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International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46

Research Paper—Geography

Trends of Sex Ratio In India

Number of Females Per 1000 Males

* Raj Shri July ,2013 * Lecturer in Geography (Adhoc), Ahir College, Rewari Research Paper Geography:India Sex Ratio (1901-2011) Sex ratio is the most fundamental demographic 980 972 attribute as it determines the reproductive potential, 970 964 marital states, work force, migration pattern, growth of 955 960 population and the socio-economic relationship. In 950 945 946 950 fact, it is an important attribute to measure of prevailing 941 940 937 940 934 933 930 equality between males and females in society at a 930 given point of time in India. In our country it had always 920 remained unfavourable to females. The national aver910 age of sex ratio is 940. Sex Ratio may be defined as the 900 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 number of females per thousand males. Census Year Data Sources:Secondary data has been used in the study and has been collected from census of India (1901- tribes, Christian and Muslim dominated areas in the country. In 2001 sex ratio hiked from 927 to 933. Accord2011). ing to the census of 2011, our national average of sex Methodology:The systematic approach has been adopted ratio is 940. The sex ratio in our country as per census for analysis. Absolute figures have been converted of 2011 has been plotted by graph. The temporal change into ratios and presented through tables and graph. in has been given in Table 1.1. Suitable cartographic techniques has been used for the (A) Continuously declining sex ratio period 1901-1941:present analysis. In the beginning of 1901 sex ratio was at the Trends of Sex Ratio in India:level of 972 on per thousand males. Later on it moral In the beginning of 20th century sex ratio was towards downward and it reached at 964 in 1911, 955 in 972 and thereafter is recorded a sharply declining trend. 1921, 950 in 1931 and 945 in 1941. It may be observed The lowest sex ratio was in 1991 when it was only 927 that sex ratio was in declining trend cheering the above females on per 1000 males. It may be explained into mentioned. The possible factors are marital status socio-cultural factors and the pre-natal sex determinapoverty etc. However, we faced both world wars, in tion. The higher sex ratio is found in the scheduled which a no. of soldiers not only get died but also made migration from here but still then we see its graph toTable 1.1 India: Sex Ratio (1901-2011) wards down trend. Census Year Sex Ratio (B) Slightly growth and then declining period:(Females per 1000 of males) After observing table 1.1 this period may be classified 1901 972 into two parts.:1911 964 1. 1951 to 1971 1921 955 2. 1981 and onwards 1931 950 1. 1951-1971:1941 945 The data shows that in 1951 the sex ratio made 1951 946 slightly the attitude by one point and it reaches at 946 1961 941 in comparison to 945 in 1941. But it could not stay itself 1971 930 in this trend slipped down by 946 to 930 in 1971. 1981 934 2. 1981 onwards:1991 937 Later the census year 1981 data recorded A+ve 2001 933 trend but it could not stay in the same trend and slipped 2011 940 down again at 927 in 1991. During 1981-2001 and awareSource: Census of India, 2011. RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION


International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46

ness our society recorded a change in thinking of common people which may be reflected in the increasing trend of sex ratio i.e. 933 in 2000. Statewise Sex Ratio in India 2001:Table 1.2 shows that there are great variations in the sex ratio at the state level. Kerala is the only major state which has excess of females with sex ratio of 1084 females on per thousand males. Other side, the sex ratio in Haryana is only 879, which has lowest sex-ratio. The state-wise sex ratio has been given in table 1.2 India: The statewise sex-ratio given in table 1.2 shows great variations in it. The states can be divided into India : Statewise Sex-Ratio (2011) States/Union Territories States Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattishgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Union Territories Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadar Nagar & Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondicherry India Source: Census of India 2011


Sex Ratio-2011 993 938 958 918 991 973 919 879 972 889 948 973 1084 931 929 992 989 976 931 979 895 928 890 996 960 963 912 950 876 818 774 618 868 946 1037 940

following four categories:1. First Category (Below 900):There are four state and five union territories in this category. There are Haryana (879), Punjab (895), Sikkim (890), Jammu & Kashmir (889), Andaman and Nicobar Island (876), Chandigarh (818), Dadar Nagar and Haveli (774), Daman and Diu (618), Delhi (868). Socio-Cultural factors and Pre-Natal Sex determination seem to be responsible factors for the low sex ratio. See Table 2 2. Second Category (901-940) These are eight state in this category. In this category the sex ratio varies between 901-940. There are average of sex ratio is in Arunachal Pradesh (938), Bihar (918), Gujarat (919), Uttar Pradesh (912), Maharashtra (929), Madhya Pradesh (931), Rajasthan (928), Nagaland (931) 3. Third Category (941-980):941-980 average of sex ratio is in Karnataka (973), West Bengal (950), Orissa (979), Jharkhand (948), Assam (958), Uttarakhand (963), Himachal Pradesh (972), Tripura (960), Goa (973), Mizoram (976), Lakshadweep (946). The high sex ratio is an indicator of less discrimination against the females. 4. Fourth Category above (980):In this category there are Manipur (992), Meghalaya (989), Kerala (1084), Chhatisgarh (991) and Tamil Nadu (996). Kerala is only state in which sex ratio is 1058. Among the Union Territories Pondicherry has the highest sex ratio (1037). The Pre-Natal Sex determination and same socio-cultural factors are majorly responsible for the significantly low sex ratio in these relatively more developed state. Causes of Low Sex Ratio:There are many factors responsible for the low sex-ratio. 1. Low Birth Rate:There is low birth rate of girls than boys. On every 1000 boys, 940 girl child take birth. However, this factor also works in developed countries but there exists high death rate of males which equals the sexratio. But in India it's not so and became a main cause of low sex-ratio by nature. 2. Pre-Natal Sex Determination:As we have explained that by nature 940 girls take birth on every 1000 boys and then due to social evils, pre-Natal sex determination works negatively. It is, we come to know easily that the baby is boy or girl and if we found a girl, we abort and thus it became the main cause of low sex ratio. 4. Lack of Nutrients:We makes differences in the food of a girl and a boy. We thinks that a boy needs more nutritional food comparatively to a girl and thus their immunity power


International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0975-3486, (Print) E-ISSN-2320-5482, July,2013 VOL-IV *ISSUE- 46

In India Statwise Sex-Ratio (2011)

decrease and they become ill and died. Their body could not get proper nutrients therefore their body could not development properly. 5. Illiteracy:Illiteracy is also a main cause of low sex-ratio in our houses, we see that generally women are almost illiterate and due to illitera they are not aware of their lights, laws, different govt. policies and our society exploits then physically as well as mentally and thus it become as main cause of low sex-ratio. 6. Social disease:Some social systems work as devil against sex-ratio. Out of these dowry system is mentality is that we have to give heavy dowry in girls marriage. Therefore inspite of sending her school and encourage to get good education. We start to save for dowry day by day and try to prepare her mentally for marriage. 7. Crime Rate:Today, world is facing the problem of increasing crime rate. Today, if we send our daughter / sister

outside to our house we full worry till she come back to home. This is only due to crime rate, today we see in various newspapers on almost every page that the rapist raped, murdered and about other crime against girl. All these factors become main cause of lowsex-ratio. Marital Status, Reproduct Responsibility, SocioEconomic Structure, Greed, Work force are also major causes of low sex ratio. Conclusion:It is observed that in the beginning of 20th century sex-ratio was not in such poor condition. But as time passed and modern Science and Technology, Education and other sources improved the trend of sex ratio has been affected in negative way. Except 1951 and 1981, we see nervousness in our sex ratio. In these two decades we felt some relief. In 2001, sex ratio reached from 927 to 933. According to the census 2011 our national average of sex ratio is 940. In it we may see revolutionary trend and it may be expect that in the coming decade it will be at the satisfactory stage.

R E F E R E N C E 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Husain Majid (2008) Geography of India, Jamia Millia University, New Delhi. Govt. of India, Census of India, 1991 and 2001. Census of India, (1991), Census Atlas, National, Vol. I, Registrar General of India, New Delhi. Chandna R.C. (2002), Geography of Population, Kalyani Publications, Ludhiana. Tiwari, R.C. (2006), Geography of India, Allahabad, Prayag Pustak Bhawan.



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