Page 1


2


4


dedication..................................................................................................06 acknowledgments...............................................................................08 preface..........................................................................................................12 the issue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 demographics..................................................................................20 child hope. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

journeyman int. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

precedents.................................................................................................46

gando primary school.........................................................................................................48 timayui and la paz preschools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 sistema arde. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 safe haven library...............................................................................................................54 soe ker tie house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 haiti project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 dwabor kindergarten. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 compressed interlocking earth blocks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

site.....................................................................................................................62

kenscoff..............................................................................................64 climate.................................................................................................72 property..............................................................................................76

design............................................................................................................. 88

process.................................................................................................90 schematic.......................................................................................................100 models.....................................................................128 sub_vellum.....................................................................................152

bibliography............................................................................................158


6


this

entire work is dedicated to the

Who first

loved

Lord ,

us so that we may in turn

love and comfort others through His strength.

[

" . . . then i looked again at all the acts of oppression which were being done under the sun. and behold i saw the

tears

of the oppressed and that they had no one

to comfort them; and on the side of their oppressors was power, but they had no one to

comfort

them . . . "

ecclesiastes 4: 1

]


8


Lord

thank you for this opportunity to bless the orphans of haiti. may this work bless them for generations. thank you childhope for your heart to provide homes and nurturing for these children. thank you peter for entrusting me with this project. thank you sandy for your helpful insight and inspiring teaching. thank you journeyman int. for your commitment to seeing this project through to completion. thank you abe lynn for your encouragement and willingness to advise. to my supportive family, studiomates, roommates, and friends, your love, advice, prayers, and support made this work possible.


10

[

" " I s t h i s n o t t h e f a s t w h i c h I c h o o s e , To l o o s e n t h e b o n d s o f w i c k e d n e s s , To u n d o t h e b a n d s o f t h e y o k e , A n d t o l e t t h e oppres s ed go free And break every yoke? " Is it not to divide your bread with the hungry And bring the homeless poor i n t o t h e h o u s e ; Wh e n y o u s e e t h e n a k e d , t o c o v e r h i m ; A n d not to hide you rs elf from you r own flesh? "Then you r light wi ll break out like the dawn, And you r recovery wi ll speedi ly spring forth; And your righteousness will go before you; The g lo ry of the Lo rd wi ll be you r rea r gua rd. "Then you wi ll ca ll, a n d t h e L o r d w i l l a n s w e r ; Yo u w i l l c r y , a n d H e w i l l s a y , ' H e r e I am.' If you remove the yoke from you r midst, The pointing of th e fi n g e r a nd s p e a k i n g wi c ked n e s s , And i f you g iv e you r s elf to the hung ry And s a ti sfy the desi re of the afflicted, Then your light will rise in darkness And your gloom will become like midday. "And the Lo rd wi ll continua lly guide you, And s a ti sfy you r desi re in s co rched places, And give s trength to your bones; And you will be like a watered garden, And like a spring of wa te r whos e wa te rs do not fai l. "Thos e from a m o n g y o u w i l l r e b u i l d t h e a n c i e n t r u i n s ; Yo u w i l l r a i s e u p the a ge-old foundations; And you will be called the repairer of the breach, The restorer of the streets in which to dwell."

Isaiah

58:6-12

]


12


After beyond

four

invaluable

years

of

practice,

theoretical do

not

studio

amount

to

projects

that

much

more

than something interesting and thought provoking to put into portfolios, I was ready to finally use architecture in the way I had always intended to use it for: as a medium to help people. This project opportunity is beyond exciting for me and is both a blessing and a huge responsibility. But after visiting Haiti, and seeing the kids, the poverty, the suffering, the hunger; the enormous need became even more apparent. My heart goes out to these people, to these children, to these orphans and I hope this project becomes a means through which multiple generations of Haitian children may be blessed. I know the Lord will complete the good work that He has started. I cannot believe all the people and connections that have been springing up to both help me with this project and encourage me that this project is exactly what I am meant to be doing right now. That starts with the privilege of getting Sandy Stannard as my studio professor. Her experience in these type of projects and her knowledge in sustainable design will enable this project to reach a level that could not have been achieved in another studio. Then to have icing put on the cake, my favorite architecture engineering professor actually moved to Port-au-Prince! I about fell over laughing


14


at the "coincidence". The Lord is just proving to me once again that this is the project He wants me to be doing and that even a professional career similar to what Abe is doing is a very possible future scenario for myself. These types of thoughts were just dreams of what I wanted to do with architecture and now I am part of a real project, doing it right now. I want this project to be the absolute best project for these kids in Haiti. I want it to answer there needs and their caretaker needs above all else. And connected with this is the fact that there is a demand to be sustainable, a demand to use local materials, and a demand to be passive because the means to do otherwise are simply nonexistent. This is an exciting thought, a great challenge. The systems and design that this project becomes have to work well because there is no back up plan other than having very uncomfortable buildings to live in.

[ " as you have done it

I feel challenged, but excited. I am just stoked that this whole

to the least of these . . . you have done it unto Me " Matt. 25:40

year of work will not just be for something like this book you are reading right now, but this whole year of effort will go towards something that is beneficial for others. Something that can have

]

a real positive effect on others. And above all, a project that can glorify my God and Savior, Jesus Christ. He alone deserves the praise.


16

At 16:53 on Tuesday, January 12th, 2010, Haiti's orphan population shifted from 380,000


to 750,000. That shift is staggering, and with three years time brings the moving on of headlines and the emergency relief help Yet the needs are still vastly present.


18

Fifty-percent of Haiti's

9.5 million population is school-age.

Fifteen-percent of Haitian children are orphaned or abandoned ["practically orphaned"]. These figures give an impression of the magnitude of the challenge confronting Haitian culture. Orphaned children above all are both practically and emotionally in desperate need of homes. They deserve a place of stability and a place they can look to as the space they call home. This creation of the intimate place of home is heavily dependant on its ability to encourage human interaction and intertwine itself into the people's culture, values, and needs.

Haiti

is the poorest nation in the world . . . One of the prevalent reasons for the high number of orphaned children is the lack of this stable home. This is the case as a result of poverty, especially when the fathers are not present and the mothers are financially unable to provide for their children. The earthquake in January, 2010 played a

prevalent role in the number of orphans in Haiti today. Beyond simply devastating

the family structure through loss of life it was the final blow that increased the poverty level such that Haiti is now the poorest nation in the world.


20


22


24


26


28 This

earthquake

was a multiple-fold

This can be tangibly understood just from taking a stroll

factor in regards to increasing the number of orphans.

along the streets of PaP. You can find groups of children

This disaster fractured many existing family structures,

ranging in age from three to twelve walking the streets

pushing the nation into extreme poverty,

while also

without any supervision whatsoever. They form their own

destroying the physical presence of most of their homes

“security� and they are begging for attention and love

as well.

since in the end at such a young age that is their chief

The home that exists for many of these orphans right now is simply the one that they can find as they either live with a parent in a small tent or wander between other family members that live in these prevalent tent cities that have sprung up throughout the city of Port-auPrince [Haiti’s capitol abbreviated as PaP]. Many of the orphans find emotional and even physical family structure

desire.

The psychological need for a child to receive

attention from their parents becomes extremely visible as the children who lack it are desiring it as if without it they could die. In my experience I found myself catching children I had never seen before throwing themselves into my arms for a hug simply because I had smiled at them immediately prior.

in street gangs. These gangs can exist amongst a group of young sub-teen age boys that decide to stick together for protection.

home: [

a place where one lives; an environment affording security and happiness; a valued place considered a refuge or place of origin. "the meaning of home" ] - b y J o i e D e V i v r e


30


It is also very evident that most of these children are very malnourished. This is a testimony to the poverty that has broken the family structure of Haiti. A people whose family structure and richness was an essential part of their culture has begun to break down. But there are those whose very aim in life is to make sure these children do not grow up without hope. In the mountains twenty kilometers southeast of Port-auPrince, in a small village named K e n s c o f f ,

there

are three acres of land waiting to become a place to call home for fifty of these orphans. The idea for this project stems from the goals of an existing orphanage run by Child Hope International.

thesis: [The

most intimate use of architecture is wrapped up in

the creation of the space we call home. The importance of such a creation is never more pertinent than to the orphan child whose sense of security, place, and origin is already shaken. Above all, an orphan deserves a place where he/she can experience an environment rich

in

culture,

stability,

family

values,

and

human

interaction

that distinguishes itself as a place worthy to be called home.

]


32


Child Hope international is the organization behind this

International supports a home for boys and a home for

project. They have a heart to see their orphanage grow, both

girls. Through child sponsorships, financial donations and

in numbers and in its ability to nurture and provide the

hands-on mission team support, Child Hope International

children with a home and to give any orphaned child hope.

is able to provide the following for the children of Haiti:

Here is a brief statement they have provided about where

Orphanage

their organization came from and where they are now:

Education Bible Study and Discipleship

["Young and abused orphaned boys, who once held broken

Medical Care

bottles to the necks of Bill and Susette, are now studying,

Feeding the Hungry

worshipping and serving God. Girls whose hearts were

Vocational Training & Transition Program

abused, neglected and broken are now playing, learning

Summer Camp

the Word of God and nurturing others. Child Hope is in

Child Hope International is a charitable, Christian organization,

the process of developing programs that will help these

dedicated to rescuing suffering and abandoned children in

children grow into mature believers, equipped to not

Port Au Prince, Haiti. Through child sponsorships and donations,

only give back to their local community but also use

we are able to provide a loving and nurturing home for boys

their knowledge, vocational skills and faith in Christ to

and girls." ]

positively affect the nation of Haiti. Today, Child Hope [Child Hope International is a Christian 501(c)3 non-profit organization that exists to provide orphaned, abandoned,and homes,

needy

programs,and

children ministries

with that

physical, are

educational,

centered

on

the

spiritual, love

and

and

personal

knowledge

of

care Christ

through Jesus.

]


34

Currently Child Hope International is running an orphanage in the Delmas 75 region of Port-au-Prince. The NGO has a boy’s home and a girl’s home that houses close to 50 children. These children each have a story, a background that brings them hurt and broken into CHI’s arms. In their own word’s this is the predicament and thus the need for their mission:

“Imagine

being

an

eight year old child whose house has been crumbled to the ground due to a devastating 7.0 earthquake, your mother

and

father

devastating life stories that we have encountered. The children that come to our orphanage are broken, abused, abandoned, and hurt. They are the reason we exist and do the work that we do; to bring healing and forgiveness to the brokenhearted so that they may experience genuine love and everlasting peace. We not only seek to provide for their physical needs, but we also strive to provide for

Their main goal is to give an

o r p h a n e d child hope.

their emotional needs through

bible

studies,

mentorships, and weekly song and worship times. Our hope is to provide our children with love and

encouragement

everyday whether it is

have passed away due to illness, and you are forced to

in school, inside the home, at our Transition/Vocational

step up and raise your three younger siblings while your

Training Program, or just outside playing soccer. We seek

grandmother seeks to find food and work. Now imagine

to provide them with mentors that can help each child

how much hurt, anger, and bitterness you would feel if

work through the scars of their past and forgive those

this were you or even your own child.

who have hurt them. Our hope is that each child may

In Haiti, being an eight year old child with this kind of life story is all too common and as an organization that has existed in Haiti for over 10 years this is just one of the many

graduate from our orphanage with an education, a healthy mind, heart, soul, faith and confidence in themselves and in Jesus Christ. As well as the love and desire to want to

help and better their people and their country.


36


This project in

Kenscoff

is an opportunity to expand

CHI’s mission goal and they view it as a chance to give orphaned children a real place they can call home, and a hope for a future. Child Hope clearly sees this project as an opportunity to give the children under the age of twelve a family based environment by providing individual family dwellings as opposed to the existing dorm living quarters. They have proposed a program consisting of 6-8 single-family dwellings that could each house 6-8 kids and a set of "parents"; a community center with a connected culinary kitchen; additional staff dorm-housing; along with full-use of the fertile soil on the site for gardens. The aim is to create a "family" based environment community that would function as a small village. The goal is to give these children their deserved opportunity to grow up in a stable place that they can call home. Connected to the idea of creating stability for these children is the opportunity that the built environment they can call home could also be an example of stability. This stability could be found by providing this space of consistency for the children, a place they can depend on as an emotional and physical haven. This stability could also be reaffirmed through a sustainable design that they can interact with and depend on; whether that be learning about and partaking in the cycle of their gardens, or in the collection of the rainwater, or in the thermal and structural security of their homes. It is hoped that the physical quality of the design will be a tangible picture of the intent to give these orphans a place worthy to be called home.


38


Mission: Because dentists are not architects. Because doctors are not engineers. Because orphanage directors are not construction managers Because sustainable construction fights poverty. Partnering with JI for this project adds more experience

to our design team since they have

done these type of projects before. JI gives access to interns if the project needs more hands, access to professionals if it needs more heads, and access to PR and funding for when it needs a larger public spotlight.

[

“Journeyman International Inc. is a 501(c)3 Public Benefit corporation helping international NGO’s

design and construct sustainable humanitarian facilities. Partnering with 5th year architecture students allows us to provide passionate, professional design for causes we can all get behind.�

]


40


Street life is alive to say the least in Haiti. There are open markets on every street corner — depot stores on every main drag. The hustle and bustle on foot keeps pace with the slow moving — chaotic even — car traffic. The “tap-taps” are the backof-a-pick-truck-seating that makes up the complex taxi system that is used if walking is just not fast enough. But it typically will only get you so far without the need to transfer to another tap-tap. But those who use it, know where these transfers must happen to get to the proper destination. The culture as a whole is like this street. It may seem extremely chaotic to someone looking in, and though it still may be truly chaotic, it works for those who live in it from day one. The flexibility of the street, the selling of goods wherever, and the idea of the family business is tied in with the culture, though the effects of poverty has definitely enforced the situation and is shaping the culture as a whole.


42


44

Family is at the heart of the Haitian culture. Every Haitian that I have spoken to relates this point to me. There are strong family ties that are clung to for multiple generations. This is important to realize in response to architecture in many ways. The typical Haitian family household is built around the grandparents. Physically this means that when a son gets married they simply build a small house on the same site as the parents and the grandparents. This results in a cluster of houses with the hierarchy moving toward greater seniority and respect toward the center of the site. What is developed is a courtyard based site at its core that becomes the place for cooking, eating, listening, music, dancing, interacting as a family on the very porch of the grandparents. This is a very tangible or direct physical reflection of the importance Haitians place on the family structure and ties.


46


48


location_ _ _ _ _ Gando Village, Burkina Faso designer_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Diebedo Francis Kere date___________________1998-2001 area______________5,662 sq. f./526 sq. m. cost____________________29,830 USD The use of earth blocks, local laborers, simple construction, all combined with its excellent passive shading and ventilation design make this a prime precedent for this project. The trusses made out of typical rebar is especially intriguing. It invokes the idea of taking readily available materials and apply them in a new way.


50


location__________________Santa Marta, Columbia designer_____________Giancarlo Mazzanti Architects date_________________________2011 area_____15,600 sq. ft./1,449 sq. m. repeatable programs cost________40 USD / sq. ft. or 624,00 USD per program The principle that architecture should be a third teacher in the realm of designing an environment that children can constantly learn and interact in makes this project special. Its use of courtyards, and repeatable floor-plans that are tweaked enough to avoid a pattern look. Overall the design accomplishes so much while still staying fairly simple in construction. Its successful sustainability and its fulfilled concepts make this a great example for the Kenscoff, project.


52


location_______________San Miguel de Allende, Mexico designer_______________Hierve-Diseneria date_______________________1996-1998 area___________N/A as this is a system design/precedent cost________________17 USD per sq. ft./178 USD per sq. m.

This project explores the idea of building a project entirely out of blocks. From the staircases to the planter boxes this project figuratively and literally takes blocks to the next level. Given that this project will be seeking to use compressed earth blocks taking a look at these innovative types of methods was helpful and inspiring.


54 location__________________Ban Tha Song Yang, Thailand designer__________________TYIN Tegnestue Architects date_______________________________January 2009 area_______________________aprox. 600 sq. ft./56 sq. m. cost_________________________________4,800 USD

This project and the following precedent I hold to be hand in hand regarding principles for how the projects fit in this list. The playful use of local materials that creates a

beautiful

aesthetic

while

providing

a

means to build that is beyond economical is extraordinary. The spaces themselves are economical in function, but like the material choices,

do

not

leave

anything

wanting.

This is a prime example of how sustainable architecture can exemplify the heart behind humanitarian projects as they combat poverty.


56 location_____________Noh Bo, Thailand designer______TYIN Tegnestue Architects date_____________Nov. 2008-Feb. 2009 area_____aprox. 150 sq. ft./14 sq. m. each house cost___________11,500 USD for 6 houses


58 location__________Port-au-Prince, Haiti designer____________HOK and USGBC date__________________Not yet built cost_________________1,000,000 USD

This project is a direct response to the earthquake and therefore is a great example of a design that integrates different structural systems to combat both the somewhat opposing threats of hurricanes and earthquakes. Both natural phenomenons have created different successful ways for structurally handling them. This project illustrates great ways of combating both threats with integrated structural systems


location_______________Dwabor, Ghana designer___________ARUP date_______________2012 area_________aprox. 2,000 sq. ft./186 sq. m. cost____________________40,000 USD The simple playfulness of the colors and the doors along with the use of earth-based blocks make this project a valuable resource for the Kenscoff project.

It is also a great example of

designing with children in mind and the way they interact and learn as a group


60

Materials are of course a challenge in Haiti, but especially with a site up in the mountains. The road up to the site is nearly all paved, but it is a long trek from PaP and it really adds to the cost. Given the strong desire for this project to be built of local materials with local craftsman, adobe bricks were a great solution. Polk Building Ministries’ equipment has made this a far more viable option. Their equipment to make interlocking earth blocks has been donated for this project. This is an opportunity both to use the very site as a source for material but also to create local jobs and craftsman skills.


62


64

Kenscoff

consists

of

the

mountains

above Petionville or just 30 kilometers South-East of Portau-Prince. It is a rural area that is dominated by terrace farming. Much of the produce that heads to PaP comes from this region. Unlike PaP it gets much rain, and is a cooler tropical climate. It is surprising the temperature and thermal comfort difference between the heat of Pap and this area of the mountains. Kenscoff is accessed through a winding highway that is named after the region: Kenscoff Route. It is the only direct access down to PaP and as a result it is a slow road as many produce trucks take the route down to the city. The built environment along this road consists of clusters of habitation that are centered around a main market or depot buildings. The houses range from small shacks to plush mansions and they consistently get more luxurious as you drive up the mountain towards the temperature cooler regions.


66


68


70


72

There is no actual weather data station specifically for Kenscoff. What is provided are claimed to be close estimates. These data tables are thus based on most reasonable and acceptable information. However, the psychometric chart is based off of Port-au-Prince Haiti, not off of estimated values. As a result the

psychometric chart is providing a model based on much higher temperatures. Kenscoff

is

1500

meters

higher

in

elevation than PAP and its weather is much more represented by the other tables. In fact many of the residents feel they have a heating condition parts of the year, this is apparent in the presence of fireplaces.


Overall, Kenscoff is a very mild temperature, tropical place. The clouds roll in and pour down rain for an hour or two and then disappear. The soil is extremely fertile as a result and nearly all farming is done successfully without the need for irrigation.


74

# e n e r g y

m o d e l i n g Using Solar Shoebox, quick analysis can be made, these are especially effective if the weather files are available for the specific city or region in mind. Sadly, since Haiti does not have much documentation, there is not even one city that can provide the right type of weather files. However, we can make some assumptions and learn from these type of tests anyway. Given its latitude, Belize is fairly relevant for Haiti, although because our site is up in the cooler mountains of Kenscoff, the temperatures will be quite a bit lower. To adjust for this factor, a conservative shift of ten degrees in the tested comfort zone seemed appropriate. The first test [top left] was done with approximate parameters for what the design should be, resulting in a comfort zone only being present for 58% of the time throughout the year. As expected, there is perhaps a false application of a heat condition given the weather files. The second test [bottom left] was done with an upgrade in window specs, moving toward a triple LoE Argon, while also extending the shading all the way around the house. This brought the comfort zone to 62%, an increase in only 4%.


# s o l a r

s h o e b o x

In the third test, [top right] it was decided to test the same structure as test two, but this time in Cuba. Again an assumption of high heat is causing a low percentage of comfort zone throughout the year at 59%. Finally in the fourth test, [bottom right] it was decided that the humidity levels and heat could be more similar to Miami, Florida, though Miami would again be too hot of an area to perfectly compare. This time however, the results were much more favorable with a 72% comfort zone occupancy throughout the year. However, when the shading was minimized the comfort zone shrinked. Therefore, these tests helped confirm that the proper use of shading is vital to this design given the sun’s intensity. The test would be more helpful if it were wether data from the site, but when applied with gathered knowledge, the adjustment of the tests seems reasonable. Given the building’s thermal mass type of construction in order to achieve proper comfort zone, it must be shaded, and the windows must be able to provide proper ventilation.


76


78


The outline of the site is defined by the saturation in the left hand site image. It is a three acre parcel whose land has been mostly all farmed for generations. The land shows signs of being once the vacation home of a fairly wealthy individual. The craftsman and details in the existing house along with the tennis court assumes this role. The site's slope as a whole rises 16.5 percent. However, because the land has been farmed for so long the elevations or rather the slope of the site fluctuates quite frequently from this 16.5% draft. There are in fact three to four areas quite close to level this offers opportunities to strategically place the new structures. There is one existing, house along with a few sheds on the site. However, sadly these structures are going to have to be demolished given their age and the damage that time, mold, and the earthquake have created.


80

The above panorama is a 360 view of the whole site with the center of the image facing South yet slightly skewed to the West. This shows the agriculture focus of the land surrounded by trees.

This lower panorama was taken from the NE corner of the site, with the center of the image being due West.


The below panorama was taken while standing on the driveway right in front of the house. The center of this image being due SE.


82 This panorama is taken right to the East of the driveway. Notice the existing house tucked away to the left of the pine trees. The center of this image is facing due South,

and it shows the amazing fertility of the site as a whole. It should also be noticed that this area toward the Northern side [foreground] is fairly level and gives opportunity to create some grass field areas for the kids recreation


84

On the left is The center of South. Notice retaining walls

the gate to the property. this image is facing due the tall double-stacked and far taller pine trees.


86 This panorama really shows off the height of the surrounding trees and the vast vegetation growth that happens nearly everywhere. The road directly connects to the site and is built with fairly new road pavers. It looks as though the entire road to Kenscoff might be paved with such tile pavers soon.


88


90


92

The given program spaces consist of

6 Homes ___________________________ [1500sf each]

Staff House______________________________[1,500 sf]

Classrooms_____________________________[2,000sf]

Caretakers House__________________________[600sf]

Gardens_______________________[total site conversion]

Multi-Use Building ________________________ [6,000sf] Staff Dorm ______________________________[2,000sf]


94


96

Early

design explored the circulation up the site around the

multiple homes, the interaction of space between these homes, the layout of the homes as it relates to thermal gain and solar orientation, and the spaces within these homes were centered around the

range from public area to intimate spaces for the children


98


100


102

SITE

RENDERINGS


104

[The only reliable energy system we can consider with the sun, the wind, and the rain.]

lies


The Design of the site is

subject to many

more details than simply the program or function of the site. Connected to this idea of creating a stable home for the orphans is the reality that the physical characteristics of the site’s surroundings calls for a nearly off the grid design. There is a weak if not non-existent opportunity to connect to a form of an electric system. There is no sewer system. No water lines. No gas lines. The only reliable energy system we can consider lies with the sun, the wind, and the rain. While this is a design challenge, it is an exciting one. This is an opportunity to create a home off the grid that will potentially be more stable than a home on the “gird� in PaP. This is a testimony to the singular stableness of this home and its security in itself not in its reliance on others beyond what God supplies in His creation. This is the heart of sustainable, responsible design and this desire is seamlessly felt by myself, JI, and CHI.


106

The Strategy

of the design is to capture and store energy and resources as a community. This

relates to the collection and storage of water, the creation of a community electric grid through solar panels, and through the general use of the land as a community garden or farm. This idea to create systems that the entire community participates in and relies on greatly enhances the potential for the site’s production of these energies.


Specifically this is applied through the

common

to

utilize the slope of the site and allow gravity

storage and collection of water as a whole. Water

to feed the water to all the structures. This design

is a resource the site can potentially supply more

also provides a means for a water supply truck

than three-quarters of what is needed. Each roof,

to have access to the lower cistern in case of a

eave, or shading structure is viewed as a potential

dry season where more water is needed then

gathering source of this water. The water will then

what rain supplied. This is necessary since there

be stored in a two cistern system. There will be a

will not be road access up to the top of the site

gravity fed cistern at the Northern [low] end of the

beyond a small path used for quads and walking.

site which will then simply be an overflow of the cistern at the Southern [top] end of the site. This will enable all the houses to feed into a central cistern where the water will then be pumped up to the top of the site. This enables the entire community

Beyond begin designed as great water collectors, the slope of the roofs of each building will be designed at the solar optimum angle of 16 degrees. This makes sure that each building has the potential to be an efficient source of electricity through solar panels. However, given the forest that surrounds the site on its western border, there may be some structures that have better access to the sun’s rays. Here is where the community sharing kicks in again. The structure that has the most potential for solar gain will be the one that is best utilized for the entirety of the community. This allows for the best efficient use of the site, resources for all, and money well spent for CHI. This will be utilized through a local site grid for the electricity.


108


As

a

rooms,

library,

layout

of

whole each

the community will also share their common building for classes, study

hospitality of

these

opportunities, features

must

recreational be

carefully

spaces,

considered

and to

courtyards. spark

Therefore

interaction,

the

encourage

sharing, and yet still provide a separation between private and public spaces throughout the site.


110

Kitchen

Girls’ Room

Parent’s Room

Entry/Dining

Boys’ Room


Girls’ Loft

Roof Patio

Shared Patio

Boys’ Loft


112

The Section shows much of what a design is trying to do. Let’s start from the bottom and move

up. First of

all this is a slab on grade that steps down mid-way in the floor plan in order to better relate to the slope it sits on. To reclarify, the 16% slope of this site is low on the Northern end and high on the Southern end. Given the placement of Haiti in regards to the equator, this does not actually pose the problem of the houses negatively shading each other. The courtyard


of the house [see East Elevation on page 120] will be dug

already showing signs of growing up and onto anything

into the site with a retaining wall on the Southern end.

and everything that is existing now. This gives flexibility to

These courtyards will be intertwined with the circulation

the user as they can trim it however they prefer to control

paths up the site and with other courtyards nearby. This

the amount of heat gain they desire. It also ties in the

sparks interaction while encouraging the children freedom

houses with the overall surroundings while creating a cool

to play throughout the different built landscape spaces.

shaded circulation around the perimeters of the house.

Given that this house will be built with compressed earth

The design of this living shading structure also relates

blocks, there is the potential threat of too much thermal

directly to the facade behind it. This is the case in the

mass. In an effort to best utilize the resources of the site and

way that the shading structure opens up to allow sunlight

to give thermal flexibility to the user regarding how much

for doorways and windows while reaching much lower

shade they desire, a live shading system will surround the

to cover large wall areas that do not have openings.

buildings. This is possible given the extremely rich and fertile soil of the site and the fact that plants there are

The stepping down of the footprint brings potential for the 16 degree roof to rise from a one-story elevation on the south side into a two-story elevation on the North side. By incorporating a loft into the design, the potential for spaces below and up in the loft are created while also keeping an open plan for heat stacking and cross ventilation. This creates built “bunk-beds� within the design for the kids that beyond function also provide fun and intimate bed room spaces.


114


116


118


120


122


124


126


128


130


132


134


136


138


140


142


144


146


This

preliminary

section

model

helped to show main elements of the design along with the concept of the “bunk-bed� room design. The younger siblings would find intimacy in the lower part of the room while the older siblings could escape and find refuge in the upper loft. This also shows how the design steps down its floor-plate to keep pace with the slope of the site;s grade.


148

The compressed earth-blocks were represented by solid concrete blocks that were made in the CAED concrete yard. They helped demonstrate the way the blocks can interlock with each other. The blocks have a building dimension of six-inches short width by twelve-inches long width, with four-inches of height. The nubs are chamfered by sixty-degree cuts, and are breaking up the block in proportions of three while extruding a half-inch above the bocks building dimensions of the four-inch height.


150

This model stand was a manufactured design that we as a class produced through CNC routing, metal manufacturing, and coordinated effort. The piece can be used as either a bench or model stand and although uniform in shape and function throughout the class, each one was unique to its project through a “tag�. This was the result of an effort by each of us to create a tag that we felt quickly summed up our own projects and distinguished them from each other as a logo would for a company.


152


This is a project for Bishop Peak Elementary School. They have requested a means for the kids to wash their hands and produce in the classroom garden. The goal is to create a multi-level washing "station" where kids of different heights can come up to comfortable wash their hands/produce. The end result should be heavy chain spiraling up to form a tree that then becomes the support system for the dispensing of the water.


154


The fountain design developed away from the chain whose rust posed an issue with the kids washing. We moved toward bending soft copper pipe. This pipe became both the structure and the utility for this fountain. The idea of resembling a tree was kept thorughout the process. The soft copper was hand bent, and intertwined with each other aided by a subtle use of copper wire. The copper represents the trunk and branches of this fountain tree, while the mesh represents tertiary foilage. The plan is to plant a vine in the center of the trunk and let it grow up by using the copper and mesh as structure for its own foilage, slowly transforming this now industrial looking structure into an actual live tree that “magically� dispenses water for washing.


156


The water catching gutter simply slips into the metal slots that hold it asymetrically to catch the runoff water from the washing of hands and vegetables. The gutter moves the water toward its left end which is high enough for a standard bucket to be placed. The hope is that the water used for washing will then be preserved to be used again in the garden rather than creating a mud mess directly beneath the washing station.


158

Murphy, Diana, Cameron Sinclair, and Kate Stohr. Design Like You Give a Damn: Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crises. New York, NY: Metropolis , D.A.P., 2006. Print. Hart, Sara. "Beacons for a Brighter Future." GreenSource Sept.-Oct. 2012: 70-75. Print. http://www.sutmundo.com/ecoshelters-orphans-thailand-caring-side-green-architecture/ http://www.olsonkundigarchitects.com/Projects/1069/Mwangaza-Orphanage http://www.archdaily.com/198626/the-psychology-of-home/ http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/12/the-psychology-of-home-why-where-you-live-means-so-much/249800/#.Tv39oaG6Sss.reddit http://www.cal.org/co/haiti/hfamily.html http://www.montrealgazette.com/travel/Homes+Haiti+Haitian+House/5066601/story.html http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2012/01/Haiti-two-years-after-quake.asp http://sensingarchitecture.com/581/designing-a-sense-of-place-dont-forget-memory/ http://haitiorphanproject.org/about/ http://www.ceped.org/cdrom/orphelins_sida_2006/pdf/sengend1.pdf http://minnow.cc.gatech.edu/hci-seminar/uploads/1/FishPong.pdf http://www.haque.co.uk/papers/ArchInterSys.pdf http://www.state.in.us/isdh/files/Hatian_Culture_tip_sheet-IDMH.pdf http://archrecord.construction.com/news/2012/03/Safe-Harbor.asp http://www.archdaily.com/199327/usgbc-partners-with-hok-to-design-haiti-orphanage-and-children%E2%80%99s-center/ http://growbainbridge.com/


http://katedilley.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/6a0120a608aa53970c012876eb2075970c.jpg http://www.tyintegnestue.no/prosjekter/safe-haven-library/ http://www.arup.com/Home/Projects/Dwabor_kindergarten.aspx http://archrecord.construction.com/features/humanitarianDesign/Haiti/ecole-la-dignite.asp http://www.arkintilt.com/projects/residential/zauderer.html# http://urbanlabglobalcities.blogspot.com/2012/01/arup-unveiling-dwabor-kindergarten.html http://www.tyinarchitects.com/projects/soe-ker-tie-house/ http://archrecord.construction.com/features/designvanguard/2011/Koji-Tsutsui-and-Associates-slideshow.asp?slide=3 http://haitirewired.wired.com/profiles/blogs/as-the-block-crumbles-a http://valentin.de/calculation/pvonline/pv_system/en http://www.huduser.org/portal/publications/pdf/conrpt3-5.pdf http://www.archdaily.com/217208/youth-center-in-niafourang-project-niafourang/ http://news.softpedia.com/news/The-Psychological-Difficulties-of-Orphans-18378.shtml http://www.articlesbase.com/psychology-articles/emotional-architecture-your-home-is-in-your-head-682705.html


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Ofelen Lakay  

The Final draft of my thesis project in Haiti with Child Hope International and Journeyman International

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