

T (o C )

679 675 672 672 670 669 668 667 666 665 662

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Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

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57

As explained in Equation 1, for Calculating activation energy in each fraction of progress should be drawn changing of Ln β i  1 vs.   Tα‫و‬i  1   Tα‫و‬i

  

  . Table 3 shows the values of 

for the fraction progress of

reaction in various cooling rates.

1 Figure 4. Curves Ln β i vs.   in the  T α fraction progress of reaction 0.1-0.9 It noticed that the drawn lines are almost

Table 3. The calculated values by the Ozawa method at different cooling rates

parallel and thus can be concluded that according to Ozawa model, changing the

Fraction progress of reaction 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

β =5 1    T α

β = 10 1    T α

β = 20 1    T α

0.0008679 0.0008688 0.0008696 0.0008704 0.0008704 0.0008713 0.0008721 0.0008729 0.0008738

0.0008654 0.0008663 0.0008671 0.0008679 0.0008679 0.0008688 0.0008696 0.0008713 0.0008729

0.0001054 0.0001057 0.0001025 0.0001060 0.0001060 0.0001062 0.0001063 0.0001064 0.0001065

This information has been calculated by using available information in Figure 3. Figure 4 shows changing of Ln β i vs.  1   Tα‫و‬i

  for the austenite transformation to 

pearlite.

fraction progress of reaction did not fluctuate in activation energy. Table 4 shows the calculated values of activation energy by using the Ozawa model, for the fraction progress of reaction. Table 4. The values of activation energy in the fraction progress of reaction of austenite transformation to pearlite is obtained from Figure 4 for the Ozawa method Fraction progress of reaction 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Activation Energy( J ) mol 45685 45319 45269 45228 45111 44945 44870 44870 44912

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Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

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58

On this base, with increasing the fraction

of nucleation and growth. Different reports

progress of reaction, reduced activation

and models in the cases of kinetic of

energy partially and in addition to Kinetic

austenite transformation to pearlite have

barriers that exist in the early stages of

been published But the numerical values is

transformation, it is justified. It is important

not registered for the activation energy of

that the calculated values of activation

this transformation 13-17.

energy is the apparent activation energy of transformation and can be included stages

REFERENCES 1. W.,

Christian:

The

theory

of

transformations in metals and alloys , Pergamon, Oxford, 2002.

rates”,

J. therm. Anal.,

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pp.95-101, 1983. 7. M ., Enomoto and H.I., Aaronson,

2. L.W., Coudurier, “Thermodynamics

"Austenite to Ferrite Transformation

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12A, pp. 1547-1557, 1986.

3. E.,

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Chemistry,

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8. J.S., Kirlcaldy and Baganis," A computational

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alloys.,

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London,

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Metall.trans. A., Vol. 9A , pp.495501, 1978. 9. E.S., Freeman, B.J., Carroll, “The Application

of

Thermoanalytical

5. H., Friedman, "Kinetics of thermal

Techniques to Reaction Kinetics:

degradation of char-forming plastics

The Thermogravimetric Evaluation

from thermogravimetry. Application

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of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate”,

Vol.7, pp. 183–195, 1964.

Phys. Chem., Vol. 62, pp.394-397,

6. J.H., Flynn, “The isoconversional method for determination of energy of activation at constant heating

1958. 10. A.V., Coats and “Kinetic

J.P., Redfern,

Parameters

from

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Vol.1 ● No. 3 ● 2012

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Thermogravimetric Data”, Nature, 201, pp.68-69, 1964.

59

15. M., Hillert, " Formation of Pearlite Colonies for Simple Models of

11. T., Ozawa, “A New Method of

Alloys

Iron-Carbon-Mangenise",

Analyzing Thermogravimetric Data”,

Jernkont. Ann.,

Bull. Chem. Soc., Japan., Vol.38,

1962.

pp.1881-1887, 1965. 12. C.

W.,

Wegst:

Vol.88, p. 130,

16. A., Roósz, Z., Gácsi, E.G., Fuchs, " Stahlschlussel,

western, Germany, 1989.

Isothermal formation of austenite in eutectoid plain carbon steel ", Acta.

13. M., Hillert, L., Höglund," Reply to

Metall., Vol. 31, p.509, 1983.

comments on kinetics model of

17. C., García de Andrés, L.F., Alvarez,

isothermal pearlite formation in a

M., Carsí, "Modelling of Kinetics

0.4C–1.6Mn steel ", Scripta Mater,

and Dilatometric Behavair of Non-

Vol. 141, p. 46-78, 2003.

Isothermal

14. J.S., Kirlcaldy and Baganis," A computational

model

for

the

prediction of steel hardenability",

Pearlite-to-Austenite

Transformation in an Eutectoied Steel.", Welding International, Vol.6, p.612, 1992.

Metall.trans. A., Vol. 9A, pp.495501, 1978.

CORRESPONDENCE * Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Najaf Abad University, Iran Email: Mohammad.Kuwaiti@gmail.com

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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60

Face Exposure Technology Thanigaivel.V*

Abstract: The Face recognition is concerned with determining which part of an image contains a face. If present, return the image location and content of each face. The automatic system that analyzes the information contained in faces. While earlier works deal primarily with standing front faces, several systems have been developed that are able to detect faces reasonably truly plane or out-of-plane rotations in real time. Even if a face exposure module is normally designed to deal with single images, its performance can be improved if video capture.

INTRODUCTION The

technology

development

of

has

facilitated

real-time

the

visualization

foundation, faces need to be located and registered

first

to

facilitate

further

modules that interact with humans. For

processing. It is evident that face detection

biometric systems that use faces as non-

plays an important and critical role for the

intrusive input modules, it is imperative to

success of any face processing systems. The

locate faces in a picture before any

face detection problem is testing as it needs

recognition algorithm can be applied. A

to account for all possible look difference

vision based user interface should be able to

caused by change in lights, facial features,

tell the attention focus of the user in order to

occlusions. In addition, it has to detect faces

respond as a result. To detect facial features

that appear at different technology, with in

truly for applications such as digital

plane revolution. In spite of all these

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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61

difficulty, great progress has been made in

detected faces are usually further processed

the last decade and many systems have

to combine overlapped results and remove

shown inspiring real-time act. The recent

false positives with heuristics1 or further

advances of these algorithms have also

processing

made major help in detecting other objects

intensity

such as humans,

representations have been proposed for face

(e.g.,

edge

exposure

variance).

and

Numerous

exposure, including pixel-based1, 3, 5, partsFace Exposure System

based4,

Most exposure systems carry out the task by

wavelets4,10, and Haar-like features2,

extracting certain properties of a set of

While

training images acquired at a fixed pose in

schemes are able to detect faces1,

an off-line setting. To reduce the effects of

recent systems with Haar-like features2, 12, 13

illumination change, these images are

have demonstrated impressive empirical

processed with histogram equalization1,

3

results in detect faces under occlusion. A

Based on the extracted properties, these

large and representative training set of face

systems typically scan through the entire

images is essential for the success of

image at every possible location and scale

learning-based face detector. From the set

in order to locate faces. The extracted

of collected data, more positive examples

properties can be either manually coded or

can be synthetically generated by perturbing;

learned from a set of data as adopted in the

mirroring, rotating and scaling the original

recent systems that have demonstrated

face images1, 3. On the other hand, it is

impressive results1, 2, 3, 4, 5. In order to detect

relatively

faces at different scale, the detection

examples by randomly sampling images

process is usually repeated to a pyramid of

without face images1, 3. As face exposure

images whose resolution is reduced by a

can be mainly formulated as a pattern

1, 3

6, 7

, local edge features8, 9, Haar

earlier

easier

holistic

to

11

.

representation

collect

3, 5

, the

negative

.

recognition problem, numerous algorithms

Such procedures may be expedited when

have been proposed to learn their generic

other

accurately

templates (e.g., eigenface and statistical

incorporated (motion) as pre-processing

distribution) or discriminate classifiers (e.g.,

certain factor (1.2) from the original one

visual

cues

can

be 5

steps to reduce the search space . As faces

neural networks, Fisher linear discriminate,

are often detected across scale, the raw

sparse network of Winnows, decision tree, http://www.srji.co.cc


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Bays classifiers, support vector machines,

like features (at different position and scale)

and AdaBoost). Typically, a good face

is very large (about 160,000). Contrary to

detection system needs to be trained with

most of the prior algorithms that use one

several iterations. One common method to

single

further improve the system is to bootstrap a

networks and support vector machines),

trained face detector with test sets, and re-

they used an ensemble of weak classifiers

train the system with the false positive as

where

well as negatives1. This process is repeated

shareholding of one Haar-like feature. The

several times in order to further improve the

weak classifiers are selected and weighted

performance of a face detector. A survey on

using the AdaBoost algorithm14. As there is

these topics can be found in5, and the most

large number of weak classifiers, they

recent advances are discussed in the next

presented a method to rank these classifiers

section.

into several cascades using a set of

strong

each

classifier

one

is

(e.g.,

neural

constructed

by

optimization criteria. Within each stage, an Recent technology

ensemble of several weak classifiers is

The AdaBoost-based face detector by Viola

trained using the AdaBoost algorithm. The

and Jones2 demonstrated that faces can be

motivation behind the cascade of classifier

fairly reliably detect in real-time (i.e., more

is that simple classifiers at early stage can

than 15 frames per second on 240 by

filter out most negative examples efficiently,

320images with desktop computers) under

and stronger classifiers at later stage are

partial occlusion. While Haar wavelets were

only necessary to deal with instances that

used

in10

for representing faces and

look like faces. The final detector, a 38

pedestrians, they proposed the use of Haar-

layer cascade of classifiers with 6,060 Haar-

like features which can be computed

like features, demonstrated impressive real-

efficiently with integral image2. Figure 1

time performance with fairly high detection

shows four types of Haar-like features that

and low false positive rates. Several

are used to encode the horizontal, vertical

extensions to detect faces in multiple views

and diagonal intensity information of face

with in-plane ration have since been

images at different position and scale.

proposed12, 13, 15. An implementation of the

Given a sample image of 24 by 24 pixels,

AdaBoost-based face detector2 can be found

the exhaustive set of parameterized Haar-

in the Intel Open CV library. Despite the http://www.srji.co.cc


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excellent run-time performance of boosted 2

63

selection algorithm used as a pre-computing

cascade classifier , the training time of such

procedure, they reported that the training

a system is rather lengthy. In addition, the

time of the classifier cascade with AdaBoost

classifier

of

is reduced by 50 to 100 times. For learning

degenerate decision tree with an unbalanced

in each stage (or node) within the classifier

data set (i.e., a small set of positive

cascade, they also exploited the asymmetry

examples and a huge set of negative ones).

between positive and negative data using a

Numerous algorithms have been proposed

linear classifier with the assumptions that

to address these issues and extended to

they can be modeled with Gaussian

detect faces in multiple views. To handle

distributions17. The merits and drawbacks of

the asymmetry between the positive and

the proposed linear asymmetric classifier as

negative

data

Jones

well as the classic Fisher linear discriminate

proposed

the

AdaBoost

were also examined in their work. Recently,

algorithm16 which keeps most of the

Pham and Champ proposed an online

weights on the positive examples. In 2, the

algorithm that learns asymmetric boosted

AdaBoost algorithm is used to select a

classifiers18 with significant gain in training

specified number of weak classifiers with

time. In

lowest error rates for each cascade and the

automatically determine the number of

process

of

classifiers and stages for constructing a

optimization criteria (i.e., the number of

boosted ensemble was proposed. While a

stages, the number of features of each stage,

greedy

and the detection/false positive rates) is

employed in 2, Brubaker et al. proposed an

satisfied. As each weak classifier is made of

algorithm for determining the number of

one single Haar-like feature, the process

weak classifiers and training each node

within each stage can be considered as a

classifier of a cascade by selecting operating

feature

points

cascade

is

is

sets,

Viola

example

and

asymmetric

repeated

selection

an

until

problem.

a

set

Instead

of

repeating the feature selection process at 17

19

, an algorithm that aims to

optimization

within

a

algorithm

receiver

was

operator

20

characteristic (ROC) curve . The solved the

presented a greedy

optimization problem using linear programs

algorithm for determining the set of features

that maximize the detection rates while

for all stages first before training the

satisfying the constraints of false positive

cascade classifier. With the greedy feature

rates19. Although the original four types of

each stage, Wu et al.

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64

Haar-like features are sufficient to encode

which consists of a series of detectors

upright frontal face images, other types of

trained with positive images only, and the

features are essential to represent more

energy-based method25 that simultaneously

complex patterns (e.g., faces in different

detects faces and estimates their pose in real

11,12,13,15,21

pose)

. Most systems take a divide-

time.

and-conquer strategy and a face detector is constructed for a fixed pose, thereby

Quantifying Performance

covering a wide range of angles (e.g., yaws

There are numerous metrics to gauge the

and pitch angles). A test image is either sent

performance of face detection systems,

to all detectors for evaluation or to a

ranging from detection frame rate, false

decision module with a coarse pose

positive/negative rate, number of classifier,

estimator for selecting the appropriate trees

number of feature, and number of training

for

ensuing

image, training time, accuracy and memory

problems are how the types of features are

requirements. In addition, the reported

constructed, and how the most important

performance also depends on the definition

ones from a large feature space are selected.

of a “correct” detection result1, 5. Figure 2

More generalized Haar-like features are

shows the effects of detection results versus

defined in11,

in which the rectangular

different criteria, and more discussions can

image regions are not necessarily adjacent,

be found in1, 5. The most commonly adopted

and furthermore the number of such

method is to plot the ROC curve using the

rectangular blocks is randomly varied11.

de facto standard MIT + CMU data set

Several

been

which contains frontal face images. Another

proposed to select features efficiently by

data set from CMU contains images with

exploiting the statistics of features before

faces that vary in pose from frontal to side

training boosted cascade classifiers17,

.

view4. It has been noticed that although the

There are also other fast face detection

face detection methods nowadays have

methods that demonstrate promising results,

impressive real-time performance, there is

including

face

still much room for improvement in terms

detector using Naive Bays classifiers , the

of accuracy. The detected faces returned by

face

vector

state-of-the-art algorithms are often a few

24

pixels (around 5) off the “accurate”

further

processing.

12

greedy

the

The

algorithms

have

component-based

21

4

detectors

machines

7, 22, 23

using

support

, the Anti-face method

http://www.srji.co.cc

1


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65

locations, which is significant as face

images alone. The research will focus on

images are usually standardized to 21 by 21

improvement of detection precision for face

pixels. While such results are the trade-offs

exposure.

between speed, robustness and accuracy, they inevitably degrade the performance of

Adaptive Boosting

any

the

The Adaptive Boosting) is a machine

contents of detected faces. Several post-

learning algorithm formulated by Freund

processing algorithms have been proposed

and Shapiro14 that learns a strong classifier

to better locate faces and extract facial

by combining an ensemble of weak

features (when the image resolution of the

classifiers

detected faces is sufficiently high)26, 27.

Adaptive Boosting algorithm was originally

biometric

applications

using

with

weights.

The

discrete

developed for classification using the Applications

exponential loss function and is an instance

As face detection is the first step of any face

within the boosting family.

processing

system,

applications tracking, facial

in

face

facial feature

classification,

it

finds

numerous

recognition,

expression

recognition,

extraction,

gender

Similar to the what Haar wavelets are developed for basis functions to encode signals, the objective of two-dimensional

biometric

Haar features is to collect local oriented

systems, to name a few. In addition, most of

intensity difference at different scale for

the face detection algorithms can be

representing

extended to recognize other objects such as

representation transforms an image from

cars, humans, pedestrians, and signs, etc5.

pixel space to the space of wavelet

digital

attentive

Hear-like features

user

interfaces,

clustering,

face

cosmetics,

image

coefficients

with of

patters.

an

features.

This

over-complete

Summary

dictionary

The

Haar-like

The advance in face exposure has created a

features, similar to Haar wavelets, compute

lot of exciting and reasonably applications.

local oriented intensity difference using

As most of the algorithms can also be

rectangular blocks (rather than pixels)

applied to other problem domains, it has

which can be computed efficiently with the

broader impact than detecting faces in

integral image2. http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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66

of examining all scanned image patches can be reduced significantly.

Receiver operating characteristic A receiver operating characteristic is a plot p commonly used in machine learning and data mining for exhibiting the performance of a classifier under different criteria. The yy axis is the true positive and the xx-axis is the false positive (i.e., false alarm). A point on operating characteristic shows sho that the trade-off off

between

the

achieved

trues

positive detection rate and the accepted

(a) Face images

(b)Non-face images

Fig. 1. Four types of Haar Haar-like features. These features appear at different position and scale.The Haar Haar-like features are computed as the difference of dark and light regions. They can be considered as features

false positive rate.

that collect local edge information at different orientation and scale. The set of

Classifier cascade In face detection, a classifier cascade is a degenerate decision tree where each node (decision stump) consists of a binary

Haar-like like features is large, and only a small amount of them are learned from positive and negative ive examples for face detection.

classifier. In 2, each node is a boosted classifier

consisting

of

several

weak

classifiers. These boosted classifiers are constructed so that the ones near the root can be computed very efficiently at very high detection rate with acceptable false positive rate. Typically, most patches in a test image can be classified as faces/non faces/nonfaces using simple classifiers near the root, and relatively few difficult ones need to be analyzed by nodes with deeper depth. With this cascade structure, the total computation

(a) Test image

(b)Detection results

Fig. 2. Detection results depend heavily on the adopted criteria. Suppose all the subsub images in (b) are returned as face patterns by a detector. A loose criterion may declare de all the faces as “successful” detections while a more strict one would declare most of them as non non- faces.

REFERENCES

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CORRESPONDENCE *Centre for Research and Development. PRIST University, India. E-Mail:svthanigaivel@gmail.com

http://www.srji.co.cc


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Recovery of Decayed Species through Image Processing K.Priyadharsan*, S.Saranya** Abstract: The problem of rebuilding a structure from decayed remains has been, until now, especially relevant in the ambit of forensic sciences, where it is obviously oriented toward the identification of unrecognizable corpses; but its potential interest to archaeologists and anthropologists is not negligible. This paper is about recovering the decayed species’ structure, through Spiral Computed Tomography data and virtual modeling techniques (in this case with VTK software), 3-D models of the possible physiognomy of ancient mummies. The species representation is based on 3D models and soft tissues are reconstructed.Isosurfaces generation is based on Marching cubes algorithm. The resulting voxel models are converted into 3d wrapped models that are coded using VTK software. The presented results iiustrate that based on the proposed methods a complete recovery of decayed structure can be built with less cost.

Keywords: VTK, CT,3-D

INTRODUCTION Reconstruction is an important key feature

amount of information not only about the

of image processing applications. It uses CT

mummy and its skeleton, but also about the

scanning’s numbers allowed a very fine

artifacts buried with the mummy and its

discrimination

with

coffin2. Compared to traditional x-ray

different densities providing an enormous

techniques, multiple axial images displayed

between

materials

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in a clearer way the different details of car

The

tonnage, wrappings, amulets an and internal

mummified cranial remains allowed us to

3

anthropological

study

of

the

organs of a mummy and allowed easy

identify a male subject with an age at death

measurements of exact distances between

of

objects inside or outside the mummy. In the

dolichocranic, of medium height and with

last years, spiral CT has considerably

rounded

enhanced clinical imaging. The use of this

cheekbones, bones, gracile even if well developed

new technique has fatherly widened the

in its height, jaw; the orbits are narrow, the

range and quality of possible possi investigations

nose is well-shaped, shaped, and of Europoid look.

around

40

occiput,

years.

The

narrow

skull

face,

is

high

on mummies. So far, related work only considered initial

2. Spiral CT Scanning

representation of the fossil using CT scanning. Soft tissue reconstruction and texture mapping has to be studied in detail. In my paper, surface is constructed using Marching

cubess

algorithm

and

some

changes are made to the existing aalgorithm to get better results. 3D models are wrapped and coded using VTK software This process is organized as follows. In the Fig. 2 CT scanning of the head

next section, I describe the process of anthropological and egyptological analysis of the head. Section 2 presents spiral CT of the head. Section 3 presents. Reconstruction of a 3-D D model of the skull generated from CT data processing. Section 4 presents

The cranial cavity was filled with hot melted resin, later solidified, introduced with the mummy resting on its back, as the model reconstructed from the CT images clearly displays.

application of textures fitting the somatic features.

3. Reconstruction of a 3D Model of the Skull

1. Preliminary Anthropological thropological Results

CT

slices must be

stacked

up and

interpolated in order to build a volume. http://www.srji.co.cc


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Once created a volume, it is possible, by

This stage of our work is still in a

means of suitable algorithms, to generate

preliminary phase. Among the possible

surfaces whose points have the same

methodologies to deal with this complex

function value. They are called is surfaces A

problem, I focused two different promising

popular

ways:

algorithm

for

determining

is

surfaces is the so called marching cubes.

A. Protocols rotocols developed to the reconstruction

The principle underlying the application applica of

of

this algorithm to the kind of problem here

B. Use of warping techniques. t

soft

tissues

on

skull

described is that similar materials have the same radio-opacity opacity and are, consequently,

A. The thickness of the soft tissues is

represented in a CT scan by the same

reconstructed on the bones through the use

densitometry level. In CT slices, the

of pegs at marked points. All the pegs are

intensity associated to each pixel in the

joined by strips of plotline of fixed

grey-scale scale is proportional to tissues density:

thickness and the empty spaces among them

black corresponds to air, white to bones. It

are then slowly filled with mould able

is therefore possible processing the CT

material: in this way, it is possible to

scans sequence so as to obtain a 3-D 3 grid,

reconstruct nearly all the face that belonged

where to each "knot" (control point) is

to the living subject; on this, nose cartilage,

associated the densitometry value measured

eye globes and lips are added.

by the CT scans. The result is a 33-D 256 grey levels image.

B. A different method consists in the distortion (warping) of the 33-D model of a reference ce scanned head, until its hard tissues match those of the mummy. The subsequent stage is the construction of the hybrid model composed by the hard tissues of the mummy plus the soft ones of the reference

Fig. 3 a) hard tissues b) external surface

head.

4. Reconstruction off Soft Tissues

5. Textures Fitting the t Somatic Features

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012 While

hard

and

soft

Scientific Research Journal of India tissues

73

give

morphological information, textures provide colours and aesthetical features. They are "pasted" over the 3D models by means of mapping procedures. Moreover, being a frontal view, it does not give sufficient Fig.6Lateralview

information for the mapping of the entire model. We get a low resolution image (fig4).

Development of the project: soft tissue reconstruction using VTK After a first part of work, open problem is to reconstruct the lacking elements of a 3D digital model generated from CT scans applied to a mummified cranial remains.

Fig 4 low resolution image The texture was mapped onto the 3D model to perfectly match the frontal view of the mummy but it loses its grain as soon as we depart from the frontal view. Much better results could be obtained with different high resolution views of a new subject.

The aim is to obtain a perfect match among hard tissues so that soft tissue of reference model can be used to represent those of the mummy

with

a

good

approximation.

Moreover a tool is developed in order to apply to the model cylindrical textures obtained multiple views of a well suited individual Software implementation has been designed using VTK. Cylindrical textures obtained multiple views of a well suited individual Software implementation has been designed using VTK.

Fig 5texture, processed and colored, is

CT scans data representing our model and

mapped onto the 3-D model.

mummy should have the same placing, orientation, dimensions and resolution. This is generally not true especially when dealing with data coming from different machine so

http://www.srji.co.cc


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the first step is to perform a manual registration (Figure 3), that is a rigid transformation, among volumes in order to work in the same system of coordinates. Software like AIR are also available for automatic

registration

but

sometimes,

especially when volumes are quite different, they do not produce satisfactory results. As further requirement grayscales of hard tissues must be similar, in spite of different methodologies

of

acquisition

though

Fig.6 Manchester points placed over the

mummyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tissues has been deteriorated. It is possible to correct these differences shifting and scaling intensities using histogram information.

remove aliasing phenomena) and surface generation Vtk internal facilities are used. At this point we precede with the setup of the Manchester pegs onto the surface of the hard tissues of the mummy while for the reference model it can be predetermined. The aim of this phase is to fix some constraints for the resulting physiognomy and to provide a first guess for the following that

is

the

features

tracking.

Pegs are mapped onto a spherical surface of parametric ratio, so that the user can place quickly the whole set and the adjust single pegs.

Calculating vector displacement among couples of corresponding points we obtain a scattered field to drive a first warp phase. A

For volume resembling, smoothing (to

step

mummy

feature tracking consists in determining a correspondence characteristic

between points

sets

of

pertaining to

the

volumes in order to obtain a scatter motion field with more details. It is the most important

step.

Initially this set of points is chosen as a subset of points that are vertices of hard tissues surface of the mummy; some of these points, corresponding position in the reference volume. If the result is good, the resulting motion field is defined among subsets of bone surfaces, with particular characteristics, are identified as features. If, consecutively a test, a feature is retained reliable, we search the from the reference http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012 model

to

the

mummy

Scientific Research Journal of India

75

volume..â&#x20AC;Ś.

Once generated a scattered motion field, it must be diffused within the whole reference volume. Diffused motion field can be used to warp arp every structure pertaining to

Fig .9 Model skin (blue) and mummy skull

reference model coherently with mummy

(white)

model therefore we reconstruct mummy soft tissues warping those of reference model

Fig 10 Face generated

We consider the relation between hard tissues surface of the reference model and Fig 7 wrap driven by manchester points

hard tissue surface of the mummy as a continuous deformation in the time. If

is the intensity of a point

of coordinates (x,y,z) at time t in the mummy

volume

and

is where e

the

motion m

field,

, are components in x, y e z

directions of velocity vector, we suppose that the intensity function is the same at the time

in

the

Fig.8 Model skull (blue) after this stage overlapped with mummy skull (white)

point

of the http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

Scientific Research Journal of India

reference

model,

where e

and

76

we can write the 3 as

,

(5)

.

Known as motion field constraint equation, where Ex, Ey, Ez ed Et are partial

(1)

derivatives. We say that x is a reliable feature if If the intensity function change smoothly sm

(6)

with x, y, z e t, we can manipulate the equation (1) with Taylor’s series to obtain (2) Where: I(

, t) is the matrix of intensity function

where e contains terms in x, y, z e t

E in the point

higher than first order.

at the time t;

=(x,y,z) in the region W(x)

 is the gradient operator; Eliminating

, rationing by t,

and calculating limit for

, we

 min ()) represents the smaller eigenvalue of matrix  ;

obtain

are predetermined thresholds.

(3) We consider a window (q) centered in q of

dimensions.

We represent (6) in discrete fashion that is the totally derivative of

in the

(7)

time.

(4) Using abbreviated notation:

The solution of (4) respect to V is given by In this moment this stage is still in developing so we have no picture, anyway the idea is simple: for each of the Manchester points we w find its corresponding http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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77

on the skin surface, in this way we can

amount of data, was to process and visualize

measure the actual soft tissue thickness. By

in real time and in 3D the data volume.

consulting the thickness table we find the

Through this paper I hope that this method

corresponding desired thickness measure.

will be a useful one to the society.

Saying that the actual thickness must become the desired thickness we generate

REFERENCES 1. S.B. Kang, R. Szeliski, and P.

another scattered field.

Anandan,

“The

Representation

Texture Application

Geometry-Image Trade

off

for

Rendering”, Proc. ICIP, Vancouver, Canada, September 2000.

2. P. Eisert, E. Steinbach, and B. Girod, “Multi-hypothesis,

Volumetric

Reconstruction of 3-D Objects. Proc. ICASSP, pp. 3509-3512, Phoenix, Mar. 1999.

3. W. E. Lorensen, and H. E. Cline, “Marching Cubes: A high resolution CONCLUSION: In

this

paper,

performances

3D surface reconstruction algorithm,” for

through

obtaining the

better

virtual

3D

Proc. SIGGRAPH, vol. 21, no. 4, pp 163-169, 1987.

visualization of the reconstruction i have used the powerful workstation Onyx2

4. P. Debevec, C. Taylor, and J. Malik,

equipped with an architecture of type

“Modeling

multiprocessor, with 4 processors R10K, 1

architecture from photographs: A

Gbyte of RAM, computing power of 1.5

hybrid

Gflop, 1 graphic pipeline, that it can process

approach,” Proc. SIGGRAPH, pp.

11 millions of polygons per second. In fact

11-20, 1996.

and

geometry

rendering

image

based

the main problem, processing a large http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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78

CORRESPONDENCE *DR-DO

Project

Assistant,

Centre

for

R&D,

PRIST

University,

Thanjavur,

India.

Email:

kvpriyadharshan@gmail.com. **Lecturer, Department of Comp Science & Engg, Bharadhidasan University, Trichy, India. Email: saranyapristina@gmail.com

http://www.srji.co.cc


Vol.1 ● No.3 ● 2012

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Vol.1 â&#x2014;? No.3 â&#x2014;? 2012

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80

Call for Papers Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI) globally welcomes research scholars & scientists from different fields of science like Botany, Zoology, Medical Sciences, Agricultural Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Natural Sciences, Anthropology etc to contribute their researches in this Open Access Publication. ::For full detail kindly visit:: http://www.srji.co.cc

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Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI) Volume-1 Issue-3 Year-2012  

Scientific Research Journal of India (SRJI) Volume-1 Issue-3 Year-2012

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