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Contents

10.3 10.4

10.5 Part III

xvii

The Supply Model of the Product Service System ........................ Guidelines...................................................................................... 10.4.1 Services Providing Added Value to the Product’s Life Cycle .............................................. 10.4.2 Services Providing “Final Results” for Customers .......... 10.4.3 Services Providing “Enabling Platforms for Customers” ................................................................. Strategic System Design for Eco-efficiency..................................

203 204 205 206 208 212

Methods and Support Tools for Environmental Sustainability Analysis and Design ............................................ 213

11

Environmental Complexity and Designing Activity ............................ 215 11.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 215 11.2 Methods and Tools for Design for Environmental Sustainability ................................................................................. 216

12

Estimating the Environmental Impact of Products: Life Cycle Assessment ............................................................................ 12.1 The Environmental Impact of Our Production–Consumption System ...................................... 12.1.1 Exhaustion of Natural Resources ..................................... 12.1.2 Global Warming............................................................... 12.1.3 Ozone Layer Depletion .................................................... 12.1.4 Smog ................................................................................ 12.1.5 Acidification .................................................................... 12.1.6 Eutrophication.................................................................. 12.1.7 Toxic Air, Soil and Water Pollution ................................ 12.1.8 Waste ............................................................................... 12.1.9 Other Effects .................................................................... 12.2 Quantitative Methods for Estimating and Analysing Product Environmental Impact ................................................................... 12.2.1 Life Cycle Assessment..................................................... 12.2.2 Stages of LCA.................................................................. 12.2.3 LCA and Design: Importance and Limitations ................ 12.2.4 Power to Choose: Discriminant Power Versus Scientific Reliability ............................................ 12.2.5 Incisive Decisions: First Stages of Development Versus LCA Applicability ............................................... 12.2.6 Developing LCA ..............................................................

13

219 219 220 220 221 222 223 223 224 225 226 226 227 228 236 237 238 239

Environmentally Sustainable Design-orienting Tools ......................... 243 13.1 Introduction ................................................................................... 243 13.2 Tools Developed for Certain Environmental Goals....................... 243

Design for Environmental Sustainability  

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