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DAVID P L LEWIS OPEN SOURCE ETHICS MArch THESIS DESIGN DIARY


CONTENTS I

INTRODUCTION

2

II

PRIMER: THE EUTHANASIA DILEMMA

6

III

POST-PRIMER

40

IV

TV FORMAT PROPOSAL

50

V

PROGRAMME

58

VI

SITE

64

VII

GEOMETRIC ABSTRACTION

78

VIII SITE FIELD ANALYSIS

92

IX

MASSING and ORGANISATION

104

X

OTHERS’ INVESTIGATIONS

118

XI

DETAILED DESIGN SO FAR

122

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I

INTRODUCTION

The original interest lies in stories like Debbie Purdy’s. She has multiple sclerosis and, though not yet unable to make the final decision on her fate and, with life not yet overpowered by the pain, discomfort and dependence on others she feels her condition will ultimately bring, not yet wishing to stop living, envisages a time when should she choose suicide it would have to be assisted. In September, 2009, Purdy challenged the laws of England and Wales at the High Court of Justice that would result in her husband facing prosecution if he helped her fulfill her desire at a later date. Euthanasia is an ethical issue that is currently not fully resolved; it exists in a grey area of both law and morality. Many column inches have been written on either side of the debate for the legalisation of assisted suicide, with the fears of exploitation of those in or about to face a lengthy period of palliative care countered with the argument that civilisation ought to permit those conscious of making a decision on suicide the means to carry it out regardless of physical ability. For many, this dilemma remains not only to be decided for civilisation but also within ourselves. The right-to-die is just one dilemma; there are others now and there will be others in the future. It is of less importance to state an opinion on the matter than it is to create a structure for opinion to be heard and laws defined on not just this issues but all issues. For that there is already a justice system, the most fundamental of all in society, but cases like Purdy’s ask the question: is it fit for purpose or is something else more appropriate?

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The interest lies in the IN-BETWEEN, in the GREY AREA. Ethics describes a fluctuation between states of morality, between what is legal and what is illegal. A law is a statement of belief at a particular point in time and space, marking one end of a greyscale spectrum of permission. There always exists an overlap of acceptance and legality, with some actions tolerated whilst still being punishable by law and some actions legal yet reprehensible by a majority. The doctrine of judicial precedents in the courts of England and Wales ensures that the lines drawn to determine legality are changeable and the laws underpinning civilisation progress in a particular direction. However, whilst democratic liberty gives every adult citizen the potential to influence these decisions, and whilst a free press provides a medium through which voices are heard and channelled to the right place, there is no direct link between the opinion of the population and the laws they must live within. Perhaps this buffering is essential in safeguarding society against extreme views that could spiral up, gain momentum and find their place in rulings that would undermine our utilitarian progress. Perhaps, at the dawn of the Information Age, this is now patronising. Perhaps, instead, a new system will emerge whereby ethics can be measured. Perhaps this measurement is all that law fundamentally is, and perhaps we can improve on what we currently have. Yet perhaps the chaos could overwhelm order and lead to an unravelling of justice, uncovering a level of risk and opportunism previously, and wisely, suppressed.

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DISSERTATION My dissertation, The Size of City: Michael Heizer’s Masterpiece as Architecture, focused primarily on the American artist’s grand endeavours in the Nevada desert, exploring the artwork’s relationship to architecture. On a colossal scale, over a mile long and a quarter of a mile wide, built using heavy machinery and incorporating engineering techniques only found elsewhere in the creation of infrastructure projects, it exists in an overlap between disciplines. The investigation centred on the in-between in between art and architecture, the similarities and the differences between the two. Definitions and others’ philosophical inquiries informed the discussion and, whilst these resulted in the conclusion that due to its strict functionlessness it was formally a work of art with architectural references, there remains the potential for a nebulous region of understanding that could lead to other interpretations of built forms. Nevertheless, City acts as a question mark above our current form of civilisation and its physical and societal structures. Part post-apocalyptic, part foundation-stone, the frozen and premature ruin on which Heizer has been working for the last thirty years suggests a sublime, uncontrolled end to life as we know it; it does not, however, indicate whether this end will be though a culture that we create or one we let happen.

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II

PRIMER: THE EUTHANASIA DILEMMA

This is a two-player game to replicate decision making in euthanasia, based on the Prisoners’ Dilemma. Players initially compete until a random event changes the rules; they must then cooperate so that both win. The Prisoners’ Dilemma The Prisoners’ Dilemma (PD) constitutes a problem in game theory, a branch of applied mathematics that is used in the social sciences to examine human behaviour. The basic premise is this: Two collaborating criminals are arrested by the police and are kept apart, unable to communicate. The police have insufficient evidence for a conviction and neither criminal will admit to the crime. Both of the prisoners have the option of testifying against the other or saying nothing, with varying resultant jail terms. For example, if the first prisoner testifies against the second and the second keeps quiet the first will be set free and the second will receive 10 years in jail. If both testify against the other they both receive 5 years in jail. If both keep quiet they both receive 6 months in jail.

The choices can be shown in a table (number of years for Player 1, number of year for Player 2): Player 1 \ Player 2 Keep schtum Rat

Keep schtum 0.5, 0.5 0, 10

Rat 10, 0 5, 5

In the generalised form this is: Player 1 \ Player 2 Cooperate Defect

Cooperate R,R T,S

Defect S,T P,P

Where: R – Reward for mutual cooperation P– Punishment for mutual defection T – Temptation to defect S – Sucker’s payoff …and holding the following inequalities: T>R>P>S One experiment on human behaviour showed 40% opt to cooperate.

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The Interated Prisoners’ Dilemma, the version for which there has been the most analysis and has greatest relevance to economics, allows both players to view the other’s decision after both have been made in order to educate the next iteration of the same game. Game theory strategies have been devised for one player to win more points (or whatever) over the other, such as always cooperate, always defect, titfor-tat, retaliating, unforgiving and so on.

either player to win unless they choose to cooperate consistently enough to give the disadvantaged player zero points, hinting at the superrational decision to allow and commit euthanasia. However, it is still possible for a recovery to take place, leading to the game returning to its initial stages.

[NB: for the iterated version the following condition must be met to ensure that the smartest strategy is not simply for each to alternate defection and cooperation: 2R > T + S.] In the Prisoners’ Dilemma, the idea of superrationality states that, though a game-theoretic strategy might be to defect, if a player knows or merely assumes they are playing against another superrational player the best strategy is to to have the same strategy, with the best payoff on the diagonal being to both cooperate. This has moral undertones in a game that is frequently used as a tool for examining the mechanics of decision based ethics. MODIFICATION IN THE EUTHANASIA DILEMMA The Iterated Prisoner Dilemma is played with both players beginning with 50 points and initially the object is to beat the opponent; players are free to choose and compete in a normal fashion as they would in a natural setting. Minus scores for P and S encourage defection and allow for one player to be below par and the other above par. After a set number of iterations a ‘random event’ can take place leading to one player being disadvantaged and causing the rules of the game to change; this would be a terminal illness in the natural setting. The new point settings make it impossible for 7


HOW THE GAME IS CREATED The Euthanasia Dilemma is a two player, split-screen game. It is designed to be displayed on one screen with a physical division inserted to keep players unaware of the other’s selection. As will be shown in the game screens that follow, each half contains: a graph at the bottom showing the current player scores, a chart at the top showing the players decisions from previous rounds, and the ‘buttons’ in the centre with which the players navigate within the game and make their selections. As soon as the game begins each half of the screen fluctuates between white and black, initially with a slow, breathing-like pulse. As the game progresses and the scores change, a higher score for either player increases the pulse rate and shifts the range of colours through which the pulse fluctuates upwards, with a low score making the breathing slower and the screen perceptively darker.

The game was written in Actionscript 3.0 using Adobe Flash CS4 Professional. Ubiquitous on the internet, Flash is currently the platform of choice for many multiplayer games; with a few extra lines of code it is feasible for The Euthanasia Dilemma to become a global opinion recording mechanism.

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THE VOTING BOOTH To play the game each player steps into one half of a black nylon enclosure with a metal pole and fishing-wire frame. The game is back-projected onto a frosted perspex sheet and the players interact using a Mimio digital whiteboard device 12

- each holds a pen-like controller that emits a high-frequency buzz when pressure is applied to the tip, with the device triangluating where on the screen the player has pressed. Back-projecting the game avoids shadows on the screen and also allowed the intensity of light incident on the players to


be altered for dramatic effect. The booth is blacked out for a heightened sense of interiority, with the flimsiness of the nylon permitting both sound and the occasional, accidental rubbing of shoulders.

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ADMIN SPLASH SCREEN 14


//stop();

// Import required classes import flash.display.Sprite; import flash.events.MouseEvent; import flash.display.SimpleButton; import flash.display.StageDisplayState; import flash.display.Graphics; import flash.net.SharedObject;

// Set click-on-screen to initialise Fullscreen mode function goFullScreen():void { if (stage.displayState==StageDisplayState.NORMAL) { stage.displayState=StageDisplayState.FULL_SCREEN; gotoAndStop(2); } else { stage.displayState=StageDisplayState.NORMAL; } } fullScreen.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, _handleClick); function _handleClick(event:MouseEvent):void { goFullScreen(); } // Pre-game Booleans var playP1:Boolean=false; var playP2:Boolean=false; var nextP1:Boolean=false; var nextP2:Boolean=false; var startP1:Boolean=false; var startP2:Boolean=false; var finishP1:Boolean=false; var finishP2:Boolean=false; // Arrays var P1scoreRecord:Array = new Array(); var P2scoreRecord:Array = new Array(); var P1choices:Array = new Array(); var P2choices:Array = new Array(); var iterations:Array = new Array(); var roundRecord:String; var roundsRecord:Array = new Array(); // Set up of timers var initFades:int=1000000; var initPulseTimer:Timer=new Timer(5,initFades); initPulseTimer.addEventListener(TimerEvent.TIMER, initPulsate); function initPulsate(event:TimerEvent):void { if (iteration==1) { k+=0.01*(scorePlayerOne/100); l+=0.01*(scorePlayerTwo/100); P1pulse.alpha = (0.5*Math.cos(k) + 0.5); P2pulse.alpha = (0.5*Math.cos(l) + 0.5); } else { } }

15


SCREEN 1 16


stop();

initPulseTimer.stop(); var scorePlayerOne:int=50; var scorePlayerTwo:int=50; // Set message button to invisible at start pleaseWait01.visible=false; pleaseWait02.visible=false;

// Create white background based on P1 score var P1pulse:Sprite = new Sprite(); P1pulse.graphics.beginFill(0xFFFFFF); P1pulse.graphics.drawRect(-50, -50, 325, 500); P1pulse.graphics.endFill(); P1pulse.alpha=1; addChildAt(P1pulse, 0); // Create white background based on P2 score var P2pulse:Sprite = new Sprite(); P2pulse.graphics.beginFill(0xFFFFFF); P2pulse.graphics.drawRect(276, -50, 325, 500); P2pulse.graphics.endFill(); P2pulse.alpha=1; addChildAt(P2pulse, 1);

// Wait for players to hit Play Buttons playButtonP1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, imReadyP1); playButtonP2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, imReadyP2); function imReadyP1(event:MouseEvent):void { playP1=true; playButtonP1Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait01.visible=true; readyToPlay(); } function imReadyP2(event:MouseEvent):void { playP2=true; playButtonP2Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait02.visible=true; readyToPlay(); } function readyToPlay():void { if ((playP1 == true) && (playP2 == true)) { gotoAndStop(3); } else { } }

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SCREEN 2 18


stop();

// Set message button to invisible at start pleaseWait41.visible=false; pleaseWait42.visible=false;

// Wait for players to click Next buttons nextButtonP1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, nextGoP1); nextButtonP2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, nextGoP2); function nextGoP1(event:MouseEvent):void { nextP1=true; nextButtonP1Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait41.visible=true; bothNext(); } function nextGoP2(event:MouseEvent):void { nextP2=true; nextButtonP2Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait42.visible=true; bothNext(); } function bothNext():void { if ((nextP1 == true) && (nextP2 == true)) { gotoAndStop(4); } else { } }

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SCREEN 3 20


stop();

// Set message button to invisible at start pleaseWait51.visible=false; pleaseWait52.visible=false; // Define initial variables var iteration:int=1; var selectPlayerOne:Boolean; var selectPlayerTwo:Boolean; var roundComplete:int=0; var randomNumber=4;//Math.round(Math.random()*15)+5; var cont2P1:Boolean=false; var cont2P2:Boolean=false; var selectPlayerOne2:Boolean; var selectPlayerTwo2:Boolean; var i:Number=0; var j:Number=0; var k:Number=0; var l:Number=0; iterations.push(iteration); P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); // Dynamic Lines var lineP1choices1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xFFFFFF); lineP1choices1.graphics.moveTo(20, 59); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30, 59); addChild(lineP1choices1); lineP1choices1.visible=false;

addChild(lineP2scoreRecord2); lineP2scoreRecord2.visible=false;

// Wait for players to click Start buttons startButtonP1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, letsGoP1); startButtonP2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, letsGoP2); function letsGoP1(event:MouseEvent):void { startP1=true; startButtonP1Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait51.visible=true; rightLetsGo(); } function letsGoP2(event:MouseEvent):void { startP2=true; startButtonP2Text.textColor=0x666666; pleaseWait52.visible=true; rightLetsGo(); } function rightLetsGo():void { if ((startP1 == true) && (startP2 == true)) { initPulseTimer.start(); gotoAndStop(5); } else { } }

var lineP2choices1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0x000000); lineP2choices1.graphics.moveTo(20, 132); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30, 132); addChild(lineP2choices1); lineP2choices1.visible=false; var lineP1scoreRecord1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xFFFFFF); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.moveTo(20, 305); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30, 305); addChild(lineP1scoreRecord1); lineP1scoreRecord1.visible=false; var lineP2scoreRecord1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0x000000); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.moveTo(20, 306); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30, 306); addChild(lineP2scoreRecord1); lineP2scoreRecord1.visible=false; var lineP1choices2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xFFFFFF); lineP1choices2.graphics.moveTo(295, 59); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305, 59); addChild(lineP1choices2); lineP1choices2.visible=false; var lineP2choices2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0x000000); lineP2choices2.graphics.moveTo(295, 132); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305, 132); addChild(lineP2choices2); lineP2choices2.visible=false; var lineP1scoreRecord2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xFFFFFF); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.moveTo(295, 305); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305, 305); addChild(lineP1scoreRecord2); lineP1scoreRecord2.visible=false; var lineP2scoreRecord2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0x000000); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.moveTo(295, 306); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305, 306);

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SCREEN 4 22


stop();

// Begine display of Dynamic Lines lineP1choices1.visible=true; lineP2choices1.visible=true; lineP1choices2.visible=true; lineP2choices2.visible=true; lineP1scoreRecord1.visible=true; lineP2scoreRecord1.visible=true; lineP1scoreRecord2.visible=true; lineP2scoreRecord2.visible=true;

// Booleans to be refreshed var cont1P1:Boolean=false; var cont1P2:Boolean=false;

// Static Lines var lineCoopMarker1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineCoopMarker1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineCoopMarker1.graphics.moveTo(20, 96); lineCoopMarker1.graphics.lineTo(255, 96); addChild(lineCoopMarker1);

coopButton1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, coopPlayerOne); defectButton1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, defectPlayerOne); function coopPlayerOne(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==0) { selectPlayerOne=true; roundComplete=1; gotoAndStop(6); } else { } } function defectPlayerOne(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==0) { selectPlayerOne=false; roundComplete=1; gotoAndStop(6); } else { } }

var lineCoopMarker2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineCoopMarker2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineCoopMarker2.graphics.moveTo(295, 96); lineCoopMarker2.graphics.lineTo(530, 96); addChild(lineCoopMarker2); var lineDefectMarker1:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineDefectMarker1.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineDefectMarker1.graphics.moveTo(20, 22); lineDefectMarker1.graphics.lineTo(255, 22); addChild(lineDefectMarker1); var lineDefectMarker2:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineDefectMarker2.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineDefectMarker2.graphics.moveTo(20, 170); lineDefectMarker2.graphics.lineTo(255, 170); addChild(lineDefectMarker2); var lineDefectMarker3:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineDefectMarker3.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineDefectMarker3.graphics.moveTo(295, 22); lineDefectMarker3.graphics.lineTo(530, 22); addChild(lineDefectMarker3); var lineDefectMarker4:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineDefectMarker4.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineDefectMarker4.graphics.moveTo(295, 170); lineDefectMarker4.graphics.lineTo(530, 170); addChild(lineDefectMarker4); var lineP1Marker100:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1Marker100.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineP1Marker100.graphics.moveTo(20, 245); lineP1Marker100.graphics.lineTo(255, 245); addChild(lineP1Marker100); var lineP1Marker0:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP1Marker0.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineP1Marker0.graphics.moveTo(20, 366); lineP1Marker0.graphics.lineTo(255, 366); addChild(lineP1Marker0); var lineP2Marker100:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2Marker100.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineP2Marker100.graphics.moveTo(295, 245); lineP2Marker100.graphics.lineTo(530, 245); addChild(lineP2Marker100); var lineP2Marker0:MovieClip = new MovieClip(); lineP2Marker0.graphics.lineStyle(1, 0xADADAD); lineP2Marker0.graphics.moveTo(295, 366); lineP2Marker0.graphics.lineTo(530, 366); addChild(lineP2Marker0);

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SCREEN 5 24


stop();

// Show P1 selection as change in text colour showP1Selection(); function showP1Selection():void { if (selectPlayerOne==true) { coop1Text.textColor=0x000000; } else { defect1Text.textColor=0x000000; } }

// Set listeners for P2 selection and proceed when done coopButton2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, coopPlayerTwo); defectButton2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, defectPlayerTwo); function coopPlayerTwo(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==1) { selectPlayerTwo=true; roundComplete=2; initPulseTimer.stop(); gotoAndStop(7); } else { } } function defectPlayerTwo(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==1) { selectPlayerTwo=false; roundComplete=2; initPulseTimer.stop(); gotoAndStop(7); } else { } }

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SCREEN 6 26


stop();

pleaseWait11.visible=false; pleaseWait12.visible=false;

// Scoring algorithm scoring(); function scoring():void { if (roundComplete==2) { if ((selectPlayerOne == true) && (selectPlayerTwo == true)) { scorePlayerOne+=3; scorePlayerTwo+=3; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Cooperate”); P2choices.push(“Cooperate”); roundRecord=iteration+” Cooperate Cooperate “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); roundComplete=0; } else if ((selectPlayerOne == true) && (selectPlayerTwo == false)) { scorePlayerOne-=3; scorePlayerTwo+=5; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Cooperate”); P2choices.push(“Defect”); roundRecord=iteration+” Cooperate Defect “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); roundComplete=0; } else if ((selectPlayerOne == false) && (selectPlayerTwo == true)) { scorePlayerOne+=5; scorePlayerTwo-=3; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Defect”); P2choices.push(“Cooperate”); roundRecord=iteration+” Defect Cooperate “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); roundComplete=0; } else { P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Defect”); P2choices.push(“Defect”); roundRecord=iteration+” Defect Defect “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 169);

} } else { } }

lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); roundComplete=0;

var P1pulsemax:Number = (1.2*scorePlayerOne) / 100; var P1pulsemin:Number = (0.8*scorePlayerOne) / 100; var P2pulsemax:Number = (1.2*scorePlayerTwo) / 100; var P2pulsemin:Number = (0.8*scorePlayerTwo) / 100; var maxFades:int=1000000; var pulseTimer:Timer=new Timer(5,maxFades); pulseTimer.addEventListener(TimerEvent.TIMER, pulsate); pulseTimer.start(); function pulsate(event:TimerEvent):void { i+=0.02*(scorePlayerOne/100); j+=0.02*(scorePlayerTwo/100); P1pulse.alpha = (P1pulsemin + ((P1pulsemax - P1pulsemin)*(0.5*Math.cos(i) + 0.5))); P2pulse.alpha = (P2pulsemin + ((P2pulsemax - P2pulsemin)*(0.5*Math.cos(j) + 0.5))); }

// Continue buttons listeners and functions continueButton1P1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready1P1); continueButton1P2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready1P2); function ready1P1(event:MouseEvent):void { cont1P1=true; cont1P1Text.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait11.visible=true; ready1(); }

function ready1P2(event:MouseEvent):void { cont1P2=true; cont1P2Text.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait12.visible=true; ready1(); } function ready1():void { if ((cont1P1 == true) && (cont1P2 == true)) { if (iteration==randomNumber) { pleaseWait11.visible=false; pleaseWait12.visible=false; gotoAndStop(8); } else { gotoAndStop(5); } } else { } }

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SCREEN 7 28


stop();

// Clear screen of lines pleaseWait21.visible=false; pleaseWait22.visible=false; lineP1choices1.visible=false; lineP2choices1.visible=false; lineP1choices2.visible=false; lineP2choices2.visible=false; lineP1scoreRecord1.visible=false; lineP2scoreRecord1.visible=false; lineP1scoreRecord2.visible=false; lineP2scoreRecord2.visible=false; lineCoopMarker1.visible=false; lineCoopMarker2.visible=false; lineDefectMarker1.visible=false; lineDefectMarker2.visible=false; lineDefectMarker3.visible=false; lineDefectMarker4.visible=false; lineP1Marker100.visible=false; lineP1Marker0.visible=false; lineP2Marker100.visible=false; lineP2Marker0.visible=false;

continueButton2P1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready2P1); continueButton2P2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready2P2); function ready2P1(event:MouseEvent):void { cont2P1=true; randCont1.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait21.visible=true; ready(); } function ready2P2(event:MouseEvent):void { cont2P2=true; randCont2.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait22.visible=true; ready(); } function ready():void { if ((cont2P1 == true) && (cont2P2 == true)) { pleaseWait21.visible=false; pleaseWait22.visible=false; lineP1choices1.visible=true; lineP2choices1.visible=true; lineP1choices2.visible=true; lineP2choices2.visible=true; lineP1scoreRecord1.visible=true; lineP2scoreRecord1.visible=true; lineP1scoreRecord2.visible=true; lineP2scoreRecord2.visible=true; lineCoopMarker1.visible=true; lineCoopMarker2.visible=true; lineDefectMarker1.visible=true; lineDefectMarker2.visible=true; lineDefectMarker3.visible=true; lineDefectMarker4.visible=true; lineP1Marker100.visible=true; lineP1Marker0.visible=true; lineP2Marker100.visible=true; lineP2Marker0.visible=true; gotoAndStop(9); } else { } }

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SCREEN 8 30


stop();

var cont3P1:Boolean=false; var cont3P2:Boolean=false;

coopButton3.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, coopPlayerOne2); defectButton3.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, defectPlayerOne2); function coopPlayerOne2(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==0) { selectPlayerOne2=true; roundComplete=1; gotoAndStop(10); } else { } } function defectPlayerOne2(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==0) { selectPlayerOne2=false; roundComplete=1; gotoAndStop(10); } else { } }

31


SCREEN 9 32


stop();

showP1Selection2(); function showP1Selection2():void { if (selectPlayerOne2==true) { coop1Text2.textColor=0x000000; } else { defect1Text2.textColor=0x000000; } }

coopButton4.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, coopPlayerTwo2); defectButton4.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, defectPlayerTwo2); function coopPlayerTwo2(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==1) { selectPlayerTwo2=true; roundComplete=2; gotoAndStop(11); } else { } } function defectPlayerTwo2(event:MouseEvent) { if (roundComplete==1) { selectPlayerTwo2=false; roundComplete=2; gotoAndStop(11); } else { } }

33


SCREEN 10 34


stop(); pleaseWait31.visible=false; pleaseWait32.visible=false; // Scoring scoring2(); function scoring2():void { if (roundComplete==2) { if ((selectPlayerOne2 == true) && (selectPlayerTwo2 == true)) { scorePlayerOne+=3; scorePlayerTwo-=3; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Cooperate”); P2choices.push(“Cooperate”); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); roundRecord=iteration+” Cooperate Cooperate “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); roundComplete=0; } else if ((selectPlayerOne2 == true) && (selectPlayerTwo2 == false)) { var g:int = 0.5*(100 - scorePlayerOne); var h:int=0.5*scorePlayerTwo; scorePlayerOne=scorePlayerOne-g; scorePlayerTwo=scorePlayerTwo+h; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Cooperate”); P2choices.push(“Defect”); roundRecord=iteration+” Cooperate Defect “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 95); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); roundComplete=0; } else if ((selectPlayerOne2 == false) && (selectPlayerTwo2 == true)) { var e:int = 0.5*(100 - scorePlayerOne); var f:int=0.5*scorePlayerTwo; scorePlayerOne=scorePlayerOne+e; scorePlayerTwo=scorePlayerTwo-f; P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Defect”); P2choices.push(“Cooperate”); roundRecord=iteration+” Defect Cooperate “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); iteration+=1; iterations.push(); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 97); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); roundComplete=0; } else { P1scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerOne); P2scoreRecord.push(scorePlayerTwo); P1choices.push(“Defect”); P2choices.push(“Defect”); iteration+=1; iterations.push();

} } else { } }

roundRecord=iteration+” Defect Defect “+scorePlayerOne+” “+scorePlayerTwo; roundsRecord.push(roundRecord); lineP1choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.lineTo(30 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); lineP1choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 23); lineP2choices2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 169); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 366 - (1.2*scorePlayerOne)); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.lineTo(305 + (5*iteration), 367 - (1.2*scorePlayerTwo)); roundComplete=0;

// Wait for players to click continue continueButton3P1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready3P1); continueButton3P2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, ready3P2); function ready3P1(event:MouseEvent):void { cont3P1=true; cont2P1Text.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait31.visible=true; ready3(); } function ready3P2(event:MouseEvent):void { cont3P2=true; cont2P2Text.textColor=0x000000; pleaseWait32.visible=true; ready3(); } function ready3():void { if ((cont3P1 == true) && (cont3P2 == true)) { pleaseWait31.visible=false; pleaseWait32.visible=false; if (scorePlayerOne>=100||scorePlayerTwo>=100||scorePlayerOne<=0||scorePlayerTwo<=0) { pulseTimer.stop(); gotoAndStop(12); } else { gotoAndStop(9); } } else { } }

35


SCREEN 11 36


stop();

// Clear lines from Stage lineP1choices1.graphics.clear(); lineP2choices1.graphics.clear(); lineP1scoreRecord1.graphics.clear(); lineP2scoreRecord1.graphics.clear(); lineP1choices2.graphics.clear(); lineP2choices2.graphics.clear(); lineP1scoreRecord2.graphics.clear(); lineP2scoreRecord2.graphics.clear(); // Set message button to invisible at start pleaseWait71.visible=false; pleaseWait72.visible=false; bothWinDisplay1.visible=false; bothWinDisplay2.visible=false; P1winDisplay1.visible=false; P1winDisplay2.visible=false; P2winDisplay1.visible=false; P2winDisplay2.visible=false; // Display results resultOfGame() function resultOfGame():void { if ((scorePlayerOne >= 100 && scorePlayerTwo <=0)|| (scorePlayerTwo >= 100 && scorePlayerOne <=0)) { bothWinDisplay1.visible=true; bothWinDisplay2.visible=true; } else if ((scorePlayerOne >= 100, 0< scorePlayerTwo < 100) ||(scorePlayerOne <= 0, 0< scorePlayerTwo < 100)) { P1winDisplay1.visible=true; P1winDisplay2.visible=true; } else { P2winDisplay1.visible=true; P2winDisplay2.visible=true; } } // Wait for players to hit Play Buttons winReturnButtonP1.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, returnP1); winReturnButtonP2.addEventListener(MouseEvent.CLICK, returnP2); function returnP1(event:MouseEvent):void { finishP1=true; winReturnButtonP1Text.textColor=0x999999; pleaseWait71.visible=true; returnToStart(); } function returnP2(event:MouseEvent):void { finishP2=true; winReturnButtonP2Text.textColor=0x999999; pleaseWait72.visible=true; returnToStart(); } function returnToStart():void { if ((finishP1 == true) && (finishP2 == true)) { gotoAndStop(2); } else { } } // Store game data /*recordData(); function recordData():void { var playerRecords:SharedObject= new SharedObject(); playerRecords=SharedObject.getLocal(“Recorded Game Data”); if (playerRecords.data.gameRecords == null) { playerRecords.data.gameRecords = “Year Zero”; } else {} var newGameRecords:String = playerRecords.data.gameRecords + “ ******* “ + roundsRecord.toString; playerRecords.data.gameRecords = newGameRecords; trace(playerRecords.data.gameRecords); playerRecords.flush(); playerRecords.close(); }*/

37


THE EUTHANASIA DILEMMA IN SITU

38


39


III

POST-PRIMER

THE EUTHANASIA DILEMMA is the starting point for a further exploration into how architecture can represent and structure ethics. Beginning with the idea that a game algorithm can become the decision making unit for widespread and continual referenda on a range of issues, the post-primer extrapolation investigated fields, territories, structures, mechanisms and thought experiments.

40


41


ALGORITHM HIERARCHY and ETHICS FIELDS The Euthanasia Dilemma could be one of many algorithms in a hierarchy of justice games, with higher level systems aggregating results and computing laws. These could play out over a territory to determine the ethics field, the inverse of which is an equally possible iteration. 42


43


ABSTRACT GAMEBOARD Referenda could continually redefine the ethics of regions, with voting booths emerging at significant border disputes. Distant from the human element, ethics can be a game of influence, risk and opportunity; close to it, the game is a mechanism to ensure utilitarianism. 44


45


THE SPIRIT OF LADY JUSTICE There is an underlying structure to ethics, though it is not always apparent. Each dilemma can be examined through reason but, with differing philosophies and modes of conduct abound, the logic is moot and arguably always will be, making the final decision variable and prone to inappropriateness over time. Yet what governs the laws and ethics in civilisation generally works in the favour of citizens. Should a new democratic structure emerge in which each decision is voted on, and repeatedly so, there must exist an overarching spirit that ensures that, despite temporary aberrations, the utilitarian result is achieved. The rules that govern the behaviour of particles and forces, when looked at in finer and finer detail, do not present an answer that nullifies inclinations towards spirituality; Mother Nature as an explanation is as applicable now as ever. In the same way, though we may feel we can progress our laws and morals through analysis and democratic processes, a spirit will continue to oversee and rebalance ethics: Lady Justice.

[Image credit: the photograph of Lady Justice within the image to the right is copyright of Shanina Conway.]

46


47


THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS I

Schrödinger’s Cat

In this hypothetical situation, the feline is placed in a box with a naturally, albeit randomly decaying source of radiation and a poison that is released if radiation is detected. From the outside it is not possible to know whether or not the cat is alive or dead and it is said to be in a superposition of alive and dead at the same time; however, in opening the box one can judge whether or not the cat is alive or dead. This thought experiment, used in interpretations of quantum mechanics, questions the possible uncertainty of actions not under observation; in considering ethics and architecture is becomes apparent that, though the law of the land may say one thing, a lot else goes on behind closed doors. Creating places for illegal activities is not difficult - they simply must remain private - but creating public spaces for outlawed activities would require greater trickery.

II

Maxwell’s Demon

As a proof that the second law of thermodynamics implies that entropy never decreases and that two bodies of different temperature brought into contact with each other will reach thermal equilibrium, a hypothetical demon was imagined. This demon would sit at a gateway between the two bodies and allow only hot, higher energy particles through to one side and only allow cold, low energy particles through to the other side, resulting in two distinct temperature regions. Knowing that this demon cannot possibly exist indicates that the second law must hold. It is in the architecture of ethics that this thought experiment has relevance, that is to say that it is the boundaries that we construct and the control over them we hold. The immateriality of Maxwell’s Demon arguably has references in the justice system: can the jurisdiction over the permission to be in one place, or to commit a particular act, be held with any one person if this implies they themselves are not either in or out of that place or both committing and not committing the act?

PROGRAMME DEFINITIONS Before a programme is defined in terms of spaces, uses, masses or their organisation, a set of criteria (right) can be drawn up that ontologically defines what the scheme is. Detached for the time being from the constraints a realisation will later bring, the freedom afforded by abstractions allows the scheme to develop a language and logic of its own. 48


I.

The scheme should navigate between states

II.

The scheme should include nodes for decision making

III.

The scheme should programmatically respond to decisions

IV.

The scheme should spatially respond to decisions

V.

The scheme should be built up by a layering of visibility and permissions

VI.

The scheme should consist of a long lasting superstructure onto which a shorter lasting substructure is applied

VII.

The scheme should contain a ‘region’ that replicates the idea of Schrödinger’s Cat

VIII. A ‘barrier’ in the scheme will replicate Maxwell’s Demon IX.

The scheme should be variably public and private

X.

The scheme should accommodate illegal and legal activities

XI.

The scheme should branch from more open to more closed, or vice versa

XII.

The scheme should be greyscale

XIII. The scheme should (if possible) be immune to law XIV. The scheme should become a thought experiment XV.

The scheme should be for responsible adults

XVI. The scheme should scream independence XVII. The scheme should be both integrated and distinct from the surrounding civilization XVIII. The scheme should be readable at different levels 49


IV

TV FORMAT PROPOSAL

To step up from The Euthanasia Dilemma and the simple referenda mechanism it employs the debate must be expanded. Proposed is a television format for a broadcast show which would influence and record public opinion on a range of issues: The Dilemmas.

PROGRAMME TITLE:

The Dilemmas (or Open Source Ethics, or Ubuntu)

TARGET AUDIENCE:

15+; A,B,C1,C2 & D

SUGGESTED TIME-SLOT:

Friday 8pm, weekly

LENGTH

60 minutes

BRIEF OUTLINE

RUNNING ORDER

The Dilemmas is a weekly live broadcast based on the idea of open source ethics: the determination of rules and conduct in society as deemed appropriate or correct in the views of the population at large. It is both a setting for serious debate and a game show with two threads running through it: one is the weekly competition between two players who must argue their side of a particular dilemma; the other is a series long competition to become the best judge of public opinion. Proceedings take place in four different debating environments, with access to the content of the other proceedings limited for each.

I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV.

50

Introduction to the idea of the show, briefly. Introduction to the cast members (audience, panel, judge, protagonist and antagonist) Introduction to the showâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dilemma, which changes every week. Round I: Trial by Proxy First poll Round II: Trial by Crowd Second Poll Round III: Trial by Jury Third Poll Round IV: Trial by Judge Final Poll Summary of show and reactions Change of hierarchy Introduction to next show


DETAILED SYNOPSIS A Brief Introduction to Open Source Based on the concepts underpinning open source creation of software, The Dilemma is a game that sources public opinion on particular issues and polls their views. The open source philosophy promotes freedom of speech, freedom of access, transparency in proceedings and the elimination of copyright. The open source movement first developed in computer programming and grew out of the free software movement of the 1980s. In computing it describes the process of software creation by unpaid collaborators and hobbyists working over the internet to write, test and maintain programs for which users would not be charged and on which they are able to collaborate. The Linux operating system, the online encyclopaedia Wikipedia and the Mozilla Firefox internet browser are all open source: created by many users, governed by not-for-profit organisations and free to all to use. Whilst open source suggests a non-hierarchical structure, weighted positions are necessary within the dispersed organisations. The internal hierarchy is deeply meritocratic; the more one member contributes and the higher the quality of their contribution, the greater their responsibility and their say in development decisions. For example, an open source software programmer who has been coding for a few years will have more say on new software features than a newcomer.

open source ethics. Open source ethics is a (new) term to describe the open and transparent documenting of opinion and its utilisation to determine the answer to a particular dilemma. Each person who wishes to contribute has an equal right to opinion stating and an equal level of access for their opinion to be heard. However, there is a hierarchy at the high end of the ethics field. The hierarchy is used to help guide the deliberations but also to pass final judgement and make concrete decisions. The positions in the hierarchy are determined by the performances and efforts of the participating judges and the game mechanism is structured to allow changes in positions over time. The hierarchy also permits material privileges to those at the top as an incentive to further contributions. The Game There are two threads running through the game: the dilemma between the two players - one a protagonist and the other the antagonist - concluded over the course of a single show, and the hierarchy of the judging participants, concluded over the course of a series/season.

Open Source Ethics

For each show the dilemma, the players and the judging participants are introduced and the game proceeds through four rounds, as described below. Each round is a different setting for debate and judgement: the first is a question and answering session with a large public audience at a distance; the second is a studio audience debate; the third is a committee hearing; the fourth and final setting is in front of a single judge.

Ethics is constantly in flux; The Dilemmas aims to record these changes and promote ongoing debate through the idea of

The object of the game for the players is to make the most convincing case in each debate setting. Both the popularity 51


of the argument and the swing in vote over the course of the show determine each playerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s success. The object of the game for the judging participants is to rise up the hierarchy from viewer to studio audience member to juror to judge. Both the final positions and the performance over the course of a series determine the successes of the participants. Rewards and Incentives There are both rewards for the players and for the hierarchy. The players receive prizes (cash or otherwise) for winning their battle of hearts and minds. There are two types of prize: one for the side of the argument that wins out in the end and one for the argument that has improved most over the course of the show, i.e. has the biggest swing of vote from the start to the finish. There are rewards for rising through the ranks of the hierarchy: The studio audience are provided with a meal at the studio, are entertained there for the evening and leave with a goody bag. The jury are provided with a meal at a high-quality restaurant, are kept overnight in a hotel, have their travel expenses paid and are presented with a gift The judge has access to all information and content, as well as having equal say with the producers of the programme on the issues to be dealt with for the following weeks show. They are also housed in an luxury hotel and have access to a range of activities and goods. Over the course of a series, the person who stays judge for the longest or, in the event of a tie, has stayed at a high level in the games hierarchy for the longest, wins the Series Prize, a much larger offering to reward continuity. 52


53


ROUND STRUCTURE

Round IV - Trial by Judge

Round I - Trial by Proxy

Participants: 1 judge, promoted from the jury through the game algorithm.

Participants: 1000 members of the virtual audience, interacting via television and online, selected through a lottery system. First, questions submitted by the viewers prior to the show, ranked according to their popularity, are asked to the protagonist and antagonist, which they must then answer in turn. After a set number of questions, viewers at home and on the internet would be able to vote through the showâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website/application or via interactive â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;red buttonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; services. Round II - Trial by Crowd Participants: 100 members in the studio audience, promoted from the virtual audience through the game algorithm. First, questions are taken from the floor, the presenter acting as chair and the protagonist and antagonist respond in turn. A vote is taken place by members of the audience passing through one of two gates into separate rooms. Round III - Trial by Jury Participants: 10 jury members, a panel of experts, promoted from the studio audience through the game algorithm. In turn, the protagonist and antagonist face an interrogation by the jury for an equal period of time. The jurors vote by giving scores on their performance and how much they agree with them, with one sum total versus the other to decide the winner. 54

The protagonist and antagonist together meet with the judge, who in turn asks each to explain their side for a set period of time. The judge makes a set of decisions on the presented dilemma, and predicts the results of the other polls in the game. The Final Count The virtual audience, real audience, jury and judge round scores are aggregated, weighted and manipulated in the game algorithm to determine the final result, presented to the protagonist and the antagonist. The restructuring of the hierarchy is then determined.


55


GAME PROGRESSION IN THE DILEMMAS

56


SAMPLE DILEMMAS The production team filter suggestions for dilemmas either sent in by viewers or suggested by studio audience members, members of the jury or the judge. The team then meet with the judge to decide the following weeks show, with both parties having equal say. The dilemmas could be topical or general, and would be binary in form, i.e. can be answered ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Examples could include: • Is absolute power in the hands of a wise Monarch preferable to the British system of Government, under the perversion of a corrupt Parliament?

• Is Wit in the Male more dangerous to the possessor than Beauty in the Female Sex? • Is being subject to the caprice of a Coquet before marriage a more disagreeable situation to a man of sensibility than to be obliged to live with a Scold afterwards? • Does that Infamy which follows a Female’s first deviation from Chastity, operate more to keep the sex Virtuous; or to render the Seduced more desperate in Vice? [NB: the examples above were taken from London debates from 1787.]

• Is the present alarming increase of divorces to be attributed more to neglect in the male, or levity in the female sex? • Is it more painful to a Woman of Sensibility, to be obliged to marry the Man she dislikes, or debarred the man she loves? • Has Political Prejudice been productive of more real injury to Society than Religious Prejudice? • Is the man who deliberately seduces a female, and then deserts her more blameable than the father who abandons his child so seduced? • Do Theatrical Entertainments tend more to improve or deprave the Morals of Mankind? • Is the the surly old Batchelor of more contemptible character than the peevish old Maid? 57


V

PROGRAMME

A small television studio facility has a division of served and servant spaces. The STUDIOS themselves are at the heart, with the TECHNICAL, PRODUCTION, BACKSTAGE and LOBBY areas peripheral but interacting with them. Each element is a discrete unit within the whole, and has its own internal logic and organisation, with the physical and visual connections providing the continuous field.

58


59


The division of uses in the programme lends itself to categoriastion. In the image to the right the discrete units

STUDIO TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AUDIENCE LOBBY BACKSTAGE ENTRANCE

- have been arranged over five spectra. To investigate the in-between within the programme and for architecture for the television studios facility in relation to ethics, five TWIN PHENOMENA have been selected from an almost infinite range as those that relate best to both ethics and architecture:

LIGHT-HEAVY

(e.g. punishment/mass)

OPEN-CLOSED

(e.g. debate/space)

TRANSPARENT-OPAQUE

(e.g. legislation/light)

TEMPORARY-PERMANENT

(e.g. morality/circulation)

PUBLIC-PRIVATE

(e.g. opinion/access)

60


61


SPECTRA MINIS For a further investigation of the in-between along the five selected spectra, the three-dimensional, structural, spatial and material qualities of built forms - which have enormous variation in reality - are digitised to form a 5 x 5 matrix. 62


63


VI

SITE

The selected site is at Ham Yard in Soho, London. The site has been derelict since the Second World War, save for its use a car park, and is currently undergoing demolition works. Ham Yard, a void in between mixed uses and priorities, is a prototype for the in-filling of urban spaces that will be the norm in an overpopulated future. Soho is apt for many reasons. It sits in the centre of a busy, high density city and is the home of many production, postproduction advertising facilities. It is a capital of sex, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll, with much more going on in the privacy of clubs, walk-ups and houses than is immediately visible to the eye. Yet most importantly it is a place of experimentation, testing the boundaries of acceptance of homosexuality and the sex industry in the twentieth century and the culture of inebriation before that. All this whilst bordered by the streetscapes of theatres, shops, restaurant and bars along Oxford Street, Regent Street, Shaftesbury Avenue and centring on worldfamous Picadilly Circus; a deceptively public island of legally dubious behind-closed-doors activities, opportunisim and an overwhelmingly if adrenaline fueled laissez-faire attitudes.

Soho Parish School, and the ‘walk-up’ brothel next door 64


65


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21.35

L

22.27

1 .4 22

MH CL 22.38

HAM YA RD

GU CL 21.85

21.73

21.50

C

TC Kerb

22.16

21.91

Asphalt

Steel steps up

GU CL 21.93

21.59

GU CL 21.76

21 .81

21 .64

IC CL 21.42

London Electricity sub-station

21 .86

1.6 3

21.69

22.46

RS

22.26 Concre te

rb Ke

Asphalt

CL 2

21 21 B .60 .62

Barbed wire topped retaining wall 1.88m

22.12 LC 22.07

Concrete Step

IC

ou tle t

Drop kerb

TC CL 22.08

21.89

MH CL 21.47

Kerb

2.00m barbed wire and chainlink fence on top of brick wall 0.50m

Louvres to basement 21.74

8 21.7

Sm ok e

GC CL 21.57

21.59

21.74

20.71

21 .55 21.59

23 21.72 GU CL 21.59

21.71

18.98 SVP

MH

21.64

Kerb

rb Ke

8

2

22.70

21.93 21.60 Barbed wire topped chainlink fence 2.15m

21.79

Exit from car park

21.61

22.70

22.87

IC CL 22.42

21.66

22 21.61

22.75

22.90

Retaining walls 0.33m

25.41

Sprinkler control roof

Brick surround

21 21.90

23.01

21.06

MH

21.94

22.91

23.04 FAI Door to No. 33A

20.99

21.63

21.97

IC CL 21.92

10

No access to survey

Windmill Videos

Basic outline only surveyed

IC CL 21.96

21.83

Cafe bar Sicilia

IC CL 20034

21.68

N.C.P. Denman Street

19.08 VP

Il Cucciolo

GC CL 22.95

Brick retaining wall 1.78m

not surveyed

6

22.95

Brick retaining wall 2.28m

Roof detail to basement car park

7

22 .00

CL 21 .66

Gates

7 23.21

23.10

23.31

22.82

2 22.01

IC

23.15 23.04

Kerb

IC CL 22.38

26 21.58

Piccadilly Theatre

21 .71 21 .68 21 B .63

Kerb

23.35 23.38

ILL ST

21.59

Steel mesh

Duct

22.05

TC CL 21.66

23.39

Louvres to basement

23.07

Steel ladders

VP

Concrete

IC CL 23.36

23.53

Brick housing for fire escape stairwell

Brick housing for fire escape

22.20

2

GU CL 21.89

Asphalt

8 23.54 23.48

Steel railings 1.07m

FH CL 23.07

23.47

21.65

22.07

20 21.96

23.39

Louvres to basement

23.57

GU

22.10

1

Brick retaining wall 0.25m

23.51

23.39

SMITH'S COURT

Concrete step

21.65

22.24

21.98 VP

23.47

Brick retaining wall 0.30m

Concrete

21.62

21.60

23.42

23.45

23.55

GC CL 23.15

GU CL 22.41

Steps down

Gate

23.41 Concrete 23.40

GU CL 23.27

23.37

23.33 23.25 LC 23.15

Brick plinth

21.71 21.75

SC CL 22.18 SC CL 22.20

Void to below

23.29 Brick retaining wall 0.40m

23.53

Concrete

IC CL 23.54 IC CL 23.53

IC CL 23.54

GU CL 22.08 22.07

5

9 23.35

23.43

23.42

Steel GP's 2.15m

Steel fire escape

21.53

Brick wall 4.50m

Building line overhead

23.43 Wooden post 1.61m

Concrete

23.43

22.98

Flat roof 25.17

22.21

Brick retaining wall 3.45m

Rubble / hardcore

Concrete 23.00

23.15

New Piccadilly

Concrete plinth

REET

25.16

Wooden partition

22.99 Brick step

1 26.07

Flat roof 26.14

23.69

23.56

Kerb

Pink Films

23.37

Brick wall

26.13

Void to roof below

23.75

SC's

IC CL 23.13

Asphalt

23.24

6

9

4

GREAT WINDMILL STREET

3

8

rb

6 22.43

5


67


C himney Lead

M a chine Room

M a chine Room

Panelling

Brick

Brick

Brick W all

Brick

Brick

Brick

Brick M a chine Room

C himney

Door

M a chine Room Door

Brick

Felt

Felt

Felt Tiles W all Brick

Brick

Brick Brick

Brick

Brick

C himney Felt Tiles

Vent Dormer W indow

Dormer W indow Sla te

Brick Sla te Buttress

Brick

Vent Brick

Brick

Brick

Brick

Brick

Abutting W all

Rendered

Vent

Brick

Door

Roof Level

W ood Roof Level

Rendered

Brick

Door

Door Door

Door

Step

Da tum 20. 0 0m

Door

Underground C ar Park

Step

Da tum 20. 0 0m

SEC TIO N 5

HAM YARD

68

Door


PANORAMA SOUTHWARDS FROM SMITHS COURT

69


Roof Access

Sla te Roof

Sla te Roof

Brick

W indows on this fa ce not yet observed due to access restrictions

Dormer window

Dormer window

Sla te Roof

Sla te Roof

Dormer window

Sla te Roof

Sla te Roof

Brick Sla te Roof

Brick

Brick

Brick

Vent

Vent

Brick

Vent

Vent

W ood Fa cia

Brick Brick

Brick

Brick

Archwa y

Brick

Brick Door

Abutting Building

Door

Door

Door

Door

Restuarant

Door

W indow Door

2 0. 0 0m Stone C la dding

SEC TIO N 6

SMITHS COURT

M etal Stone C la dding

Brick

Brick

Brick Brick

Approxima te Position

Sk ylight

Brick

Rendered

Brick

Brick

Brick C overed External W alkwa y

Brick

Brick

C overed External Sta ircase Brick Rendered

Brick

Sub-Station

Door

Rendered

Door Rendered

Da tum 20. 0 0m

SEC TIO N 7

70

Roller Door

Brick

Brick

Door

Door Sub-Station

Brick

Rendered

SEC TIO N 8

W ood

Door

Door


PANORAMA NORTHWESTWARDS FROM HAM LANE 71


Pitched roof

Pitched roof

Assumed window deta il Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Boa rded up Doorwa y

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

G RE AT W IN DM ILL S TREE T

SHERW O O D S TREE T

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Boa rded up

Doorwa y

C ar Park Entrance

Doorwa y 21 .5 9

Picca dillyThea tre

15

14

12

1 5. 0 00m

SEC TIO N 1 0

DENMAN STREET

SECTION 9

GREAT WINDMILL STREET

72

Picca dilly Yard

21 .46 21 .3 4

21 .1 9

21 .36

21 .3 2

21 .2 2

5-7 8-1 0

N CP C AR PARK

4

3

2

1


PANORAMA SOUTHEASTWARDS FROM SMITHS COURT 73


CORNER OF HAM LANE & GREAT WINDMILL STREET 74


SMITHS COURT 75


DENMAN STREET

76


AN IN-BETWEEN Existing tunnel through to the car park 77


VII

GEOMETRIC ABSTRACTION

The key to conflict resolution, and the only certain approach to develop new understandings of dilemmas, is to investigate the problems according to its first principles. Architecture is a discipline that creates and manipulates many aspects of reality - such as light, mass, movement, communication or vision - but in creating an overriding structure within which dilemmas can be played out it is the generation of and relationships between spaces that is of most importance. Space is understood through geometry. For an architectural response to an issue like ethics that does not necessarily have a direct connection, the link can be made be examining what the two have in common in terms of logic. This geometric abstraction aims to uncover a structural understanding of the in-between for both points of view and the three-dimensional spatial manifestation of architecture.

78


79


SIMPLIFICATION The interest lies with the in-between. It is a one dimensional point on a two dimensional scale.

80


TRIANGULATION 1 & 2 The architecture that represents combined/convoluted ethics should develop from a dimensional extrapolation of the simplified problem. Each side of the triangles is a scale, an undirected edge between two vertices. The defined points A, B and C have areas attributed to them by the linking of the points on the interrelational scales; however, they must form a space in between to moderate their territories. 1 shows this ‘from point’ and 2 shows this ‘perpendicular to scale’, with both showing a new defined area D to represent a shared/disputed region.

81


RECTIFICATION (INCOMPLETE) 1 & 2 Here, A is (using graph terminology) not adjacent to D â&#x20AC;&#x201C; nor is B adjacent to C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and the graph is incomplete. 1 shows the territories attributed perpendicular to the scale, and 2 shows from the scale.

82


RECTIFICATION (COMPLETE) 1 & 2 A and B are adjacent to D and C respectively. 1 shows how disputed regions can emerge (A and C can claim the left blue triangle) whilst shared regions still exist. 2 shows a rectified situation where there is no disputed area.

83


PENTALOOP (REGULAR) 1 & 2 The relationships form a complete loop but the graph is once again incomplete. 1 shows a formalised sixth region F formed with the original vertices being dominant and 2 shows F formed when it is dominant.

84


PENTALOOP (IRREGULAR) 1 & 2 Only the point on the A-B scale has been moved, creating a series of shared/ disputed regions in the case where the vertices are dominant (1) but not after rectification (2). Notice how in 1 the edge of a shared/disputed space exists on the B-C edge/relationship.

85


RE-SIMPLIFICATION The importance lies not at the vertices but in the region created in-between. The vertices thus become voids, non-dimensional and the scale takes all the responsibility for variation.

86


SITUATIONAL (ARBITRARY) To accommodate a programme and a site there must be some adaptation. Programmatic mixing and crossing creates axes of variation between voids, here arbitrarily represented. 87


SITUATIONAL BOUNDED (ARBITRARY) With flexing in programme and in response to site, new regions and combinations emerge.

88


SITUATIONAL (ARBITRARY) EXTENDED With an extra dimension the site becomes more occupied and the voids are anchored. This diagram is the theoretical strategy to be applied to programme and site. 89


THAT BLUE COLOUR The new blue to colour to add to greyscale in the thesis palette is International Klein Blue (known as IKB, and qualified as: RGB 0, 47, 167; Hex 002FA7). With a visual impact from a heavy reliance on Ultramarine, the colour was developed by French artist Yves Klein to be of the same intensity and brightness as dry pigments. Kelin used the colour in almost all his works for a period now termed his Blue Epoch. The monochromes took the form of planar, pained canvases, sculptures and performance art, in which naked bodies were dipped in a paint of the colour and draped over canvases, floors and walls. For and exhibition at the Iris Clert Gallery in 1958, Klein chose to show nothing whatsoever in a show called The Specialisation of Sensibility in the Raw Material State into Stabilised Pictorial Sensibility, The Void. A crowd of 3,000 queued up to pass though a IKB coloured curtain into an empty room. This colour represents the voids at the end of the greyscale spectra and will be examined as a visual marker in the scheme.


HOTEL DU DEPARTMENT (ALSOP & STORMER, 1994)

91


VIII SITE FIELD ANALYSIS To examine the local conditions of the site it is possible to map the five spectra - HEAVY-LIGHT, OPEN-CLOSED, PUBLIC-PRIVATE, PERMANENT-TEMPORARY and OPAQUE-TRANSPARENT - as fields. With International Klein Blue at both ends of the spectra and greyscale within, the space in-between the voids can be evaluated. In this way the opportunities for configuration and alignment with the variation become apparent; Soho is a mestizo region within a mixed up city. Each field is internally varied but also varied in amplitude and phase within the set of five fields.

92


93


94


HEAVY LIGHT

HEAVY - LIGHT Massive edifices and thick structural entities embody a heaviness that is opposite to the lightness of the open streetscape. The site is currently a light void into which an in-between of smaller scale between heavy masses can be constructed. 95


96


OPEN CLOSED

OPEN - CLOSED Sohoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urban fabric of narrow streets and pedestrian only alleys is lined at ground floor level with shops, bars, pubs and restaurants, permitting access deep with buildings. 97


98


PUBLIC PRIVATE

PUBLIC - PRIVATE Shaftesbury Avenue to the southeast of the site is a constantly busy public spine through theatreland, culminating in the hustle of Picadilly Circus to the south. Street corners are strong in-between spaces. 99


100


PERMANENT TEMPORARY

PERMANENT - TEMPORARY Buildings change, structures decay and uses are re-interpreted; streets and alleys, decided in the prior urbanisation of fields and grasslands, are indisputable. The interior urban fabric of the site can implement its own thoroughfares. 101


102


OPAQUE TRANSPARENT

OPAQUE - TRANSPARENT Urban navigation is around obstacles - obscuring both vision and a sense of a gestalt - and not through them; unsurprisingly, this equates to physical alienation for many. There is the opportunity for a new form of in-between can be created. 103


IX

MASSING and ORGANISATION

The programme can be subdivided into four elements that are servicing voids around the singular and serviced in-between: the TECHNICAL, PRODUCTION, BACKSTAGE and LOBBY regions feed the STUDIOS and their associated outdoor spaces. The relationships between these voids are arbitrary but permit the creation of rules that assist in the regularisation of the disputed regions. Each site exists as an individual amongst many other sites. Over time a siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s boundaries may change through dispersal or amalgamation, but at any moment in time for which the boundaries are set the interior logic determines the organisation.

104


EXTRATERRITORIALITY and INTERIORITY

105


THE EXISTING VOID The site has two street fronts, to the south and to the northeast, with alleyways on the other sides, and is surrounded by medium density structures. 106


LOBBY Public houses on crossroads

TECHNICAL Back of Picadilly Theatre BACKSTAGE Semi-private party wall

PRODUCTION Semi-public thoroughfares

SITE VERTICES The site can be defined in its entirety by four vertices; these are the positions of the four programme voids and mark out an approximate in-between space. 107


DEFINITION OF VOIDS: PRIMARY AXES A geometric abstraction of the site is irregular and leads to only one of the voids being indisputably defined through the ground-plane extension of the four verticesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; axes. 108


DEFINITION OF VOIDS: SECONDARY AXES The unique geometry of the site is the determinant for rules for the further negotiation of regions; a secondary axis is formed where a primary axis has been intersected by another, creating a second void. 109


DEFINITION OF VOIDS: TERTIARY AXES To complete the set, further axes are developed from the creation of inner sub-vertices, determining the regions for final two voids. 110


LOBBY

TECHNICAL

BACKSTAGE

PRODUCTION

VOID VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION and DISPUTED REGIONS The programme is stacked at the vertices and the disputed inbetween is partially allocated.

111


STUDIO 1 STUDIO 2

STUDIO 3

HORIZONTAL INTERIOR CONCILIATION Three indisputable in-between regions are determined and vertically extrapolated to create the studio spaces.

112


E

C IEN

D

AU

GE

A ST

E

S OU

f-H

o K-

C

BA

AC

CE

SS

RA

M

P

REGULARISATION of DISPUTED REGIONS To create the back-of-house, stage, audience and access areas the remaining regions are re-allocated, simplifying the scheme. 113


T

UR

O

C HS

IT

SM

T

N STREE

DENMA VERTICAL CONTEXTUAL CONCILIATION The central regions are raised one metre to fit the slope of the site, reached from Denman Street to the south and meeting SmithS Court to the north by ramps. 114


POST-SIMPLIFICATION DISPUTE CREATION To re-establish the drama of disputes, and to permit repeated re-interpretation in a show, some of the massings are truncated and their vertices replaced with a series of balconies and access stairwells. 115


FINAL MASSING

116


FINAL MASSING IN CONTEXT

117


X

OTHERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; INVESTIGATIONS

The structural nature of the geometric abstraction will not alone bring charm to the scheme, nor will it offer a layered experience. Just as The Euthanasia Dilemma employed a touch of drama in its flashing screens, the scheme will be spiritually embiggened by an element of architectural showmanship. Three artists, discovered long before the project began, have remained in mind and will inspire a sense of ILLUSION.

FELICE VARINI Swiss artist Felice Varini has been creating geometric, anamorphic, perspective-based artworks for thirty years, applying them to architecture and urban spaces. From one vantage point the pattern appears as a layer over three-dimensional vision, and elsewhere the pattern is broken; Varini says he is interested in the latter most. Variniâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work is relevant for two reasons: firstly, it relates to the idea that at a point in space (though not in time) a particular viewpoint can be held that is not the same at other points and, secondly, in capturing reality through the lens of a camera and presenting it on a screen the truth of the situation is warped. 118


It is hoped that the same effect Varini employs can be translated to the facades if not the actual forms of the scheme so that they have a presented image to the camera that is not necessarily complete, similar to the way we may have different public and privately held opinions.

119


SARAH SZE American artist Sarah Sze has created many miniaturised, parasitic and ephemeral structures, many of which appear to defy gravity. Her series of tiny, convoluted and dead-ended fire escapes from Second Means of Egress, if scaled to the correct size, could become a re-interpretable stage of balconies from which the presenters and players in a television show could talk to the audience and navigate around a set.

120


DAN GRAHAM American conceptual artist Dan Graham has utilised two-way mirrors in mouch of his work. He explores a grey area between sculpture and architecture and his pieces aim to disorient the viewer from their understanding of their surroundings or knowledge of space. They are inherently fun and interacting with them is akin to playing a game of visual and material recognition. Mirrors provide a means to look ourselves in the eye as we do others, questioning our position and beliefs. Yet a two-way mirror only offers half of that relationship; in addition we must look onto others at the same time. It is imagined that mirrors can become a key external finish in the scheme, and the play of reflective surfaces and other illusions could possibly set the buildings to appear as though they are visually and perceptually in a state of being in between.

121


XI

DETAILED DESIGN SO FAR

The detailed design is continuing and the images that follow are work in progress drawings. The buildings have not been fully resolved and they are not yet populated to show the mob audience, the crew, the presenters or the game players in action, and so they remain cold and lifeless. The facades and structures are also yet to be finalised.

122


3F

2F

1 : 200

1 : 200

14

A105 2

29

13

42

35 28 36 44 17 -

37

27 33

16

32

A105 3

31

15 11

30

20 38

39

48 43

34

26

25 -

24 47

23

1 A105

9

49 8

50

10

46 45

GF 1 : 100

123


1 A105

9

49 8

50

10

46 45

GF 1 : 100

124

Basement

1F

1 : 200

1 : 200


2F 1 : 200

3F 1 : 200

125


GREAT WINDMILL STREET ELEVATION

126


DENMAN STREET ELEVATION

127


SECTION 1 (THROUGH PRODUCTION AND STUDIO 1)

128


SECTION 2 (THOUGH STUDIO 1 AND LOBBY)

129


SMITHS COURT ELEVATION

130


PERSPECTIVE OF SHOW STAGE AREA

131

Open Source Ethics  

MArch Thesis Design Diary - an investigation of the architectural response to ethics and dilemmas culminating in the design for a TV show an...

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