A Micro-Urbanism on an Unprecedented Scale
DPA and the Dubai Mall 成功的尺度
The dubai mall
THE SCALE OF SUCCESS
MICA (P) 005/10/2013
双语版 2014 年 1号
Letter from the Guest Editor
Welcome to this special issue of Design in Print which focuses on our most significant international project to date – The Dubai Mall.
欢迎阅读本期 Design in Print 的特别专辑。在本期里， 我们聚焦于我们到目前为止最著名的国际项目--迪拜购物 中心。
Completed nearly five years ago in 2008, The Dubai Mall is more vibrant and relevant than ever. Initially conceived in late 2003, The Dubai Mall opened during an economically precarious time amidst the uncertainty of a global recession. Since the mall started operation, it has consistently surpassed its yearly projected visitor numbers, recording over 65 million visitors in 2012. The mall’s success has proven that, despite difficult economic times, discerning shoppers will continue to support retailers and locations that offer a truly unique world-class experience. The Dubai Mall’s continued success has transformed DP Architects. We have demonstrated that we are capable of designing and leading an international project to exacting standards that balances clarity of design with operational efficiency and maximum functionality. It has shaped how we approach other projects in terms of scale, work processes and retail strategies, and paved the way for our progress on the global stage. In this issue, we take a critical look at The Dubai Mall – the specific design strategies that have made it a resounding success, and how the project has greatly influenced the firm’s evolution since its completion. Coinciding with this issue is the relaunch of our publication, Sand to Spectacle: The Dubai Mall which chronicles the firm’s design and construction process of the world’s largest shopping mall.
迪拜购物中心于五年前，即 2008年建成，现今的购物 中心比往年更加充满活力和更为重要。迪拜购物中心的概念 始于 2003年，开业时正值全球经济衰退。但自开业以来， 每年的访客人次都超过预计目标， 2012年超过了 6500万人 次。迪拜购物中心的成功证明了尽管经济不稳定，精明的消 费者仍然会支持拥有世界级独特体验的消费场所。 迪拜购物中心的持续成功改变了 DP建筑师事务所，也 证明了我们有能力设计和领导高水准的国际项目，为客户提 供清晰的设计、高效的运作方法和最有效的功能。迪拜购物 中心从规模、工作流程和零售策略等方面改变了我们设计其 他项目的方法，为我们成功打开国际市场奠定了基础。 本期我们将仔细评价迪拜购物中心成功的具体设计策 略，分析这一项目自建成以来对 DP 建筑师事务所的发展 所产生的重大影响。在本期 Design in Print 出版之际，我 们再次推出记录 DP 建筑师事务所设计和建造世界最大购 物中心的图书《从沙漠到奇观：迪拜购物中心》 (Sand to Spectacle: The Dubai Mall) 。 迪拜购物中心占地百万平方英尺的第一阶段扩建工程 已经开始，我们有信心这个项目将在未来继续影响全球的购 物中心建筑设计。
With works already underway to expand The Dubai Mall by one million square feet in the first phase alone, we are confident that the project will continue to influence the global practice of retail design for years to come.
郑联成 董事, DP 建筑师事务所
Chan Hui Min Nartano Lim Toh Bee Ping
Design In Print Team
All Rights Reserved. No material may be reproduced without prior permission. DP Architects accepts no responsibility or liability for any errors, omissions or resultant consequences including any loss or damage arising from reliance on information in Design in Print. Any opinions in Design in Print are solely those of the named authors of the article in which they appear. Unless named as author, DP Architects, Editorial Panel and other Contributors do not endorse any such views and disclaim all liability from their publication.
Ti Lian Seng Director, DP Architects Pte Ltd
Published by DP Architects Pte Ltd 6 Raffles Boulevard, #04-100 Marina Square, Singapore 039594 T: +65 6338 3988 F: +65 6337 9989 E: email@example.com W: www.dpa.com.sg Leanne Lim
Loh Yew Cheng Lee Hui Yee Fu Tingting
Additional contributors: Jackie Poh and Lek Noonchoo
Copyright © DP Architects Pte Ltd MICA (P) 005/10/2013 Printed by SC (Sang Choy) International Pte Ltd L008/03/2013
Short takes on new & notable projects
双 语 版 ， 2 0 1 4 年 ， 1 号
Contents Short takes on new & notable projects 摘要
01 CDL Green Gallery
城市发展绿艺廊 02 Pan Pacific Serviced Suites, Beach Road
美芝路泛太平洋酒店式公寓 03 Carlton City Hotel
卡尔顿城市大酒店 04 DUO
双景坊 05 TCC Super Tower 06 Yahya Awal Master Plan Yahya Awal 总体规划 07 Crystal Tower and Residences @ Junction Square
Featured projects 主要项目
The Dubai Mall
Celebration of past projects 历史回顾
Suntec City, 1997
CDL Green Gallery Singapore 城市发展绿艺廊
The CDL Green Gallery is an extension to the Singapore Botanic Gardens Heritage Museum and showcases botanical and greening-related exhibits. From the start, all aspects of the project – from conceptualisation, design, construction, material selection and maintenance – were intended to support sustainability and environmental protection. The gallery boasts of two eco-innovative features introduced in Singapore for the first time: the use of a prefabricated modular system for quick construction, and hempcrete, a durable plant-based material used for the external wall cladding. The latter, which is a mixture of hemp core, lime binders and water, also has very good thermal performance ideal for the air-conditioned gallery. Other eco-friendly features at the gallery include green walls purposefully clad with butterfly-attracting plant species to encourage biodiversity, energy-efficient interior fittings, and passive and low-energy architectural designs. In addition, the project uses highly energy-efficient building systems and solar photovoltaic-clad roof panels that harvest renewable energy for the building’s operations, making the development Singapore’s first zero energy Green Gallery.
城市发展绿艺廊是新加坡植物园文化遗产博物馆的扩建项 目，用来举行有关植物和绿化的展览。从一开始，项目的所有 方面，包括构思、设计、施工、选材和维护，都考虑到支持可 持续发展和环境保护的理念。
The CDL Green Gallery officially
城市发展绿艺廊在新加坡首次推出了两个生态创新功能： 一个是可以快速施工的预制模块化系统，另一个则是麻混凝土 的使用，一种以植物为基础的耐用材料，用于外墙面覆层。麻 混凝土是麻芯、石灰粘合剂和水的混合物，其良好的散热性能 非常适用于采用空调调节室内温度的画廊。
opened on 30 November 2013. Photos courtesy of City Cover image: The Dubai Mall
画廊的其他环保特点包括覆盖了吸引蝴蝶的植物品种的绿 墙，以鼓励生物的多样性，还采用了节能的内部装置和被动式 低能耗建筑设计。此外，项目采用的高效节能建筑系统和太阳 能光伏屋顶层，可用来收集可更新能源供画廊使用，从而使城 市发展绿艺廊成为新加坡首个零能耗的绿色画廊。 DP 01
Short takes on new & notable projects
02 Pan Pacific
Carlton City Hotel
The design for the four-star, 386-room business hotel creates an interesting spatial experience within a small footprint, with the help of high-volume spaces and a diagonal arrival circulation path. Rooms facing north offer spectacular views of the Central Business District and Chinatown, while rooms facing south open towards the Tanjong Pagar waterfront. The 29-storey tower is interlocked with a three-storey granite-clad podium; the latter is distinguished by a rotunda that is a signature reference to the Carlton Hotel on Bras Basah Road. Clad in dark-grey tinted glass and accentuated with vertical fins that serve as sun-shading devices, the hotel exudes a timeless and contemporary look.
Serviced Suites Beach Road
卡尔顿城市大酒店是一座四星级而拥有 386 间客房的商务酒店。设计在有限的场地中通
过高体量的空间和对角线的交通空间创造了一 个有趣的空间体验。朝北的客房可以欣赏到中 央商务区和牛车水一带的景色，而朝南的客房 则面向丹戎巴葛海滨。高 29层的塔楼与高三层 的花岗岩立面裙楼相结合，裙楼在勿拉士巴沙 路的圆形体量使酒店引人注目。深灰色的有色 玻璃和竖向的遮阳板则使酒店具有现代感。
美芝路泛太平洋酒店式公寓位于 美芝路和奥菲亚路的交界处，高 15 层 拥 有 18 0 个套房。公寓建于多层停车 场之上，在现有办公楼的衬托下显得 引人注目。立面采用不同色调的灰色 饰面，整个项目融合了简洁有效的现 代设计语言。一系列新建的天桥加强 了不同体量之间人流的流通，从屋顶 的泳池和健身房则可以俯瞰城市迷人 的景色，提供了一个城市中的理想休 息寓所。
Singapore 双景坊 新加坡
Located at the cross junction of Beach Road and Ophir Road, the new 180-suite, 15-storey Pan Pacific Serviced Suites Beach Road is juxtaposed against a multistorey car park, and provides a compelling visual counterpoint to an existing office tower. The façade is clad in different tones of grey, and blends with the simple yet effective contemporary design language that reverberates throughout the entire development. A series of new link-bridges enhances the pedestrian connectivity of the once disparate blocks, while a rooftop swimming pool and gymnasium capture spectacular views of the city, completing the urban retreat experience.
DUO designed by Ole Scheeren (c) Buro Ole Scheeren
双景坊坐落在奥菲亚梧槽的黄金地带。这里被 市区重建局定位为一个联 系新加坡商业区和历史 区的新发展区域，因此， 该项目的两座塔楼互相呼 应，同时各自环抱着不同 的环境。公共区域将建筑 体量切开，由此产生的曲 线创造了宽敞的户外公共 空间和动态 的 街 道 立 面 。 引人注目的悬臂和宽敞的屋 顶露台营造了独特的新天际 线。六角形的遮阳点缀了曲 面立面，垂直的百叶则强调 了塔楼的垂直美感。 多层的自然景观创造 了一个郁葱的热带环境。 项目还采用了有利于环境 的设计手法：建筑的朝向 优化自然采光和通风；高 效的空调系统、雨水收集 灌溉和节能节水装置等也 被融入建筑设计之中。
DUO is located at a strategic site within the Ophir-Rochor belt, identified as a new growth area by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, one that marks a nexus between commercial and historical districts in Singapore. The project therefore took the opportunity to create two towers that synergetically embrace not only each other but also their diverse surroundings. Public realms are carved out of the zoning envelope; the resulting curves create generous outdoor public spaces and dynamic street façades. Dramatic cantilevers and generous roof terraces create a distinct new skyline. The curved façades are veiled by hexagonal sun-shading, while the flat faces are articulated by vertical fins that emphasise the towers’ vertical elegance. Natural landscaping on multiple levels provides a lush tropical environment. The development also incorporates environmental strategies: the building’s orientation is optimised to prevailing sun and wind angles; the curved building massing channels winds through and across the site; efficient air-conditioning, rainwater harvesting and irrigation, as well as energy and waterefficient fittings are incorporated into the building design.
TCC Super Tower是 雅 加 达 最 近规划建造的两座塔楼之一，高 54 层，由一栋办公楼置于购物裙楼之 上，将成为雅加达的一个醒目地标。 设计与普通的裙楼和塔楼的组合不 同，更好地结合了建筑的各种设施。 受到意为河流的中国汉字“川”的启 发，建筑采用了多层的垂直百叶。塔 楼倾斜向上的曲线逐渐从地面延伸到 最高点。除了形成优美的形态，曲线 还使办公楼和购物裙楼相结合，从而 为办公楼租户提供了比普通办公面积 更大的空间。一个天台餐厅和两层高 的面向景观空间的宽敞餐厅为这个项 目增加了活力，为游客提供一个受欢 迎的休息场所。
The later of two towers planned for The City Centre development project in Jakarta, the 54-storey tower, which comprises an office tower above a retail podium, is poised to become a distinguished landmark in the city. The design veers away from the typical podium and tower arrangement to better integrate facilities within the building. Enclosed by layers of vertical fins, the building takes its form from the Chinese character 川 (chuan), meaning river. The tower slopes upwards in a gradual curve from the ground to the peak. Apart from form making, the sloping design allows the office tower to merge seamlessly with the retail podium, while offering larger than usual floor plates for office tenants. A sky restaurant and two levels of dining options facing large garden spaces add to the vibrancy of the development, and provide a welcome respite for visitors.
Yahya Awal 总体规划
Yahya Awal Master Plan Malaysia
The Yahya Awal master plan is a dynamic hub which offers an integrated and sustainable environment. The site is divided into five phases, namely residential, gateway, hospitality, iconic office and connectivity, with each having its own distinct character. A large sky garden acts as a seamless connector throughout the phases and enhances connectivity. This 1kmlong green corridor provides a platform for public activities that relate to the characteristics of each phase. The connectivity creates a cohesive and immersive experience where one can live, work and play. Softscaping on the podium level provides an opportunity to give back to nature with a series of ecologically sustainable interventions. These could include features like a ‘learning garden’ filled with native plants for children to explore or a rainwater harvesting system that makes use of green-roof filtration and bioswale technology.
Yahya Awal 总体规 划提供了一个综合而可 持续发展的动态枢纽。 场地分为五个部分，即 住宅、入口、酒店、标 志性办公楼和连接点， 每一部分都拥有自己的 特性。一个大型的空中 花园成为整个项目中不 同部分的连接点，提高 了连通性。这一长达一 千米的绿色长廊为每个 部分提供不同特色的 公共活动平台。其连 贯性创造了一个人们可 以将居住、工作和娱乐 相结合的环境。裙房的 软景观提供了一系列回 归自然的可持续生态环 境，其中包括种有当地 植物的“学习园地”， 使孩子们可以探索学习 雨水收集系统，其中包 括绿屋顶的过滤技术和 bioswale技术。
Crystal Tower and Residences @ Junction Square Myanmar
TCC Super Tower
The proposed extension to the Junction Square shopping mall, located in the central city area of Yangon, comprises an elegant 17-storey office tower named Crystal Tower, a 15-storey high-end serviced apartment tower named Crystal Residences, and an annex mall. Anchoring the northern end of the site, Crystal Tower features a stark rectangular form, wrapped in a combination of flat and indented full-height glass as well as solid panels. When viewed from different angles, the random yet modulated arrangement creates unique patterns on the façade. Crystal Residences is oriented to face one of Myanmar’s most iconic historical sites – Shwedagon Pagoda. The apartments are designed to adapt to the local context and lifestyle, including a spacious wet kitchen in every unit to cater to the locals’ affection for heavy cooking. In addition, cross-ventilation and natural lighting throughout the residences is provided through a large central atrium, cut-outs on the building massing, and the careful orientation of the units. An environmental deck on the sixth floor features a swimming pool, Jacuzzi, gym, barbeque area and children’s playground. Crystal Tower and Residences @ Junction Square
是由缅甸仰光市中心的 Junction Square扩建而成， 包括一栋名为 Crystal Tower的 17 层的办公大楼，一 栋名为 Crystal Residences的15层高端酒店式公寓大 楼和一栋设有精品店和高端餐厅的新建购物中心。 Crystal Tower处于场地的北端，醒目的矩形形态包 裹在平面或凹进的全高玻璃以及坚固嵌板的组合 中。从不同的角度观察，这一看似随意却精心设 计的模式创造了独特的立面。 Crystal Residences面对缅甸最具标志性的历史建筑 之一：大金塔。公寓的设计为了适应当地的环境和 生活方式，每个单位包括宽敞的湿厨房，以适应当 地人对烹饪的喜爱。此外，对朝向的仔细研究和从 建筑体量分离出来的中庭和保证了住宅大楼的对流 通风和自然采光。六楼的景观阳台还设有游泳池、 按摩浴池、健身室、烧烤区和儿童游乐场。 DP 03
The Dubai MalL A Micro-Urbanism on an Unprecedented Scale
规模空前的微城市 By Tong Tong & Nartano Lim
由于规模庞大，结构复杂，迪拜购物中 心难以被简单归类。它不仅是个简单的建 筑，实际上其设计和规划更近乎于一个城市 中心。就总面积而言，它是世界上最大的购 物中心。但打破记录设计最大型购物中心并 不是 DP建筑师事务所原有的目标。设计这个 项目的主要原则是创造一个适合家庭，同时 给零售商带来最有效实用空间的工作环境。 为了满足访客和零售商双方的需求，迪拜购 物中心创造了世界上最优质的购物体验。在 设计这个大型购物项目时， DP建筑师事务所 采用了城市设计的理念，重新斟酌了购物中 心建筑设计的各个方面。 结 合 多 年 的 购 物 中 心 建 筑设 计 经 验 ， DP建筑师事务所采用了五个基本原则：无次
交通，为每名租户而设的高效服务区以及 将购物中心分成具有不同特色的区域。 这五个原则体现在购物中心的“城市 设计”中。设计采用了一个四分交通流 线，并与特别的节点相结合以创造可识别 性。每个节点的尺度与访客的途经路线有 直接关系。就好像一个微型城市，迪拜购 物中心有其联系紧密的内部格局：街道、 广场和其他景点使其充满生气。同时，购 物中心充满丰富多样的公共空间和各种各 样的活动。由于迪拜购物中心汇集了来自 世界各地的游客，建筑师为了鼓励不同人 群的交流，创造了适合不同社会活动和场 合的城市空间。购物中心还采用了通常只 出现在城市中的多个大型景点，包括一个 世界级室内水族馆、一个室内三层瀑布、 一座室内冒险乐园和一个奥林匹克赛场规 模的溜冰场。最后一个理念同样体现微型 都市，即供车辆和行人通行的交通系统。 迪拜购物中心展示了利用微型城市的理 念设计一个大型建筑的新方法，因此成为购 物中心的一种新形式，为全球的购物中心建 筑设计注入了新活力。迪拜购物中心的真正 成功之处在于有效的规划，所以自开业以来 每年的访客人次都超过预期的目标。
SITE Area: 555,600 sqm
The Dubai Mall is a retail project that defies categorisation due to its massive scale and complexity. It is not just a piece of architecture; it is a construction in a space of vast scale, and it possesses the complexity of an urban centre. Measured by covered area, it is the largest mall in the world. Yet breaking the record to build the largest mall was not the goal for DP Architects. Instead, the important principle throughout has been to develop a piece of architecture that will continue to be enjoyed by the entire family while giving retailers the most efficient and functional working environment. Catering to both the visitor and the retailer has created the best shopping experience in the world.
United Arab Emirates
of its ambitious architectural projects that challenged the norms in terms of scale or audacity. The world’s largest covered mall, The Dubai Mall, is adjacent to the world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa. Despite the mall’s scale and context among the biggest and the best, it was first and foremost designed as a supremely functional space. Combining many years of experience in retail design, DP Architects conceived five planning principles: clear pedestrian circulation with no secondary corridors or hidden corners, visual connectivity to all shopfronts, sufficient parking space and integrated public transportation, efficient service areas for each tenant, and subdivision of the mall into zones with distinct characters.
Addressing the needs of such a large-scale retail project, DP Architects adopted a city design process and rethought every aspect of retail architecture design. An emerging international city, Dubai has gained global attention, in part, because
Above: The Dubai Mall as seen from above.
Above: The Fashion Atrium is one of the nine unique atrium
DP Architects didn’t consider The Dubai Mall just a shopping centre in itself, but a micro-urbanism manifested by the interactions among its habitats and visitors. The scale of the project and the need to differentiate districts for wayfinding and to create attractions necessitated the incorporation of elements of urban planning. In this way, a singular piece of architecture can demonstrate the quality of a miniature city.
spaces that function as both wayfinding landmarks and places of rest and social-mixing.
There are three primary planning conditions that were applied to the ‘urban design’ of The Dubai Mall. The first is that the circulation and retail spaces need to have clarity and legibility.
This aspect is of special importance when navigating in environments at the urban scale. To be lost in an immense setting that has over 23 linear kilometres of pathways would be a frustrating experience and would guarantee visitors’ hesitation to return. A quadrant circulation pattern with recognisable nodes was created for legibility. Nodes for rest and relaxation were choreographed in key locations along the walkways; these public spaces effectively created landmarks that aid in wayfinding and create attraction points that offer variety to the urban experience.
w o r l d’s b i g g e s t mall gets bigger 世界上最大的购物中心进一步扩建
自 2008年开业以来，迪拜购物中心 不仅成为了迪拜市中心有影响力的市民 中心，同时也成为世界上最受欢迎的购 物休闲场所之一。 2012年，购物中心迎 来了 6500万名访客，超过了光观纽约市 的游客，更远超出它最初预计的 3500万 的访客目标。为了迎接预计的一亿名访 客，迪拜购物中心已开始大规模扩建， 在第一阶段工程中的加建面积达 100万平 方英尺（ 9万 2900平方米）。 The Dubai Mall not only has been an influential civic focal point in Downtown Dubai since its opening in 2008, but has also become one of the world’s most popular shopping and leisure destinations. All kinds of activities and events bring vivid social life inside. The mall has proven to be incredibly successful and the number of visitors has risen steadily every year.
For the Dubai Mall, DPA adopted a city design process and rethought every aspect of retail architecture design
By Tong Tong
In 2012, the mall welcomed 65 million visitors – attracting more tourists than New York City – far exceeding the initial annual projection of 35 million. To prepare for a projected 100 million visitors, another one million square feet (92,900sqm) is being added to The Dubai Mall in the first phase of a massive expansion. The popular Fashion Avenue will be developed further to accommodate new and personalised flagship stores of the world’s top brands, enhancing the fashion portfolio of the mall. Expected to open by December 2015, this expansion will further enhance the lively urban experience and create more distinctive public spaces within The Dubai Mall.
Team Members (Standing left to right)
Sze Hock Thong,
Tan Cheng Pei,
Lee Weoi Min,
Jessica Darmadi Tan,
Ong Rui Ting,
(sitting left to right)
(Standing left to right)
(sitting left to right)
Satrio Utomo Dradjat,
Ti Lian Seng,
Rachel Chin &
Francis Lee &
Toh Sze Chong.
The Dubai Mall incorporates multiple largescale attractions normally only seen in the city to create urban conditions for social events and occasions
Top: The Dubai Mall Aquarium and Underwater Zoo is the physical centrepiece of the mall and features over 33,000 aquatic animals. Left: The Star Atrium spans the full height of the mall, reaching from the basement to the roof and bringing natural light to the lowest levels of the mall. Right: The mall’s corridors are generously proportioned – both in width as well as height – with avenues of double-height retail shopfronts.
Like any meaningful and rich urban setting, each node has something special and is given a specific name and theme. The scale of each node was considered in direct relation with the visitor’s journey. Similarly, retailers can easily be seen from a visitor’s perspective so that when you are in an atrium space you can see the retailers on other floors. This visual connectivity allows for recognition and familiarity. Just as a miniature city, The Dubai Mall has its intimate inner pattern:
the street, square and other attractions that make it liveable. A second aspect of the mall’s urban condition is its extremely rich and diverse collection of public spaces and mixed programmes. Due to its unprecedented scale and an edict by the client to ensure that the mall offers something for the whole family, the architects had the opportunity to investigate a variety of non-commercial programmes beyond the retail focus.
The design team perceived urbanity as a set of relationships, both physical and social. The Dubai Mall brings together an incredibly diverse assortment of visitors from around the world. Thus, the designers attempted to encourage the mixing of the various demographics by creating urban conditions for various social events and occasions. The mall incorporates multiple large-scale attractions normally only seen in the city – one of the world’s largest indoor aquariums, an indoor triple-height waterfall, an indoor adventure park and an Olympic-sized ice-skating rink. Along with these attractions are multiple and unique atrium spaces that perforate the boulevards as social collectors, and respite points that use materiality and the play of natural light to create unique environments along the mall’s boulevards. Due to its location at the physical centre of the mall’s primary axis, the forecourt of the Dubai Aquarium and Underwater Zoo functions as a public plaza for gathering and features one of the largest acrylic viewing panels in the world. These numerous vivid integrated settings cater to multiple public activities on many levels at all times of the day, serving as a civic destination for families. Beyond practical functions, these public settings and attractions are highly valuable as they create collection points for potential shoppers. The enormous mass of The Dubai Mall has been perforated by well-formed public spaces adjacent to shopping areas. DP 09
the true heart of the mall’s success lies in the effective planning techniques The last aspect that embraces the notion of micro-urbanism is its circulation system which has been planned to accommodate vehicle movement and linkages for this miniature city. One thousand and two hundred shops and parking for 14,000 vehicles are supported by a network of roadways. The building is accessible through four grand entrances and vehicular dropoff points, which are transition points to enter the building. These entrance pavilions operate at the scale of the car and the building through their expressive and identifiable volumes, as well as at the human scale with their detailed mashrabiya surfacing treatments and finishes. The elongated Grand Drive was conceived as a form of ‘architectural promenade’ to enhance the sense of arrival and create a showplace to see and be seen. Within the many levels of parking decks, 53 entrances were named after its respective nearby landmarks, such as ‘Gold Souk Entrance’ or ‘Ice-rink Car Park’. These cues of orientation and path-finding are part of an overall identifiable network.
Just as important, retailers have dedicated, extensive loading areas with a network of behind-the-scene corridors that allow seamless operation of the shopping mall, ensuring that goods can be brought in as efficiently as possible. While efficient and logical circulation may not be the first thing that people think of when considering the top aspects of spaces, it is with repeat usage that the skills of the design team become apparent – the team has designed a mall that lends itself to repeat customers. The Dubai Mall has charted a new way to conceive a large-scale built environment as a microurbanism, and it has become a new form of retail paradigm that has invigorated the global retail scene. While it would be obvious to only dwell on the more obvious conditions of the mall’s design, such as the considered design of its roofscape or the delicate selection of materiality – the true heart of the mall’s success lies in the effective planning techniques. It is supremely functional which has led to its continued success of breaking visitor targets every year since opening.
Above: The Diving Men captures the dynamism and spectacle of the Waterfall atrium. Below: The Waterfall atrium is one of the many attraction nodes which offers spaces of respite and relaxation. Facing page: The Gold Souk entrance pavilion features a backlit mashrabiya façade which transforms at night into a lantern along the Grand Drive.
SITE Area: 894,400 sqm
The Scale OF SUCCESS: DPA and The Dubai Mall 成功的尺度： DP 建 筑 师 事 务 所 和 迪 拜 购 物 中 心 By Nartano Lim Right: The Dubai Mall’s The Village can be opened to
迪拜购物中心是 DP建筑师事务所自成立 以来承接的最大项目；其规模和复杂程度都 超出公司所承接的任何项目。购物中心的设 计面临诸多挑战：设计和施工的时间相对较 短，文化存在着巨大差异以及客户的要求较 高。尽管如此， DP建筑师事务所通过这个项 目吸取了大量的知识和经验，以用于今后设 计的各种项目中。这不仅限于购物中心，而 且还广泛用于公司的各种不同项目之中。
the sky during the cooler months to create an indooroutdoor environment. Below: The ‘fifth elevation’ or roofscape of The Dubai Mall reveals the design team’s considerations of every surface and view of the building.
迪拜购物中心需要大量的设计人员和复 杂的人员调度。其面积比新加坡最大的购物 中心怡丰城大十倍，复杂程度由于需要人员 的调度而大为增加。其为 DP建筑师事务随后 几年内所承接的其他大型综合项目，如 49公 顷的圣淘沙名胜世界和 35公顷的新加坡体育 中心奠定了基础。 迪拜购物中心同时也确立了DP建筑师事务 所真正作为一个全球性建筑师事务所的地位。 虽然 DP 建筑师事务所很早就开始设计海外项 目，包括在马来西亚、中国、印度尼西亚和菲 律宾的建筑，但迪拜购物中心是个新的转折 点，不仅代表DPA有能力设计一个重要的海外 项目，而且表明DPA能够带领一个国际顾问团 队，在建造过程中充分地体现其设计概念，从 而创造一个卓越的世界级购物中心。继成功完 成迪拜购物中心之后， DP 建筑师事务所进一 步打开了中东和缅甸这两个新市场，包括土耳 其的Emaar Square和缅甸的Junction City。
DP建筑师事务所通过迪拜购物中心的设 计丰富完善了 对 购 物 中 心 的 设 计 知 识 。 因 此， DPA 将一套新的设计方法应用于公司其 他的项目，包括对施工细节的特别关注、清 晰的交通流线、材料的选择、辅助空间和公 共空间的关系以及访客的独特经验。这些特 点体现在 DPA 的诸多项目中，其中包括多哈 的 Doha Festival City 和位于上海的壹丰广 场。客户经常由于 DP 建筑师事务所购物中 心的丰富经验而乐于与 DPA 合作。
迪拜购物中心是 DP建筑师事务所的一个 里程碑。虽然迪拜购物中心的规模难以复 制，但是从中取得的设计经验可用于不同国 家的不同规模的设计项目中，比如对可识别 性、可见性和运作效率的运用。这些智能设 计的重要理念已在 DP 建筑师事务所的项目 中根深蒂固。
and complexity were beyond anything that the firm had previously encountered. The design and construction time frame was brief, the cultural differences vast and the client demanding. Despite the challenges, DPA gained immense knowledge and expertise throughout the experience, which was then applied to various projects that followed. These were not restricted to retail projects but broadly applied across the firm’s portfolio. These new avenues of expertise can be placed in three general categories: Scale, Global Reach and Retail Design.
Below: Resorts World Sentosa’s scale of construction, time frame and level of complexity
The Dubai Mall is the single largest project DP Architects has ever undertaken; the scale
demanded an increase in resources to manage.
In collaboration with Michael Graves & Associates
SCALE The Dubai Mall required intricate coordination and increased manpower that led to a reorganisation of the entire office. With an area ten times larger than VivoCity, the biggest shopping centre in Singapore, the associated complexity is exponentially increased due to the amount of coordination required. The firm’s strength grew by nearly 100 people to manage the massive amounts of data and documentation necessary for the project’s progression. This growth continued in the following years as the reorganisation paved the way for DPA to undertake other mega projects such as the 49ha Resorts World Sentosa and the 35ha Singapore Sports Hub. Resorts World Sentosa
was a complex planning and constructional feat comprising six hotels, a Universal Studios theme park, a marine life park, a maritime museum, a water theme park, one of the world’s largest aquariums boasting the world’s largest acrylic viewing panel (only surpassing The Dubai Mall’s aquarium), and a plethora of amenities and attractions for the entire family. Similar to The Dubai Mall, Resorts World’s scale of construction, time frame and level of complexity demanded an increase in resources to manage. Between 2006 and 2008, when the firm was working on both projects, its staff strength grew by over 40 percent. The final zone of Resorts World was completed early this year and many of the project members were alumni of The Dubai Mall.
The growth and reorganisation following the Dubai Mall paved the way for DPA to undertake other mega projects
Design by DP Architects and Arup (Sport Venue Design)
Over the years, DPA has undertaken many projects which set records for their scale and complexity in their respective eras
Continuing this evolution of mega projects, Singapore Sports Hub, the largest sportsrelated public-private partnership in the world, applied a similar hyper-programmed intention to the appreciation of sports in many forms. The resultant project boasts five major sporting facilities that cater for world-class events across many disciplines. Over the years, DPA has acquired a reputation of being adept at complex mega-projects – dating back to projects such as People’s Park Complex, Marina Centre and Suntec City which set records for their scale and complexity in their respective eras. Continuing the lineage, The Dubai Mall stands as a testament to DPA’s ability to handle scales which are once in a lifetime for many practices.
An evolution of complex mixed-use developments: (Top to bottom): Singapore Sports Hub (2014), People’s Park Complex (1973), and Marina Centre: Marina Square (1991), Suntec City (1997), Millenia Development (1997), Esplanade – Theatres on the Bay (2002) and Singapore Flyer (2008).
GLOBAL PRACTICE The Dubai Mall endorsed DP Architects’ reputation as a truly global practice. The firm currently has twelve offices worldwide, compared to seven prior to the project in 2004. While Singapore remains the firm’s operational base, the ability to work among various geographical and social conditions was greatly bolstered by the experience with The Dubai Mall. Although DPA’s overseas journey started early – taking on projects in Malaysia from nearly the firm’s inception and moving on to countries including China, Indonesia and the Philippines in the late 80s – The Dubai Mall was a turning point as it demonstrated that not only could DPA design a major project abroad, but the firm was able to lead the international consultant teams through the construction process to ensure that the design intent was carefully followed, and to deliver a world-class project that has set the bar for retail planning and excellence. Diversifying its international portfolio, the firm has recently ventured into two new locales – Turkey and Myanmar. Emaar Square, located in Istanbul, is a retail experience inspired by the streetscapes and scales of the Turkish metropolis’ dense urban conditions. Opening in 2015, it will be the largest shopping mall in Istanbul. The firm has also extended its holistic design strategies to Myanmar to meet the emerging country’s increasing demand for facilities generated by economic expansion. Junction City brings the urban mixed-development typology to Yangon’s central business district with retail, residential, hotel, office and convention centre programmes in a single layered site.
Above: Emaar Square, Istanbul (2015). Left: Junction City, Yangon (2013).
RETAIL DESIGN Finally, The Dubai Mall has profoundly refined the firm’s design and execution expertise in the typologies of retail, hospitality and largescale projects generally. As a result, a new set of design traits has been applied to the firm’s projects across the board, including a special attention to construction detailing, clarity of circulation, material selection, the relationship between back-of-house and public spaces, and the uniqueness of the visitor experience. The mall has become a key project for retailers to study and is often quoted by clients as a primary motivator to work with DPA. While the scale of The Dubai Mall has yet to be replicated, the lessons of retail design that were acquired can be applied at a number of scales and locales through the awareness of wayfinding, retailer visibility and operational efficiency. These cornerstones of intelligent retail design, already entrenched, have been refined in all of our retail projects. Poised to become the retail and entertainment hub of Qatar, Doha Festival City – a largescale retail development acquired through an endorsement from The Dubai Mall’s owner – boasts clear visitor circulation through four themed zones. Despite the scale difference, One Prime in Shanghai shares with The Dubai Mall a clarity of circulation, naturally lit atria and
Right and far right: Doha Festival City’s interior spaces are accentuated by natural light from high windows and skylights.
terraced floor plates which ease visibility of retailers and encourage visitors to access the higher levels of the space.
The Dubai Mall has profoundly refined the firm’s Retail design and execution expertise
A MODEL OF SUCCESS The Dubai Mall represents a milestone for DP Architects. The retail tour de force ushered in a new era in which the firm would undertake new works at scales that had previously not been feasible. The successful completion of The Dubai Mall led to projects throughout the Middle East and opened new markets due to the mall’s continued success. The capabilities gained from The Dubai Mall have been spread among a wide range of projects and furthered the firm’s on-going endeavour to evolve and hone its skills in the practice of architecture.
Top left: Elevation of One Primeâ€™s retail podium. Above: The retail podium of One Prime in Shanghai has a clarity of circulation and a naturally lit atrium that enhances visual connectivity.
The formal organisation for the development of Suntec City resembles an open palm: five office towers – four 45-storey and one 18-storey – establish the fingers and an international convention centre, the wrist. These six structures are connected programmatically at their bases by a fourstorey retail podium and are set centripetally about a 16,000sqm circular fountain that operates as the site’s focal point and unifies the complex’s many parts. Here, the waters flow inward to the centre of the site’s open palm, a symbol of good luck and prosperity.
此项目与 Tsao & McKown Architects 联合设计 项目团队: 李成威、Gan Eng Oon、郑联成、陈丽君、吴志强、陈滔壮、 韦卡斯﹒戈尔、林玉兰、Leo Mauricio 和 David Harbord
新达城的设计模仿了一个张开的手掌：五栋办公大楼象征着手指，包括四 栋 45层高建筑和一栋 18层高的建筑，而国际会议中心则象征着手腕。 这六栋建筑由四层商业裙楼相连接，围绕着占地约 1万 6000平方米的圆形 喷泉。喷泉成为整个综合项目的焦点，把项目的其他部分统一起来。 在此，水向内流向“掌心，象征着繁荣和好运。
Suntec City 新达城