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Palliative Care cluster munitions

Penal reform

Refugees and Asylum Seekers Since 1997, our work has helped some of the most disadvantaged people around the world, including: children and young people living in care child soldiers young people seeking asylum and refugees landmine survivors victims of crime young people with mental health issues people with disabilities people who are dying or bereaved Prisoners’ families young people in prison young lesbian, gay and bisexual people people living with HIV/AIDS, cancer and other life-limiting illnesses people affected by conflict young carers young people with

COntents Introduction A snapshot of the first 10 years The Palliative Care Initiative The Refugee and Asylum Seekers Initiative The Penal Reform Initiative The Cluster Munitions Initiative What’s next for the Fund?

02 06 08 14 20 24 30

learning disabilities victims of domestic abuse


Introduction Who we are

The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund (‘the Fund’) is an independent grant-giving charity established in September 1997 to continue the Princess’ humanitarian work in the UK and overseas.

What we do

In March 1998, we committed around £14 million in one-off grants to the many charitable causes supported by Diana, Princess of Wales during her lifetime.

The Fund was founded with public donations made in the immediate aftermath of the Princess’ untimely death on 31 August 1997. These totalled about £20 million and a further £80 million was added to the Fund through commercial activities – including a large donation from Sir Elton John and Polygram’s Candle in the Wind ’97, as well as the sale of products under the Fund’s commercial licensing programme. Diana, Princess of Wales was dedicated to helping improve the lives of the most disadvantaged people in the UK and around the world. During her lifetime, the Princess gave her personal support to numerous humanitarian imperatives and spoke out on a wide range of issues, using her high public profile to raise both awareness and funds for charitable causes. Never afraid to show her support for those most marginalised by society, the Princess is remembered for her rare ability to connect with people in a very personal way and for her willingness to spend time listening carefully to the stories and problems of the people she visited. So from the outset we were determined to remain a resolute and influential champion of disadvantaged people on the margins of society and of the charities that work alongside them. And in practical terms, that meant – and still does mean – giving our support to groups and causes which, for various reasons, would otherwise struggle to get recognition or funding.

Giving Grants

These included six individual grants of around £1 million each to the organisations of which the Princess was President or Patron at the time of her death: homelessness charity Centrepoint, the English National Ballet, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, The Leprosy Mission, the National AIDS Trust and The Royal Marsden NHS Trust.

–– Diana, Princess of Wales visiting a minefield with The Halo Trust in Angola, January 1997. © Tim Graham/Getty Images

Grants of £1 million each were also dedicated to four causes with which the Princess had a close interest and involvement. Three of these grants went to organisations: the Osteopathic Centre for Children in London, Leonard Cheshire Disability and the Elton John AIDS Foundation, and £1 million was set aside to support a range of organisations working with those affected by landmines. In addition, organisations with which the Princess had been associated were invited to submit proposals for funding and a further approximately £4m was awarded to 82 different organisations.

–– Centrepoint, one of the Fund’s earliest beneficiaries. © Centrepoint

After this initial round of grantmaking, we decided to focus our future funding on improving the lives of the most disadvantaged, in particular: people displaced, people at the margins of society, survivors of conflict and those dying or bereaved – all of whom continue to be at the heart of our work today. Up until the end of 2006, we were largely a criterialed grantmaker. Grant programmes were devised and developed on an annual basis and were open to any organisations that wished to apply.

To see a snapshot of the diverse range of organisations supported by the Fund during this period, turn to pages 6-7.

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Introduction What we do (Continued)

What we do

However in 2007, we started to work towards a new Strategic Plan, which focused on achieving four aims, which are:


to ensure that palliative care is integrated into the care and treatment of people with HIV/AIDS, cancer and other life-limiting illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. to ensure that refugees and people seeking asylum in the UK are treated with fairness, humanity and in accordance with international law.

Diana, Princess of Wales was vocal in support of the charitable causes she believed in, using her unique profile to draw attention to the issues facing some of the most disadvantaged, marginalised, and forgotten people around the world. Following the Princess’ example, we lent our name and profile to work campaigning for changes in public attitudes, legislation and policy from the start. During the first ten years, we spoke out on behalf of prisoners’ families, raised awareness about the effects of landmines and set up a strategic advocacy and grants programme to publicise the need to provide palliative care for people with life-limiting illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa.

to promote fair treatment and better futures for the most vulnerable people in the criminal justice system. to promote the protection of civilians during and after conflict by bringing an end to the use of cluster munitions in warfare. The new Strategic Plan also signalled an important change to how we worked as a grantmaker. When the Fund was established, it was agreed that it should be time-limited and, after an extensive consultative process in 2006, we decided it was the right time to start spending out our capital and to close within five years. So in order to achieve our aims within this period, the decision was made to become a proactive grantmaker, which means that we now work almost exclusively with selected partners who share our vision.

Influencing policy

–– The Down Syndrome Association of Northern Ireland recieved a grant from the Fund in 2000. © Down Syndrome Association, Northern Ireland

To find out more about how we are working in these areas, turn to page 8.

Since 2007, we have increasingly focused our resources on bringing about social change through supporting our partners in their campaigning and advocacy work. –– While we continue to support organisations delivering Dr Astrid Bonfield, Fund CEO, speaking at a conference in 2010. services to those in need at a community level, we © Nadia Bettega have consciously prioritised policy and attitudinal change, believing that these are the best ways of achieving the most we can in the time remaining.

Supporting others We aim to support the voluntary sector as a whole in ways both big and small, not just providing grants, but offering extra value, whether that is our name, our contacts or staff expertise, or a meeting room at our offices in County Hall. We also seek to support both our partners and the wider voluntary sector through a comprehensive programme of research and evaluation.

To find out more, turn to pages 30-31.

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06 – 07 06 – 07

£250,000 to HelpAge International for a project aiming to ensure that older people were involved in rebuilding Rwandan communities after the civil war.



See how our work in this area developed on pages 24-29. £225,000 to Hospice Africa Uganda to continue developing palliative care services in Uganda and to share its experiences with other countries in £225,000 to Hospice Africa Uganda to continue the region. developing palliative care services in Uganda and to share experiences other countries in 2001 wasits the start of ourwith substantial and longthe region. term commitment to increasing the provision of palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. See how our 2001 the start of our substantial and longwork was continues today on page 8. term commitment to increasing the provision of palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. See how our work continues today on page 8.

Protecting civilians in war-torn places will be one of our most enduring legacies. This year, we funded Landmine Action (now Action on Armed Violence) to produce a report into the impact of cluster bombs on civilians.

Over £220,000 to the Childhood Bereavement Network towards establishing a national bereavement service for children and young people.

Over £290,000 to Action for Prisoners’ Families for research into the needs of young people with a parent or carer in prison and towards follow-up projects.

During our first year, we made grants worth around £14 million – some small and some large – to a range of charitable causes supported by Diana, Princess of Wales in her lifetime.

We continue to work with the Prison Reform Trust today, find out more on page 22.

£300,000 to the Prison Reform Trust for research into the experiences of people with learning disabilities in the prison system. £300,000 to the Prison Reform Trust for research into experiences of people with learning Overthe £50,000 to the Down’s Syndrome Association disabilities the prison system.the inclusion of in NortherninIreland to promote people with Down’s Syndrome into society. Over £50,000 to the Down’s Syndrome Association in to promote inclusion ofTrust WeNorthern continueIreland to work with thethe Prison Reform people find without Down’s Syndrome into society. today, more on page 22.

More than £62,000 to Meru Hospice in Kenya to fund staff salaries, a new vehicle, pain relief medicines and medical equipment. More than £62,000 to Meru Hospice in Kenya to fund staff salaries, a new vehicle, pain relief medicines and medical equipment.




Over £235,000 to the Ulster Quaker Service Committee towards Over £235,000 to the developing support Ulster Quaker Service groups for young people Committee towards with a parent in prison. developing support groups for young people with a parent in prison.










£285,000 to Refugee Resource to fund a project to meet the health needs of young refugees and to help their integration into the community. £285,000 to Refugee Resource to fund a project to meet thethe health needs of protecting young refugees and toof Ensuring welfare and the rights help their integration into the community. young refugees and young people seeking asylum in the UK has been a focus of our work right from Ensuring protecting the rights the start.the Seewelfare how ourand work continues today onof young refugees and young people seeking asylum page 14. in the UK has been a focus of our work right from the start. See how our work continues today on page 14. £204,000 to the Albert Kennedy Trust to provide safe and supportive homes to lesbian, gay or bisexual teenagers in need. £204,000 to the Albert Kennedy Trust to provide safe and supportive homes tofor lesbian, gayfocused or Over £230,000 to Afghanaid a project bisexual teenagers in need. on building democratic leadership and providing training on conflict resolution, together with Over £230,000 to Afghanaid for a project focused support for microfinance initiatives. on building democratic leadership and providing training on conflict resolution, together with support for microfinance initiatives. In 2004 we launched a comprehensive appraisal £100,000 to the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child of palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, Soldiers for a research project into the best ways to conducted by Dr Richard Harding of King’s In 2004 we launched a comprehensive appraisal help child soldiers reintegrate in society. College London. The first significant step on £100,000 to the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child of palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa, our research agenda for palliative care, this Soldiers researchofproject intoto thedevelop best ways to £114,000for toaChildren the Andes conducted by Dr Richard of King’s study has both proved anHarding invaluable aid to child soldiers reintegrate society. ahelp mines awareness programmeinfor children in College London. The first significant step on measuring our ongoing progress and helped Columbia. our research agenda for palliative care, this to inform our priorities from this point on. £114,000 to Children of the Andes to develop study has both proved an invaluable aid to a mines awareness programme for children in measuring our ongoing progress and helped Columbia. to inform our priorities from this point on.







Between 1998 and 2006 we supported a diverse range of people and organisations in our areas of focus – and made over £70 million in grants – here are just a few examples.

10 years of impact




Millions in sub-Saharan Africa – children and adults – are living with and dying from HIV/AIDS, cancers and other life-limiting illnesses without care and pain relief.

What are we doing?

We are working to ensure that palliative care – a holistic approach to healthcare that provides relief from pain and symptoms and emphasises quality of life for patients and their families – becomes a fully integrated part of national health systems and available to all those with HIV/AIDS, cancer and other life-limiting illnesses who need it. Our work includes scaling up services, developing training, advocacy and research, and is carried out through effective and dynamic partnerships in our seven countries of focus (Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and through collaborations with others in the UK and the United States. Now is an exciting time to be working in palliative care. Neglected for many years in sub-Saharan Africa, it is increasingly gaining recognition for the crucial role it plays in care and treatment, and we are committed to keeping up the momentum for change.

the facts

–– Simon and sons: Simon was once seriously ill with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (cancer), but after anti-retroviral therapy for HIv and palliative care from the Malawi Home based Care Charitable Trust, his health has improved dramatically.

© Nadia Bettega

In 2008, about 1.4 million people died from AIDS-related causes in sub-Saharan Africa(i), including around 230,000(ii) children. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV is becoming more widespread and has transformed the lives of many, it is by

no means available to everyone and many of the people who are on ART also benefit from receiving palliative care to help them manage their symptoms and the side effects of treatment.

Cancer is on the increase in the region with over 500,000(iii) new cases a year. The majority of people with cancer in subSaharan Africa seek medical attention too late for treatment.

Most people in subSaharan Africa don’t have access to palliative care, which means that most of the two million who die each year from HIV/AIDS and cancer in the region, do so without access to adequate pain and symptom control, or care and support. 08 – 09

How are we making a difference? We are showing that people can receive high-quality palliative care in a range of settings

We Are helping to develop a medical workforce trained in palliative care

We support selected partner organisations in our countries of focus to deliver more and better palliative care services to people in local communities, whether in their own home or as in-patients or out-patients at local hospitals. Since 2007, we have helped to give thousands more people access to palliative care. But by funding organisations to deliver services, we are not only making a difference to the lives of individuals, we are also helping to strengthen the capacity of our partners to advocate for better palliative care policies at a local, regional and national level.

change – national ministries, the HIV/AIDS and cancer communities, international policy-makers and donors – to make palliative care a policy and funding priority. We also use our resources to strengthen the advocacy capacity of our partners, such as the African Palliative Care Association, and the palliative care sector as a whole.

We are supporting a wide range of initiatives aimed at rapidly increasing the number of healthcare professionals qualified to deliver palliative care. We have raised the numbers of health professionals trained in palliative care through our support of training institutions and bursaries. We are also promoting the integration of palliative care into all medical and nursing curricula, and the development of high-quality resources and learning tools.

–– Patients of the Malawi Home Based Care Charitable Trust, Blantyre, Malawi. © Nadia Bettega

We Are moving It is vital that palliative care is seen as a human palliative care right and becomes fully integrated into health systems across the region. up the global health agenda We lobby all those with the power to bring about

With only around 1.5% of the world’s palliative care resources(iv) but 22.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS, the palliative care sector in sub-Saharan Africa is facing a huge shortage of skills.

We Are funding rigorous research to show that palliative care can change lives

–– Rose, a community volunteer for the Kitovu Mobile Palliative Care Service with a nurse from St Joseph’s Hospital, Uganda. © Nadia Bettega

We support and disseminate research which demonstrates the effectiveness and impact of palliative care in Africa. We use what we learn to advocate for policies that will widen access and improve the quality of palliative care available to patients and their families.



Jane, widow of Jacob, a patient of the Maua Hospital Community Based Palliative Care Programme in Kenya, seen here with her 5-year-old grandson. © Nadia Bettega

Sister Carla Simmons (Dr) and team at the Kitovu Mobile Palliative Care Service, Uganda. © Nadia Bettega

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Mildmay, Uganda

Our Lady’s Hospice, Zambia

thousands of We are supporting the development of three beacon children’s children need palliative care training centres in Uganda, Tanzania and South Africa. palliative care When up and running, these centres will offer accredited training courses in sub-Saharan for health professionals, provide clinical placements for students, and take the lead in advocating for more and higher quality children’s palliative care Africa, but services nationally. We hope that centres like these can then be replicated the region across Africa. lacks both Mildmay Uganda will be one of the beacon centres. Counselling the services Psychologist, David Kavum, and Paediatrician, Dr Jane Nakaweesi, have been and the professionals chosen to lead this work. Here they describe their progress so far. ‘We undertook a ‘training the trainer’ course where, along with colleagues with the from Tanzania and South Africa, we learned how to teach a children’s specialist palliative care curriculum, which we will now use to teach an accredited skills to care level course in Uganda. The course made us aware of the range of medical for them problems in children that can be improved through palliative care. We also

Morphine is not yet widely available in Zambia, but it makes a huge difference to patients’ lives

learned about the issues which are crucial to delivering holistic palliative care to children, such as communication, play and development, managing pain and dealing with death and bereavement, and about the different models of care and assessment and management planning tools. As part of the course, we carried out a clinical placement to get practical experience.

‘Mutinta came to our hospice in severe pain with advanced Kaposi’s sarcoma, a cancer commonly associated with HIV/AIDS. She was immediately cared for by our palliative care team and given chemotherapy to reduce the swelling and to prevent the cancer from getting worse. ‘A qualified and trained member of the palliative care team gave Mutinta morphine syrup every six hours to ease her pain. However, it was a struggle to get enough morphine from the pharmacy at the University Teaching Hospital, as supplies are very limited. There were days we had to ration the morphine we gave to Mutinta, and to supplement her treatment with other pain relieving medication. On the days when morphine was available, Mutinta seemed happy and we heard her singing and chatting freely with other patients. On the days when the morphine ran out, she curled up under blankets, often crying out in pain. ‘After being cared for by the hospice team, Mutinta’s condition improved and her pain was under control. Mutinta was able to go home, but she comes back regularly for check-ups and to collect her medication. At her last check-up, we found her Kaposi’s sarcoma had returned so she was given another course of chemotherapy. Today Mutinta is in good spirits and even manages to earn a little income from plaiting hair in her salon.

‘Since returning to Uganda, we have begun to set up the training centre. We’re both in the process of undertaking the children’s palliative care course before teaching it ourselves. Once trained, we will train our staff, and then offer the course to non-palliative care organisations after that. We are confident that the work will be a success and that by training health and social care professionals we will ensure that more children have access to good palliative care wherever they are being treated.’

Our Lady’s Hospice is one of the Zambian palliative care organisations the Fund has supported. Palliative care organisations in Zambia are advocating for morphine to be more widely available and used, so that more patients like Mutinta can experience a life without pain.

© Nadia Bettega

‘There are a lot of myths about morphine in Zambia. Many people fear that patients could become addicted and some healthcare staff believe morphine should only be used at the end of life. But as Mutinta’s case shows, addiction is not an issue and receiving pain relief much earlier can help patients return home to lead a normal life.’

© Nadia Bettega

Mildmay Uganda provides care and treatment for children and adults with HIV/AIDS. It provides anti-retroviral therapy, treatment for conditions that children develop as a result of HIV infection, and a range of other child-centred services, such as rehabilitation and counselling.

Sister Kay O’Neill at Our Lady’s Hospice, Zambia, describes how morphine gave vital pain relief and improved the quality of life of Mutinta, an HIV/AIDS patient.

12 – 13

Refugees and Asylum Seekers

Ensuring refugees and people seeking asylum in the UK are treated with fairness, humanity and in accordance with international law


Children, families and individuals who arrive in the UK to seek protection from persecution are among some of the most vulnerable people in our society. Having fled war, torture or violence at home, they arrive in the UK with little or nothing to face a complex asylum system, which often treats people in ways that fall seriously below the standards we should expect of a humane and civilised society. In the UK we are justly proud of our long tradition of offering a place of safety to people fleeing persecution. But public attitudes towards asylum and migration issues are becoming increasingly negative – a problem we all need to be concerned about because these attitudes influence the way we treat individuals seeking asylum, as well as refugees and people from ethnic minority groups.

What are we doing?

Our aim is to ensure that all refugees and people seeking asylum are treated fairly, humanely and in accordance with international law, and that children seeking asylum are treated first and foremost as children. To achieve this, we are working in a number of different ways with selected partner organisations across the UK. Read on to find out how.

the facts

–– Campaigners celebrate sanctuary during Refugee Week, 2007

© Tobias Madden

Every year in the UK, around 1,000(v) children are detained for immigration purposes, and evidence from a wide range of experts shows that detention causes serious harm to children’s mental and physical wellbeing.

Every year a significant number of children arrive in the UK alone. Many are refused asylum but granted temporary leave to remain instead. This can leave young people in a state of limbo, with no decision on their status and worried about what will happen to them when they turn 18.

Many unaccompanied children arrive without proof of their age and sometimes an assessment needs to be made about how old they are. Age makes an enormous difference to how people progress through the asylum system, but up to 50%(vi) of age assessments are estimated to be wrong.

Refugee and asylum-seeking children often lack appropriate support, such as access to specialist legal advice.

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How are we making a difference? We are promoting asylum policies that are fair, humane and protect the most vulnerable

We are funding high-quality research that shows how asylum policy can be improved to the benefit of all

We are supporting organisations working with children and young people

We are supporting a range of advocacy and campaigning activities aimed at improving asylum policies for all those who arrive in the UK seeking sanctuary from persecution. We are funding three major campaigns: OutCry!, dedicated to ending the detention of children for immigration purposes; Still Human Still Here, which calls on the government to ensure that no one seeking asylum is left destitute; and Citizens for Sanctuary, a community-led campaign to protect and rebuild public support for the idea of sanctuary.


We are also supporting work that promotes the introduction of guardians for unaccompanied children and specialised legal representation for children and young people seeking asylum.

Bishop of Woolwich, Christopher Chessun, adds his support for sanctuary as CITIZENS for Sanctuary launch the Sanctuary Pledge in March 2010. © Nadia Bettega

–– Members of a youth arts and education project for young Londoners from new and more established communities at Oval House Theatre, London. © Alison Locke

They may be dealing with traumatic past experiences and with the loss of friends, family and support networks. They may lack the language skills they need to navigate a complex asylum system, struggle to access essential services such as healthcare and education, and they can be vulnerable to exploitation. It is vital that the welfare needs of these children and young people are properly safeguarded, and that appropriate support, care and protection are provided by all responsible agencies. We have awarded grants to twenty communitybased organisations providing direct services to, or advocating on behalf of, children and young people seeking asylum in the UK. Not only do these organisations provide essential support to vulnerable young people, they are also using their knowledge and experience to change UK asylum policy towards young people seeking asylum.

We are funding research aimed at highlighting where improvements can be made in the UK asylum system. By helping to build a solid evidence base, we hope to reduce the damaging impact that some aspects of the asylum system can have on children and young people while they are in the UK.

Children and young people who are seeking asylum have particular needs, both when they arrive with their families and particularly when they arrive alone.

We are working with our partners to change attitudes

In partnership with a number of other charitable foundations, we have funded research into public attitudes towards asylum and migration in the UK. We are now taking this work forward, seeking to encourage a more balanced public debate which highlights the reality of the asylum system in the UK, helps to clear up the confusion that surrounds migration and asylum issues, and makes the case for fair and humane treatment irrefutable.

–– Asli, Hamid and Iman, young members of RefugeeYouth at Mustaqbal, a weekly youth group in Harrow. © RefugeeYouth

–– Carina Crawford-Rolt explains why London is her place of sanctuary at a rally organised by CITIZENS for Sanctuary in May 2009. © Shan Rixon

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Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group The Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group provides emotional and practical support to people seeking asylum and immigration detainees held at Tinsley and Brook House, near Gatwick. Gemma is one of over 70 volunteer visitors. Here she describes her experiences.

The communitybased organisations we fund offer vital support to young refugees especially when they arrive alone

‘I remember my first visit to Tinsley House clearly, going through security and visiting my first detainee. He was friendly and open, and on my very first visit he was sharing with me his deep distress at his situation. But somehow it wasn’t gloomy or dismal. As well as stories of torture and escape, we talked of his love for his home country and how he’d grown up. ‘Those I have visited since have also openly shared the story of their lives, their homelands and what has happened to them in the UK. Most would far rather be at home if it were safe or possible for them to be there. They have listened to me when there was something I wanted to share, as any friend would. They all seem to appreciate having someone from outside the system to talk to.

‘I came here from Kosovo aged 15. I did a course with The Prince’s Trust and a work placement at a Higher Education College; I did really well there and they gave me a temporary administration job. I ended up working there for four years. I had independence, was supporting myself and learning new skills. ‘When my status ran out and I had to apply for an extension, I had to send off all my papers and documents to the Home Office; the Home Office has now been processing my application for nearly two years and I am still waiting for the decision. I’ve spent a third of my life waiting. ‘In the meantime, a permanent position came up at my work and I was asked to apply for it. I did and I got offered the post – but then they wanted to see proof of my permission to work. I showed them the documents I had, including a letter from my solicitor saying I had permission to work, but they wouldn’t accept that – they needed a letter from the Home Office. I telephoned and wrote to the Home Office to request a letter but they didn’t respond. Eventually, Ros at RefugeeYouth contacted the UK Border Agency about my case and I finally got the letter – but by then it was too late. The college had offered my job to somebody else and now I am unemployed.’

‘I have listened to people who struggle to find out information about their own health, and resort to bringing their notes for me to read. I have listened to people who cannot get their lawyer to answer the phone or send them information about their case. But there is hope. One person had the luck to live in the constituency of a great MP. Not only did she listen to and deal with their case, but she telephoned them personally in Tinsley. You cannot measure what that means to someone who feels completely forgotten and lost in the system.

Printed by kind permission of RefugeeYouth.

‘As a visitor I belong to a local group who meet now and then to share their experiences. Often I worry I don’t do enough, but when I come to my home group I realise that I just have to do what I can.’

Alfie’s story was collected by RefugeeYouth, a group of young people from refugee communities across London. The Fund is supporting RefugeeYouth in its advocacy work, which aims to communicate some of the issues affecting young refugees to wider society. © Andrew Aitchison

Printed by kind permission of Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group.

Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group is one of the 20 community-based organisations, providing direct services to young refugees and young people seeking asylum, which were awarded grants by the Fund in a community grants round in 2008.

Many children arrive in the UK seeking asylum alone and many are granted temporary leave to remain in the UK. However, on turning 18, they often have to reapply to stay, which can be a lengthy, and stressful, process. This is Alfie’s story.

More stories like Alfie’s are published in Becoming a Londoner, a book written and designed by members of RefugeeYouth about the issues that affect their lives. Find out more at

© RefugeeYouth

Around 11,000 people seeking asylum, including children, are detained at Tinsley House detention centre every year


18 – 19

Penal Reform

Promoting fair treatment and better futures for the most vulnerable people in the criminal justice system


Too many of the most vulnerable people in society are sent to prison for non-violent offences, often because alternatives to custodial sentences are underfunded, unpublicised or mistrusted. Evidence suggests that if this doesn’t change, rates of reoffending will remain high, the root causes of offending will continue to be left untackled and the people who are most at risk will fail to get the support they need.

What are we doing?

We are working with our partners – the Prison Reform Trust and the Corston Independent Funders’ Coalition – to promote the development of government policies that encourage the use of alternative solutions to offending by women, children and young people. Together we want to raise awareness among policy-makers, sentencers, the media and the public that imprisoning vulnerable groups is an ineffective – and often unjust – response to non-violent offending.

the facts Two of the most vulnerable groups in society – and in custody – are children and young people, and women. 2,000(vii)

–– A cell at Wetherby Young Offenders Institution in Yorkshire

© Edmund Clark/PRT

There are over children and young people in prison in the UK at any one time, and around half are non-violent offenders. Locking up vulnerable young people can often be psychologically damaging – boys in

prison are eighteen times more likely to commit suicide than their peers, for example(viii). It is expensive, costing an estimated £140,000 a year to keep a young person in a Young Offender Institution(ix). It is also ineffective – 75% of young people who are sent to prison reoffend, whereas evidence suggests that reoffending rates

are significantly lower where young people take part in alternative to custody schemes. There are over 4,200(x) women in prison in the UK. Most haven’t committed violent offences, but many have been on the receiving end of domestic and sexual abuse, and experience mental health, alcohol and drug abuse problems. Many

women enter prison for very short sentences – 64% for less than six months(xi). Too short a time to take part in rehabilitation and education programmes while in custody, but long enough to mean that they could lose their home and custody of their children. Over 60% of women are reconvicted within two years(xii).

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Out of Trouble Around half of the 7,000 prison sentences given to children in the UK during 2007-2008 were for non-violent offences (xiii)

Corston Independent Funders’ Coalition

Sally, 15, was given a 6-month intensive supervision order after being a passenger in a stolen car but breached the order after missing meetings. She was given a four-month Detention and Training Order (DTO).

UK trusts and foundations are supporting the development of new approaches to help reduce offending by vulnerable women

‘I’m 15. Once you’re on an order and you breach, you get put on something higher, so it just keeps going from there. They just keep escalating it. ‘Cos I was looking after my niece I breached some of my meetings. I got a four month DTO (Detention and Training Order) but I’ll do two months. You come in here for two months and you get released for two months on licence. If you commit any crime, or don’t go to your appointments on licence you come straight back in ’til the end. ‘What do I miss the most? My family… and my boyfriend. My dad died when I was ten. That was the hardest bit of my life… We moved away from our house and I got kicked out of school because I didn’t really attend.

‘Politicians across the political spectrum support reducing the number of women in prison, yet still the number of those serving short sentences is at an all time high: more than 8,000 women passed through prison in 2008. ‘So, helping policy-makers to understand the case for reducing the number of women in prison is a major part of our work. And we are also pushing for policy change to be translated into government funding and practical backing for services to help women reduce their offending and get their lives back on track.’ ‘Vulnerable women need support to change their lives. The Corston Report highlighted the one-stop shop model of women’s centre, which deals with the needs of the whole woman – whether that’s helping her to complete a community sentence, cope with domestic violence, find somewhere to live, get help with alcohol, drugs or mental health issues or build up her confidence and self-esteem.

‘When my mum comes here she gets the train and gets a taxi from the train station. I don’t really like my mum spending all her money by coming here... The youth offending team said they could give her it back, but now they’re saying otherwise.’ Interview by Sara Parker. Printed by kind permission of the Prison Reform Trust. Listen to more stories on the Out of Trouble website at

‘The Coalition has set up the Women’s Diversionary Fund jointly with the Ministry of Justice to support one-stop shop women’s centres. We are also assisting the emerging women’s offending sector to articulate why this approach works and help them to access local and national government funding.

© Andrew Aitchison

Out of Trouble is a major campaign launched by the Prison Reform Trust to highlight the damage caused by putting so many young people in prison, and to reduce levels of child and youth imprisonment. Thanks in no small part to its work, the child custody population is at its lowest level for ten years. Its research is helping to raise consciousness about the overuse of custody and the vulnerabilities of many young people in prison, and to put restorative justice – where young people are asked to make amends for the damage they have caused – back on the policy agenda.

In 2007, the Corston Report(xiv) highlighted the needs of women in the criminal justice system and made a series of recommendations for reform, which drew heavily on the innovative work of charities with women offenders. Concerned to see that the new approaches recommended by the report were not lost, the Corston group of independent funders was formed. Its Advocate, Antonia Bance, speaks about the Coalition’s important work.

The Corston Independent Funders’ Coalition is an alliance of twenty charitable trusts and foundations with an interest in the criminal justice system.

‘Our unique position as a funder coalition enables us to build unexpected alliances and use our combined resources to ensure that fewer low-level women offenders are sent to prison.’

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Promoting the protection of civilians during and after conflict by bringing an end to the use of cluster munitions in warfare


Cluster munitions have killed and injured thousands of civilians since they were first used over 60 years ago, and one third of all known casualties are children(xv).

What are we doing?

Her interest in and commitment to people affected by landmines is one of Diana, Princess of Wales’ most enduring legacies and the Fund has prioritised continuing to help those affected by explosive remnants of war since its earliest days.

–– Norway’s Foreign Minister, Jonas Gahr Støre, and Ban Advocate, Soraj Ghulam Habib, at the Oslo Signing Conference, 03 December 2008.

Since 2003, we have targeted our resources towards supporting campaigners around the world who have worked tirelessly to bring about the global ban on cluster munitions. The Convention on Cluster Munitions was signed in Oslo in December 2008 by 94 countries. It prohibits the use, production, stockpiling and transfer of cluster munitions, and requires that countries must clear affected land within ten years and destroy their stockpiles within eight. In a groundbreaking humanitarian provision, it also requires countries to support survivors and affected communities.

the facts Usually dropped from aircraft or fired from the ground, cluster munitions are containers loaded with lots of tiny bombs called bomblets. On firing, they break open in mid-air scattering over an area the size of two or three football pitches. Cluster munitions either explode on impact, killing © Frederico Visi

and injuring indiscriminately, or fail to explode when they hit the ground and become de facto landmines, lying in wait to kill and injure people long after conflict has ended. By making large areas of land uninhabitable and too dangerous for farming, unexploded cluster munitions also impede much needed

economic development for years after a conflict has ended. In February 2007, 46 governments met in Oslo to endorse a call by the Norwegian Government to conclude a new legally binding treaty in 2008 that banned cluster munitions, and included provisions to assist survivors and clear contaminated areas.

The Oslo Process, as it has become known, culminated in 107 countries negotiating and adopting an international treaty in May 2008 in Dublin, Ireland. The treaty was signed by 94 countries at the Signing Conference in Oslo in December 2008 and is open for all countries to sign at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. 24 – 25

How we made a difference We supported the global campaign

We provided support to the Cluster Munition Coalition (CMC), a group of 350 civil society organisations from over 80 countries, dedicated to bringing about and implementing an international ban on cluster munitions.

We supported people affected by cluster munitions

As well as providing funds, we played a supportive role throughout the diplomatic process leading up to the signing of the Convention in Oslo.

Both survivors of cluster munition attacks and family members of those killed were involved in the campaign. While coming from a huge diversity of backgrounds, the Ban Advocates played a highly important role in lobbying for the Convention. We supported them through providing training opportunities, such as media training and personal and professional development.

–– Campaigners march against cluster bombs in Dublin, May 2008. © Cluster Munition Coalition

We supported national campaigns

We set up a small grants scheme called Local Voices, Global Ban through our long-term partner Action on Armed Violence (formerly Landmine Action). Through the scheme, groups of national campaigners from around the world were given support for their efforts to get their national governments to sign up to the ban. We also provided funding to the US Campaign to Ban Landmines and Cluster Bombs to encourage the United States government to sign up too.


What’s next for the campaign?

While the ban on cluster munitions has been achieved and will soon enter into force for those countries who have signed it, there are still a number of countries which have not yet signed up to the Convention, many in areas of the world affected by conflict.

Cluster munition and landmine survivors celebrate the adoption of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, 2008 © Mary Wareham

The Cluster Munition Coalition and other campaign groups are now working to ensure that the remaining countries add their names to the list of signatories of the Convention. And they are also working to ensure that countries now begin to implement the Convention – destroying their stockpiles, clearing contaminated land and supporting survivors.

–– Getting the message across, Dublin 2008. © Cluster Munition Coalition

The campaign to ban cluster munitions stands out for a number of reasons, not least for the remarkable speed with which the Convention achieved the 30 country ratifications needed for the ban to enter into force – just 15 months; but also for the crucial role played by civil society in bringing it about. The experiences of those involved in the campaign will be useful for other funders and campaigners, so we are supporting the Cluster Munition Coalition to produce a guide to the campaign, which will outline some of the lessons we learned.

–– Cluster bomb, South Lebanon. © Cluster Munition Coalition

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Stories from the Ban Advocates

Ban Advocate Raed Mokaled’s son Ahmad, was killed by a cluster bomb as he played with his brother at a family picnic to celebrate his fifth birthday.

In many communities, injury and death caused by cluster munitions make the poor even poorer

‘My name is Raed Mokaled and I come from Lebanon, where my son, Ahmad, was killed by a cluster bomb on 12 February 1999. Ahmad was not a terrorist or a criminal; he was only a child who just wanted to play and enjoy life. ‘On the day of the accident, my wife, our two sons and I all went to a public park to celebrate Ahmad’s fifth birthday. Once we got to the park, we prepared food and a birthday cake with five candles for Ahmad. He went to play and we heard an explosion. My wife screamed “That’s my son!” as she sensed something had happened to him and not to another child. I ran over and saw him bleeding because of the many injuries to his body. I had been a volunteer in the Lebanese Red Cross but my mind went blank. I forgot all my training. We rushed him to hospital in my car and he was moved by ambulance because he was critical. He suffered for four hours before finally dying.

‘Nobody ever explained to us what we should do with those cluster bomb remnants. In order to be able to still work the rice fields, I had to take care, by myself, to clear the area. ‘I lost both my eyes and arms. My concern now is how I can feed and care for my children. Now my wife is playing a crucial role to support the entire family. Not only she, but also my two older children had to stop studying and start working in the fields after my accident, since I cannot help them any more.

‘I am sure no one, whatever their position as a politician, can give us an answer as to why my son was killed by a cluster munition.’

‘What concerns me is that even 30 years after the war, these bombs kill and maim. They took my eyes and my arms, and they continue to destroy the lives of so many other farmers just like me.’

© Cluster Munition Coalition

Civilians should never be on the front line, but when cluster munitions are used, they often are. The Ban Advocates are a group of ordinary civilians, all affected by cluster bombs, who came together from across the world to lobby for a worldwide ban.

Their personal stories are all testament to the devastating impact of cluster munitions on people, lives and communities. Read more stories from the Ban Advocates at

‘Decades after the cluster bombs were dropped during the Vietnam War, I was happily supporting my children and living in peace with my family when this cluster munition accident occurred and changed my life completely on 12 April 2004. ‘As I farmed, I often came across cluster bomb remnants, and removed them so no harm could come to my children as they played in the fields. On that dark day in 2004, I was trying to remove a cluster bomblet from the area when a major explosion occurred. I had wanted to add the fourth bomblet to a hole where three other bomblets were already hidden.

‘My other son, Adam, said he saw him pick up something like a brightly coloured bottle and it exploded. Of course this is very attractive for a child to pick up.

The Ban Advocates are supported by Handicap International, Belgium, and we helped to fund training, equipping the group to play an even more effective role at the diplomatic table throughout the treaty negotiation.

Ban Advocate Yoeun Sam En, a farmer from the north east of Cambodia, was injured by a cluster bomblet in 2004. He lost his sight in both eyes and both his arms had to be amputated. Unable to work since then, he lives in constant anxiety about how he will support his family.

Raed Mokaled and Yoeun Sam En gave these interviews in Dublin in May 2008 at the Dublin Diplomatic Conference on Cluster Munitions. Printed by kind permission of Handicap International, Belgium. © Jesuit Refugee Service

Children, mistaking colourful cluster bombs for toys, are often injured and killed in explosions

‘Look at me and stop destroying lives!’

28 – 29

What’s next for the Fund? WHAT’S NEXT FOR US?

The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund is spending out its capital, because we believe we can achieve greater and more sustainable improvements in the lives of disadvantaged people around the world by pursuing a carefully targeted programme of work over a limited number of years.


We are continuing to provide grants to organisations, with a particular emphasis on championing activities focused on influencing policy, legislation and public attitudes.

We aim to close by 31 December 2012. Up until then, we will continue to work with our partners to achieve our vision and so leave a lasting legacy of social change.

Evaluation and research have always been central to our work, and we are funding research studies in our areas of focus to support our work and the work of our partners in advocating for change.

Our vision for the future is a world where: Everyone with HIV/AIDS, cancer and other life-limiting illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa has access to high-quality palliative care and can live with dignity and without pain. Children are never detained for immigration purposes, and all those seeking refuge in the UK are treated with fairness, humanity and dignity. Far fewer children in the UK are locked up for non-violent crimes, and the UK’s approach to youth justice is one that focuses on improving the futures of young, vulnerable people through effective alternatives to custody. Far fewer women in the UK are sent to prison for non-violent crimes and a nationwide network of women’s centres has been developed to help address the causes of women’s offending. The global commitment to banning cluster munitions and other explosive remnants of war is stronger than ever, so that these lethal, indiscriminate weapons no longer pose a threat to civilians around the world.

Our vision is exciting, but ambitious too, so we are working hard towards our strategic aims, while at the same time seeking to empower our successors to ensure that the work continues after we’ve closed.

–– Work in progress: two generations show their support for the Sanctuary Pledge at the CITIZENS UK Assembly, May 2010. The UK Government has since pledged to end the detention of children for immigration purposes. © Shan Rixon

We are continuing to evaluate the projects we fund and to support our partner organisations to evaluate their work effectively and will share the learning that emerges from this work, whether through evaluation reports, newsletters, conferences, talks or seminars. As we draw nearer to closure in 2012, we are also carrying out a series of research studies, which will seek to investigate the role of independent funders in bringing about social change. Since 1997, we have sought to be more than just a grantmaker, aiming to work with and through our partners in innovative ways to realise our strategic objectives and improve the lives of disadvantaged people. Through evaluation and research, we will draw and reflect on the wealth of knowledge and experience we have accumulated as a funder, as well as that of many others in the sector, which we hope to be invaluable to those who continue the work after we’ve closed.

–– The first big tick: the Convention on Cluster Munitions was a major achievement for the Fund and its partners and a significant step towards our vision. Pictured here is Song Kasal, a landmine survivor, who gave a speech at our reception to celebrate the signing of the treaty in Oslo, December 2008.

Keep in touch with our research work as it develops at 30 – 31

In 2007, we set out to pursue four strategic aims, and by 2012 we will have given:

£15m Towards ensuring that palliative care is integrated into the care and treatment of people with HIV/AIDS, cancer and other life-limiting illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa.

£2.1m Towards promoting fair treatment and better futures for the most vulnerable people in the criminal justice system.

£14.6m Towards ensuring that refugees and people seeking asylum in the UK are treated with fairness, humanity and in accordance with international law.



Towards promoting the protection of civilians during and after conflict by bringing an end to the use of cluster munitions in warfare.

Towards sharing what we’ve learned with other funders.


endnotes i. UNAIDS (2008) ii. UNAIDS (2008) iii. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2005) iv. Help the Hospices. (2009) ‘Palliative care: facts and figures’ care/facts-figures v. ‘Home Office statistics reveal scandalous extent of detention of children’ (31 August 2009): The Children’s Society/OutCry! campaign uk/ whats_happening/media_office/latest_news/18140_ pr.html vi. Crawley, H. ‘When is a child not a child? Asylum, age disputes and the process of age assessment’, page 37 in ILPA Research Report (May 2007): Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association vii. Bromley Briefing (November 2009): Prison Reform Trust viii. Prison Reform Trust/Out of Trouble www.outoftrouble. (Retrieved May 2010) ix. ‘Punishing costs: how locking up children is making Britain less safe’ (March 2010): New Economics Foundation (March 2010) x. Bromley Briefing (November 2009): Prison Reform Trust xi. Bromley Briefing (November 2009): Prison Reform Trust xii. Bromley Briefing (November 2009): Prison Reform Trust xiii. Prison Reform Trust/Out of Trouble www.outoftrouble. (Retrieved May 2010) xiv. Corston, J (Baroness). ‘The Corston Report: a review of women with particular vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system’ (March 2007): The Home Office xv. Fatal Footprint Report (November 2006): Handicap International

Thanks TO: Carina Crawford-Rolt at CITIZENS for Sanctuary; Lindsay Evans at Centrepoint; Laura Cheeseman at the Cluster Munitions Coalition; Antonia Bance at the Corston Independent Funders’ Coalition; Nic Eadie and Gemma at the Gatwick Detainees Welfare Group; Mark Wieland at Getty Images; Ban Advocates Raed Mokaled and Yoeun Sam En, and Stéphanie Castanie at Handicap International Belgium; Almir Koldzic, Refugee Week; Diana Leat; David Kavum and Dr Jane Nakaweesi at Mildmay Uganda; Sister Kay O’Neill and Mutinta at Our Lady’s Hospice, Zambia; Rebecca Nadin and ‘Sally’ at the Prison Reform Trust; Susanna Darch, Lucy Pearson and ‘Alfie’ at RefugeeYouth; and Jenny Smith, Paul Jones and Richard McKenna at Strudel.

Photography credits Andrew Aitchison (inside cover, pp1, 6-7, 18, 22-23, 32); Nadia Bettega (inside cover, pp1, 4, 6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13, 16, 31, 32); Centrepoint (p3), Edmund Clark/PRT (p20); Cluster Munition Coalition (inside cover, pp26-27, 28, 32); The Down’s Syndrome Association, Northern Ireland (inside cover, p4); Tim Graham/Getty Images (p2); Leslie Knott/Afghanaid (p7); Alison Locke (pp16, 32); Tobias Madden (inside cover, pp6-7, 14); Jesuit Refugee Service (p29); RefugeeYouth (inside cover, pp1, 16-17, 19); Shan Rixon (pp17, 30, 32); Frederico Visi (p24) and Mary Wareham (inside cover, pp6, 26).

Text © The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund 2010 Design by Strudel Printed by Granite Colour

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