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The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

‫الحٌوانات التً تعٌش فً داخل وحول المسجد الحرام فً مكة‬ ‫ المملكة العربٌة السعودٌة‬، ‫ال ُمكرمة‬ By: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa ُ ‫ ُت َس ِّب ُح لَ ُه ال َّس َم َاو‬. ‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحٌم‬ ‫ٌِهنَّ ۚ َوإِنْ ِمنْ َشًْ ٍء إِ ََّّل‬ ِ ‫ات ال َّس ْب ُع َو ْاْلَرْ ضُ َو َمنْ ف‬ . 44 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة اإلسراء‬. ‫ان َحلٌِمًا َغفُورً ا‬ َ ‫ٌح ُه ْم ۗ إِ َّن ُه َك‬ َ ‫ُون َتسْ ِب‬ َ ‫ٌُ َس ِّب ُح ِب َح ْم ِد ِه َو َٰلَ ِكنْ ََّل َت ْف َقه‬

Little Swift (Apus affinis J.E. Gray, 1830)

Nests of the Little Swift (Apus affinis) at the ceiling of Al Masjid Al Haram in Mecca. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11834882914/ .01.210.22 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫أعشاش طٌور السمامة الصغٌرة (طٌور اْلبابٌل) فً سقف الحرم المكً الشرٌف‬

Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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‫ب مِن‬ ِ ‫اح ٌْ ِه إَِّلَّ أ ُ َم ٌم أَ ْم َثال ُ ُكم مَّا َفرَّ ْط َنا فًِ ال ِك َتا‬ َ ‫ض َوَّلَ َطائ ٍِر ٌَطِ ٌ ُر ِب َج َن‬ ِ ْ‫َو َما مِن دَآ َّب ٍة فًِ اْلَر‬ . 88 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة اْلنعام‬. ‫َشًْ ٍء ُث َّم إِلَى َرب ِِّه ْم ٌُحْ َشرُون‬

A little Swift (Apus affinis) flying near its nest at Bab King Abdul Aziz, the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram), Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11931352283/ ً‫طٌر السمامة الصغٌرة (طٌر اْلبابٌل) ٌطٌر بالقرب من عشه فً سقف باب الملك عبدالعزٌز ف‬ .01.210.22 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫الحرم المكً الشرٌف‬ The Little Swift (Apus affinis J.E. Gray, 1830) has very short legs which they use only for clinging to vertical surfaces. The scientific name comes from the Greek απους, apous, meaning "without feet". They never settle voluntarily on the ground. Little Swifts breed around habitation and cliffs from southern Spain, Africa northeastwards through southern Pakistan and India and Sri Lanka. Unlike the more northerly Common Swift, many birds are resident, but some populations are migratory, and winter further south than their breeding areas. They wander widely on migration, and are seen as rare vagrants in much of Europe and Asia. Little Swifts spend most of their lives in the air, living on the insects they catch in their beaks. They drink on the wing, but roost on vertical cliffs or walls. They are notoriously slow risers in the mornings (Wikipedia). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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‫غ‪ٛ١‬س اٌغّاِح اٌصغ‪١‬شج (غ‪ٛ١‬س األتات‪)ً١‬‬ ‫ٌِل ‪َ .‬وأَرْ َس َل َعلٌَ ِْه ْم َط ٌْرً ا‬ ‫ك ِبؤَصْ َحا ِ‬ ‫ْف َف َع َل َر ُّب َ‬ ‫أَلَ ْم َت َر َكٌ َ‬ ‫ٌِل ‪ .‬أَلَ ْم ٌَجْ َع ْل َك ٌْ َد ُه ْم فًِ َتضْ ل ٍ‬ ‫ب ْالف ِ‬ ‫ول ‪ .‬سورة الفٌل ‪ ،‬اآلٌات ‪5-1‬‬ ‫ٌل ‪َ .‬ف َج َعلَ ُه ْم َك َعصْ ٍ‬ ‫ٌِه ْم ِبح َِج َ‬ ‫ف َمؤْ ُك ٍ‬ ‫ار ٍة ِمنْ سِ جِّ ٍ‬ ‫أَ َب ِابٌ َل ‪َ .‬ترْ م ِ‬ ‫اٌزا٘ة ٌّىح اٌّىشِح ؽشف‪ٙ‬ا هللا ذؼاٌ‪ٌٍ ، ٝ‬ؼّشج أ‪ ٚ‬اٌسح ‪٠‬الزع ‪٠ ٛ٘ٚ‬ط‪ٛ‬ف أ‪٠ ٚ‬صٍ‪ ٟ‬اٌفدش أ‪ ٚ‬اٌّغشب‬ ‫‪ٚ‬خ‪ٛ‬د اٌط‪ٛ١‬س اٌصغ‪١‬شج اٌر‪ ٟ‬ذط‪١‬ش داخً اٌسشَ اٌّى‪ ٟ‬اٌؾش‪٠‬ف ‪ٚ‬ذس‪ َٛ‬تأػذاد وث‪١‬شج ف‪ٛ‬ق اٌصسٓ ‪٘ٚ .‬زٖ‬ ‫اٌط‪ٛ١‬س غاٌثا ِا ذى‪ِ ْٛ‬ر‪ٛ‬اخذج غ‪ٛ‬اي اٌؼاَ ‪ٚ‬ئْ وأد ذٕرمً ٌثؼط األِاوٓ اٌمش‪٠‬ثح ئِا ٌثٕاء أػؾاؽ‪ٙ‬ا أ‪ٚ‬‬ ‫ٌٍثسث ػٓ اٌسؾشاخ ‪٠ٚ ،‬غّ‪ٙ١‬ا أً٘ ِىح غ‪ٛ١‬س األتات‪ . ً١‬أِا ف‪ ٟ‬زم‪١‬مح األِش ف‪ ٟٙ‬غ‪ٛ١‬س اٌغّاَ أ‪ٚ‬‬ ‫اٌغّاعُ ‪ٚ‬اٌّفشد ِٕ‪ٙ‬ا اٌغّاِح ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ورة اٌرفغ‪١‬ش أخرٍفد ف‪ٚ ٟ‬صف غ‪ٛ١‬س األتات‪ٌ ً١‬ىٕ‪ٙ‬ا أتأد أْ وٍّح األتات‪ ٟ٘ ً١‬تّؼٕ‪ ٝ‬أْ اٌط‪ٛ١‬س‬ ‫خاءخ ف‪ ٟ‬خّاػاخ وث‪١‬شج ‪٠‬رثغ تؼع‪ٙ‬ا تؼعا ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬اٌغّاِح اٌر‪ ٟ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌسشَ اٌؾش‪٠‬ف ٘‪ ِٓ ٟ‬أصغش أٔ‪ٛ‬اع غ‪ٛ١‬س اٌغّاَ ٌزٌه ذغّ‪ ٝ‬تاٌغّاِح اٌصغ‪١‬شج‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ئعّ‪ٙ‬ا اٌؼٍّ‪ " ٟ‬أت‪ٛ‬ط أف‪١ٕ١‬ظ " ‪ ِٓ ٟ٘ٚ‬األٔ‪ٛ‬اع اٌر‪ ٟ‬أػرادخ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌؼ‪١‬ؼ لشب اإلٔغاْ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬أِاوٓ أرؾاس٘ا ف‪ ٟ‬اٌدض‪٠‬شج اٌؼشت‪١‬ح ِٓ خذج ‪ِٚ‬ىح ؽشف‪ٙ‬ا هللا ذؼاٌ‪ ٝ‬ؽّال ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ػذْ خٕ‪ٛ‬تا ‪ٚ ،‬لذ‬ ‫سصذخ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌى‪٠ٛ‬د ‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اإلِاساخ ٌىٕ‪ٙ‬ا ذؼرثش خ‪ٛ‬اٌح أ‪ ٚ‬غاسئح ف‪ِٕ ٟ‬طمح ؽشق اٌخٍ‪١‬ح اٌؼشت‪ٚ . ٟ‬ذ‪ٛ‬خذ‬ ‫وزٌه ف‪ ٟ‬خٕ‪ٛ‬ب ئ‪٠‬شاْ ‪ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬أفش‪٠‬م‪١‬ا وٍ‪ٙ‬ا ‪ٚ‬خٕ‪ٛ‬ب ؽشق آع‪١‬ا ف‪ ٟ‬ذا‪ٍٕ٠‬ذ ‪ٚ‬أٔذ‪١ٔٚ‬غ‪١‬ا ‪ٚ‬عٕغاف‪ٛ‬سج ‪ٚ‬اٌفٍث‪ٓ١‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ل ذر‪ٛ‬اخذ ؽّاي إٌّاغك اٌّزو‪ٛ‬سج آٔفا ئل ٔادسا ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬اٌغّاِح اٌصغ‪١‬شج غ‪١‬ش صغ‪١‬ش ‪٠‬ثٍغ غ‪ٌٙٛ‬ا ‪11‬عُ ‪ ٌْٛٚ‬خغّ‪ٙ‬ا أع‪ٛ‬د سِاد‪ٕ٘ٚ ، ٞ‬ان ت‪١‬اض ‪ٚ‬اظر‬ ‫ف‪ٛ‬ق تذا‪٠‬ح اٌز‪ٚ ً٠‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌسٕدشج ذسد إٌّماس ‪ٚ ،‬اٌز‪ ً٠‬لص‪١‬ش ل ‪ٕ٠‬مغُ ئٌ‪ ٝ‬لغّ‪ ٓ١‬وطائش اٌغٕ‪، ٛٔٛ‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬اٌدٕازاْ دل‪١‬ماْ ‪ٚ‬غ‪٠ٛ‬الْ ‪ٚ ،‬أسخٍ‪ٙ‬ا لص‪١‬شج ‪ٚ‬ظؼ‪١‬فح ‪ٌٙٚ‬ا ِخاٌة غ‪ٍ٠ٛ‬ح ‪ِٚ‬خٍث‪ٙ‬ا اٌخٍف‪ِ ٟ‬ؼى‪ٛ‬ط ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬وً رٌه ٌرغرط‪١‬غ اٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األعطر اٌخؾٕح اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح ‪ ،‬ألْ األعطر اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح أع‪ٌٙ ًٙ‬ا ٌالٔطالق‬ ‫ِشج أخش‪ٌٍ ٜ‬ط‪١‬شاْ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌد‪ ِٓ ٛ‬األسض إٌّثغطح ‪ٚ ،‬أسخٍ‪ٙ‬ا ظؼ‪١‬فح ل ذغرط‪١‬غ اٌمفض ‪ ،‬ت‪ّٕ١‬ا أخٕسر‪ٙ‬ا‬ ‫غ‪ٍ٠ٛ‬ح ع‪ٛ‬ف ذعشب األسض ئرا أسادخ اٌط‪١‬شاْ ِشج أخش‪ٌ ، ٜ‬زٌه ف‪ ٟٙ‬ل ذسػ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األسض أتذا ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٌٚ‬خفح ‪ٚ‬صٔ‪ٙ‬ا ‪ٚ‬غ‪ٛ‬ي أخٕسر‪ٙ‬ا ذثم‪ ٝ‬غائشج أغٍة ‪ٚ‬لر‪ٙ‬ا ‪ ٟ٘ٚ ،‬ذص‪١‬ذ اٌسؾشاخ ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬غائشج ‪ٚ‬خاصح‬ ‫تؼط أٔ‪ٛ‬اع إًٌّ ‪ٚ‬اٌثؼ‪ٛ‬ض ‪ٌ ،‬زٌه ذؼرثش اٌغّاِح ِٓ اٌط‪ٛ١‬س اٌّف‪١‬ذج ألٔ‪ٙ‬ا ذسذ ِٓ ئٔرؾاس اٌسؾشاخ‬ ‫اٌعاسج ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬اٌغّاَ ذثم‪ ٝ‬غ‪ٛ‬اي إٌ‪ٙ‬اس ف‪ ٟ‬اٌد‪ٚ ، ٛ‬ذؾشب اٌّاء ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬غائشج ‪ٚ‬ل ذٕضي ئٌ‪ ٝ‬أػؾاؽ‪ٙ‬ا ئل ػٕذ زٍ‪ٛ‬ي‬ ‫اٌظالَ ‪ٚ ،‬تؼط األٔ‪ٛ‬اع األ‪ٚ‬س‪ٚ‬ت‪١‬ح ِٓ اٌغّاَ ذرضا‪ٚ‬ج ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌد‪ٚ . ٛ‬اٌغّاَ ِٓ أعشع اٌط‪ٛ١‬س اٌر‪ٟ‬‬ ‫ف‪ ٟ‬زدّ‪ٙ‬ا ئر ذثٍغ عشػر‪ٙ‬ا ‪ 110‬و‪ِ ٍٛ١‬رش ف‪ ٟ‬اٌغاػح ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬لذ ػشف‪ٙ‬ا اٌؼشب ِٓ لذ‪ ُ٠‬اٌضِاْ ‪ٚ‬سأ‪ٚ‬ا أْ أػؾاؽ‪ٙ‬ا ف‪ ٟ‬أِاوٓ ػاٌ‪١‬ح ‪ٚ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أعطر ػّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح ِٓ‬ ‫اٌصؼة اٌ‪ٛ‬ص‪ٛ‬ي ئٌ‪ٙ١‬ا ‪ٌ ،‬زٌه لاي اٌؼشب ف‪ ٟ‬أِثاٌ‪ : ُٙ‬وٍفرٕ‪ ٟ‬ت‪١‬ط اٌغّاَ (ٌألِش اٌز‪ ٞ‬ل ‪٠‬غرطاع) ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ٌٍٚ‬غّاِح سِ‪ٛ‬ػ س‪٠‬ؾ‪١‬ح ز‪ٛ‬ي أػ‪ٕٙ١‬ا ذسّ‪ٙ١‬ا ِٓ ئصطذاَ اٌسؾشاخ ‪ٚ .‬ألػ‪ٕٙ١‬ا غؾاء ؽفاف وثال‪ٟ‬‬ ‫اٌط‪ٛ١‬س ذش‪ ِٓ ٜ‬خالٌٗ ػٕذِا ذغّط ػ‪ٙٔٛ١‬ا ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬ذط‪١‬ش ‪ٚ .‬ػادج ذط‪١‬ش تاسذفاػاخ ػاٌ‪١‬ح ذصً ِٓ ‪100‬‬ ‫ئٌ‪ِ 200 ٝ‬رش ‪ٚ‬ذصذس أص‪ٛ‬اذا ػاٌ‪١‬ح لذ ذى‪ِ ْٛ‬ضػدح أز‪١‬أا ‪ٚ‬ذفعً األِاوٓ اٌّفر‪ٛ‬زح ٌرس‪ َٛ‬ف‪ ٟ‬اٌغّاء‬ ‫تذ‪ ْٚ‬ػشال‪ ً١‬؛ ‪ ٟ٘ٚ‬دائّا ذط‪١‬ش تّدّ‪ٛ‬ػاخ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014‬‬


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‫‪ٚ‬ذثٕ‪ ٟ‬اٌغّاِح اٌصغ‪١‬شج أػؾاؽ‪ٙ‬ا تّدّ‪ٛ‬ػاخ صغ‪١‬شج ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األعطر اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح ٌٍّثأ‪ٚ ٟ‬ت‪ ٓ١‬ؽم‪ٛ‬ق‬ ‫اٌّثأ‪ٚ ٟ‬ػٍ‪ ٝ‬أ‪ٚ‬خٗ اٌصخ‪ٛ‬س اٌدثٍ‪١‬ح اٌؾا٘مح ‪ٚ .‬ف‪ ٟ‬أ‪ٚ‬لاخ تٕاء األػؾاػ ‪٠‬فشص ٌؼات‪ٙ‬ا ِادج صّغ‪١‬ح‬ ‫ذغرخذِ‪ٙ‬ا ف‪ٌ ٟ‬صك اٌؼ‪١‬ذاْ ‪ٚ‬اٌش‪٠‬ؼ ‪ٚ‬اٌسؾائؼ تاألعطر اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح ‪ٚ ،‬وزٌه ٌصك اٌث‪١‬ط ف‪ ٟ‬اٌؼؼ ‪.‬‬ ‫أِا عّاِح إٌخ‪ ٟ٘ٚ ً١‬أ‪٠‬عا غ‪١‬ش ِ‪ٙ‬اخشج ‪ٚ‬ذ‪ٛ‬خذ ِٓ خذج ؽّال ئٌ‪ ٝ‬ػذْ خٕ‪ٛ‬تا ‪ ،‬ف‪ ٟٙ‬ذٍصك ػؾ‪ٙ‬ا‬ ‫ف‪ ٟ‬عؼف إٌخ‪ٚ ً١‬ذٍصك وزٌه ت‪١‬ع‪ٙ‬ا ‪ ٟ٘ٚ ،‬ذث‪١‬ط ػادج ِٓ ‪ 2‬ئٌ‪ 3 ٝ‬ت‪١‬عاخ ‪٠ٚ ،‬ظً اٌؼؼ ِؼٍما ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬ػٕذ ٔمص اٌغزاء ذرشن األٔث‪ ٝ‬اٌؼؼ ٌٍثسث ػٓ اٌغزاء ‪٠ٚ‬ط‪ٛ‬ي ٌزٌه ‪ٚ‬لد فمظ اٌث‪١‬ط ‪ٚ ،‬ػٕذِا ‪٠‬فمظ‬ ‫اٌث‪١‬ط ‪٠‬ظً اٌفشش ِؼٍما ئٌ‪ ٝ‬اورّاي ّٔ‪ ٛ‬س‪٠‬ؾٗ ‪ٚ ،‬ػٕذ ٔمص اٌغزاء لذ ‪٠‬ثم‪ ٝ‬اٌفشش ف‪ ٟ‬اٌؼؼ ٌّذج ثّاْ‬ ‫أ‪ ٚ‬ػؾشج أعات‪١‬غ ‪ِ ٛ٘ٚ‬ؼٍما ؛ ‪ٚ‬ػٕذ ئورّاي ّٔ‪٠ ٖٛ‬رشن اٌؼؼ ٌ‪١‬ط‪١‬ش تغ‪ٌٛٙ‬ح ف‪ ٟ‬اٌد‪. ٛ‬‬ ‫‪ٚ‬غ‪ٛ١‬س اٌغّاَ غ‪١‬ش غ‪ٛ١‬س اٌخطاف ‪ ،‬فاٌغّاَ أخٕسر‪ٙ‬ا أغ‪ٛ‬ي ‪ٚ‬أدق ِٓ أخٕسح اٌغّاَ ‪ٚ ،‬اٌغّاَ ل‬ ‫ذغرط‪١‬غ اٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األغصاْ ‪ٚ‬األػّذج ٌىٕ‪ٙ‬ا ذغرط‪١‬غ اٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األعطر اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح ‪ ،‬ت‪ّٕ١‬ا غ‪ٛ١‬س‬ ‫اٌخطاف ذغرط‪١‬غ رٌه ‪ٌٍٚ .‬غّاَ ِخاٌة غ‪ٍ٠ٛ‬ح ٌرغاػذ٘ا ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌ‪ٛ‬ل‪ٛ‬ف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬األعطر اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح و‪ٛ‬اخٗ‬ ‫اٌّثأ‪ٚ ٟ‬أ‪ٚ‬خٗ اٌصخ‪ٛ‬س اٌؼّ‪ٛ‬د‪٠‬ح (ئخاتاخ خ‪ٛ‬خً) ‪.‬‬

‫‪Pigeons of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al Mukarramah,‬‬ ‫‪Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa.‬‬ ‫‪02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11991792965/‬‬ ‫حمام الحرم وٌُسمى أٌضا ً بحمام الحِمى أو حمام رب البٌت ‪ .‬تصوٌر المإلف فً مكة المُكرمة ‪.0..2.0.20 .‬‬

‫‪Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014‬‬


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َّ ‫أَ َولَ ْم ٌَ َر ْوا إِلَى‬ ‫ت َو ٌَ ْق ِبضْ َن ۚ َما ٌُ ْمسِ ُكهُنَّ إِ ََّّل الرَّ حْ َٰ َمنُ ۚ إِ َّن ُه ِب ُك ِّل َشًْ ٍء بَصِ ٌ ٌر‬ ٍ ‫صا َّفا‬ َ ‫الطٌ ِْر َف ْو َق ُه ْم‬ . 19 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة الملك‬.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11992608486/

Pigeons of the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11991806985/ .0..2.0.20 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف فً مكة المُكرمة‬. ‫حمام الحرم وٌُسمى أٌضا ً بحمام الحِمى أو حمام رب البٌت‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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َٰ َّ ‫أَلَ ْم ٌَ َر ْوا إِلَى‬ َّ ‫ت فًِ َجوِّ ال َّس َما ِء َما ٌُ ْمسِ ُكهُنَّ إِ ََّّل‬ ‫ت لِ َق ْو ٍم‬ ٍ ‫ك َآل ٌَا‬ ٍ ‫الطٌ ِْر ُم َس َّخ َرا‬ َ ِ‫هللا ُ ۗ إِنَّ فًِ َذل‬ . 79 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة النحل‬. ‫ون‬ َ ‫ٌ ُْإ ِم ُن‬ The Rock Pigeon or Rock Dove (Columba livia Gmelin, 1789) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons). In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the "pigeon" (Wikipedia). The species includes the domestic pigeon (including the fancy pigeon), and escaped domestic pigeons have given rise to feral populations around the world. Wild Rock Doves are pale grey with two black bars on each wing, although domestic and feral pigeons are very variable in colour and pattern. There are few visible differences between males and females. The species is generally monogamous, with two squeakers (young) per brood. Both parents care for the young for a time (Wikipedia). Habitats include various open and semi-open environments. Cliffs and rock ledges are used for roosting and breeding in the wild. Originally found wild in Europe, North Africa, and western Asia, feral pigeons have become established in cities around the world. The species is abundant, with an estimated population of 17 to 28 million feral and wild birds in Europe (Wikipedia).

‫د‬١‫ زّاَ سب اٌث‬ٚ‫ أ‬ّٝ‫اٌس‬ ِ َ‫عا تسّا‬٠‫ أ‬ّٝ‫غ‬٠ٚ َ‫زّاَ اٌسش‬ ‫ خّاي‬ٟ‫اخ هللا ف‬٠‫ح ِٓ آ‬٠‫ؼذ زّاَ اٌسشَ آ‬٠ ٚ ، ‫زّاِاخ‬ٚ ُ‫ زّائ‬ٍٝ‫دّغ ػ‬٠ ٚ ، ‫ زّاِح‬: ٖ‫اٌسّاَ ِفشد‬ .. ‫ٓ زّاِح‬١٠‫ِال‬٤ ‫مذس ػذدٖ تـ‬٠ٚ ، ‫س‬ٛ١‫ع ِٓ اٌط‬ٌٕٛ‫زا ا‬ٌٙ ٗ‫خٍم‬ ِٓ ٖ‫ش‬١‫خرٍػ تغ‬٠ ‫ ل‬ٚ ، ‫ عاػح‬/ٍُ‫ و‬٠٧ ٚ‫ أ‬٠٧ ٌٝ‫صً ئ‬٠ ‫ث‬١‫ ز‬، ْ‫شا‬١‫ اٌط‬ٟ‫ض زّاَ اٌسشَ تغشػرٗ ف‬١ّ‫ر‬٠ .. ‫افز‬ٌٕٛ‫ ؽشفاخ ا‬ٚ ‫ أعطر إٌّاصي‬ٍٝ‫عٗ ػ‬١‫عغ ت‬٠ٚ ، َ‫اٌسّا‬ ِٓ ‫ سِد أتش٘ٗ األؽشَ تسداسج‬ٟ‫ اٌر‬- ً١‫ش األتات‬١‫ً ئٔٗ ِٓ عالٌح غ‬١‫ فم‬، َ‫ أصً زّاَ اٌسش‬ٟ‫أخرٍف ف‬ .. ‫ر‬١‫ظ تصس‬١ٌ ‫٘زا‬ٚ ، - ‫ ٘ذَ اٌىؼثح‬ٍٝ‫ً ػٕذِا ػضَ ػ‬١‫عد‬ ٗ١ٍ‫ هللا ػ‬ٍٝ‫ ص‬- ٟ‫س أثٕاء ٘دشج إٌث‬ٛ‫ غاس ث‬ٍٝ‫ٓ ػؾؾرا ػ‬١‫ٓ اٌٍر‬١‫ً أصً زّاَ اٌسشَ ِٓ اٌسّاِر‬١‫ ل‬ٚ .. ‫شج‬١‫ ورة اٌغ‬ٟ‫شذٗ ف‬ٙ‫ف ِغ ؽ‬١‫٘زا األثش ظؼ‬ٚ ، - ٍُ‫ع‬ٚ ِٟ‫ق ِاء صِضَ ٌّا ٔثغ ذسد لذ‬ٛ‫َ ف‬ٛ‫ وأد ذس‬ٟ‫س اٌر‬ٛ١‫ اٌط‬ٌٝ‫شخغ ئ‬٠ َ‫ أصً زّاَ اٌسش‬: ً١‫ ل‬ٚ .. ٍٗ‫ أص‬ٟ‫هللا أػٍُ تاٌشاخر ف‬ٚ . - َ‫ أِٗ اٌغال‬ٍٝ‫ػ‬ٚ ٗ١ٍ‫ ػ‬- ً١‫ئعّاػ‬ ، ٗ١ٍ‫ذٖ ) ِرفك ػ‬١‫ٕفش ص‬٠ ‫ل‬ٚ ( : - ٍُ‫ع‬ٚ ٗ١ٍ‫ هللا ػ‬ٍٝ‫ ص‬- ٌٗٛ‫َ ل‬ّٛ‫ش زّاَ اٌسشَ ؛ ٌؼ‬١‫ص ذٕف‬ٛ‫د‬٠‫ل‬ . ‫ ﷺ‬ٟ‫ ٌىٕٗ خاٌف أِش إٌث‬، ٗ١ٍ‫ح ػ‬٠‫ٔفّشٖ فال فذ‬ٚ ً‫ ئْ زص‬ٚ ‫تزٌه‬ٚ ، " ‫ح ِمذاس٘ا " ؽاج‬٠‫ٗ فذ‬١ٍ‫ِٓ لرٍٗ فؼ‬ٚ ،- ٖ‫ش‬١‫ غ‬ٚ‫اء ٌٍّسشَ أ‬ٛ‫ ع‬- َ‫ص لرً زّاَ اٌسش‬ٛ‫د‬٠ ‫ل‬ .. َ‫ ِٓ لرً زّاَ اٌسش‬ٍٝ‫ ػ‬- ُٕٙ‫ هللا ػ‬ٟ‫ سظ‬- ‫زىُ اٌصساتح‬

Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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‫ف‪ ٟ‬وً فشش ِٓ فشاش زّاَ اٌسشَ ئرا لرً ػّذا " ؽاج "‪ - ،‬لاٌٗ اإلِاَ ِاٌه ‪ -‬؛ ألْ زىّٗ وسىُ أصٍٗ‬ ‫‪ٚ ،‬ئرا أؽرشن ئثٕاْ ف‪ ٟ‬لرً زّاِح فؼٍ‪ ٝ‬وً ‪ٚ‬ازذ ٔصف اٌذ‪٠‬ح ‪..‬‬ ‫ٌ‪ ٛ‬صذَ تغ‪١‬اسذٗ زّاِح ‪٠ ٌُ ٚ‬رؼّذ ‪ِ ٚ‬اذد فال ؽ‪ٟ‬ء ػٍ‪ ، ٗ١‬ألٔٗ لرً خطأ ‪ٌ ،‬م‪ ٌٗٛ‬ذؼاٌ‪{ : ٝ‬ستٕا‬ ‫لذإاخزٔا ئْ ٔغ‪ٕ١‬ا أ‪ ٚ‬أخطأٔا} ‪ٚ‬ل ‪٠‬د‪ٛ‬ص ئفغاد ت‪١‬ط زّاَ اٌسشَ ‪..‬‬ ‫ِٓ خاء ٌٍسشَ ‪ٚ ٚ‬خذ صزاِا ؽذ‪٠‬ذا ‪٠ ٌُٚ‬دذ ئل اٌّىاْ اٌز‪ ٞ‬تٗ اٌسّاَ فأٗ ‪٠‬ذفؼٗ تاٌر‪ ٟ٘ ٟ‬أزغٓ‬ ‫‪٠ٚ‬صٍ‪ ٟ‬ف‪ٚ ، ٗ١‬ئْ ٌُ ‪٠‬ىٓ ِعطشا ف‪١‬ز٘ة ٌّىاْ آخش ‪..‬‬ ‫ِٓ واْ ِٕضٌٗ خاسج اٌسشَ ف‪١‬د‪ٛ‬ص ٌٗ ئصاٌح اٌسّاَ ػٓ ِٕضٌٗ ‪٠ ٚ ،‬د‪ٛ‬ص ٌٗ ص‪١‬ذٖ ‪ ،‬أِا ئْ واْ ِٕضٌٗ‬ ‫داخً زذ‪ٚ‬د اٌسشَ فال ‪٠‬د‪ٛ‬ص ص‪١‬ذٖ ‪٠ ٚ‬ذفؼٗ تشفك ٌ‪١‬ز٘ة ػٕٗ ‪..‬‬ ‫ل ‪ٕ٠‬ثغ‪ ٌٛٙ ٟ‬األغفاي تسّاَ اٌسشَ ‪ ،‬فزٌه ٔ‪ٛ‬ع ِٓ ذٕف‪١‬ش٘ا ‪ٚ ،‬لذ لاي إٌث‪ٟ‬ﷺ‪ٚ ( :‬ل‪ٕ٠‬فش ص‪١‬ذٖ ) ‪،‬‬ ‫‪ٕ٠ ٚ‬ثغ‪ ٟ‬ذؼ‪٠ٛ‬ذُ٘ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌشفك تٗ ‪..‬‬ ‫ِا ‪٠‬م‪ َٛ‬تٗ تؼط اٌّسغٕ‪ ِٓ ٓ١‬ئغؼاَ ٌسّاَ اٌسشَ ‪٠‬ؼذ ِٓ اٌصذلح ؛ ٌؼّ‪ َٛ‬ل‪ٌٗٛ‬ﷺ ‪ٚ ( :‬ف‪ ٟ‬وً وثذ‬ ‫سغثح صذلح ) ‪ ٚ ،‬واْ اٌسداج لذ‪ّ٠‬ا ‪٠‬دؼٍ‪ ْٛ‬أ‪ٚ‬لافا إلغؼاِ‪ٙ‬ا ‪..‬‬ ‫س‪ ٜٚ‬ئتٓ أت‪ ٟ‬ؽ‪١‬ثح أْ زّاِا واْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌث‪١‬د فزسق ػٍ‪٠ ٝ‬ذ ػّش تٓ اٌخطاب ‪ -‬سظ‪ ٟ‬هللا ػٕٗ ‪ -‬فأؽاس‬ ‫ت‪١‬ذٖ ‪ ،‬فطاس ف‪ٛ‬لغ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬ت‪١‬د فداءخ ز‪١‬ح فأوٍرٗ ‪ ،‬ففذاٖ تؾاج ‪..‬‬ ‫ِازىُ ِا ٔضي ِٓ زّاَ اٌسشَ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬اٌث‪١‬اب ؟ ً٘ ‪٠‬ؼذ ٔدغا ‪٠‬ثطً اٌصالج ‪ٚ‬اٌط‪ٛ‬اف ؟‬ ‫‪ ٚ‬اٌد‪ٛ‬اب ‪ٚ -‬هللا أػٍُ ‪ : -‬أْ رسق زّاَ اٌسشَ غا٘ش ل‪٠‬دة غغً اٌث‪ٛ‬ب ِٕٗ ‪..‬‬ ‫‪ ٚ‬اٌغثة ف‪ ٟ‬و‪ ْٛ‬رسق زّاَ اٌسشَ غا٘ش ٘‪ ٛ‬أْ اٌسّاَ ِثاذ ‪ ٚ ،‬اٌماػذج اٌفم‪ ٗ١ٙ‬أْ وً ِا خاص أوٍٗ‬ ‫فث‪ٚ ٌٗٛ‬س‪ٚ‬ثٗ غا٘ش ‪..‬‬ ‫واْ زّاَ اٌسشَ ِعشب اٌّثً ف‪ ٟ‬اٌ‪ٙ‬ذ‪ٚ‬ء ( وأْ ػٍ‪ ٝ‬سؤ‪ٚ‬ع‪ ُٙ‬اٌط‪١‬ش ‪ ،‬أ‪ : ٞ‬زّاَ اٌسشَ ) ‪ٚ ،‬وأ‪ٛ‬ا‬ ‫‪٠‬م‪ " : ٌْٛٛ‬آِٓ ِٓ زّاَ اٌسشَ ‪ ٚ ،‬آٌف ِٓ زّاَ اٌسشَ " ‪..‬‬ ‫واْ ػثذهللا تٓ اٌضت‪١‬ش ‪ -‬سظ‪ ٟ‬هللا ػٕٗ ‪ -‬ئرا ‪ٚ‬لف ف‪ ٟ‬اٌصالج ‪٠‬أذ‪ ٟ‬زّاَ اٌسشَ ف‪١‬مف ػٍ‪ ٝ‬سأعٗ أ‪ٚ‬‬ ‫ظ‪ٙ‬شٖ ‪ ٛ٘ٚ‬عاخذ وأٔٗ ث‪ٛ‬ب ٍِم‪ ٟ‬ل‪٠‬رسشن ِٓ ؽذج اٌخؾ‪ٛ‬ع ‪..‬‬ ‫وأ‪ٛ‬ا لذ‪ّ٠‬ا ‪٠‬دؼٍ‪ِٛ ْٛ‬ظف‪ ٓ١‬أزذُ٘ ‪٠‬غّ‪ِ " : ٝ‬ط‪١‬ش زّاَ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌّغدذ إٌث‪ ٚ " ٞٛ‬ا‪٢‬خش ‪ " :‬وؾاػ‬ ‫زّاَ ف‪ ٟ‬اٌسشَ اٌّى‪ ( .. " ٟ‬زّاَ اٌسشَ ‪ :‬أزىاَ ‪ٌ ٚ‬طائف ‪ٌٍ ...‬ذور‪ٛ‬س أزّذ اٌثاذٍ‪... ) ٟ‬‬

‫ض َو َّ‬ ‫ص ََل َت ُه‬ ‫صا َّفا ٍ‬ ‫هللا ٌُ َس ِّب ُح لَ ُه َمنْ فًِ ال َّس َم َاوا ِ‬ ‫ت ۖ ُك ٌّل َق ْد َعلِ َم َ‬ ‫الط ٌْ ُر َ‬ ‫ت َو ْاْلَرْ ِ‬ ‫أَلَ ْم َت َر أَنَّ َّ َ‬ ‫ٌح ُه ۗ َو َّ‬ ‫ون ‪ .‬سورة النور ‪ ،‬اآلٌة ‪. 41‬‬ ‫هللا ُ َعلٌِ ٌم ِب َما ٌَ ْف َعل ُ َ‬ ‫َو َتسْ ِب َ‬

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َّ ‫ك َما َذا أ ُ ِح َّل لَ ُه ْم ۖ قُ ْل أ ُ ِح َّل لَ ُك ُم‬ ُ ‫الط ٌِّ َب‬ ‫ٌن ُت َعلِّمُو َنهُنَّ ِممَّا‬ َ ‫ار ِح ُم َكلِّ ِب‬ َ ‫ٌَسْ ؤَلُو َن‬ ِ ‫ات ۙ َو َما َعلَّ ْم ُت ْم م َِن ْال َج َو‬ َّ ‫َعلَّ َم ُك ُم‬ ‫هللا َس ِرٌ ُع‬ ِ َّ ‫هللا ُ ۖ َف ُكلُوا ِممَّا أَ ْم َس ْك َن َعلَ ٌْ ُك ْم َو ْاذ ُكرُوا اسْ َم‬ َ َّ َّ‫هللا ۚ إِن‬ َ َّ ‫هللا َعلَ ٌْ ِه ۖ َوا َّتقُوا‬ . 4 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة المائدة‬. ‫ب‬ ِ ‫ْال ِح َسا‬

Black Kite (Milvus migrans Boddaert, 1783)

Black Kite (Milvus migrans) flying over the Sacred Mosque in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11867245664/ .01.210.20 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫طٌور الحدأة السوداء تطٌر وتحوم حول مآذن الحرم المكً الشرٌف فً مكة المُكرمة‬

The Black Kite (Milvus migrans Boddaert, 1783) is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors. It is thought to be the world's most abundant species of Accipitridae, although some populations have experienced dramatic declines or fluctuations. Current global population estimates run up to 6 million individuals. Unlike others of the group, Black Kites are opportunistic hunters and are more likely to scavenge. They spend a lot of time soaring and gliding in thermals in search of food. Their angled wing and distinctive forked tail make them easy to identify. This kite is widely distributed through the temperate and tropical parts of Eurasia and parts Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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of Australasia and Oceania, with the temperate region populations tending to be migratory. Several subspecies are recognized and formerly had their own English names. The European populations are small, but the South Asian population is very large (Wikipedia).

Black Kite (Milvus migrans) flying over the Sacred Mosque in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12026403385/ .01.210.20 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫طٌور الحدأة السوداء تطٌر وتحوم حول مآذن الحرم المكً الشرٌف فً مكة المُكرمة‬

Black Kites can be distinguished from Red Kites (Milvus milvus) by the slightly smaller size, less forked tail (visible in flight), and generally dark plumage without any rufous. The sexes are alike. The upper plumage is brown but the head and neck tend to be paler. The patch behind the eye appears darker. The outer flight feathers are black and the feathers have dark cross bars and are mottled at the base. The lower parts of the body are pale brown, becoming lighter towards the chin. The body feathers have dark shafts giving it a streaked appearance. The cere and gape are yellow, but the bill is black (unlike in the Yellow-billed Kite). The legs are yellow and the claws are black. They have a distinctive shrill whistle followed by a rapid whinnying call (Wikipedia). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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ُّ ‫َفؤَرْ َس ْل َنا َعلٌَ ِْه ُم‬ ‫ت َفاسْ َت ْك َبرُوا َو َكا ُنوا‬ ٍ ‫ت ُم َفص َََّل‬ ٍ ‫ض َفاد َِع َوال َّد َم آ ٌَا‬ َّ ‫ان َو ْال َج َرا َد َو ْالقُ َّم َل َوال‬ َ ‫الطو َف‬ . 188 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة اْلعراف‬. ‫ٌِن‬ َ ‫َق ْومًا مُجْ ِرم‬

Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) at Al Ka'ba in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 01.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11837294783/ .2..2.0.20 . ‫ تصوٌر إبنتً نورة خلف‬. ‫الجراد الصحراوي عند الكعبة المُشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة‬ The Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsskål, 1775) is a species of locust. Plagues of desert locusts have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia for centuries. The livelihood of at least onetenth of the world’s human population can be affected by this voracious insect1 The desert locust is potentially the most dangerous of the locust pests because of the ability of swarms to fly rapidly across great distances. It has two to five generations per year. The last major desert locust upsurge in 2004–05 caused significant crop losses in West Africa and had a negative impact on food security in the region. While the desert locust alone is not responsible for famines, it can be an important contributing factor (Wikipedia).

Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) on Al-Ka’ba Kiswah in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11836847045/ ‫ تصوٌر إبنتً الحبٌبة نورة‬. ‫الجراد الصحراوي ٌُسبح بحمد هللا تعالى على كسوة الكعبة ال ُمشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة‬ . .01.210.22 . ‫خلف‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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. 7 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة القمر‬. ‫ث َكؤ َ َّن ُه ْم َج َرا ٌد ُم ْن َتشِ ٌر‬ ِ ‫ُون م َِن ْاْلَجْ دَا‬ َ ‫صا ُر ُه ْم ٌَ ْخ ُرج‬ َ ‫ُخ َّشعًا أَ ْب‬

Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) on Al-Ka’ba Kiswah in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11837535283/ . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫الجراد الصحراوي ٌُسبح للرحمن خالق الحٌوان على كسوة الكعبة المُشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة‬ . .01.210.22 The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) lives a solitary life until it rains. Rain causes vegetation growth and allows the female to lay eggs in the sandy soil. The new vegetation provides food for the newly hatched locusts and provides them with shelter as they develop into winged adults (Wikipedia). When vegetation is distributed in such a way that allow the nymphs, usually called hoppers, to congregate, and there has been sufficient rain for most eggs to hatch, the close physical contact causes the insects' hind legs to bump against one another. This stimulus triggers a cascade of metabolic and behavioral changes that cause the insects to transform from the solitary form to the gregarious form. When the hoppers become gregarious, they change from green-coloured to yellow and black, and the adults change from brown to red (immature) or yellow (mature). Their bodies become shorter, and they give off a pheromone that causes them to be attracted to each other, enhancing hopper band and Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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subsequently swarm formation. Interestingly, the nymphal pheromone is different from the adult one. When exposed to the adult pheromone, hoppers become confused and disoriented, because they can apparently no longer "smell" each other, though the visual and tactile stimuli remain. After a few days, the hopper bands disintegrate and those that escape predation become solitary again. It is possible that this effect could aid locust control in the future. During quiet periods, called recessions, desert locusts are confined to a 16million-square-kilometer belt that extends from Mauritania through the Sahara Desert in northern Africa, across the Arabian Peninsula, and into northwest India. Under optimal ecological and climatic conditions, several successive generations can occur, causing swarms to form and invade countries on all sides of the recession area, as far north as Spain and Russia, as far south as Nigeria and Kenya, and as far east as India and southwest Asia. As many as 60 countries can be affected within an area of 32 million square kilometers, or approximately 20 percent of the Earth's land surface (Wikipedia).

Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) on Al-Ka’ba Kiswah in Makkah Al Mukarramah. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11838012406/ . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫الجراد الصحراوي ٌُسبح للرحمن خالق الحٌوان على كسوة الكعبة المُشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة‬ Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa infront of Al-Ka'ba in Makkah AlMukarramah and on the Kiswah are Desert Locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). Photo by: Nora Norman Ali Khalaf. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12032808696/ . ‫المإلف أمام الكعبة المُشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة وٌُرى على كسوة الكعبة الجراد الصحراوي المُسبح بحمد هللا تعالى‬ .01.210.22 . ‫تصوٌر إبنتً الحبٌبة نورة نورمان علً خلف‬ Locust swarms fly with the wind at roughly the speed of the wind. They can cover from 100 to 200 kilometers in a day, and will fly up to about 2,000 meters above sea level (thereafter, it becomes too cold). Therefore, swarms cannot cross tall mountain ranges such as the Atlas Mountains, the Hindu Kush or the Himalayas. They will not venture into the rain forests of Africa or into central Europe. However, locust adults and swarms regularly cross the Red Sea between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and are even reported to have crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Caribbean in ten days during the 1987-89 plague. A single swarm can cover up to 1200 square kilometers and can contain between 40 and 80 million locusts per square kilometer. The locust can live between three to six months, and there is a ten to 16-fold increase in locust numbers from one generation to the next (Wikipedia). Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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Prof. Dr. Norman Ali Khalaf-von Jaffa and his wife Ola and daughter Nora infront of AlKa’ba Al-Musharafah in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. On the black Kiswah we can notice a desert locust. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12033126756/ ‫ وٌظهر على كسوة الكعبة المُشرفة جرادة‬، ‫المإلف مع زوجته الحبٌبة عَُل وإبنته الحبٌبة نورة أمام الكعبة المُشرفة‬ .0..2.0.20 . ‫صحراوٌة تسبح للرحمن خالق الحٌوان‬

Housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758) The Housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. It is the most common of all domestic flies, accounting for about 91% of all flies in human habitations, and indeed one of the most widely distributed insects, found all over the world. It is considered a pest that can carry serious diseases (Wikipedia). The adults are about 5–8 mm long. Their thorax is gray or sometimes even black, with four longitudinal dark lines on the back. The whole body is covered with hair-like projections. The females are slightly larger than the males, and have a much larger space between their red compound eyes. The mass of pupae can range from about 8 to 20 mg under different conditions (Wikipedia).

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16

Like other Diptera (meaning "two-winged"), houseflies have only one pair of wings; the hind pair is reduced to small halteres that aid in flight stability. Characteristically, the media vein (M1+2 or fourth long vein of the wing) shows a sharp upward bend (Wikipedia).

A Housefly (Musca domestica) on my Kandoura (Dishdasha) at Al-Ka'ba Al-Musharfah in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by the author. 02.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11867218104/ .0..2.0.20 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫ذبابة منزلٌة على كندورتً (دشداشتً) عند الكعبة المُشرفة فً مكة المُكرمة‬

‫هللا لَنْ ٌَ ْخلُقُوا ُذ َبابًا َو َل ِو‬ ِ َّ ‫ون‬ َ ‫ٌِن َت ْدع‬ َ ‫ب َم َث ٌل َفاسْ َت ِمعُوا لَ ُه ۚ إِنَّ الَّذ‬ َ ‫ٌَا أَ ٌُّ َها ال َّناسُ ض ُِر‬ ِ ‫ُون ِمنْ ُد‬ َّ ‫ُف‬ ُّ ‫اجْ َت َمعُوا لَ ُه ۖ َوإِنْ ٌَسْ ل ُ ْب ُه ُم‬ ‫ سورة الحج‬. ُ‫الطالِبُ َو ْال َم ْطلُوب‬ َ ‫ضع‬ َ ۚ ‫الذ َبابُ َش ٌْ ًئا ََّل ٌَسْ َت ْنق ُِذوهُ ِم ْن ُه‬ . 78 ‫ اآلٌة‬، Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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Domestic Cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) ‫ إنها لٌست‬:‫ قال فً الهرة‬- ‫ صلى هللا علٌه وسلم‬- ‫ أن رسول هللا‬- ‫ رضً هللا عنه‬- ‫عن أبً قتادة‬ . ‫وصححه الترمذي وابن خزٌمة‬ ، ‫ أخرجه األربعة‬. ‫ إنما هً من الطوافٌن علٌكم‬، ‫بنجس‬ َّ . 65 ‫ آٌة‬. ‫ سورة النور‬. ‫ض‬ ٍ ‫ض ُك ْم َعلَى َب ْع‬ ُ ‫َط َّوافُونَ َعلَ ٌْ ُك ْم َب ْع‬

A Domestic Cat (Felis catus) lying outside the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. Photo by the author. 03.01.2014. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12045133016/ .11.210.22 . ‫ تصوٌر المإلف‬. ‫قطة منزلٌة مستلقٌة خارج الحرم المكً الشرٌف فً مكة المُكرمة‬ The Domestic Cat (Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758) is a small, usually furry, domesticated, and carnivorous mammal. It is often called the housecat when kept as an indoor pet, or simply the cat when there is no need to distinguish it from other felids and felines. Cats are often valued by humans for companionship and their ability to hunt vermin and household pests (Wikipedia). Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with strong, flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans (Wikipedia). Despite being solitary hunters, cats are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language (Wikipedia). Cats have a rapid breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by neutering, and the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control (Wikipedia). Since cats were cult animals in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there, but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9500 years ago (7500 BC). A genetic study in 2007 concluded that domestic cats are descended from African wildcats (Felis silvestris lybica) c. 8000 BC, in the Near East. According to “Scientific American”, cats are the most popular pet in the world, and are now found in almost every place where humans live (Wikipedia).

Arabian Baboon (Papio hamadryas Linnaeus, 1758) 166 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة اْلعراف‬. ‫ٌِن‬ َ ‫َفلَمَّا َع َت ْوا َعنْ َما ُنهُوا َع ْن ُه قُ ْل َنا لَ ُه ْم ُكو ُنوا ق َِر َد ًة َخاسِ ئ‬ The Arabian or hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of baboon from the Old World monkey family. It is the northernmost of all the baboons, being native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. These regions provide habitats with the advantage for this species of fewer natural predators than central or southern Africa where other baboons reside. The hamadryas baboon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians and appears in various roles in ancient Egyptian religion, hence its alternative name of 'sacred baboon' (Wikipedia). Apart from the striking size difference between the sexes (males are often twice as large as females), which is common to all baboons, this species also shows sexual dimorphism in coloration. The fur of males is silver-white in color and they have a pronounced cape (mane and mantle) which they develop around the age of ten, while the females are capeless and brown. Their faces range in color from red to tan to a dark brown (Wikipedia).

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19

‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة البقرة‬. ‫ٌِن‬ ِ ‫ٌِن اعْ َتد َْوا ِم ْن ُك ْم فًِ ال َّس ْب‬ َ ‫ت َفقُ ْل َنا لَ ُه ْم ُكو ُنوا ق َِر َد ًة َخاسِ ئ‬ َ ‫َولَ َق ْد َعلِ ْم ُت ُم الَّذ‬ . 65

Arabian or Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) on Jabal Al Noor in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2012. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/11866019834/ .1..0.0.20 . ‫ نورمان علً بسام خلف‬.‫ د‬.‫ أ‬: ‫ تصوٌر‬. ‫قرد الرباح العربً على جبل النور فً مكة المُكرمة‬ Males may have a body measurement of up to 80 cm (31 in) and weigh 20–30 kg (44–66 lb); females weigh 10–15 kg (22–33 lb) and have a body length of 40–45 cm (16–18 in). The tail adds a further 40–60 cm (16–24 in) to the length, and ends in a small tuft. Infants are dark in coloration and lighten after about one year. Hamadryas baboons reach sexual maturity at about 51 months for females and between 57 and 81 months for males (Wikipedia). The baboon's range extends from the Red Sea in Eritrea to Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. Baboons are also native to and live in southwestern Arabia, in both Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The Arabian or Hamadryas baboon lives in semidesert areas, savannas and rocky areas, requiring cliffs for sleeping and finding water. The hamadryas baboon is omnivorous and is adapted to its relatively dry habitat. During the wet seasons, the baboon feeds on a variety of foods, including blossoms, seeds, grasses, wild roots, and leaves from acacia trees. During the dry season, the baboons eat leaves of the Dobera glabra and sisal leaves. Hamadryas baboons also eat insects, reptiles and small mammals. One was even observed carrying a dead dik dik (Wikipedia). The baboons’ drinking activities also depend on the season1 During the wet seasons, the baboons do not have to go far to find pools of water. During the dry Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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seasons, they frequent up to three permanent waterholes. Baboons will take siestas at the waterholes during midafternoon. Hamadryas baboons will also dig drinking holes only a short distance from natural waterholes (Wikipedia).

َٰ َّ ‫هللا ۚ َمنْ لَ َع َن ُه‬ ‫ب َعلَ ٌْ ِه َو َج َع َل ِم ْن ُه ُم ْالق َِر َد َة‬ َ ِ‫هللا ُ َو َغض‬ ِ َّ ‫ك َم ُثو َب ًة عِ ْن َد‬ َ ِ‫قُ ْل َه ْل أ ُ َن ِّب ُئ ُك ْم ِب َشرٍّ ِمنْ َذل‬ َّ ‫ٌر َو َع َب َد‬ َ ‫الطا ُغ‬ ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة المائدة‬. ‫ٌل‬ َ َ‫ك َشرٌّ َم َكا ًنا َوأ‬ َ ‫وت ۚ أُو َٰلَ ِئ‬ َ ‫از‬ ِ ‫ض ُّل َعنْ َس َوا ِء الس َِّب‬ ِ ‫َو ْال َخ َن‬ . 66

Arabian or Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) eating a banana on Jabal Al Noor in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2012. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12064554125/ . ‫ نورمان علً بسام خلف‬.‫ د‬.‫ أ‬: ‫ تصوٌر‬. ‫قرد الرباح العربً ٌؤكل الموز على جبل النور فً مكة المُكرمة‬ .1..0.0.20 The baboon has an unusual four-level social system called a multilevel society. Most social interaction occurs within small groups called one-male units or harems containing one male and up to ten females which the males lead and guard. A harem will typically include a younger "follower" male who may be related to the leader. Two or more harems unite repeatedly to form clans. Within clans, the dominant males of the units are probably close relatives of one another and have an age-related dominance hierarchy. Bands are the next level. Two to four clans form bands of up to 200 individuals which usually travel and sleep as a group. Both males and females rarely leave their bands. The dominant males will prevent infants and juveniles from interacting with infants and juveniles from other bands. Bands may fight with one another over food, etc., and the Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


21

adult male leaders of the units are usually the combatants. Bands also contain solitary males that are not harem leaders or followers and move freely within the band. Several bands may come together to form a troop. Several bands in a troop also often share a cliff-face where they sleep (Wikipedia).

Arabian or Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) on Jabal Al Noor in Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Photo by: Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa. 08.04.2012. http://www.flickr.com/photos/50022881@N00/12065475856/ .1..0.0.20 . ‫ نورمان علً بسام خلف‬.‫ د‬.‫ أ‬: ‫ تصوٌر‬. ‫قرد الرباح العربً على جبل النور فً مكة المُكرمة‬

‫ٌن‬ ٍ ‫هللا ِر ْزقُ َها َو ٌَعْ لَ ُم مُسْ َت َقرَّ َها َومُسْ َت ْو َد َع َها ۚ ُك ٌّل فًِ ِك َتا‬ ِ َّ ‫ض إِ ََّّل َعلَى‬ ِ ْ‫َو َما ِمنْ دَا َّب ٍة فًِ ْاْلَر‬ ٍ ‫ب م ُِب‬ . 6 ‫ اآلٌة‬، ‫ سورة هود‬.

References and Internet Websites: Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam (298.)1 Tabie’t Al-Talawon fi Al-Haywanat (The Colouration of Animals). Al-Biology Bulletin. Number 1. January 1980, Safar 1401. Biological Society, Kuwait University, State of Kuwait. pp. 4-5. (In Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1992). An Introduction to the Animal Life Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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in Palestine. Gazelle. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Number 30, Tenth Year, October 1992. pp. 1-7. (In Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam (1994). An Introduction to the Animal Life in Palestine1 Shqae’q Al-Nouma’n (Anemone coronaria). A Quarterly Magazine Issued by the Program EAI (Education for Awareness and for Involvement). Environmental Education / Children for Nature Protection. In Cooperation with Dept. of General and Higher Education. P.L.O., Palestine. Number 4. Huzairan (June) 1994. pp. 16-21. (In Arabic). Khalaf-von Jaffa, Norman Ali (2004). Gazelle: Das Palästinensische Biologische Bulletin. Eine Wissenschaftliche Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2004. / Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. A Scientific Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2004. ISBN 3-00-0141219. Erste Auflage / First Edition, Juli 2004: 452 Seiten / Pages. Zweite erweiterte Auflage (Second Extended Edition), August 2004: 460 Seiten / Pages. Norman Ali Khalaf, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Germany. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/ Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2007). Haywanat Filistin (Fauna of Palestine). Wikipedia, Al-Mawsu'a Al-Hurra (The Free Encyclopedia). Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. Number 69, Twentyfifth Year, September 0..7 CE, Sha’ban 2208 AH1 pp1 2-4. (in Arabic). http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86% D8%A7%D8%AA_%D9%81%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%B7%D9%8A%D9%86 Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2009). Flora and Fauna in Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 91, July 2009, Rajab 1430 AH. pp. 1-31. Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://flora-fauna-palestine.webs.com/ Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2009). Fauna Palaestina – Part One. A Zoological Journey in Palestine, Arabia and Europe between 1983 – 2006 / Fauna Palaestina – Teil Eins. Eine Zoologische Reise in Palästina, Arabien und Europa zwischen 1983 – 2006. ISBN 978-9948-03-865-8. Erste Auflage/First Edition, September 2009: 412 Seiten/Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart1.htm Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2010). Fauna Emiratus Part One. Zoological Studies in the United Arab Emirates between 2004 - 2009. / Fauna Emiratus – Teil Eins. Zoologische Studien in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate zwischen 2004 - 2009. ISBN 978-9948-15-462-4. Erste Auflage/First Edition, November 2010: 350 Seiten / Pages. Self Publisher: Dr. Norman Ali Bassam Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates & Rilchingen-Hanweiler, Bundesrepublik Deutschland. http://dr-norman-ali-khalaf-books.webs.com/faunaemiratuspart1.htm Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


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Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2012). Fauna Palaestina – Part Two. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 1983 – 2009 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Zwei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 1983 – 2009. ISBN 978-9948-16667-2. 1. Auflage / First Edition : July 2012, Shaaban 1433 H. 208 Seiten / Pages (Arabic Part 120 Pages and the English Part 88 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart2.htm Khalaf-von Jaffa, Dr. Norman Ali Bassam (2013). Fauna Palaestina – Part Three. Zoological Studies in Palestine between 2005 – 2012 / Fauna Palaestina - Teil Drei. Zoologische Studien in Palästina zwischen 2005 – 2012. ISBN 978-9950-383-35-7. Erste Auflage / First Edition : July 2013, Shaaban 1434 H. 364 pages (English Part 350 Pages and the Arabic Part 14 Pages). Publisher: Dar Al Jundi Publishing House, Jerusalem, State of Palestine. http://dr-norman-ali-khalafbooks.webs.com/faunapalaestinapart3.htm Khalaf-Sakerfalke von Jaffa, Prof. Dr. Sc. Norman Ali Bassam Ali Taher (2014). The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin. ISSN 0178 – 6288. Number 116, August 2014, Shawal 1435 AH. pp. 1-23. Dubai and Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. http://animals-ofmakkah.webs.com/ Wikipedia. Black Kite. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Kite Wikipedia. Cat. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat Wikipedia. Desert Locust. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desert_locust Wikipedia. Hamadryas Baboon. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamadryas_baboon Wikipedia. Housefly. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Housefly Wikipedia. Little Swift. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Swift Wikipedia. Rock Dove. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_Pigeon ‫ طٌور اْلبابٌل ماذا تعرف عنها ؟‬. ‫إجابات جوجل‬ http://ejabat.google.com/ejabat/thread?tid=7bf96f9e07028208 ً‫ لـِلدكتور أحمد الباتل‬.. ‫ أحكام َو لطائف‬.. ‫َحمام الحرم‬ http://twitmail.com/email/470501840/5/-%D8%AD%D9%8E%D9%85%D8%A2%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%85---%D8%A3%D8%AD%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%85-%D9%88%D9%8E%D9%84%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%81---%D9%84%D9%80%D9%90%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%83%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%A2%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%A2%D8%AA%D9%84%D9%8A-DrAhmadAlbatli

Gazelle : The Palestinian Biological Bulletin – Number 116 – August 2014


The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah  

The Animals living inside and around the Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram) in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By: Prof. Dr....

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