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ARCHITECTURE PORTFOLIO ACADEMIC a really cool wall solar decathlon urban energy flow daylighting architectural thesis 07 PROFESSIONAL gsu environmental analysis niit university campus design prototype housing low cost shelter sea star concept city Debashree Pal MDesS | Harvard GSD 2012 B.Arch | School of Planning and Architecture 2007

dpal@post.harvard.edu | debbie.arch@gmail.com


01 A REALLY COOL WALL PHOENIX | Arizona ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIVE BUILDING SKIN DESIGN An academic project to study, design and simulate the building skin for optimum daylight and thermal comfort. The goal of the project is to provide a well day-lit space with even diffused lighting and minimum glare. The building skin should act as a moderator between the inside and outside and temperatures and should greatly reduce energy usage with passive thermal, ventilation, and daylighting strategies without the use of mechanical systems. The building typology chosen is a high school which is located in Phoenix. Phoenix has a subtropical arid climate, with extremely hot summers and warm winters. Less than 20% of the year is within the comfort zone. The building skin is broken down into two parts: light shelf(for daylight) and the skin itself(which absorbs all the solar radiation). The concept of a wind tower(cooling tower) is used to reduce the air temperatures inside the building. Project conceived and presented in a team of 3 students.


BENCHMARK BUILDING : TYPICAL SCHOOL BUILDING GIVEN BY THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

The typology chosen is a high-school which shall function all day long and be mostly empty during the night hours. The benchmark building is a 2 storey E shaped building that is approximately 211,000 ft2. The courtyards created by the E shape create 6 different faรงade conditions to be studied. The school has a typical plan that has long corridors running with class rooms on either sides. The building is oriented east-west with the classrooms receiving light from the north and the south.

CONCEPTUAL VIEW OF THE BUILDING

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building skin


DETAIL OF SKIN

NORTH

Concrete is a thermally massive material that allows for design flexibility. A self-shading texture is designed to reduce the solar heat gain from the walls. This is inspired from the ‘old man’s cactus’, a native plant of Phoenix, that survives because of the self-shading hair on its skin.

SOUTH

-25%

-65%

EAST

WEST

-70%

-75%

Solar radiation decreases on textured wall


COOLING TOWER

The daylight simulations showed that enough indirect illuminance could be achieved through the light shelves and hence reducing the solar radiation incident inside was possible. The facade is a combination of alternate glass and cooling towers. The towers are more in number on the south side as compared to the north where the facade does not get direct solar radiation. The towers also cut off the direct sunlight coming from low angles preventing glare and providing diffused light in the space. Thermal mass is used to shift loads and buoyancy effect drives the natural ventilation across the rooms. SOUTH

NORTH

02

building skin


VENTILATION

During parts of the year with extreme heat, evaporative downdraft cooling towers are utilized to cool the incoming air. Outside air passes through a wetted pad that is fed by a small electric water pump. The evaporation causes a decrease in temperature, and the cooler and heavier air drops down the tower. The dropping air causes more outside air to be pulled in from the outside.


VENTILATION DATA

Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 rch April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 19 20 July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 21 No ventilation 22 Nov. Dec. 23 Natural Ventilation No ventilation No ventilation

Natural Ventilation

PROJECTED ENERGY SAVING Night Flushing Natural Ventilation Night Flushing

Night Flushing

Nov. Dec.

No ventilation Natural Ventilation Night Flushing Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative Cooling

Evaporative Cooling

03

building skin


02 SOLAR DECATHLON WASHINGTON DC ENERGY IN BUILDINGS: NET ZERO ENERGY HOUSE An academic project based on the Solar Decathlon 2011 brief. The project aims to achieve a net zero energy, residential building in Washington. The design is optimised to reduce cost and increase energy saving. Washignton being a heating dominated climate, the orientation and program had to be designed to minimise losses though envelope while maximising solar gains and daylight. The next step was to design an efficient mechanical system with a high coefficient of performance which could be integrated with natural ventilation. The electronics used had to be chosen according to their energy performance. An array of photovoltaic panels on the roof provides excess energy making the house energy positive.

Project conceived and presented in a team of 3 students.


CONCEPT

The house is oriented along an east-west axis for maximum solar control. The living room and kitchen are connected in one space located on the ground level for visual continuity and to permit maximum air circulation. The bedroom is located over the mechanical and laundry rooms; the stacking of program is intended to reduce the ratio of exterior envelope relative to the enclosed floor area. The lower level is also partially buried underground to gain higher insulation for the exterior walls. The central core contains the bathroom and a wet wall that contains all the plumbing connections and centralized distribution of mechanical services. An exposed polished concrete floor slab and concrete kitchen counter will provide both thermal mass and the distribution for the radiant heating.

plumbing wall

bedroom

bath

living room kitchen

MEZZANINE FLOOR

mechanical living room

laundry kitchen

FIRST FLOOR

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solar decathlon


VIEW 1

VIEW 2


MATERIAL

The house is very heavily insulated. The solid walls are made of structural insulated panels (SIPs) which minimize thermal bridging because of lack of framing. Our 12� [300 mm] wall provide an R-value of 6.5. This insulation will minimize the heat loss through the envelope in this heating dominated climate. The windows are triple pane with low-e coatings. This provides a uvalue of 0.786 w/ m2-k. source: ASHRAE Journal, September 2010

LIGHTING

The house has a shallow floor plan which allows the entire floor plate to be well lit with light from just one side. The southern facade is predominately glazed to allow solar gain in the winter from the low altitude sun, while a 36.5� overhang has been calculated to cut out the solar gain during the cooling season when the sun is high in the sky. Punched openings on the north facade admit cool indirect light into the interior, while the narrow east and west facades do not contain any windows since the sun can be difficult to control on those orientations. The maximum depth of the daylit space is 1.5 times the window height of the room providing ambient lighting across the room. Summer Sun

Winter Sun

H

1.5 H 05

solar decathlon


HEATING SYSTEM

COOLING SYSTEM


VENTILATION

A water to water ground source heat pump will be used to extract heat from the ground. This will be used to heat water for distribution in coils embedded in a concrete floor slab to provide radiant heating. This system requires less energy to heat the pre-heated water. The cooling system is also powered by the same heat pump. The water is circulated through coils at the exterior windows. When the windows are open, incoming air can be cooled by passing over these coils. Condensate is collected by a drainage channel running under the coils. When the outside is too hot, the windows are shut and the coils cool the room via convection. An outdoor air intake located above the central core will bring in fresh air for ventilation during both heating and cooling seasons. Since the thermal conditioning of the air will be handled separately by radiant systems within the space, the volume of air required is for ventilation only, allowing the use of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System. The reduction in volume of air lower the energy used for fan power versus a forced air system. In both seasons, a heat recovery wheel will be used to precondition outdoor air to minimize ventilation losses. 1800

1657

1600 1400 1200 1000 800

659

600 400

405 245

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200 0 Heating

Cooling

Lighting

Appliances Entertainment

A PV array of 18 modules on the roof will be oriented to face south and tilted to match the latitude of 38 degrees. The PV array will generate 5,400 kWh annually which exceeds the 3,211.71 kwh annual energy required for the house. 06

solar decathlon


03 URBAN ENERGY FLOW BEIJING | China LARGE SCALE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT An academic project to understand the energy implications of urban form. The urban fabric can have a much larger impact on the environment than an isolated building design. The goal of the project is to use various simulation tools and sustainability ideas which were broader than just building energy use. The base case is a typical modern redevelopment proposal with several tall residential and commercial blocks. The 100 hectare site is divided into several gated communities by the heavy traffic roads that intersect it. The alternative proposal tried to identify sustainable objectives at various scales and tries to solve the issues through design which is more ecologically sensitive and promotes a better lifestyle.

Project conceived and presented in a team of 4 students.


THE SITE The site is located in the outer ring of Beijing city. It was previously an industrial site and has contaminated ground conditions. The masterplan proposes a subway extension line which would have three stops, all touching the site. The selected proposal has 21 residential towers of 16-21 storey and a few commercial blocks. An arterial road intersects the site, clearly dividing it into two. Three sides of the plot have commercial and retail space.

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urban energy


Masterplan 01 The site plan is intersected by four

15m wide streets, one of which is a boulevard. These streets are connect the entire site to the subway stations.

subway stations

02 The secondary streets are all one

way streets. The A streets have retail on either side and cars can be parked on them. The B streets are use only for access into the blocks.

A Street B Street

03 The pedestrian pathway connects

parts of the site to the farthest subway station and also the institutional hub. Parks and public squares form at the intersection of path and road.

Pedestrian Path Public Square

04 Stormwater and excess rainwater

from the building roof, follows the pedestrian path as a water body. This water is filtered along the green belt and this recharges the groundwater table. Water Channel Green Buffer


Green Buffer

Residential

Public Square

Retail

Schools

Institutional 08

urban energy


RESIDENTIAL DESIGN An illustration by Jan Gehl, shows the relationship between the height of a building and its surrounding. Several annual energy simulations were done by progressively increasing the number of floors for a standard building footprint. This gives an idea of the difference in energy and a sweet point of 6-8 floors was settled.

Annual Energy (kWh/m2)

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The energy consumption was tested for different height to gap between building ratios. This informs about effective increase in density while allowing maximum solar gains.

25m

Parameters Roof R = 3.52 Exterior Wall R = 1.96 WWR Ratio = 20% Window Glass U = 1.78 SHGC = 0.6

20m 200,000 195,000 190,000 185,000 180,000 175,000 170,000 165,000

15m

0.6

0.75 1 Height/Gap Ratio

10m

1.5


BLOCK DETAIL The illustration shows 4 blocks and how they respond to each other. The 6-8 storey residential blocks have a retail band on the North and South edge. The roof of these blocks are used for urban farming, rain water harvesting and other services. The buildings have vehicular access only from the B streets.

Open area: 13,600 sq m Central Green: 7000 sq m Roof Area: 10,400 sq m Built Area: 43% Covered Parking: ~300 cars Services Central Green Service Area

OPTION 2: Proposal

OPTION 1: Base Case

Retail

Energy: 52.3 kWh/m2

Energy: 46.4 kWh/m2

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urban energy


OPTION 1

OFFICE DESIGN

OPTION 2

Area: 24000 sq m Energy: 66.2kWh/m2

Area: 23400 sq m

OPTION 3

Energy: 67.2kWh/m2

Area: 25000 sq m Energy: 68.9kWh/m2

Parameters Roof R = 3.52 Exterior Wall R = 1.96 WWR Ratio = 60% Window Glass U = 1.78 SHGC = 0.6 Lighting Power Density = 9 Light Control = On


Walkscore

The walkscore of the design improves as all amenities come within walking distance of every building (100 is a full score).

Conceptual Masterplan

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urban energy


04 DAYLIGHTING IN SCHOOL MIAMI | Florida DESIGN FOR OPTIMUM DAYLIGHT An academic project to analyse, simulate and design a school building to maximise the use of daylight. The goal of the project is to understand the quality and properties of daylight with the help of modelling tools(virtual and physical). Various shading devices and their changing effect with facade orientation were analysed. The final design had to incorporate all the learning to create classrooms with uniform light quality for the given climate. The thermal effect of the shading, aesthetics and design sensitivity(for occupants) were also considered while evaluating the design.

Project conceived and presented in a team of 2 students.


CONCEPT

The quality of daylight in a space is dependent on three important factors: depth of floor plate, height of windows and solar shading devices. The design assumes the basic thumb rule of twice width to height for the size of a classroom.

h 2h

Thumb Rule The classrooms are all oriented north with no opening on the Daylighting east and the west facade. The north windows provide ambient light almost throughout the year and some amount of glare during the peak summer when the schools are in recess. The north window is broken down into vertical band to provide windows at different levels for children of various age. The north light is not enough and so south windows are designed which help in providing uniform light throughout the space. The classrooms have been placed on a single loaded corridor so that the south facade is shaded by the overhang of the corridor without having to design a seperate shading device for it.

Daylighting Concept

SECTION

South Façade: Louvers

SOUTH FACADE

NORTH FACADE

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daylighting

North & West Façade: Vertical Fins


HELIODON STUDY

A physical model was made for a study using the heliodon. A camera took photographs of every hour throughout the year. This study was performed for a variety of shading options to understand the performance of each for distribution of light inside the rooms. 12:00

15:00

18:00

Summer Solstice

Equinox

Winter Solstice

9:00

GLARE ANALYSIS

An annual glar analysis was run on DIVA(Evalglare) which spotted intolerable glare at 8:00am and 4:00pm from the teacher and students view respectively. This was further analyzed in the heliodon at the specific time. The problem was later corrected by a simple extension of the louvers in the south facade that cut off very low angled sun during the sunrise and sunset in winters.

Teacher’s View

Student’s View


5:15pm 21 December

Intolerable Glare DGP 46%

Disturbing Glare DGP 41%

RADIATION

Miami being a hot climate, the shading device also had to have a thermal function. Louvers designed on the south facade prevent the solar rays from directly hitting the wall, making it much cooler even though it is fully exposed.

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daylighting


FIRST FLOOR: DAYLIGHT AUTONOMY

SECOND FLOOR: DAYLIGHT AUTONOMY


VIEW 1

VIEW 2

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daylighting


05 DISASTER MITIGATION CENTER for a tsunami affected zone TARANGAMBADI, TAMIL NADU | India ARCHITECTURAL THESIS 2007, B.Arch The aim of this thesis is to explore new forms with the limitations of usage of material and low cost building technology. The site chosen is a village affected by Tsunami and the experiments displayed on a mitigation centre. A lot had been destroyed by the Tsunami and rebuilding the lives of the people was very important. Most of the buildings were damaged because of poor form and orientation with respect to the sea. One of the foremost concerns while designing as mitigation centre was to create a spacious and climatically responsive architecture in the minimum time frame and limited resources.


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disaster mitigation center


SECTIONAL VIEW OF THE FACADE SHOWING WIND FLOW 15

disaster mitigation center


RADIATION AND SHADING STUDIES


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disaster mitigation center


CONCEPTUAL SKETCH OF PUBLIC SPACE


PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE MODEL

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disaster mitigation center


06 DAYLIGHT & CLIMATE ANALYSIS Various Cities in the Persian Gulf | Middle East Gulf Sustainable Urbanism | Harvard GSD GSU is a cross-disciplinary study focussing on sustainable urbanism in the pre-oil period of the Gulf region. The study tries to identify and connect patterns that distinguish one city from the other even though they are culturally similar in many ways. The current phase of the research focuses on the documentation and analysis of residential units and their environment. The study of the climate brings forwards several indicators which translate into different architectural elements. Daylight autonomy and visual comfort studies were undertaken for multiple units across the different cities. Daylight simulations facilitate the mapping of the relationships between the architecture of the unit and the available natural light within the units. The daylighting analysis(coordinated with thermal and shading analysis) shows subtle differences in the spacial configuration for each city. Justified Permeability was also mapped to study the privacy and depth of the houses. Key role : Daylighting and Shading Study, Climate Analysis, Unit Configuration Analysis, Justified Permeability Analysis, 3D Modelling and Documentation drawings.


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North - Annual Radiation: 546 k 50

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East - Annual Radiation: 660 kW

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Dubai

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CLIMATE ANALYSIS Manama

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hrough the rooms. The wind tower is able to capture he cool breeze blowing from the sea.

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North - Annual Radiation: 540 k Jan

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Horizontal - Annual Radiation: 1939 k

South - Annual Radiation: 1040 kWh/m2

East - Annual Radiation: 660 kWh/m2

West - Annual Radiation: 1078 kWh/m2

North - Annual Radiation: 546 kWh/m

North - Annual Radiation: 540 kWh/m2

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Horizontal - Annual Radiation: 2009 kWh/m2 speed East - Annual Radiation: 834 kWh/m2

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Dubai almost always has a very high humidity making it uncomfortable the entire year. The summer temperature rarely go beyond Dubai 40C almost has a temperatures very high humidity andalways the winter drop to making it uncomfortable the entire year. The summer 12C. Wind towers can be very effective in emperature rarely go beyond 40C and the winter increasing comfort and when complimented emperatures drop to 12C. Wind towers be very with a courtyard, can enhance aircan movement ffective in increasing comfort and when complithrough the rooms. The wind tower is able to mented with a courtyard, can enhance air movement capture the cool breeze blowing from the sea.

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Psychrometric Chart

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West - Annual Radiation: 1172 kWh/m2

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anama has a hot climate with temperatures ranging om 12C to 45C. The winter months are very humid mer hile the humidity reduces to an average of 40% yring June and July. The dry heat makes ventilation d evaporative cooling good strategies for building. e wind tower is able to capture the cool strong ent nds entering the city from the North. ure

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East - Annual Radiation: 660 kWh/m2 North - Annual Radiation: 546 kWh/m2

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Manama has a hot climate with temperatures ranging from 12C to 45C. The winter months are verySWhumid while the SEhumidity reduces to an average of 40% S during June and July. The dry heat makes ventilation and evaporative cooling good strategies for building. The wind tower is able to capture the cool strong winds entering the city from the North. 18 100

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Horizontal - Annual Radiation: 2009

East - Annual Radiation: 834 kWh/m

North - Annual Radiation: 540 kWh/m

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DAYLIGHT AUTONOMY : DUBAI Mean D.A : 7.72 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 23.95 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 3.51 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 0.00 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 50.43 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 41.86 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 49.47 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 44.18 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 47.63 % of daylit hours

N

Mean D.A : 48.06 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 62.46 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 25.45 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 41.65 % of daylit hours

10 m Mean D.A : 68.25 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 24.71 % of daylit hours

Fewer openings in the rooms and thick wall construction impede the ability to receive good daylight. Rooms opening directly into the courtyard have better daylight levels, however, when opening into a liwan, the levels fall drastically in relationship with the depth of the liwan. This is clearly evident in the units in Dubai where majority of the rooms open into the liwan.

Mean D.A : 45.63 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 0.33% of daylit hours

N

Mean D.A : 2.16 % of daylit hours

10 m


DAYLIGHT AUTONOMY : MANAMA Mean D.A : 56.88 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 62.08 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 46.90 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 48.56 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 49.84 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 63.90 % of daylit hours Mean D.A : 16.82 % of daylit hours

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Mean D.A : 51.08 % of daylit hours

ean D.A : 51.08 % daylit hours

Mean D.A : 74.46 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 45.49 % of daylit hours

Mean D.A : 45.49 % of daylit hours

Units in Manama recorded better daylight performance having maintained light levels of over 200 Lux for more than half the total number of daylit hours in a year. Despite the lack of many openings on the outer facades, the rooms are able to draw in better amounts of daylight owing to the absence of liwan directly adjoining the rooms in Manama. N

Mean D.A : 70.02 % of daylit hours

N

Mean D.A : 39.48 % of daylit hours

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07 NIIT UNIVERSITY NEEMRANA | India SPACE DESIGN CONSULTANTS | New Delhi NIIT University is a 75 acre institutional campus in Neemrana. It is a dry, deeply eroded barren wasteland, not used for agriculture. Building on this degraded land provides an opportunity to bring the site and the neighbouring hill under a vegetative cover. Adjacent to the site is a hilly outcrop that provides a dramatic backdrop and a great natural resource. Water is a very precious commodity and conservation of water is an underlying design theme. A serpentine water channel connects the entire site and collects water in an underground tank. Envisioned as a walking campus, a pedestrian spine running north south is central to the scheme. The pedestrian spine has been conceived as a bazaar connecting various parts of the campus and all student activities will spill into it. Key role : Design Development, 3D Modelling, Physical modelling, Site visits, Presentations, Tendering & construction documentation stages


THE SITE

SITE MORPHOLOGY: OPTIMUM WIND CIRCULATION & ORIENTATION Winds blow to and fro from the Aravallis perpendicular to the site and the slivers created through the buildings optimise wind flow by creation of varied micro-climates within the site and thus, inducing wind flow through these forms and zones.

DENSE BUILT FORM RESULTS IN SHADED OPEN SPACES

The east-west orientation of the buildings ensures minimum frontage and resulting heat gain from these faces. Maximum sides exposed to north and south ensure maximum gain of daylighting from north and diffused and deflected lighting from the south (by inserting light shelves). The buildings are closely spaced to ensure well shaded areas between buildings.

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niit university


VIEW OF THE MODEL 21

niit university


BASEMENT PLAN

ACADEMIC BLOCK 2 shaded open court ACADEMIC BLOCK 1 serpentine water channel running along the length of the site and collecting rain water at the lowest point in the site

main entrance for the academic buildings

vehicular circulation

Stack Effect induced in the courtyard

SECTION


THE ACADEMIC BLOCKS 01 Basement level

- the land is naturally dipping and this allows the basement to have more breathing space - the open spill out acts as a channel for the wind to form a stacking effect, thus ventilating the site interconnected courtyards 02 Basement level: showing ducts - the inlet and exhaust shafts are a integral part of the design and have been a generative factor for the design ventilation shafts exhaust shafts

03 First and Second floor level - the first and second floor have cut-outs that let in natural light and brighten the corridors till the ground floor level - the first floor of the two buildings are connected by a bridge light shelves on the south facade cut outs for light ingress 04 Third floor level - the exhaust shafts have light shelves between them, which prevents direct heat gain and increases the natural light through reflection bridge connect the blocks at second floor Venturi Effect induced through the greens

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niit university


INTERCONNECTED COURTYARDS

The courtyards form a continuous connection between the buildings. The connection is not only for pedestrians but it also induces wind movement making the outdoor spillout comfortable during the summers.

DENSE COURTYARDS: MULTIPLE STACK EFFECTS

The buildings are closely spaced and they shade each other in summers. This enables minimum heat gain from the facades and the temperatures in the courtyard remains much cooler than the surrounding areas. The cool air rises up as it gets heated due to stack effect and results in cooling of the courtyards.


COURTYARD VIEW: ACADEMIC BLOCKS

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niit university


TUNNEL SYSTEM FOR NATURAL COOLING AND VENTILATION

The Earth Air Tunnel System is a very efficient system for moderating the temperatures inside and outside the building. This uses air for cooling unlike other water cooled systems, hences consuming lesser water. The tunnels have created their own shade and micro climate that will make the environment cooler. Pipes of four feet in diameter have been laid 12 feet under the ground in between the buildings. The air that is pulled by the fans passes through precipitators to eliminate dust through shafts in the buildings and it eliminate the need for air conditioners. At that depth, the temperature, whether in the harshest summer or the coldest winter remains at an ambient 24 degrees. It is this air that will be pulled up by fans, and pushed through shafts in the buildings through every classroom and student’s room, eliminating the need for air conditioning. The cooling system is coupled with self regulating displacement ventilation in the rooms. On completion of the entire project, this shall be the largest earth air tunnel cooling system with 16km length of cooling tunnels.


DAY LIGHT SYSTEM

The academic buildings are mainly day lit, and artificial lighting is used only when daylight is not available. The building section is designed to have deeper rooms on the south side and shallower on the north side. High-level windows with external and internal light shelves, improve the distribution of light in the deep rooms on the south side. Skylights and cut-outs above the corridor, provide natural light throughout the day.

PHOTOGRAPH OF COMPLETED BLOCK

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niit university


PHOTOGRAPH OF ACADEMIC BLOCK

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niit university


08 LOW COST HOUSING PROTOTYPE Rural Fishermen Residence Pondicherri | India COSTFORD | Trivandrum (India) This is a prototype housing unit designed specially for the rural fishing families living on the coast. A large number of fishermen residences get destroyed every year because of the tides. A pyramid form is a very stable structure, that withstands wind and tidal pressures. The module can accomodate about 8-10 families and when replicated, can form a colony.

Key role : Research, 3D Modelling, Physical modelling and presentations


EXISTING LIVING CONDITION FOR FISHERMEN ALONG THE COAST

POSSIBLE ORIENTATIONS ON THE COAST

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02

03

04

01 When the smaller side of a rectangular wall faces the sea, the high waves crash into them but cause lesser damage as the surface is small.

03 The form oriented diagonally with respect to the sea, breaks down a large tidal wave into smaller channels, thereby reducing the impact drastically.

02 The longer side faces more damage as it is unable to deflect the waves and it takes the full impact of the strong waves.

04 This form also functions as a well designed funnel for inducing the flow of sea and land breeze through the site. 26

prototype housing


FORM FORMATION slanted columns core

01 pyramidical structure is a very

stable form and is ideal for the soil conditions on the beach. It cannot fall over or be blown over.

open verandah shaded space which can be used for drying fish, nets and boat parking

02 the floor plates rest on the pyra-

midical columns and only the staircase goes till the ground. A moderate tidal wave or an exceptionally high tide can flow under it and return, without knocking down the walls.

stepped verandah at multiple levels providing open spaces as well as shade

03 maximum housings units face the

sea. There can be various plans to accommodate varying sizes & number of houses.


partly covered terrace extra column support for larger structures

04 the top is left open for public use. Extra vertical supports can be added to accommodate a larger structure.

hand baked terracota clay louvers for shading

05 louvers are added along the edges to provide shading but not obstructing the wind movement

06 the final form which is well shaded and the stepped form ensures maximum ventilation throughout the day. 27

prototype housing


THE PLANS

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duri

FIRST FLOOR

The plans are a combination of small residential units with kitchens and attached toilets. The layout and size of a unit can vary within the given structure, as per requirement.

SECOND FLOOR


SECTION

land breeze ing the night

capturing maximum possible sea breeze and land breeze

1

sea breeze during the daytime

the lower level used for boat parking and public activities

stepped back form allows maximum exposure to windflow

pyramid form is the most stable form Research has shown that a structure lifted from the ground, was least damaged by the Tsunami waves because they allowed easy movement to the strong water waves

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prototype housing


CONCEPTUAL SKETCH 29

prototype housing


09 SEA STAR CITY SPACE DESIGN CONSULTANTS | New Delhi Sea Star City is a way of dealing with the major problems that confront humanity and human settlements. It is a self sufficient, very densely populated settlement with a huge hinterland (hinter-water actually). The sea places natural limits to the growth of the city. The pattern of development that many planners have proposed but never succeeded in creating on land happens easily on water. Urban sprawl is automatically taken care of and area for gathering natural resources is available in plenty. Sea Star City deals with problems of global warming, scarcity of food, water, energy and land. It is a growing city compactly planned and made of light weight composite materials. First sector of Sea Star City will be built with UN Fund for refugees from island states that rising seas will submerge. It is proposed to be located close to the continental land mass. The other sectors of Sea Star are to be built by residents who move to the first sector. More Sea Stars will be built as sea levels rise further and submerge other islands. Sea Star is not just a city for climate change refugees. It is the way of making sustainable settlements that help prevent climate change. Key role : Research, Conceptualization, Design Development, 3D Modelling, Physical Modelling and Presentations


FORMATION OF POD PROTOTYPE WIND FLOW ACCESS Laminar form offers minimum obstruction to the wind flow. The form is designed to have maximum wind flow along the longer faces of the built mass

SEA BREEZE

01 TYPICAL LAMINAR STRUCTURE

Mirrored form has a high built density with commercial on the lower floors and residences above, along with the creation of an aerodynamic form 02 REPLICATION TO CREATE A DISTRICT

A single unit structure, curved in two dimensions, gives a stable edge which allows easy movement of swirls and waves 03 FORM FORMATION OF THE POD

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sea star city


Creation of the large community green space which also creates a natural cooling and funneling effect for wind. 04 WIND FUNNELING THROUGH OPEN SPACE

The Pod designed as a complete self sustaining form with green spaces and efficient wind flow through the site 05 THE COMPLETE POD

06 STAR PROTOTYPE BY REPLICATING PODS


SITE MORPHOLOGY AND BUILT FORM

The central area is used for community and institutional activities. While the remaining site is used for commercial and residential development

vehicular road pedestrian spine

main vehicular road

secondary circulation spine linking to the marinas CIRCULATION WITHIN THE POD

CENTRAL COMMUNITY ZONE

teritary circulation through waterways along the periphery

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sea star city


DETAIL OF THE FIRST POD whisper waves aqua culture nets marina floating pv panel recreational zone community zone recreational zone aeroscraft port agricultural zone inward beach secondary circulation

fresh water tank

primary circulation water desalination plants

roof top horticulture

fresh water level sandy beach

horti-culture zone

aeroscraft road port

primary circulation


DEVELOPMENT OF THE FLOATING CITY

1 the first pod is built with material from land

2 the first pod produces the construction material for the rest (self sustaining)

4 the fourth pod

3 the third pod has an encased

5 the sea star is complete

fresh water body where rain water is harvested

buoyancy tanks

SECTION THROUGH POD

with the five pods in place

pedestrian path

service floor 32

sea star city


the floating city

PELAMIS


FUTURE EXPANSION DERIVED FROM ALGORITHMIC PATTERNS

TECHNOLOGY AT SEA STAR CITY

AQUA-CULTURE SEGWAY FOR PERSONAL TRANSPORT

AEROSCRAFT

PELAMIS: WAVE ENERGY GENERATOR

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sea star city


conceptual aerial view 34

sea star city

Profile for Debashree Pal

Portfolio  

Architecture work 2006-2012

Portfolio  

Architecture work 2006-2012

Profile for dpal