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This is the way we survive we fight with words instead of knives Nowaday we have an oversupply of everything. Television, clothes, electronics, food, but also music. Over the last years music has stronlgy evolved into one of the most profitable businesses. As a singer or musician you have a high status, especially if you go commercial. We get bombarded with music that all sounds the same, popstars that all look the same, and lyrics that all have the same emptiness. In a relaxationsociety like ours, where people strive to have it better and to feel better, in a society where we don’t want to be confronted with the problems in the world because we’re too busy with our own, it’s self-evident that this music has this kind of popularity and succes. We want to be misled and believe that everything is just fine. Because what’s not to like about a song that’s about dancing? Or a casual infatuation? Or nothing at all? The media too thrives on misleading. Entire populations are blackened, innocent civilians marginalized, important matters hidden. How much of the world do we get to see? How much do we know? And is this all true? Conscious hiphop helps to investigate, to think critically and to question everything. It opens your eyes to another version of the facts, to a side that has always been hidden. Because of this you gain insight and information about matters you may not have known anything about. Maybe you recognize yourself in it. Conscious hiphop began as an outlet, and grew to a way of reaching peoples. It strenghtens, it unites, it gives hope. It makes sure the collective voice is heard.


WE ARE REAL HIP HOP when all the popular music sounds the same we are the ones that stand out when everyone goes blind

we are the ones that see we are the ones trying to save your soul when the devil is around we are the ones speaking up, when the whole world is silent

WE ARE We are the ones REAL that keep the word alive HIP HOP




Beginning of French hiphop


Influence of American hiphop



Themes in French hiphop


Music genres and list of artists Relationship with Africa islam in French hiphop Language Influence on popculture

Transitioning to recording 1980’s Nationalization and internationalization New school hiphop Gangsta rap and west coast hiphop


World hip hop 1990’s


West coast hip hop East coast hip hop

CONSCIOUS HIP HOP, the soundtrack to young politics in the UK

Diversification of styles 2000’s - 2010’s World and national music Glitchy hop and wonky music Crunck and snap music Decline in sales Innovation and revitalization Different genres in American hiphop





ORIGINS OF THE TERM HIPHOP Creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy later worked the ‘hip hop’ cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in ‘Rapper's Delight’. Universal Zulu Nation founder Afrika Bambaataa is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a

derogatory term to describe the type of music. The first use of the term in print was in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop. Hip hop music originated as improvisations made to existing music by party DJs. Although hip hop music predates the introduction of rapping into hip hop culture, the majority of the genre is accompanied by rap vocals. However, rap vocals are absent from many hip hop tracks, such as ‘Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don’t Stop)’ by Man Parrish; ‘Chinese Arithmetic’ by Eric B. & Rakim; ‘Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)’ and ‘We're Rocking the Planet’ by Hashim; and ‘Destination Earth’ by Newcleus.



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ORIGINS HIPHOP IN THE US HISTORY OF Much like dub music, hip hop as a DJing form started with no vocals and was purely of an electronic nature. However, the roots of spoken hip hop music are found in African-American music and ultimately African music, particularly that of the griots of West African culture. The African-American traditions of signifyin’, the dozens, and jazz poetry all influence hip hop music, as well as the call and response patterns of African and African-American religious ceremonies. Soul singer James Brown, and musical ‘comedy’ acts such as Rudy Ray Moore and Blowfly are often considered ‘godfathers’ of hip hop music. Within New York City, performances of spoken-word poetry and music by artists such as The Last Poets, Gil Scott-Heron and Jalal Mansur Nuriddin had a significant impact on the post-civil rights era culture of the 1960s and 1970s, and thus the social environment in which hip hop music was created. Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African American


HIP HOP Nowadays if you ask most people to give a definition of ‘rap’, they’re likely to state that it’s the reciting of rhymes to the best of music. It’s a form of expression that finds its roots imbedded deep within ancient African culture and oral tradition. Throughout history here in America there has always been some form of verbal acrobatics or jousting involving rhymes within the Afro-American community. Signifying, testifying, Shining of the Titanic, the Dozens, school yard rhymes, prison ‘jail house’ rhymes and double Dutch jump rope’ rhymes are some of the names and ways that various forms of rap have manifested. Modern day rap music finds its immediate roots in the toasting and dub talk over elements of reggae music. In the early 70’s, a Jamaican dj known as Kool Herc moved from Kingston to NY’s West Bronx. Here, he attempted to incorporate his Jamaican style of dj which involved reciting improvised rhymes over the dub versions of his reggae records. Unfortunately, New Yorkers weren’t into reggae at the time. Thus Kool Herc adapted his style by chanting over the instrumental or percussion sections of the day’s popular songs. Because these breaks were relatively short, he learned to

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and Latino youth residing in the Bronx. Block parties incorporated DJs who played popular genres of music, especially funk and soul music. Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating the percussion breaks of popular songs. This technique was then common in Jamaican dub music. Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and disco records were generally short, DJ Kool Herc and other DJs began using such techniques with two turntables to extend the breaks. Turntablist techniques, such as scratching (attributed to Grand Wizzard Theodore, beat mixing/ matching, and beat juggling eventually developed along with the breaks, creating a base that could be rapped over, in a manner similar to signifying, as well as the art of toasting, another influence found in Jamaican dub music. Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. Beats, almost always in 4/4 time signature, can be created by sampling and/or sequencing portions of other songs by a producer. They also incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands. Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella or to a beat.


extend them indefinitely by using an audio mixer and two identical records in which he continuously replaced the desired segment. In those early days, young party goers initially recited popular phrases and used the slang of the day. For example, it was fashionable for dj to acknowledge people who were in attendance at a party. These early raps featured someone such as Herc shouting over the instrumental break; ‘Yo this is Kool Herc in the joint-ski saying my mellow-ski Marky D is in the house’. This would usually evoke a response from the crowd, who began to call out their own names and slogans. As this phenomenon evolved, the party shouts became more elaborate as dj in an effort to be different, began to incorporate little rhymes-”Davey D is in the house/An he’ll turn it out without a doubt.” It wasn’t long before people began drawing upon outdated dozens and school yard rhymes. Many would add a little twist and customize these rhymes to make them suitable for the party environment. At that time rap was not yet known as ‘rap’ but called ‘emceeing’. With regards to Kool Herc, as he progressed, he eventually turned his attention to the complexities of djaying and let two friends Coke La Rock and Clark Kent (not Dana Dane’s dj) handle the microphone duties. This was rap music first emcee team. They became known as Kool Herc and the Herculoids.

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DJ Kool Herc and Coke La Rock provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping by delivering simple poetry verses over funk music breaks, after party-goers showed little interest in their previous attempts to integrate reggae-infused toasting into musical sets. DJs and MCs would often add call and response chants, often consisting of a basic chorus, to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (e.g. “one, two, three, y’all, to the beat”). Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic delivery, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort to differentiate themselves and to entertain the audience. These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of African American culture. Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hop group to gain recognition in New York, but the number of MC teams increased over time. Often these were collaborations between former gangs, such as Afrikaa Bambaataa’s Universal Zulu Nation—now an international organization. Melle Mel, a rapper with The Furious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an ‘MC.’ During the early 1970s


Rap caught on because it offered young urban New Yorkers a chance to freely express themselves. This was basically the same reason why any of the aforementioned verbal/ rhyme games manifested themselves in the past. More importantly, it was an art form accessible to anyone. One didn’t need a lot of money or expensive resources to rhyme. One didn’t have to invest in lessons, or anything like that. Rapping was a verbal skill that could be practiced and honed to perfection at almost anytime. Rap also became popular because it offered unlimited challenges. There were no real set rules, except to be original and to rhyme on time to the beat of music. Anything was possible. One could make up a rap about the man in the moon or how good his dj was. The ultimate goal was to be perceived as being ‘def (good) by one’s peers. The fact that the praises and positive affirmations a rapper received were on par with any other urban hero (sports star, tough guy, comedian, etc.) was another drawing card. Finally, rap, because of its inclusive aspects, allowed one to accurately and efficiently inject their personality. If you were laid back, you could rap at a slow pace. If you were hyperactive or a type-A, you could rap at a fast pace. No two people rapped the same, even when reciting the same rhyme. There were many people who would try and emulate someone’s style, but even that was indicative of a particular

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B-boying arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive and frenetic style. The style was documented for release to a world wide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as Style Wars, Wild Style, and Beat Street. The term ‘B-boy’ was coined by DJ Kool Herc to describe the people who would wait for the break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style. Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as DJ Hollywood, Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee, the frequency of solo artists didn’t increase until later with the rise of soloists with stage presence and drama, such as LL Cool J. Most early hip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral to the show. An example would be the early hip hop group Funky Four Plus One, who performed in such a manner on Saturday Night Live in 1981. Hip hop music in its infancy has be described as an outlet and a ‘voice’ for the disenfranchised youth of low-economic areas, as the culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives.


personality. Rap continues to be popular among today’s urban youth for the same reasons it was a draw in the early days: it is still an accessible form of self expression capable of eliciting positive affirmation from one’s peers. Because rap has evolved to become such a big business, it has given many the false illusion of being a quick escape from the harshness of inner city life. There are many kids out there under the belief that all they need to do is write a few ‘fresh’ (good) rhymes and they’re off to the good life. Now, up to this point, all this needs to be understood with regards to Hip Hop. Throughout history, music originating from America’s Black communities has always had an accompanying subculture reflective of the political, social and economic conditions of the time. Rap is no different. Hip hop is the culture from which rap emerged. Initially it consisted of four main elements; graffiti art, break dancing, dj (cuttin’ and scratching) and emceeing (rapping). Hip hop is a lifestyle with its own language, style of dress, music and mind set that is continuously evolving. Nowadays because break dancing and graffiti aren’t as prominent the words ‘rap’ and ‘hip hop’ have been used interchangeably. However it should be noted that all aspects of hip hop culture still exists. They’ve just evolved onto new levels. Hip hop continues to be a direct response to

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ORIGINS OF HIPHOP an older generation’s rejection of the values and needs of young people. Initially all of hip hop’s major facets were forms of self expression. The driving force behind all these activities was people’s desire to be seen and heard. Hip hop came about because of some major format changes that took place within Black radio during the early 70’s. Prior to hip hop, black radio stations played an important role in the community be being a musical and cultural preserver or griot (story teller). It reflected the customs and values of the day in particular communities. It set the tone and created the climate for which people governed their lives as this was a primary source of information and enjoyment. This was particularly true for young people. Interestingly enough, the importance of Black radio and the role djs played within the African American community has been the topic of numerous speeches from some very prominent individuals. For example in August of ‘67, Martin Luther King Jr addressed the Association of Television and Radio Broadcasters. Here he delivered an eloquent speech in which he let it be known that Black radio djs played an intricate part in helping keep the Civil Rights Movement alive. He noted that while television and newspapers were popular and often times more effective mediums, they rarely languaged themselves so that Black folks could relate to them. He basically said

Black folks were checking for the radio as their primary source of information. In August of 1980 Minister Farrakhon echoed those thoughts when he addressed a body of Black radio djs and programmers at the Jack The Rapper Convention. He warned them to be careful about what they let on the airwaves because of its impact. He got deep and spoke about the radio stations being instruments of mind control and how big companies were going out of their way to hire ‘undignified’ ‘foul’ and ‘dirty’ djs who were no longer being conveyers of good information to the community. To paraphrase him, Farrakhon noted that there was a fear of a dignified djs coming on the airwaves and spreading that dignity to the people he reached. Hence the role radio was playing was beginning to shift...Black radio djs were moving away from being the griots.. Black radio was no longer languaging itself so that both a young and older generation could define and hear themselves reflected in this medium. Author Nelson George talks extensively about this in his book ‘The Death Of Rhythm And Blues’. He documented how NY’s Black radio station began to position themselves so they would appeal to a more affluent, older and to a large degree, whiter audience. He pointed out how young people found themselves being excluded especially when bubble gum and


Europeanized versions of disco music began to hit the air waves. To many, this style of music lacked soul and to a large degree sounded too formulated and mechanical.In a recent interview hip hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa spoke at length how NY began to lose its connection with funk music during this that time. He noted that established rock acts doing generic sounding disco tunes found a home on black radio. Acts like Rod Stewart and the Rolling Stones were cited as examples. Meanwhile Black artists like James Brown and George Clinton were for the most part unheard on the airwaves. Even the gospel-like soulful disco as defined by the ‘Philly sound’ found itself losing ground. While the stereotype depicted a lot of long haired suburban white kids yelling the infamous slogan ‘disco sucks’, there were large number of young inner city brothers and sisters who were in perfect agreement. With all this happening a void was created and hip hop filled it... Point blank, hip hop was a direct response to the watered down, Europeanized, disco music that permeated the airwaves.. FYI around the same time hip hop was birthed, House music was evolving among the brothers in Chicago, GoGo music was emerging among the brothers in Washington DC and Black folks in California were getting deep into the funk. If you ask me, it was all a repsonse to disco.

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ORIGINS OF HIPHOP In the early days of hip hop, there were break dance crews who went around challenging each other. Many of these participants were former gang members who found a new activity. Bambataa’s Universal Zulu Nation was one such group. As the scene grew, block parties became popular. It was interesting to note that the music being played during these gigs was stuff not being played on radio. Here James Brown, Sly & Family Stone, Gil Scott Heron and even the Last Poets found a home. Hence a younger generation began building off a musical tradition abandoned by its elders. Break beats picked up in popularity as emcees sought to rap longer at these parties. It wasn’t long before rappers became the ONLY vocal feature at these parties. A microphone and two turntables was all one used in the beginning. With the exception of some break dancers the overwhelming majority of attendees stood around the roped off area and listened carefully to the emcee. A rapper sought to express himself while executing keen lyrical agility. This was defined by one’s rhyme style, one’s ability to rhyme on beat and the use of clever word play and metaphors. In the early days rappers flowed on the mic continously for hours at a time..non stop. Most of the rhymes were pre-written but it was a cardinal sin to recite off a piece of paper at a jam. The early rappers started

off just giving shout outs and chants and later incorporated small limricks. Later the rhymes became more elaborate, with choruses like ‘Yes Yes Y’all, Or ‘One Two Y’all To The Beat Y’all being used whenever an emcee needed to gather his wind or think of new rhymes. Most emcess rhymed on a four count as opposed to some of the complex patterns one hears today. However, early rappers took great pains to accomplish the art of showmanship. There was no grabbing of the crotch and pancing around the stage. Pioneering rapper Mele-Mel in a recent interview pointed out how he and other acts spent long hours reheasing both their rhymes and routines. The name of the game was to get props for rockin’ the house. That meant being entertaining. Remember back in the late 70s early 80s, artists weren’t doing one or two songs and leaving, they were on the mic all night long with folks just standing around watching. Folks had to come with it or be forever dissed. Before the first rap records were put out (Fat Back Band’s King Tem III’ and Sugar Hill Gang’s ‘Rapper Delight’), hip hop culture had gone through several stages. By the late 70’s it seemed like many facets of hip hop would play itself out. Rap for so many people had lost its novelty. For those who were considered the best of the bunch; Afrika Bambaataa, Chief Rocker Busy Bee, Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Four (yes initially there were only 4), Grand Wizard Theodore


ad the Fantastic Romantic Five, Funky Four Plus One More, Crash Crew, Master Don Committee to name a few had reached a pinnacle and were looking for the next plateau. Many of these groups had moved from the ‘two turntables and a microphone stage’ of their career to what many would today consider hype routines. For example all the aforementioned groups had routines where they harmonized. At first folks would do rhymes to the tune of some popular song. The tune to ‘Gilligan’s Island’ was often used. Or as was the case with he Cold Crush Brothers, the ‘Cats In the Cradle’ was used in one of their more popular routines. As this ‘flavor of the month’ caught hold, the groups began to develop more elaborate routines. Most notable was GM Flash’s’ Flash Is to The Beat Box’. All this proceeded ‘harmonizing/ hip hop acts like Bel Biv DeVoe by at least 10 years. The introduction of rap records in the early 80s put a new meaning on hip hop. It also provided participants a new incentive for folks to get busy. Rap records inspired hip hoppers to take it to another level because they now had the opportunity to let the whole world hear their tales. It also offered a possible escape from the ghetto.


ORIGINS HIPHOP IN FRANCE French hip hop is the hip hop music style which was developed in France, and is considered the second worldwide hip hop scene after the U.S. Many of the French hip hop artists come from the poor urban areas on the outskirts of large cities known as banlieues (‘suburbs’). Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Nantes, Lille, Strasbourg, Caen, Le Havre, Rouen, Toulouse, Grenoble and Nice have produced various French hip hop artists.


The protest at the heart of French hip-hop can be traced directly to the economic boom following World War II. France required manpower to sustain its newly booming industries and the governmental solution was the mass immigration of peoples from regions of past French colonial occupation to fill the gaps caused by shortage in personnel. As early as 1945, l’Office national d’immigration (ONI) was formed to supervise the immigration of new workers. Newly arrived Africans were not given the same employment opportunities as their Caribbean counterparts because they were not citizens and often Africans ended up working as civil servants and menial employees living in dilapidated housing projects. Much of the resistance to social and economic imbalances in French hip-hop relate to this historically unequal situation. This is proved by lyrics of Aktivist’s song, ‘Ils ont’, The extract when translated states “Aktivist denounces intolerance to all immigrant fathers/Exploited in France since the 50s-60s/...their bodies are falling apart/And their children are still being judged according to their origins.”

The political and social status of the minority groups living in France have a direct influence on French hip hop. Many French rappers are products of the HLM rentcontrolled housing and draw upon their upbringing in this environment as a source of inspiration for their lyrics. France is the world’s second hip-hop producing country after the US.












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EVOLUTION AND DIFFERENT GENRES OF AMERICAN HIPHOP TRANSITIONING TO RECORDING Prior to 1979, recorded hip hop music consisted mainly of PA system recordings of parties and early hip hop mixtapes by DJs. Puerto Rican DJ Disco Wiz is credited as the first hip hop DJ to create a ‘mixed plate,’ or mixed dub recording, when, in 1977, he combined sound bites, special effects and paused beats to technically produce a sound recording. The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be The Sugarhill Gang's ‘Rapper's Delight’, from 1979. However, much controversy surrounds this assertion as some regard ‘King Tim III (Personality Jock)’ by The Fatback Band, which was released a few weeks before ‘Rapper's Delight’, as a rap record. There are various other claimants for the title of first hip hop record.

By the early 1980s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place. Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had permeated outside of New York City; it could be found in cities as diverse as Atlanta, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Dallas, Kansas City, San Antonio, Miami, Seattle, St. Louis, New Orleans, Houston, and Toronto. Indeed, ‘Funk You Up’ (1979), the first hip hop record released by a female group, and the second single released by Sugar Hill Records, was performed by The Sequence, a group from Columbia, South Carolina which featured Angie Stone. Despite the genre's growing popularity, Philadelphia was, for many years, the only city whose contributions could be compared to New York City's. Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late 1970s.

The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Early examples of the diversification process can be identified through such tracks as Grandmaster Flash's ‘The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel’ (1981),

a single consisting entirely of sampled tracks as well as Afrika Bambaataa's ‘Planet Rock’ (1982), which signified the fusion of hip hop music with electro. In addition, Rammellzee & K-Rob's ‘Beat Bop’ (1983) was a 'slow jam' which had a dub influence with its


use of reverb and echo as texture and playful sound effects.The mid-1980s was marked by the influence of rock music, with the release of such albums as King of Rock and Licensed to Ill. Heavy usage of the new generation of drum machines such as the


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NATIONALIZATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the context of the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began its spread and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. In the early part of the decade, B-boying became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Germany, Japan, Australia and South Africa, where the crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade. Musician and presenter Sidney became France's first black TV presenter with his show H.I.P. H.O.P. which screened on TF1 during 1984, a first for the genre worldwide. Radio Nova helped launch other French stars including Dee Nasty whose 1984 album Paname City Rappin' along with compilations Rapattitude 1 and 2 contributed to a general awareness of Hip Hop in France. Hip hop has always kept a very close relationship with the Latino community in New York. DJ Disco Wiz and the Rock Steady Crew were among early innovators from Puerto Rico.

Oberheim DMX and Roland 808 models was a characteristic of many 1980s songs.To this day the 808 kickdrum is traditionally used by hip hop producers. Over time sampling technology became more advanced; however earlier producers such as Marley Marl used drum machines to construct their beats from small excerpts of other

combining English and Spanish in the lyrics. The Mean Machine recorded their first song under the label ‘Disco Dreams’ in 1981, while Kid Frost from Los Angeles began his career in 1982. Cypress Hill was formed in 1988 in the suburb of South Gate outside Los Angeles when Senen Reyes (born in Havana) and his younger brother Ulpiano Sergio (Mellow Man Ace) moved from Cuba to South Gate with his family in 1971. They teamed up with DVX from Queens (New York), Lawrence Muggerud (DJ Muggs) and Louis Freese (BReal), a Mexican/Cuban-American native of Los Angeles. After the departure of ‘Ace’ to begin his solo career the group adopted the name of Cypress Hill named after a street running through a neighborhood nearby in South Los Angeles. Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and started playing Hip-Hop records in the early 1980s. Japanese hip hop generally tends to be most directly influenced by old school hip hop, taking from the era's catchy beats, dance culture, and overall fun and carefree nature and incorporating it into their music. As a result, hip hop stands as one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the line between it and pop music is frequently blurred.

beats in synchronisation, in his case, triggering 3 Korg sampling-delay units through a 808. Later, samplers such as the E-mu SP-1200 allowed not only more memory but more flexibility for creative production.This allowed the filtration and layering different hits, and with a possibility of re-sequencing them into a single piece.


With the emergence of a new generation of samplers such as the AKAI S900 in the late 1980s, producers did not require the aid of tape loops. Public Enemy's first album was created with the help of large tape loops.The process of looping break into a breakbeat now became more common with a sampler, now



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The new school of hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of RunD.M.C. and LL Cool J. As with the hip hop preceding it, the new school came predominately from New York City. The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine-led minimalism, with influences from rock music. It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street bboy attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with the funk and disco influenced outfits, novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers and party rhymes of artists prevalent prior to 1984, and rendered them oldschool. New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and more cohesive LPs than their old school counterparts. By 1986 their releases began to establish the hip hop album as a fixture of the mainstream. Hip hop music became commercially successful, as exemplified by the Beastie doing the job which so far had been done manually by the DJ. In 1989, DJ Mark James under the moniker ‘45 King’, released ‘The 900 Number’, a breakbeat track created by synchronizing samplers and vinyl. The lyrical content of hip hop evolved as well.The

early styles presented in the 1970s soon were replaced with metaphorical lyrics over more complex, multi-layered instrumentals. Artists such as Melle Mel, Rakim, Chuck D, and KRS-One revolutionized hip hop by transforming it into a more mature art form.The influential single ‘The Message’ (1982)


by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five is widely considered to be the pioneering force for conscious rap. During the early 1980s, electro music was fused with elements of the hip hop movement, largely led by artists such as Cybotron, Hashim, Planet


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Boys' 1986 album Licensed to Ill, which was the first rap album to hit #1 on the Billboard charts. Hip hop's ‘golden age’ (or ‘golden era’) is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop—usually cited as between the mid 1980s and the early 1990s—said to be characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence. There were strong themes of Afrocentricity and political militancy, while the music was experimental and the sampling, eclectic. There was often a strong jazz influence. The artists most often associated with the phrase are Public Enemy, Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Gang Starr, Big Daddy Kane and the Jungle Brothers. The golden age is noted for its innovation – a time “when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre” according to Rolling Stone. Referring to “hip-hop in its golden age”, Spin’s editor-in-chief Sia Michel says, “there were so many important, groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time”, and MTV’s Sway Calloway adds: "The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived. Everything was still being discovered and everything was still innovative and new”. Writer William Jelani Cobb says "what Patrol and Newcleus.The most notable proponent was Afrika Bambaataa who produced the single ‘Planet Rock’. Some rappers eventually became mainstream pop

performers. Kurtis Blow's appearance in a Sprite commercial marked the first hip hop musician to represent a major product.The 1981 songs ‘Rapture’ by Blondie and ‘Christmas Wrapping’ by


the new-wave band The Waitresses were one of the first pop songs to use some rapping in the delivery.


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made the era they inaugurated worthy of the term golden was the sheer number of stylistic innovations that came into existence... in these golden years, a critical mass of mic prodigies were literally creating themselves and their art form at the same time". The specific time period that the golden age covers varies little from different sources. MSNBC states, “the ‘Golden Age’ of hip-hop music: The ’80s”. Allmusic writes “Hip-hop's golden age is bookended by the commercial breakthrough of Run-D.M.C. in 1986 and the explosion of gangsta rap with 1993's The Chronic by Dr. Dre.

GANGSTA RAP AND WEST COAST HIPHOP Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of inner-city American black youths. Gangsta is a nonrhotic pronunciation of the word gangster. The genre was pioneered in the mid 1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice T, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups like N.W.A. Ice-T released ‘6 in the Mornin'’, which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in 1986. After the national attention that Ice-T and N.W.A created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. N.W.A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their



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lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word ‘nigger’. These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988. Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City. Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song ‘Fuck Tha Police’ earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director, Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement's resentment of the song. Due to the influence of Ice-T and N.W.A, gangsta rap is often credited as being an originally West Coast phenomenon, despite the contributions of East Coast acts like Boogie Down Productions in shaping the genre. The subject matter inherent in gangsta rap has caused a great deal of controversy. Criticism has come from both left wing and right wing commentators, and religious leaders. Gangsta rappers often defend themselves by saying that they are describing the reality of inner-city life, and that they are only adopting a character, like an actor playing a role, which behaves in ways that they may not necessarily endorse.



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WORLD HIPHOP In Haiti, hip hop was developed in the early 1980s, and is mostly accredited to Master Dji and his songs ‘Vakans’ and ‘Politik Pam’. What later became known as ‘Rap Kreyòl’ grew in popularity in the late 1990s with King Posse and Original Rap Stuff. Due to cheaper recording technology and flows of equipment to Haiti, more Rap Kreyòl groups are recording songs, even after the January 12th earthquake. In the Dominican Republic, a recording by Santi Y Sus Duendes and Lisa M became the first single of merenrap, a fusion of hip hop and merengue. New York City experienced a heavy Jamaican hip hop influence during the 1990s. This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the 1990s. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, hip hop began to move from the underground to mainstream audiences. In Europe, hip hop was the domain of both ethnic nationals and immigrants. British hip hop, for example, became a genre of its own and spawned many artists such as Wiley, Dizzee Rascal, The Streets and many more. Germany produced the well-known Die Fantastischen Vier as well as several Turkish performers like the controversial Cartel, Kool Sava, and Azad. Simi-

In 1990, MC Hammer hit mainstream success with the multi platinum album Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em. The record reached #1 and the first single, ‘U Can't

Touch This’ charted on the top ten of the billboard hot 100. MC Hammer became one of the most successful rappers of the early nineties and one

of the first household names in the genre. The album raised rap music to a new level of popularity. It was the first hip-hop album certified diamond by the RIAA


for sales of over ten million. It remains one of the genre's all-time best-selling albums. To date, the album has sold as many as 18 million units.


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larly, France has produced a number of nativeborn stars, such as IAM and SuprĂŞme NTM, MC Solaar, Rohff, Rim'K or Booba. In the Netherlands, important nineties rappers include The Osdorp Posse, a crew from Amsterdam, Extince, from Oosterhout, and Postmen. Italy found its own rappers, including Jovanotti and Articolo 31, grow nationally renowned, while the Polish scene began in earnest early in the decade with the rise of PM Cool Lee. In Romania, B.U.G. Mafia came out of Bucharest's Pantelimon neighborhood, and their brand of gangsta rap underlines the parallels between life in Romania's Communist-era apartment blocks and in the housing projects of America's ghettos. Israel's hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars both Palestinian (Tamer Nafer) and Israeli (Subliminal). In Portugal hip hop has his own kind of rapping, which is more political and underground scene, they're known for Valete, Dealema and Halloween. Russian hip hop emerged during last years of Soviet Union and cemented later, with groups like Malchishnik and Bad Balance enjoying mainstream popularity in the 1990s, while Ligalize and Kasta were popular in the 2000s. In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the Philippines, led by Francis Magalona, Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane. In Japan, where underground rappers had previously found a limited In 1992, Dr. Dre released The Chronic. As well as helping to establish West Coast gangsta rap as more commercially viable than East Coast hip

hop, this album founded a style called G Funk, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. The style was further developed and

popularized by Snoop Dogg's 1993 album Doggystyle. The Wu-Tang Clan shot to fame around the


same time. Being from New York City's Staten Island, the Wu-Tang Clan brought the East Coast back into the mainstream at a time


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audience, and popular teen idols brought a style called J-rap to the top of the charts in the middle of the 1990s. Latinos had played an integral role in the early development of hip hop, and the style had spread to parts of Latin America, such as Cuba, early in its history. In Mexico, popular hip hop began with the success of Calo in the early 1990s. Later in the decade, with Latin rap groups like Cypress Hill on the American charts, Mexican rap rock groups, such as Control Machete, rose to prominence in their native land. An annual Cuban hip hop concert held at Alamar in Havana helped popularize Cuban hip hop, beginning in 1995. Hip hop grew steadily more popular in Cuba, because of official governmental support for musicians. Brazilian hip hop is heavily associated with racial and economic issues in the country, where a lot of black people live in a bad situation in the violent slums, known in Brazil as favelas. S達o Paulo is where hip hop began in the country, but it soon spread all over Brazil, and today, almost every big Brazilian city, such as Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Brasilia, has a hip hop scene. Some notable artists include: Racionais MC's, Thaide, and Marcelo D2. Bosnian and Herzegovinan hip hop is currently dominated by Edo Maajka, the most popular rapper of the Balkans. In that region, especially Boswhen the West Coast mainly dominated rap. Other major artists in the so-called East Coast hip hop renaissance included The

Notorious B.I.G. and Nas. (See the article on the East Coast-West Coast hip hop rivalry.) The Beastie Boys con-

tinued their success throughout the decade crossing color lines and gaining respect from many different artists.


Record labels based out of Atlanta, St. Louis, and New Orleans gained fame for their local scenes.


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nia, hip hop is still used as a political and social message in song themes such as war, profiteering, corruption,etc... Frenkie another Bosnian rapper, who is associated and the closest worker with Edo Maajka, has collaborated beyond Bosnians boarders. Frenkie collaborated with German artists such as Flip Star, Cika Reks and others. Frenkie also collaborated on his latest album, Protuotrov, with Masta Ace, the song is Zivili (lived). The midwest rap scene was also notable, with the fast vocal styles from artists such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, and Twista.

By the end of the decade, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and many American pop songs had hip hop components.

WEST COAST HIPHOP After N.W.A broke up, Dr. Dre (a former member) released The Chronic in 1992, which peaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart,[66] #3 on the pop chart and spawned a #2 pop single with ‘Nuthin' but a ‘G’ Thang.’ The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction, influenced strongly by P funk artists, melding smooth and easy funk beats with slowly drawled lyrics. This came to be known as G-funk and dominated mainstream hip hop for several years through a roster of artists on Death Row Records, including Tupac Shakur, whose single ‘To Live & Die in LA’ was a big hit, and Snoop Dogg, whose Doggystyle included the songs ‘What’s My Name’ and ‘Gin and Juice,’ both top ten hits. Detached from this scene were other artists such as Freestyle Fellowship, The Pharcyde as well as more underground artists such as the Solesides collective (DJ Shadow and Blackalicious amongst others) Jurassic 5, Ugly Duckling, People Under



the Stairs, The Alkaholiks, and earlier Souls of Mischief represented a return to hip-hops roots of sampling and well planned rhyme schemes.

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Also the west coast has avant-garde Hip Hop label known as the Anticon record, where artist such as Dose One, Sole (artist), and many others make experimental Hip Hop music that goes beyond the status quo.

EASTCOAST HIPHOP In the early 1990s East Coast hip hop was dominated by the Native Tongues posse which was loosely composed of De La Soul with producer Prince Paul, A Tribe Called Quest, The Jungle Brothers, as well as their loose affiliates 3rd Bass, Main Source, and the less successful Black Sheep & KMD. Although originally a ‘daisy age’ conception stressing the positive aspects of life, darker material (such as De La Soul's thought-provoking ‘Millie Pulled a Pistol on Santa’) soon crept in. Artists such as Masta Ace (particularly for SlaughtaHouse) & Brand Nubian, Public Enemy, Organized Konfusion, Ingnacio Bernal, had a more overtly militant pose, both in sound and manner. Biz Markie, the ‘clown prince of hip hop’, was causing himself and all other hip-hop producers a problem with his appropriation of the Gilbert O’Sullivan song ‘Alone again, naturally’. In the early-1990s, artists such the Wu-Tang Clan revitalized the New York hip hop scene by pioneering an East coast hardcore rap equivalent to what was be-



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ing produced on the West Coast. The success of artists such as Nas, Notorious B.I.G. and Mobb Deep during 1994-95 cemented the status of the East Coast During the mid-1990s. The productions of RZA, particularly for Wu-Tang Clan, became influential with artists such as Mobb Deep due to the combination of somewhat detached instrumental loops, highly compressed and processed drums and gangsta lyrical content. Wu-Tang solo albums such as Raekwon the Chef’s Only Built 4 Cuban Linx and GZA’s Liquid Swords are now viewed as classics along with Wu-Tang ‘core’ material. Producers such as DJ Premier (primarily for Gangstarr but also for other affiliated artists such as Jeru the Damaja), Pete Rock (With CL Smooth and supplying beats for many others), Buckwild, Large Professor, Diamond D and The 45 King supplying beats for numerous MCs regardless of location. Albums such as Nas’s Illmatic, Jay-Z’s Reasonable Doubt and O.C.’s Word...Life are made up of beats from this pool of producers. The rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast rappers eventually turned personal, aided in part by the music media. Later in the decade the business acumen of the Bad Boy Records tested itself against Jay-Z and his Roc-A-Fella Records and, on the West Coast, Death



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Row Records. The mid to late 1990s saw a generation of rappers such as the members of D.I.T.C. such as the late Big L and Big Pun. Although the ‘big business’ end of the market dominated matters commercially the late 1990s to early 2000s saw a number of relatively successful East Coast indie labels such as Rawkus Records (with whom Mos Def and Talib Kweli gained great success) and later Def Jux; the history of the two labels is intertwined, the latter having been started by EL-P of Company Flow in reaction to the former, and offered an outlet for more underground artists such as Mike Ladd, Aesop Rock, Mr Lif, RJD2, Cage and Cannibal Ox. Other acts such as the Hispanic Arsonists and slam poet turned MC Saul Williams met with differing degrees of success.

DIVERSIFICATION OF STYLES In the late 1990s, the styles of hip hop diversified. Southern rap became popular in the early 1990s, with the releases of Arrested Development's 3 Years, 5 Months & 2 Days in the Life Of... in 1992, Goodie Mob's Soul Food in 1995 and OutKast's ATLiens in 1996. All three groups were from Atlanta, Georgia. Later, Master P (Ghetto D) built up a roster of artists (the No Limit posse) based out of New Orleans. Master P incorporated G funk and Miami bass influences; and distinctive regional sounds from St. Louis, Chicago, Washington D.C., Detroit and others began to gain popularity. In the 1990s, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music. Neo soul, for example, combined hip hop and soul music. In the 1980s and 1990s, rapcore, rap rock and rap metal, fusions of hip hop and hard



core punk, rock and heavy metal became popular among mainstream audiences. Rage Against the Machine and Limp Bizkit were among the most well-known bands in these fields. Digable Planets’ 1993 release Reachin’ (A New Refutation of Time and Space) was an influential jazz rap record sampling the likes of Don Cherry, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, Herbie Mann, Herbie Hancock, Grant Green, and Rahsaan Roland Kirk. It spawned the hit single ‘Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)’ which reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100.

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Though white rappers like the Beastie Boys, House of Pain and 3rd Bass had had some popular success or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, Eminem’s success, beginning in 1999 with the platinum The Slim Shady LP, surprised many.

The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s. In the year 2000, The Marshall Mathers LP by Eminem sold over ten million copies in the United States and was the fastest selling album of all time. Nelly's debut LP, Country Grammar, sold over nine million copies. In the 2000s, crunk music, a derivative of Southern hip hop, gained considerable popularity via the likes of Lil Jon and the Ying Yang Twins.

Hip hop influences also found their way increasingly into mainstream pop during this period mainly the mid 2000s. In the East Coast, popular acts during this period included 50 Cent, whose 2003 album Get Rich or Die Tryin' debuted at number one on the U.S. Billboard 200 charts. In addition to the mainstream success, the United States also saw the success of alternative hip hop in the form


of performers such as The Roots, Dilated Peoples, Gnarls Barkley and Mos Def, who achieved significant recognition. Gnarls Barkley’s album St. Elsewhere, which contained a fusion of funk, neo soul and hip hop, debuted at number 20 on the Billboard 200 charts. In addition, Aesop Rock’s 2007 album None Shall Pass was well received, and reached #50 on the Billboard charts.



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WORLD AND NATIONAL MUSIC The continuation of hip hop can also be seen in different national contexts. In Tanzania, maintained popular acts of their own in the early 2000s, infusing local styles of Afrobeat and arabesque melodies, dancehall and hip-hop beats, and Swahili lyrics. Scandinavian, especially Danish and Swedish, performers became well known outside of their country, while hip hop continued its spread into new regions, including Russia, Japan, Philippines, Canada, China, Korea, India and especially Vietnam. Of particular importance is the influence on East Asian nations, where hip hop music has become fused with local popular music to form different styles such as K-pop, Cpop and J-pop. In Germany and France, gangsta rap has become popular among youths who like the violent and aggressive lyrics. Some German rappers openly or comically flirt with Nazism, Bushido (born Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) raps "Salutiert, steht stramm, Ich bin der Leader wie A" (Salute, stand to attention, I am the leader like 'A') and Fler had a hit with the record Neue Deutsche Welle (New German Wave) complete with the title written in Third Reich style Gothic print and advertised with an Adolf Hitler quote.These references also spawned great controversy in Germany. Meanwhile in France, artists like Kery James' IdĂŠal J maintained a radical, anti-authoritarian attitude and released songs like Hardcore which attacked the growth of the French far right. In the Netherlands, MC Brainpower went from being an underground battle rapper to main-



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stream recognition in the Benelux, thus influencing numerous rap artists in the region. In Israel, rapper Subliminal reaches out to Israeli youth with political and religious-themed lyrics, usually with a Zionist message. One of the countries outside the US where hiphop is most popular is the United Kingdom. In the 2000s a derirative genre from Hip-Hop (as well as UK Garage and Drum and Bass) known as Grime became popular with artists such as Dizzee Rascal becoming successful. Although it is immensely popular, many British politicians criticize the music for what they see as promoting theft and murder, similar to gangsta rap in America. These criticisms have been deemed racist by the mostly Black British grime industry. Despite its controversial nature, grime has had a major affect on British fashion and pop music, with many young working class youth emulating the clothing worn by grime stars like Dizzee Rascal and Wiley. There are many subgenres of grime, including ‘Rhythm and Grime,’ a mix of R&B and grime, and grindie, a mix of indie rock and grime popularized by indie rock band Hadouken!. Hip hop has globalized into many cultures worldwide, as evident through the emergence of numerous regional scenes. It has emerged globally as a movement based upon the main tennets of hip hop culture. The music and the art continue to embrace, even celebrate, its transnational dimensions while staying true to the local cultures to which it is rooted. Hip-hop’s inspiration differs depending on each culture. Still, the one thing virtually all hip hop artists worldwide have in common is that they acknowledge their debt to those Afri-



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can American people in New York who launched the global movement. While hip-hop is sometimes taken for granted by Americans, it is not so elsewhere, especially in the developing world, where it has come to represent the empowerment of the disenfranchised and a slice of the American dream. American hiphop music has reached the cultural corridors of the globe and has been absorbed and reinvented around the world.

GLITCH HOP AND WONKY MUSIC Glitch hop and Wonky music evolved following the rise of trip hop, dubstep and IDM. Both styles of music frequently reflect the experimental nature of IDM and the heavy bass featured in dubstep songs. While trip hop was described as being a distinct British upper-middle class take on hip-hop, glitch-hop and wonky music have featured much more stylistic diversity. Both genres are melting pots of influence, echoes of 1980s pop music, Indian ragas, eclectic jazz and West Coast rap can be heard in glitch hop productions. Los Angeles, London, Glasgow and a number of other cities have become hot spots for these scenes, and underground scenes have developed across the world in smaller communities. Both genres often pay homage to older and more well established electronic music artists such as Radiohead, Aphex Twin and Boards of Canada as well as independent hip hop producers like J Dilla and Madlib. Glitch hop is a fusion genre of hip hop and glitch music that originated in the early to mid 2000s in the United States and Europe. Musically, it is based on irregular, chaotic breakbeats, glitchy basslines and other typical sound effects used in



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glitch music, like skips. Glitch hop artists include Prefuse 73, Dabrye and Flying Lotus. Wonky is a subgenre of hip hop that originated around 2008, but most notably in the United States and United Kingdom, and among international artists of the Hyperdub music label, under the influence of glitch hop and dubstep. Wonky music is of the same glitchy type as glitch hop, but it was specifically noted for its melodies, rich with ‘mid-range unstable synths’. Scotland has become one of the most prominent places, where wonky music was shaped by artists like Hudson Mohawke and Rustie. Glitch hop and wonky are popular among a limited amount of people interested in alternative hip hop and electronic music (especially dubstep); neither glitch hop nor wonky have met any mainstream popularity, however, artists like Flying Lotus, The Glitch Mob and Hudson Mohawke have seen success in other avenues. Flying Lotus’s music has earned multiple positive reviews on the independent music review site Pitchfork.

CRUNK AND SNAP MUSIC Crunk originated from Tennessee in the 1990s. The style was pioneered and commercialized by artists from Memphis, Tennessee and Atlanta, Georgia. Looped, stripped-down drum machine rhythms are usually used. The Roland TR-808 and 909 are among the most popular. The drum machines are usually accompanied by simple, repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass stabs. The tempo of the music is somewhat slower than hip-hop, around the speed of reggaeton. The focal point of crunk is more often the beats



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and music than the lyrics therein. Crunk rappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating an aggressive, almost heavy, style of hip-hop. While other subgenres of hip-hop address sociopolitical or personal concerns, crunk is almost exclusively party music, favoring call and response hip-hop slogans in lieu of more substantive approaches. Snap music is a subgenre of crunk that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia, in the late 1990s. The genre soon gained mainstream popularity and in mid-2005 artists from other southern states such as Tennessee began to emerge with this style. Tracks commonly consist of an 808 bassdrum, hi-hat, bass, snapping, a main groove and a vocal track. Hit snap songs include ‘Lean Wit It, Rock Wit It’ by ‘Dem Franchize Boys’, ‘Laffy Taffy’ by D4L, ‘It’s Goin’ Down’ by Yung Joc and ‘Crank That (Soulja Boy)’ by Soulja Boy Tell ‘Em.

DECLINE IN SALES Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, leading Time magazine to question if mainstream hip-hop was ‘dying.’ Billboard Magazine found that, since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%, and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, while still a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13% of all music sales where rap music regularly placed. According to Courtland Milloy of the Washington Post, for the first time on five years, no rap albums were among the top 10 sellers in 2006. NPR culture critic Elizabeth Blair noted that, "some industry experts say young people are fed up with

the violence, degrading imagery and lyrics." However, the 2005 report Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year-Olds found that hip hop music is by far the most popular music genre for children and teenagers, with 65 percent of 8- to-18-year-olds listening to it on a daily basis. Others say the music is just as popular as it ever was, but that fans have found other means to consume the music." It can also be argued that many young people now download music illegally, especially through P2P networks, instead of purchasing albums and singles from legitimate stores. For example, Flo Rida is known for his low album sales regardless of his singles being mainstream and having digital success. His second album R.O.O.T.S. sold only 200,000+ total units in the U.S., which could not line up to the sales of the album's lead single ‘Right Round’. This also happened to him in 2008.


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Some put the blame on the lack of lyrical content that hip hop once had, another example is Soulja Boy Tell 'Em's 2007 debut album was met with negative reviews. Lack of sampling, a key element of hip hop, has also been noted for the decrease in quality of modern albums. For example, there are only four samples used in 2008's Paper Trail by T.I., while there are 35 samples in 1998's Moment of Truth by Gang Starr. The decrease in sampling is in part due to it being too expensive for producers. In Byron Hurt’s documentary Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, he claims that

hip hop had changed from “clever rhymes and dance beats” to “advocating personal, social and criminal corruption.” Despite the fall in record sales throughout the music industry, hip-hop has remained a popular genre, with hip-hop artists still regularly topping the Billboard 200 Charts. In the first half of 2009 alone artists such as Eminem, Rick Ross, The Black Eyed Peas, and Fabolous all had albums that reached the #1 position on the Billboard 200 charts. Eminem’s album Relapse was one of the fastest selling albums of 2009. In 2010, six hip hop acts topped the Billboard 200; Ludacris, B.o.B, Drake, Eminem, Lil Wayne and Kanye West. In 2011 so far Nicki Minaj, Lupe Fiasco, Game, Kanye West, Jay z, Lil wayne has topped the Billboard 200 and Wiz Khalifa has topped the Billboard Hot 100

INNOVATION AND REVITALIZATION It was in the later 2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap as well as the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley. Not only did OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below receive high acclaim from music critics, manage to appeal to listeners of all ages, and span numerous musical genres – including rap, rock, R&B, punk, jazz, indie, country, pop, electronica and gospel – but it also spawned two number-one hit singles and has been certified diamond by selling 11 times platinum by the RIAA for shipping more than 11 million units, becoming one of the best selling hip-hop albums of all time as as well as winning a Grammy Award for Album of the Year at the 46th Annual Grammy Awards being only the second rap album to do so. Industry observers view the sales race between Kanye West’s Graduation and 50 Cent’s Curtis as a turning point for hip



the first week alone, proving that innovative rap music could be just as commercially viable as gangsta rap, if not more so.

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Although he designed it as a melancholic pop rather than rap, Kanye’s following 808s & Heartbreak would have a significant effect on hip hop music. While his decision to sing about love, loneliness, and heartache for the entirety of the album was at first heavily criticized by music audiences and the album predicted to be a flop, its subsequent critical acclaim and commercial success encouraged other mainstream rappers to take greater creative risks with their music. During the release of The Blueprint 3, New York rap mogul Jay-Z revealed that next studio album would be an experimental effort, stating, “... it’s not gonna be a #1 album. That’s where I’m at right now. I wanna make the most experimental album I ever made.” Jay-Z elaborated that like Kanye, he was unsatisfied with contemporary hip hop, was being inspired by indie-rockers like Grizzly Bear and asserted his belief that the indie rock movement would play an important role in the continued evolution of hip-hop. The alternative hip hop movement is not limited only to the United States, as rappers such as Somali-Canadian poet K’naan, Japanese rapper Shing02, and Sri Lankan British artist M.I.A. have achieved considerable worldwide recognition. In 2009, TIME magazine placed M.I.A in the Time 100 list of ‘World’s Most Influential people’ for having “global influence across many genres.” Global themed movements have also sprung out of the international hip-hop scene like the genre ‘Islamic Eco-Rap’ addressing issues of worldwide importance through traditionally disenfranchised voices. Today, due in part to the increasing use of music distribution through the internet, many alternative rap artists find acceptance by far-reaching audiences. Several artists such as Kid Cudi and Drake have managed to attain chart-topping hit songs, ‘Day ‘n’ Night’ and ‘Best I Ever Had’ respectively,by releasing their music on free online mixtapes without the help of a major record label.



DIFFERENT GENRES IN AMERICAN HIPHOP Battle rap Battle rap is a style of hip-hop music that blends braggadocio with the quest for lyrical superiority. Seasoned battle rappers focus on boastful lines and selfglorifying rhymes about one's proficiency or level of success, accompanied by verbal insults hurled at the other party directly or subliminally. Key Artists: Kool Moe Dee, Jay-Z, Canibus, LL Cool J

Gangsta rap Gangsta rap revolves around aggressive lyrics and trunk-heavy beats. Despite its huge acceptance in the early 90s, gangsta rap has been condemned for its violent themes. Key Artists: Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Ice Cube

Crunk Crunk originated in the 1990s as a sub-genre of southern rap. Producer Lil Jon is usually credited with spearheading the hip-hop form. True to its name, crunk utilizes a chaotic interpolation of club-oriented beats and a high-energy chorus. Key Artists: Lil Jon & The Eastside Boyz, Lil Scrappy, Trillville

East Coast hiphop East coast hip-hop originated in the streets of New York. The umbrella of this particular sub-genre covers a wide range of rap styles, from the street hop that gave yield to AZ and Nas, to the conscious approach popularized by Public Enemy and Black Star. Key Artists: Run-D.M.C., Ghostface Killah, Nas

Hyphy Hyphy, a relatively new musical import from the west coast, incorporates an uptempo high energy hip-hop style. Hyphy is characterized by witty lyrics and rugged production. Critics were quick to dismiss hyphy as a fad, mainly because it’s an offshoot of crunk. Regardless, the Bay Area has enjoyed a measurable amount of success with their brainchild. Key Artists: Keak da Sneak, E-40, Mistah F.A.B.



Conscious hip hop


Conscious rap is propelled by the idea that radical social change comes through knowledge of self and personal discovery. So-called conscious rappers devote much of their rhymes decrying societal ailments and promoting positive ideas. Conscious rap is a contentious category, and not all rappers like to be classified as such. Key Artists: Talib Kweli, Common, Mos Def

The slick polyrhythms of snap music is typically accompanied by finger snaps (hence the name) and occasional whistling to create a distinct melody. This style of hip-hop originated from Atlanta, but has made its way across different cities in the United States. Key Artists; Dem Franchise Boyz, Yin Yang Twins, D4L

Midwest hip hop

Alternative hip hop The alternative hip-hop movement encompasses MCs who constantly color outside the lines. These artists are less concerned with pop hooks and dance moves. Their main objective is to push the envelope and explore unique concepts. Key Artists: The Roots, Lupe Fiasco, Del the Funkee Homosapien

Gone are the days when hip-hop was synonymous with New York. Today, you can find mega rap stars in every corner of the world, including Midwestern states like Michigan and Missouri. Key Artists: Eminem, Nelly, Kanye West.

Southern rap Stylistically, southern rap relies on exuberant production and straightforward lyrics. With a few exceptions, southern hip-hop is more distinct for its sound and slang than for lyrical content. In an attempt to capture their stylish lifestyles on wax, some southern MCs consciously incorporate car culture, fashion trends, nightlife, and unique lingo in their songs. Key Artists: DJ Screw, T.I., Lil Wayne

West Coast hip hop There’s a generational misconception in hip-hop that lyricism can only be found in the East Coast. The west coast is home of gangsta rap, but it’s also the home to g-funk, lowrider music, freestyles, and yes, lyrical hip-hop. The Left Coast emcees have made significant contributions in their own right. Key Artists: N.W.A., Too $hort, Ras Kass, The Game, Freestyle Fellowship



EVOLUTION AND DIFFERENT GENRES OF FRENCH HIPHOP BEGINNING OF FRENCH HIPHOP Hip hop first appeared in France in 1979, just as the genre was achieving some success in the United States. In the beginning it was the American rap artists who dominated the hip hop scene in France. Even today French hip hop is still heavily influenced by the rap scene in the United States, particularly the gangster rap scene. Its popularity was due to the presence of a large African community in France. Beyond a simple glance at songs and music, a full understanding of French rap requires a consideration of the political and social status of minorities in France. Indeed the development of rap in this country is directly linked to the postcolonial relationships established with former colonies in Africa and the Caribbean. By 1982, a number of hip hop

radio stations had appeared, including Rapper Dapper Snapper and BA Crew, and the future star DJ Dee Nasty made his first appearance. That same year saw the first major hip hop concert, the New York City Rap Tour, sponsored by Europe 1 and featuring Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmixer DST, Fab 5 Freddy, Mr Freeze and the Rock Steady Crew. The first major star of French hip hop was MC Solaar, born Claude M'Barali in Dakar, Senegal. He moved to France in 1970 and lived in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges. His 1991 Qui sème le vent rÊcolte le tempo, was a major hit. The European Music Office's report on Music in Europe claimed that the French language was well-suited for rapping, and that MC Solaar's popularity came about "probably because of his very open and positive



attitude, his strong literary talents and humour” He set many records, including being the first French hip hop recording to go platinum. Most artists claim that the French language hip hop style was influenced by Renaud songs. Following MC Solaar’s breakthrough, two broad styles emerged within the French hip hop scene; artists such as Solaar, Dee Nasty, and Doc Gyneco championed a more mellow, sanguine style, while

more hardcore performers such as Assassin and Suprême NTM assumed a more aggressive aesthetic. Many such artists found themselves at the heart of controversies over lyrics that were seen as glorifying the murder of police officers and other crimes, similar to outcries over violent thuggish lyrics in American gangsta rap. The cases include the notorious Ministère AMER’s ‘Sacrifice de poulet’, NTM’s ‘Police’ and later Lunatic’s ‘Le crime paie’.

INFLUENCE OF AMERICAN HIPHOP French hip-hop, like hip-hop in other countries, is highly influenced by American hip-hop. Columnist David Brooks writes that "ghetto life, at least as portrayed in rap videos, now defines for the young, poor and disaffected what it means to be oppressed. Gangsta resistance is the most compelling model for how to rebel against that oppression." He argues that the gangster image of American hip hop appeals to poor Muslim youth in France, as a means to oppose the racism and oppression they experience. Jody Rosen counters Brooks' argument, criticizing Brooks makes use of only a few, old samples of potential French gangsta rap that contain violent or misogynistic lyrics. Brooks fails to accurately assess French hip hop's larger scope, and discounts its potential for "rappers of amazing skill, style, and wit. " France is the world's second-largest hip-hop market and the fifth largest global music market, with 7 percent of the world’s music sales, but with an unusually high quantity of local product (Negus: 159-60), although the domestic share of the French music market dropped from 48 percent to 44 percent in 1998 (Boehm 1999).



Francophone rap was given a boost in the early 2000s by a decision of the French ministry of culture, which insisted that French-language stations play a minimum of 40 percent French language music during their emissions.

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Through the nineties, the music grew to become one of the most popular genres in France; in 1997, IAM's release ‘L'école du Micro d'Argent’ sold more than 1 million discs, with NTM moving more than 700,000 copies of their final album ‘Suprême NTM’. The group went their separate ways in 2000.

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This makes up one quarter of the radio’s top 100, ten percent of local music production and has sold hundreds of thousands of CDs. French hip hop, however, is often criticized for imitating American hip hop style. French Rapper MC Solaar agrees sarcastically, saying, “French rap is pretty much a U.S. branch office... we copy everything, don’t we? We don’t even take a step back.”

In the 2000s, similar to developments in the USA, a gap has begun to emerge in French hip hop between artists seen as having sold out, belonging to the mainstream, and more innovative independent artists.

La Rumeur, Rohff, 113, Dosseh, Mister You, LIM, Lunatic, Dicidens, Lino, Kamelancien, L'Skadrille, Le 3ème Œil, Black Marché, Carré Rouge, Expression Direkt, are some hardcore rappers known for their rejection of mainstream French rap, while Casey, Rocé, Médine,Youssoupha, Fonky Family, Sexion D'Assaut, Psy4 De La Rime, Keny Arkana, Mokless, Haroun, Booba, Oxmo Puccino, Sefyu, TLF, Sniper, Arsenik, Dj Azer, Nessbeal, Puissance Nord, Mino, Soprano, L'Algérino, La Swija, Carpe Diem, represent a mix of hardcore or purist rap and mainstream designs.


Music was one way that rappers were able to bring their African heritage into their country. French tracks are often enhanced by recordings of African musical instruments, such as the kora, the balafon, and the ngoni. French rappers incorporate many different drums from African cultures into their hip hop, again installing their African heritage.


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THEMES IN FRENCH HIPHOP Themes in French hip hop include opposition to the social order, humor and puns, as well as racial and cultural identity. Whereas early French hip hop was seen as mimicking American hip hop in terms of aesthetic appeal, later French rappers added their own cultural and racial identities to the mix. With the rise of IAM's pharaoism, or allusions to ancient Egyptian pharaohs, we see them attempting to negotiate and create a space for themselves in a social scene rife with discrimination and racist ideologies.

MUSIC GENRES AND LIST OF ARTISTS French hip hop can be defined by two major categories or subgenres: hiphop from the north, mainly centered around major cities like Paris and its suburbs, and hip-hop from the south which focuses around cities like Marseille. The different social climates in the regions make the two subgenres distinct from one another. Lyrics from the south tend to be more socially conscious, with content mainly focusing on the fight against discrimination. Rappers from the south of France are known to tell the 'cold reality' of life in France. In the north, however, content tends to be more straightforward, with rappers typically talking about the drug trade, gang wars, ghetto life and clashes with the police.

Rappers from Paris: Arsenik, Lino, Booba, Ali, Ek oué, Busta Flex, Casey, Dicidens, Disiz La Peste, Kamelancien, La Brigade, La Rumeur, La Fouine, LIM, L'Skadrille, Lunatic, Mafia K'1 Fry, 113, Kery James, Intouchable, Karlito, Ideal J, Manu Key, OGB, Mister You, NTM, Kool Shen, Joey Starr, Nysay, Salif, Oxmo Puccino, Pit


Baccardi, Rohff, Scred Connexion, Haroun, Mokless, Fabe, Sefyu, Sexion D'Assaut, Sinik, Sniper, Aketo, Tunisiano, Diam's, Tandem, Mac Tyer, TLF,Youssoupha, Alibi Montana, Assassin, Beli Blanco, Despo Rutti, Diomay, Doc Gynéco, Ministère A.M.E.R, Stomy Bugsy, Expression Direkt, Iron Sy, Jarod, Kennedy, M. R, Mala, Mo'vez Lang, Nubi, Seth Gueko,Vari, X-Men, Zoxea,


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RELATIONSHIP WITH AFRICA "Hip Hop and rap music were born in the inner city urban communities of the U.S. at the end of the 1970s and first exported to England, as it was the first natural market for American musical products." When it reached the coasts of other European countries in the 1980s Afrika Bambaataa was the man behind it, and when he came to France he was overwhelmed by the great importance of black culture coming from Africa and the Caribbean. Many French hip hop artists express strong ties to Africa, though not overtly. Rappers from the 1980s and 90s needed to keep their references to Africa subtle for a few reasons. First, explicitly praising Africa would have been offensive to the many immigrants who fled Algeria and other North African countries because of the economic adversity they faced there, and many rappers probably had parents who had done so. Also, obvious Afrocentrism would have provided the French anti-Arab extreme right with an opportunity

Les Sages Poètes De La Rue, Zesau Rappers from Marseille: 45 Niggaz, Al Iman Staff, Black Marché, Bouga, Carpe Diem, R.E.D.K, Picrate, L.O, Reso, Teddy, Carré Rouge, Def Bond, El Matador, Faf Larage, Fonky Family, Ghost Dog, IAM, Akhenaton, Shurik'n, Freeman, K.Rhyme Le Roi, Kamses, Keny Arkana,

to tell Arab immigrants to return to North Africa. And finally, rising conservative Islamism in North Africa would have prevented rappers from being able to imitate their behavior in their native land. The progress of rap in France is associated with the postcolonial relationships founded with former colonies of Africa and the Caribbean. Therefore, the definition of Africa according to French ideas, and the nature of racism in French society is crucial to understanding the reason for the hip hop and rap sensation in France. Rappers are overwhlemingly of African descent, and in tackling the issue of their invisibility in French society and declaring their origins, they redefine their identity and defy French notions of race and citizenship. Some black French hip hop artists have used their music to address challenges and issues that cause poverty in African nations. The French hip hop group Bisso Na Bisso’s song ‘Dans la peau d’un chef’ refers to the corruption of African heads of state. Though their music and the issues they cover focus more on their home country, the Republic of the Congo, all member of Bisso Na Bisso live in France and rap in French.

La Swija, El Sarazino, Diego Moltissanti, Mistral, L'Algérino, Le 3ème Oeil, Le Venin, Liaisons Meurtrières, K-Rlos, Lorenzo, Lygne 26, Mino, Prodige Namor, Namor, Psy4 De La Rime, Soprano, Alonzo,Vincenzo, Puissance Nord, Révolution Urbaine, Zino, Makiavel, Brigante, S.krim, Sale Equipe, Soul Swing, Zephir, 10Kret, Berreta, Kalash L’Afro, Césarë, Chiens De


Paille, Costello,Veust Lyricist, Don Choa, Sat L’Artificier, Le Rat Luciano, RPZ,Yak Rappers from other towns: Medine, KDD, Abd al Malik (Strasbourg), Dosseh, Bakar, Axiom, Casus Belli (Lyon), IPM


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Although many artists that have dominated the hip hop scene in France are of African descent, themes dealing with the intimate connection between France and various African countries tend not to get much promotion on mainstream radio and even less consideration in scholarly research on the subject. While the popularity of nationally grown rap in France grew with the presence of MC Solaar, his involvement in the overall French hip hop subculture is non-existent as many consider his work to be in the traditional vein of French pop and not of the politically-minded, mostly African-influenced hip hop aesthetic of France.

IAM also incorporates images associated with ancient Egypt. Several group members assumed names reflective of this influence. For example, IAM member Eric Mazel goes by the name Kheops, the name of the builder of the Egyptian pyramids. The African music influences in French hip hop also extend to the use of African instruments such as the Kora, balafon, and ngoni. Many of the drums played in Africa and the Caribbean music such as derbuka from North Africa, djembe from Senegal, bèlè drums from Martinique and Dominica, gwo ka drums from Guadeloupe, etc.). The mixture of the diverse traditional African, Caribbean, and other instrumentals is what produced the French hip-hop and made it distinct. It does not necessarily represent the French inside France, but rather the minority within France that has its own origins and African connection.

Specifically, IAM incorporates many African-related themes into its music. Their 1991 song ‘Les tam-tam de l’Afrique’ was one of the first French rap hits to deal explicitly with slavery. This particular track “focused on the plunder of Africa, the abduction of its inhabitants, the Middle Passage, and the plantation system in the Americas.” It uses a sample from a Stevie Wonder song called ‘Past Time Paradise’, which, appropriately, touches on race relations and slavery as well. Many other French hip hop artists made similar statements through their music, by collaborating to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in France in 1998.

The majority of the most influential rappers are from African and Caribbean origins like MC Solaar, Passi, Lady Laistee, Hamed Daye and many more. Also the immigrants in the French community are not separated like some of the black communities in the United States. “Blacks, Arabs and Whites living together in a social systems where they were all going to school and also to university with more equal chances — and therefore more integrated into society”.

In order to mark the anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Martinique (which is an overseas department of France in the Caribbean), on May 22, Paris’s Olympia theater hosted a concert that opened with “drummers chained together” and featured performances from “rappers of African descent such as Doc Gyneco, Stomy Bugsy, Arsenik, and Hamed Daye.”




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ISLAM IN FRENCH HIPHOP A large number of the hip hop artists in France are children of North and West African Muslim immigrants. This multilayered identity presents itself in the content of their music and Islamic ideals are ever present in their music. In the current atmosphere of distrust of Islam, Islamic hip hop has become an art of protest especially in the post 9-11 world. Muslim hip hop artist and groups such as IAM have utilized their art to address these social issues. In France today the Arab community has an enormous participation in the hip hop scene and fuels much of its growth. Despite the fact that much of their work is discounted by the traditional French audience, Arab rappers use their work to explore issues surrounding this sense of exclusion and tensions in the community. The Arab community has made a major contribution to French hip hop by discussing the difficulties that they go

through everyday in France as a minority group via their music. The youth of the Arab community, like the children of immigrants to Britain, struggles to find their identity in these colonial countries where much of the older, French generation thinks of the music listen to by the younger generation (like reggae and hip-hop) to be ‘noise’, not art. As a result, most artists incorporate their roots into the present by fusing hip-hop with the music listened to by their parents (African, or North African music). Instead of this fusion being celebrated, it is looked down upon, and is often unacknowledged. Hip-hop, known as a powerful in strument of protest and rebellion draws in French minorities that are frequently disrespected in French society. This is one of the reasons that hip-hop in France is readily dismissed as ‘other’ and associated with immigrants. One of the most prominent Islamic hip-hop artists is the rapper Akhenaton from the group IAM. Akhenaton was born Philippe Fragione, to Italian immigrants and con-



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verted to Islam despite his family ties to Catholicism. His stage name ‘Akhenaton’ was chosen after the first monotheistic pharaoh in Egypt. The goal of Akhenaton’s music is to represent the spiritual Islam which is tolerant and mystical in order to loosen the high tension in France due to the prejudice against Muslim immigrants. The group IAM is an anti-establishment group as they want “nothing to do with the state”, thus actively rejecting the way the French government is handling the tensions in the country. The group IAM spreads positive messages about Islam and tolerance, a philosophy revealed by the group’s multi-ethnic make-up including members that are “Madagascaran, Senegalese, Algerian, Spanish, and Italian plus one white French

Native”.Muslim hip hop artist and groups such as IAM have utilized their art to address social issues as well as religious ones. Many scholars and Muslim clerics have studied whether hip-hop and music in general is permissible (Halal) in Islam. There have been many different opinions and controversy regarding this subject: “But for some conservative Muslims this verges on blasphemy; they say music is “haram” - or not allowed - in their strict interpretation of Islam”. Thus, there are clearly two opposing sides within Islam on the subject of hip-hop not only in France but around the world. However, regardless of whether conservative Islam permits hip-hop or not, Islamic influences on hip-hop continue to shape the future of Hip Hop globally, as it speaks to the more than 1 billion believers in the religion.




in French.” It is general knowledge that the French love lyrics, and it seems as though no other European national is as committed to the proliferation of its mother tongue.

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Although hip hop in France has been greatly influenced by American hip hop culture, the lyrics remain typically in French. Other than English, other language influences are based on oral traditions such as African griots, ‘talk over’ of Jamaica and the blues. French music lyrics typically feature puns, play on words and suggestive phonetic combinations. Such artists as Boby Lapointe often use alliterations, onomatopoeia and puns or double entendre lyrics. The dialect of choice for many hip hop artists in France is verlan which is based on the inverse of original French words. In some cases artists rap in several different languages on a track including Arabic, French and English. The purpose of the lyrics, no matter the language, is "to popularize and vent the anger and frustrations of many disadvantaged and sometimes mistreated individuals, and to defend the cause of the poorest and least socially integrated segment of French society". French hip hop stands out for its "flowing, expressive tones of the language [that] give it a clear identity within the rap world." In many French rap songs Verlan is used which is a slang that twists words by reversing and recombining them.

Like much of the Hip Hop from the United States, many French hip hop artists use the genre to address pressing social issues. The authors of the ‘Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Rai, Rap, and Franco- Maghrebi Identity’ state that The French rappers rap about “the history of slavery, humanity’s origins in Africa, Europe’s destruction of African civilizations and the independence struggle led by the Front De Liberation Nationale.” The components of their music are mostly influenced by the American rappers, but they also have their own style such as having their culture’s tune in the beat. And they rap in their language and their phonetic sounds differ in time to time. As France has embraced hip hop, they put a huge emphasis on the lyrics. The love to sing about love and poetry, and they also love to rap in French dialect. No other European nation is as committed to rapping in its mother tongue.

This makes it difficult for even French speaking listeners to understand what the MC is saying. Even though it is difficult at times to understand completely the lyrics that are being said rappers still get the heat for causing violence and disturbance within society because of their intense message of rebelling against the system. It is said that one of the most interesting points about French rap is the idea that "poetry and philosophy are greatly esteemed in France, and that they're even more greatly esteemed

In fact, French law states that radio play must contain at least 40% French-language material. David Brooks claims that French rap is a copy of American gangsta rap of the early 1990s. However, his position was attacked by Jody Rosen in her article which debunks Brooks’s belief that the French hip hop scene is no more than a carbon copy of earlier American work.

The French government has a mandate that 40 percent of the music played on the radio must be in French. This has inspired lyrical expression in the French language. Hip hop is a way for artists to express these feelings. In the nineties hip hop became the sound of Paris as well as suburban and provincial France for that matter. More precisely, a hip hop built of French language lyrics laid on top of traditional break beats and elaborate samples. France used American hip hop as a base and then made its own flavor of hip hop based on the use of French lyrics.



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INFLUENCE ON POP CULTURE a hustler or as a gangbanger. Hip-hop provides an outlet for people in the struggle to lash out at the powers that be, and to rebel in some small way against the life they’re stuck in. b.) the glorification of the banlieue also reminds us that there will always be a consumerist market of people, not in the struggle, who will take advantage of the allure of the image without totally understanding it.

The image of the banlieue, comparable to what, in the states would be called one's ‘hood’, has propagated itself into French pop culture in the form of clothing, accessories, attitude and of course the hip-hop music it yields. This fascination with the banlieue image has also found its way into the big screen with the movie B-13.

Such as much of the rap and hip hop in the United States talks about money, women, guns, etc., rap in France is also somewhat following this path.Yet, many artists still rap about their ties to Africa, culture, and sending out important messages. However, hip hop in France is taking on the same image as hip hop in the United States.

This action/martial arts film depicts a somewhat exaggerated view of what one of the worst suburbs (which is what banlieue means, roughly translated) would be like 6 years in the future. Ironically, one finds within this move almost every iconic paradigm inherent to the gangster image in the U.S. We have a plethora of drugs and guns. We have a Don Corleone/ Scarface figure who, under the influence of enough of his own product, considers himself invincible. There is, of course, a general disdain for corrupt police and politicians, and last but not least, there is the unfair imprisonment of the protagonist.

Its changing to talking about gangbanging, raping, and other illegal activities. The scene is moving away from its origins to send a message. Not only in France, but in many African countries, French hip hop is played and heard. “The images, modes and attitudes of hip-hop and gangsta rap are so powerful they are having a hegemonic effect across the globe.”

The aforementioned traits contained the sub-plots of Juice, Boyz n the Hood, Belly and New Jack City among other movies considered pivotal to gangsta rap culture. The obvious parallels seen in the glorification of the banlieue and that of one's ‘hood’ is not one to overlook. The commonalities in the two cultures are indicative of the fact that a.) almost every hip hop movement was bred from necessity and from rebellion. The guns, drugs and money of the hood are typically not the aftermath of an easy life but the result of a struggle whether it is as





CONSCIOUS AND POLITICAL HIP HOP Conscious hip hop or socially conscious hip-hop is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on social issues. It is not necessarily overtly political, but it discusses social issues and conflicts. Themes of conscious hip hop include religion, aversion to violence, culture, the economy, or simple depictions the struggles of ordinary people. Grandmaster Flash’s ‘The Message’ was an early and hugely influential political and conscious hip hop track, decrying the poverty, violence, and dead-end lives of the black youth of the time. The audience for conscious rap is largely underground. Most conscious hip hop artists have not attained the same level of commercial success as mainstream hip-hop, though there are some notable exceptions to this such as KRS-One, Mos Def, Talib Kweli, Lupe Fiasco, Lowkey, Immortal Technique, J.Cole, Kendrick Lamar, The Roots, Tupac Shakur, Nas, OutKast and Common. Like many cases within music the umbrella term was originally coined by music audiences and critics rather than the actual artists themselves and has produced considerable backlash in regards to the labeling.

Political hip hop (also political rap) is a sub-genre of hip hop music that developed in the 1980s. Inspired by 1970s political preachers such as The Last Poets and Gil Scott-Heron, Public Enemy were the first political hip hop group. Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five released the first well-known sociopolitical rap song in 1982 called ‘The Message’, which inspired numerous rappers to address social and political subjects. There are hundreds of artists whose music could be described as ‘political’.




ethos which has led them to remain independent such as Sole (artist). Prominent anarchist hip hop artists include: Emcee Lynx, Comrade Malone and Direct Raption.

Explicitly political hip hop is related to but distinct from conscious hip hop because it refers to artists who have strong and overt political affiliations and agendas, as opposed to the more generalized social commentary typical of conscious hip hop. It can also be used to include political artists of all ideological stripes, whereas the term conscious hip hop generally implies a broadly leftist affiliation or outlook.

Socialism Many other artists object to capitalism in general but prefer not to explicitly identify with either Marxism or Anarchism and instead advocate various other forms of socialism. Hip hop acts that describe their politics as ‘socialist’ include Dead Prez, the Blue Scholars, and Sun Rise Above. Immortal Technique identifies himself as a socialist who promotes anti-imperialism, equality, peace and human rights. Looptroop Rockers is an anti-authoritarian, anti-capitalist hip hop project from Sweden. Gatas Parlament is an anti-American, anti-capitalist hip hop project from Norway. Askari X, a rapper hailing from Oakland, CA, has also expressed his loyalty to the African People Socialist Party (APSP) At Versaris, a hip-hop band from Catalonia, expresses both their adherence to both revolutionary socialism and catalonian independence.

Black nationalism Black nationalism was an ideology underlying the militant wing of the North American civil rights movement in the 1970s and early 1980s. It played a role in early political hip hop and continues to be a theme for many contemporary political hip hop artists. Prominent black nationalist artists include Tupac Shakur, Public Enemy, N.W.A, Brand Nubian, Sister Souljah and Big Daddy Kane

Other Other political hip hop artists advocate a wide range of positions, and often disagree with one another. Zionist hip hop acts like Golan and Subliminal, and Palestinian nationalists like the Iron Sheik have obvious fundamental disagreements about a wide range of issues, but both use hip hop music and culture as a vehicle to express themselves and spread their ideas. As hip hop becomes increasingly widespread, artists from many different countries and backgrounds are using it to express many different positions, among them political ones. The nature of hip hop (as with much music) as an opposing force to the establishment lends itself to such a use.

Marxism Marxism has been an element of social movements worldwide and is seen in Hip Hop. Two overtly Marxist groups in the English language have been Marxman and The Coup. Both groups also incorporate Revolutionary Nationalism into their message, Irish Republicanism for Marxman and Black Nationalism for The Coup. Sun Rise Above is another, lesser known, Marxist artist. For these artists, class struggle and anti-imperialism are major recurring themes

Anarchism Anarchism is relevant in hip hop culture. Like Marxist hip hop, class struggle and anti-imperialism are major themes in anarchist hip hop music along with anti-parliamentarianism and a strong emphasis on intersectionality and the connections between different movements. The need for community-level grassroots organization and opposition to political hierarchy and illegitimate authority are also common themes. Unlike Marxist acts, several of which have been signed to major labels, anarchist artists have generally followed a DIY

Hispanic political hip hop scene Political rappers of Hispanic descent include Sick Jacken & Cynic, Strate Crooked, Olmeca, Browny Loco, Commandante, Tohil, Genocide, Big Will, Elegal, Tolteca, Immortal Technique, Kemo The Blaxican, Divary, MRK, and Zack de la Rocha.


CONSCIOUS HIP HOP This is the music that is mobilising Britain's youth and getting them to think about issues they might not otherwise have done Richard Sudan, Saturday 30 April 2011 11.00 BST

Thousands of students protesting against the government's plans for tuition fees in recent months put paid to the myth that young people are apathetic and don't care about politics. On the contrary, they do care so much that many were subsequently beaten by the police, illegally kettled and demonised by the press in the weeks that followed. There's a soundtrack to accompany this struggle, and that soundtrack is conscious UK hip-hop – a vehicle that is mobilising young people and articulating their collective voice.You can hear it in the lyrics and you can hear the music. It is played at almost every major protest, blaring out from soundsystems. Differing from the often violent image that rap has been tarnished with, conscious hip-hop is generally the opposite of what is marketed and supported by corporate labels. As London-based rapper Lowkey, one of the best-known figures on the scene, puts it in a track entitled My Soul: “They can’t use my music to advertise for Coca Cola / they can’t use my music to advertise for Motorola / they can’t use my music to advertise for anything / I guess that’s reason the industry won’t let me in /

refuse to be a product or a brand I’m a human / refuse to contribute to the gangsta illusion.” In short, conscious rap is hip-hop as it should be. Many people know of US conscious rappers such as Dead Prez, KRS-One and Immortal Technique. But how is it relevant to activism here in the UK? US professor and author MK Asante Jr argues that hip-hop simply means “making an observation [about society] and having an obligation”. Asante, who also co-wrote and produced the film The Black Candle – a Maya Angelou-narrated film about the Kwanzaa festival and African American history – recently teamed up with British rapper Akala and Lowkey to discuss this topic in front of a packed audience at the British Library. Their conclusion was simple. While hip-hop should reflect reality, it should also have the capacity to offer solutions and provoke debate as any art form should. This brand of hip-hop is embodied by anti-capitalist rappers who are key figures on the un erground scene. The rap group they founded, the People’s Army, exemplifies the kind of hip-hop which can galvanise socially conscious young people. One

the soundtrack to young politics in the UK offshoot of this has been the birth of The Equality Movement. Founded by Lowkey, Logic and activist Jody McIntyre, it organises public meetings which are free and open for anyone to attend. It has drawn huge crowds and has so far included themes such as ‘What is imperialism?’ and ‘How to resist’, while the first meeting included keynote speeches from journalists Tariq Ali and Seumas Milne. A quick YouTube search for these artists reveals that while they remain unsigned (indeed, they don’t want to be signed), their tracks gain thousands of hits. Lowkey’s song Long Live Palestine for example (all profits were donated to the people living in the Gaza Strip) and the buzz it created raised awareness of the issue to a new audience. It speaks volume for hip-hop’s ability to get people thinking about issues they might not otherwise have done. Likewise, Logic’s recent track Down for my people spoke to those young people who experienced their first taste of protesting at the student and anti-cuts demos. The song has received an avalanche of hits on YouTube in a matter of weeks. Another notable col-

laboration by Logic and Lowkey was their track in support of the NSPCC’s ‘Don’t hide it’ campaign, in which they encouraged young people to speak out if suffering from abuse. While young people continue to identify less and less with the current political status quo, hip-hop will only continue to strengthen. So far, it has reached and politicised young people when other artists supported by mainstream labels have failed. While we often look to the US for inspirational rappers, we do in fact have an abundance of talent right on our doorstep. They are just a click away.

































TUPAC SHAKUR Birth name Lesane Parish Crooks Also known as 2Pac, Pac, Makaveli Born June 16, 1971 East Harlem, New York City Origin Oakland, California, U.S. Died September 13, 1996 (aged 25) Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S. Genres Hip hop Occupations Rapper, actor, record producer, poet, screenwriter, activist, writer

Labels Interscope, Death Row, Amaru

Years active 1988–1996 (rapping) 1990–1996 (acting)

Associated acts Outlawz, Johnny ‘J’, Snoop Doggy Dogg, Digital Underground, Richie Rich, K-Ci & JoJo, Dave Hollister, Dr. Dre, Tha Dogg Pound, Boot Camp Clik, Nate Dogg,Young Noble

TUPAC / CHANGES [Verse 1] Come on come on I see no changes wake up in the morning and I ask myself is life worth living should I blast myself? I'm tired of bein' poor & even worse I'm black my stomach hurts so I'm lookin' for a purse to snatch Cops give a damn about a negro pull the trigger kill a nigga he's a hero Give the crack to the kids who the hell cares one less hungry mouth on the welfare First ship 'em dope & let 'em deal the brothers give 'em guns step back watch 'em kill each other It's time to fight back that's what Huey said 2 shots in the dark now Huey's dead I got love for my brother but we can never go nowhere unless we share with each other We gotta start makin' changes learn to see me as a brother instead of 2 distant strangers and that's how it's supposed to be How can the Devil take a brother if he's close to me? I'd love to go back to when we played as kids but things changed, and that's the way it is [Chorues with changing ad libs] Come on come on That's just the way it is Things'll never be the same That's just the way it is aww yeah [Repeat] [Verse 2] I see no changes all I see is racist faces misplaced hate makes disgrace to races We under I wonder what it takes to make this one better place, let's erase the wasted Take the evil out the people they'll be acting right 'cause mo' black and white is smokin' crack tonight and only time we chill is when we kill each other it takes skill to be real, time to heal each other And although it seems heaven sent We ain't ready, to see a black President, uhh It ain't a secret don't conceal the fact the penitentiary's packed, and it's filled with blacks But some things will never change try to show another way but you stayin' in the dope game Now tell me what's a mother to do bein' real don't appeal to the brother in you You gotta operate the easy way "I made a G today" But you made it in a sleazy way sellin' crack to the kid. " I gotta get paid," Well hey, well that's the way it is

[Chorus]2X [2pac Talking] We gotta make a change It's time for us as a people to start makin' some changes. Let's change the way we eat, let's change the way we live and let's change the way we treat each other. You see the old way wasn't working so it's on us to do what we gotta do, to survive. [Verse 3] And still I see no changes can't a bother get a little peace There's war in the streets and war in the middle east Instead of war on poverty they got a war on drugs so the police can bother me And I ain't never did a crime I ain't have to do But now I'm back with the facts givin' em back to you Don't let 'em jack you up, back you up, crack you up and pimps Smack you up You gotta learn to hold ya own they get jealous when they see ya with ya mobile phone But tell the cops they can't touch this I don't trust this when they try to rush I bust this That's the sound of my tool you say it ain't cool my mama didn't raise no fool And as long as I stay black I gotta stay strapped I never get to lay back 'Cause I always got to worry 'bout the pay backs some buck that I roughed up way back comin' back after all these years rat-a-tat-tat-tat-tat that's the way it is uhh Chorus 2x Some things will never change...

TUPAC / DEAR MAMA You are appreciated... When I was young, me and my mama had beef 17 years old kicked out on tha streets though back in tha time, I never thought I’d see her face ain’t a woman alive that can take my momma’s place suspended from school, scared ta go home I was a fool with tha big boys breaking all tha rules shed tears with my baby sister over tha years we wuz poorer than tha other little kids and even though we had different daddies tha same drama when things went wrong we blamed mama I reminised on tha stress I caused, it wuz hell hugg’en on my mama from a jail cell and who’ed think in elementary, heeeey i’d see tha penitentiary One day running from tha Police, that’s right Momma catch me--put a whoop’en to my backside and even as a crack fiend mama, ya always was a black queen mama I finally understand for a woman it ain’t easy--trying ta raise a man ya always wuz commited, a poor single mother on welfare, tell me how ya did it there’s no way I can pay ya back but tha plan is ta show ya that I understand. you are appreciated......

Chorus Laaaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya Sweeeet Laaaady, place no one above ya Sweeeet Laaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya Ain’t nobody tell us it wuz fair no luv for my daddy, cause tha coward wuzn’t there he passed away and I didn’t cry cause my anger, wouldn’t let me feel for a stranger they say i’m wrong and i’m heartless but all along I wuz looking for a father--he wuz gone I hung around with tha thug’s and even though they sold drugs they showed a young brother luv I moved out and started really hang’in I needed money of my own so I started slang’in I ain’t guilty cause, even though I sell rocks It feels good, putting money in your mailbox I love paying rent when tha rents due I hope ya got tha diamond necklace that I sent to you cause when I wuz low, you was there for me ya never left me alone, cause ya cared for me and I can see ya coming home after work late ya in tha kitchen trying ta fix us a hot plate

just working with tha scraps you wuz given and mama made miracles every Thanksgiving but now tha road got rough, your alone trying ta raise two bad kids on your own and there’s no way I can pay ya back but my plan is ta show ya that I understand you are appreciated.....

Chorus Laaaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya Sweeeet Laaaady, place no one above ya Sweeeet Laaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya pour out some liquor and I remenise cause through tha drama, I can always depend on my mama and when it seems that i’m hopeless you say tha words that can get me back in focus when I wuz sick as a little kid ta keep me happy theres no limit to tha things ya did and all my childhood memories are full of all tha sweet things ya did for me and even though I act craaaazy I got ta thank tha Lord that ya maaaade me There are no words that can express how I feel Ya never kept a secret, always stayed real and I appreciate how ya raised me and all tha extra love that ya gave me I wish I could take tha pain away If you can make it through tha night, there’s a brighter day everything’ll be alright if ya hold on it’s a struggle everyday gotta roll on and there’s no way I can pay ya back but my plan is ta show ya that I understand you are appreciated.......

Chorus Laaaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya Sweeeet Laaaady, place no one above ya Sweeeet Laaaady, don’t cha know we luv ya, Sweeeet Laaaady Laaaady...[fades]...Laaaady

MOS DEF Birth name Dante Terrell Smith Also known as Yasiin Bey Born December 11, 1973 (age 37) Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York City, U.S. Origin Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, New York City Genres Hip hop Occupations Rapper, actor, singer, activist Years active 1994–present

Labels Rawkus, Priority, Geffen, Downtown, GOOD Music Associated acts Soulquarians, Black Star, Talib Kweli, Native Tongues Posse, Kanye West, Gorillaz, Massive Attack

MOS DEF & TALIB KWELI / DEFINITION [Mos Def] Lawwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwwd, lawd have mercy All nice and decent crew, follow me now, we say Say Hi-Tek yes you’re ruling hip-hop Say J. Rawls yes you’re ruling hip-hop Redefinition say you’re ruling hip-hop Say Black Star come to rock it non... Yo, from the first to the last of it, delivery is passionate The whole and not the half of it, vocab and not the math of it Projectile that them blasted with, accurate assassin shit Me and Kweli close like, Bethlehem and Nazareth After this you be pressing rewind on top your master disk Shining like an asterisk for all those that be gatherin Connectin like a roundhouse from the townhouse to the tenaments Cause all my Brooklyn residents, ? heavy regiments Don’t believe, here the evidence, where Brooklyn WHAAAAAAAoohhhh See that? Bound to take it all kid, believe that From where they sellin tree at, to where the police be at Talib Kweli e-Kweli-ty yo tell them where we be at [Talib Kweli] Brooklyn New York City where they paint murals of Biggie In cash we trust cause it’s ghetto fabulous, life look pretty what a pity -- blunts is still fifty cents, it’s intense Tree scents is dominant can’t be covered with incense My presence felt my name is Kweli from the Eternal Reflection People thinkin MC is short hand for Mis Conception Let me meditate, set it straight, came to the conclusion that most of these cats is featherweight, let me demonstrate Walkin the streets is like battlin, be careful with your body You must know karate or think your soul is bulletproof like Sade Stop actin like a bitch already, be a visionary And maybe you can see your name in the column of obituary Third rate teacher readin and talkin about, “I knew he’d amount to nothin” Neighbors like, “He was the quiet type, who’d have thought they was frontin?” Talkin +Loud+ like you in RCA, get carted away with body parts and treys, what a way to start your day Yo it’s like Chorus: Mos Def and Talib Kweli One two three Mos Def and Talib Kweli We came to rock it on to the tip-top Best alliance in hip-hop, wyahhhhh I said one two three It’s kind of dangerous to be a emcee They shot Tupac and Biggie Too much violence in hip-hop, wyahhhhh

[Mos Def] I said Manhattan keep on makin it (Bo!), Brooklyn keep on takin it (Bo!) So relax we’re takin it back, Redhook where we’re livin at Plenty cats be strugglin not hustlin and bubblin It ain’t about production and -- what else we discussin? When the cock crows, my crop grows, enable me to rock flows Strivin for perfection ever since I was a snot-nosed COLOSSAL, true original b-boy apostle Standin on the rooftop with the, Zulu gestapo [Talib Kweli] You think you the shit somebody in the wings’ll force you to quit It could be your crew or click or some random kid you smoked buddha with Consider me the entity within the industry without a history of spittin the epitome, of stupidity -- livin my life expressin my liberty, it gotta be done properly My name is in the middle of e-Kweli-ty People follow me and other cats they hear him flow And assume I’m the real one with lyrics like I’m Cyrano [Mos Def] Still sippin wishin well water, imported, from Pluto Three hundred and sixty milliliters for all our believers In miles or kilometers, most cats, cannot proceed us in the jungle with the leaders we the lions you the +cheaters+ A cypher, will complete us if we come through your receivers You can play us and repeat us and then take us home and read us (line for line) Good Jesus, Mos Def and Kweli just make a pussy freeze up, thinkin we will ease up Chorus

MOS DEF FT IMMORTAL TECHNIQUE / BIN LADEN [Mos Def - talking] Man, you hear this bullshit they be talkin' Every day, man It's like these motherfuckers is just like professional liars YouknowwhatI'msayin? It's wild Listen [Hook - Mos Def] Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] [Verse 1 - Immortal Technique] I pledge no allegiance, nigga fuck the president's speeches I'm baptized by America and covered in leeches The dirty water that bleaches your soul and your facial features Drownin' you in propaganda that they spit through the speakers And if you speak about the evil that the government does The Patriot Act'll track you to the type of your blood They try to frame you, and say you was tryna sell drugs And throw a federal indictment on niggaz to show you love This shit is run by fake Christians, fake politicians Look at they mansions, then look at the conditions you live in All they talk about is terrorism on television They tell you to listen, but they don't really tell you they mission They funded Al-Qaeda, and now they blame the Muslim religion Even though Bin Laden, was a CIA tactician They gave him billions of dollars, and they funded his purpose Fahrenheit 9/11, that's just scratchin' the surface [Hook - Mos Def] Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] [Verse 2 - Immortal Technique]

They say the rebels in Iraq still fight for Saddam But that's bullshit, I'll show you why it's totally wrong Cuz if another country invaded the hood tonight It'd be warfare through Harlem, and Washington Heights I wouldn't be fightin' for Bush or White America's dream I'd be fightin' for my people's survival and self-esteem I wouldn't fight for racist churches from the south, my nigga I'd be fightin' to keep the occupation out, my nigga You ever clock someone who talk shit, or look at you wrong? Imagine if they shot at you, and was rapin' your moms And of course Saddam Hussein had chemical weapons We sold him that shit, after Ronald Reagan's election Mercenary contractors fightin' a new era Corporate military bankin' off the war on terror They controllin' the ghetto, with the failed attack Tryna distract the fact that they engineerin' the crack So I'm strapped like Lee Malvo holdin' a sniper rifle These bullets'll touch your kids, and I don't mean like Michael Your body be sent to the morgue, stripped down and recycled I fire on house niggaz that support you and like you Cuz innocent people get murdered in the struggle daily And poor people never get shit and struggle daily This ain't no alien conspiracy theory, this shit is real Written on the dollar underneath the Masonic seal (I don't rap for dead presidents I'd rather see the president dead It's never been said but I set precedents)--[Eminem] [Hook - Mos Def] Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga Bin Laden didn't blow up the projects It was you, nigga Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] Tell the truth, nigga (Bush knocked down the towers)--[Jadakiss] (Shady Records was 80 seconds away from the towers Some cowards fucked with the wrong building, they meant to hit ours)-- [Eminem]

TALIB KWELI Birth name Talib Kweli Green also known as The Get By Man, Kweli Snitch, The Prince of Brooklyn, BK MC Born October 3, 1975 (age 36) Brooklyn, New York City, U.S. Origin Brooklyn, New York City Genres Alternative Hip hop Occupations Rapper, poet Years active 1995–present

Labels Rawkus Records Geffen Blacksmith Records / Warner Bros. Records (2005-Present) Associated acts Black Star, Reflection Eternal, Madlib, Mos Def

TALIB KWELI FT MOS DEF / HOSTILE GOSPEL PT. 1 (DELIVER US) [Intro: singers (Talib)] Deliver us, deliver us (Yeah) Deliver us, deliver us (What? Yeah) [Talib Kweli] And what the people say? We wanna live it up And what the people want? Please deliver us And what the people need? Hey... I got that, yeah [Talib Kweli] I call these rappers baby seals, cause they club you to death I could call 'em Navy SEALs, cause they government feds What become of the vets? They drugged up, they fucked up, they in debt There ain't no love and no respect, it's like a gang it's like a club or a set Hip-Hop's the new WWF What do you rap or do you wrestle? Niggaz love to forget We got til it's gone, you think you on, you still hustlin backwards Your topical norm a tropical storm, it's a fuckin disaster Back to the topic we on, it all started at Rawkus They couldn't find the words to describe me so they resort to the shortcuts Is he a backpacker? Is he a mad rapper? An entertainer or the author of the last chapter We living in these times of love and cholera Synonymous with the apocalypse, look up the clouds is ominous We got maybe ten years left say meteorologists, shit We still waitin for the Congress to acknowledge this~! [Chorus: Talib Kweli & singers in the background] What the people want? Please deliver us We wanna live it up, please deliver us Th-th-this is the, th-th-this is the, this is the hostile gospel I'm reaching through the fire - please deliver us I'm preaching to the choir - please deliver us Just keep it real with us, you scared to spill your blood Your words rung hollow, we need someone to follow [Talib Kweli] You ain't promised tomorrow, so get your paper up You can't always just borrow and asks for favors bruh Stand on your own two, never covet thy neighbor's stuff Karma's a bitch so watch your mouth and what you sayin bruh I start a conversation based on general observation Hip-Hop is not a nation, take it to population Niggaz got a lot to say when locked inside the belly of Satan Awaitin trial debatin how the hell I got placed in this system Am I a victim or just a product of indoctrination? They exploit it and use me like a movie with product placement You hear the congregation; this is the hostile gospel The truth is hard to swallow it'll leave you scarred tomorrow Keep it honest our motto, these niggaz keep it bottled I'm the writer who reach the fighters like speeches by Cus D'Amato

DJs stickin to vinyl like "Fuck Serato" Suppliers who ride around the block, in the custom models Ballin like the struck the lotto you know who the cleanest is A nigga keep it reeich with the stitch and greedy geniuses I'm not a hipster, but I flip it like a sneaker pimp Expose the game, treat it like a bitch Smack fire out these hoes, cause they snitch and tap wires while I plead the fifth You can't trust a soul in the biz, so be careful who you eatin with and sleepin with and also who you chiefin with You never know they might've added in secret ingredients [Chorus] [Talib Kweli] Freedom's a road that's seldom traveled, watch hell unravel Right before the eyes of the soldier who fell in battle The single mother who raised her daughter to bear the sacred water And not take the hand of every man who make a offer To black kids wishin they white kids, when they close they eyelids Like, "I bet they neighborhood ain't like this" White kids wishin they black kids, and wanna talk like rappers It's all backwards it's identity crisis The industry inside us is vipers with fangs trying to bite us Drug suppliers is the health care providers We cakin, makin narcotics outta household products We ain't workin out 'til we exorcise the demons that's inside us Plus they seem to just provide us with enough rope to hang ourselves Enough dope to slang ourselves, enough toast to bang ourselves It's officially nigga season, these niggaz is bleedin That's why I'm spittin freedom we had enough of trigger squeezin [Chorus] [Outro: singer] In these tryin days and times All I need is to be free I can't do it on my own Lord can you deliver me? There are trials still to come It's salvation that I need So I'm reachin to the sky Lord can you deliver me? Deliver us...Deliver us, yeah Deliver us, ohhhhhhhhhh Oh, deliver us Deliver us Ohhhhh Deliver us yes Deliver us, deliver us, deliver us Yeah yeah yeah, ohhhhhhhhhh... [ad libs to fade]

TALIB KWELI FT MOS DEF / THIEVES IN THE NIGHT [Talib Kweli] Yo Dee (What?) Come on (Yeah..) What? What? Come on (Yeah) "Give me the fortune, keep the fame," said my man Louis I agreed, know what he mean because we live the truest lie I asked him why we follow the law of the bluest eye He looked at me, he thought about it Was like, "I'm clueless, why?" The question was rhetorical, the answer is horrible Our morals are out of place and got our lives full of sorrow And so tomorrow comin later than usual Waitin' on someone to pity us While we findin beauty in the hideous They say money's the root of all evil but I can't tell YouknowhatImean, pesos, francs, yens, cowrie shells, dollar bills Or is it the mindstate that's ill? Creating crime rates to fill the new prisons they build Over money and religion there's more blood to spill The wounds of slaves in cotton fields that never heal What's the deal? A lot of cats who buy records are straight broke But my language universal they be recitin my quotes While R&B singers hit bad notes, we rock the boat of thought, that my man Louis' statements just provoked Caught up, in conversations of our personal worth Brought up, through endangered species status on the planet Earth Survival tactics means, bustin gats to prove you hard Your firearms are too short to box with God Without faith, all of that is illusionary Raise my son, no vindication of manhood necessary [M.D.] Not strong [T.K.] Only aggressive [M.D.] Not free [T.K.] We only licensed [M.D.] Not compassioniate, only polite [T.K.] Now who the nicest? [M.D.] Not good but well behaved [T.K.] Chasin after death so we can call ourselves brave? [M.D.] Still livin like mental slaves [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [Mos Def] Yo, I'm sure that everbody out listenin agree That everything you see ain't really how it be

A lot of jokers out runnin in place, chasin the style Be a lot goin on beneath the empty smile Most cats in my area be lovin the hysteria Synthesized surface conceals the interior America, land of opportunity, mirages and camoflauges More than usually -- speakin loudly, sayin nothin You confusin me, you losin me Your game is twisted, want me enlisted -- in your usary Foolishly, most men join the ranks cluelessly Buffoonishly accept the deception, believe the perception Reflection rarely seen across the surface of the lookin glass Walkin the street, wonderin who they be lookin past Lookin gassed with them imported designer shades on Stars shine bright, but the light -- rarely stays on Same song, just remixed, different arrangement Put you on a yacht but they won’t call it a slaveship Strangeness, you don’t control this, you barely hold this Screamin brand new, when they just sanitized the old shit Suppose it’s, just another clever Jedi mind trick That they been runnin across stars through all the time with I find it’s distressin, there’s never no in-between We either niggaz or Kings We either bitches or Queens The deadly ritual seems immersed, in the perverse Full of short attention spans, short tempers, and short skirts Long barrel automatics released in short bursts The length of black life is treated with short worth Get yours first, them other niggaz secondary That type of illin that be fillin up the cemetary This life is temporary but the soul is eternal Separate the real from the lie, let me learn you Not strong, only aggressive, cause the power ain’t directed That’s why, we are subjected to the will of the oppressive Not free, we only licensed Not live, we just excitin Cause the captors.. own the masters.. to what we writin Not compassionate, only polite, we well trained Our sincerity’s rehearsed in stage, it’s just a game Not good, but well behaved cause the ca-me-ra survey most of the things that we think, do, or say We chasin after death just to call ourselves brave But everyday, next man meet with the grave I give a damn if any fan recall my legacy I’m tryin to live life in the sight of God’s memory Like that y’all [Mos Def] A lot of people don’t understand the true criteria of things Can’t just accept the appearance Have to get the true essence [Talib Kweli] They ain’t lookin around [M.D.] Not strong [T.K.] Only aggressive

[M.D.] Not free [T.K.] We only licensed [M.D.] Not compassioniate, only polite [T.K.] Now who the nicest? [M.D.] Not good but well behaved [T.K.] Chasin after death so we can call ourselves brave? [M.D.] Still livin like mental slaves [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [both] Hidin like thieves in the night from life Illusions of oasis makin you look twice [Mos Def (singing)] Stop hidin, stop hidin, stop hidin yo’ face Stop hidin, stop hidin, cause ain’t no hidin place • repeat 2X*

J.COLE Birth name Jermaine Lamarr Cole Born January 28, 1985 (age 26) Frankfurt, Germany Origin Fayetteville, North Carolina Genres Hip hop, R&B Occupations Rapper, singer, producer Years active 2007–present

Labels Roc Nation, Columbia, Sony Music Entertainment Associated acts Jay-Z, Rihanna, Wale, Kendrick Lamar, Drake, Fashawn, Omen, B.o.B, Talib Kweli, Jay Electronica, Big Sean

J.COLE / SHOW ME SOMETHING (Intro) Yea, yea, yea, yea, yea, yea, yea, uh! (Chorus) What am I here for? I'm a man so I cannot let them tears fall, But understand trynna get my head clear ya'll, this shit is on my mind, asking for the lord to show me all my signs, Show me something (uh) Cause I'm trynna find something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (yeah) (Verse 1) I sit and reminisce on them niggas no longer here, and how I used to hit the mall and ya was always there, I sit and think how I didn't grow up with my father there, no need to cry cause it only made me stronger yea, i watched my brother get in trouble with the law and yea, that shit cut me like I was sitting in a barber chair, cause I don't want to see *him* locked up in them bars in there, and I don't want to see him stretched out in a coffin yea, I'm wishing I can move my momma out so far from here, I know that she deserve much better and she worked hard as hell, that's why you never see me settle cause they want us here, I'm trynna side step the devil but he heartless yea, but just know that I'm a rebel and yo it's almost here, I'm talking bout the revolution I am Paul Revere. so dry your eyes momma please you can pause them tears cause I promise I'm gon get us outta here, I'm gonna get us outta here (Chorus) What am I here for? I'm a man so I cannot let them tears fall, But understand trynna get my head clear ya'll, this shit is on my mind, asking for the lord to show me all my signs, Show me something (uh) Cause I'm trynna find something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (yeah) (Verse 2) I swear I'm praying for my niggas when I say grace, I know them niggas don't care who they hit they spray strays, But lord please protect my family cause if they graze, niggas is loading up that ammi and them A-K's, I know it's wrong and that revenge is all in your hands, but last night I heard they robbed and killed an old man, now if they cold enough to take a life that's innocent, I know that they could give a fuck whether I live and shit,

and so I'm asking you if you can hold me down lord, be my umbrella-ella-ella in this down pour, I know you never ever ever let me drown or, won't let that devil ever ever win this round naw, and though I stray from you, you know that my heart is good, Find More lyrics at and I know I ain't exactly living how I probly should, and I'm a try to act better like it's Hollywood, niggas congratulate me I just tell them God is good, God is good (Chorus) What am I here for? I'm a man so I cannot let them tears fall, But understand trynna get my head clear ya'll, this shit is on my mind, asking for the lord to show me all my signs, Show me something (uh) Cause I'm trynna find something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (uh) I'm lost can you show me something (yeah) (Verse 3) yea, huh, yea my niggas drug dealing in the trap, I'm tellin you wake up nigga it's a trap, you set up and to them young mothers fed up, just keep your head up, don't let up, you fall you get up, you make your bed up that you sleep in, fake rappers ain't practicing what they preaching, they tell you hit the trap while they relaxing on the beach and, I'm here to spit the facts, a nigga backflipped off the deep end,

J.COLE / BREAKDOWN [Verse 1] Look, I just shed tears homie and now I ain’t to proud to admit it Just seen my father for the first time in a minute And when I say a minute I mean years man Damn, a whale could have swam in them tears fam Cause as I left em’ I reflected on my younger days When it was just me and my brother and my mother played Father, cause no other man bothered Not even my biological, it never seemed logical But I accepted it cause I ain’t know no better Thought I was brighter than a Polo sweater No pops was like Martin with no Coretta So many things you could have told me And saved me the trouble of letting my mistakes show me I feel like you barely know me And that’s a shame cause our last name is the same That blood type flowing through our veins is the same My mama left you and it may be that anger’s to blame But that’s no excuse, only you and God know the truth And why you only call monthly, barely ever saw me Spend some summers with you and played with my cousin Maury Maybe I should be tellin’ you “f-ck you” cause you selfish But I want a father so bad, I can’t help but… Break down, I break down Can’t help but break down I break down [Verse 2] I never thought I’d see my mama on that shit, man It’s f-cking with her body, now she sick, damn I wanted a big house with a white picket fence and a pool Who would have ever thought that it would come to this, man? Quicksand is what this life feel like That shit these rappers kick is nothing like real life You made a milli off of servin’ hard white? yeah right My mama tell you what addicted to that pipe feel like Stupid niggas, I heard the cops been shooting niggas I swear to god, wish I could bullet proof my niggas Can’t get no jobs, but they still recruiting niggas We tryna stand tall when it get too crucial niggas Break down! We break down We break down, we break down [Verse 3] He’s serving time, locked down And she don’t want nobody to know, his daughter 25 pounds By the time he get out, she gon’ be 4 Now will his girl stay down? Ain’t no doubt she love him, yeah that’s for sure But temptation stays round And if she strayed, how could he ever know? Never know and so, she goes to the club on the weekend A little freaking, but them niggas holla But she never speaking, but tonight I see the devil creeping Cause she been lonely, she ain’t felt a man in 7 seasons

Damn! She do the best that she can Her mama telling her to find another man She college educated with a felon boyfriend That’s what she thinking tonight Maybe she’s right, but please Stay down mama! Gotta be strong, don’t break down mama! Please stay down mama! Gotta be strong, don’t break down mama! Don’t break down, dont break down, dont break down Break break down, steady breaking me down Break break down, steady breaking me down Break break down, steady breaking me down

IMMORTAL TECHNIQUE Birth name Felipe Andres Coronel Born February 19, 1978 (age 33) Lima, Lima Province, Peru Origin Harlem, New York, United States Genres Hip hop Occupations Rapper,

Labels Viper Records

Years active 2000–present

Associated acts Akir, Diabolic, Lowkey, Chino XL, DJ Green Lantern, La Coka Nostra, Jean Grae, Rockin’ Squat, Mos Def , Dead Prez , Ras Kass , Krs-One , Reppin MG

IMMORTAL TECHNIQUE / DANCE WITH THE DEVIL [Verse 1] I once knew a nigga whose real name was William His primary concern, was making a million Being the illest hustler, that the world ever seen He used to fuck movie stars and sniff coke in his dreams A corrupted young mind, at the age of thirteen Nigga never had a father and his mom was a fiend She put the pipe down, but every year she was sober Her sons heart simultaneously grew colder He started hanging out selling bags in the projects Checking the young chicks, looking for hit and run prospects He was fascinated by material objects But he understood money never bought respect He build a reputation 'cause he could hustle and steal But got locked once and didn't hesitate to squeal So criminals he chilled with didn't think he was real You see me and niggas like this have never been equal I don't project my insecurities at other people He fiended for props like addicts with pipes and needles So he felt he had to prove to everyone he was evil A feeble-minded young man with infinite potential The product of a ghetto breed capitalistic mental Coincidentally dropped out of school to sell weed Dancing with the devil, smoked until his eyes would bleed But he was sick of selling trees and gave in to his greed [Hook] Everyone trying to be trife never face the consequences You probably only did a month for minor offences Ask a nigga doing life if he had another chance But then again there's always the wicked that knew in advance Dance forever with the devil on a cold cell block But that's what happens when you rape, murder and sell rock Devils used to be gods, angels that fell from the top There's no diversity because we're burning in the melting pot [Verse 2] So Billy started robbing niggas, anything he could do To get his respect back, in the eyes of his crew Starting fights over little shit, up on the block Stepped up to selling mothers and brothers the crack rock Working overtime for making money for the crack spot Hit the jackpot and wanted to move up to cocaine fulfilling the scarface fantasy stuck in his brain Tired of the block niggas treating him the same He wanted to be major like the cut throats and the thugs But when he tried to step to 'em, niggas showed him no love They told him any motherfucking coward can sell drugs Any bitch nigga with a gun, can bust slugs Any nigga with a red shirt can front like a blood Even Puffy smoked a motherfucker up in a club But only a real thug can stab someone till they die

Standing in front of them, starring straight into their eyes Billy realized that these men were well guarded And they wanted to test him, before business started Suggested raping a bitch to prove he was cold hearted So now he had a choice between going back to his life Or making money with made men, up in the cife His dreams about cars and ice, made him agree A hardcore nigga is all he ever wanted to be And so he met them Friday night at a quarter to three [Hook] [Verse 3] They drove around the projects slow while it was raining Smoking blunts, drinking and joking for entertainment Until they saw a woman on the street walking alone Three in the morning, coming back from work, on her way home And so they quietly got out the car and followed her Walking through the projects, the darkness swallowed her They wrapped her shirt around her head and knocked her onto the floor This is it kid now you got your chance to be raw So Billy oaked her up and grabbed the chick by the hair And dragged her into a lobby that had nobody there She struggled hard but they forced her to go up the stairs They got to the roof and then held her down on the ground Screaming shut the fuck up and stop moving around The shirt covered her face, but she screamed and clawed So Billy stomped on the bitch, until he had broken her jaw The dirty bastards knew exactly what they were doing They kicked her until they cracked her ribs and she stopped moving Blood leaking through the cloth, she cried silently And then they all proceeded to rape her violently Billy was made to go first, but each of them took a turn Ripping her up, and choking her until her throat burned A broken jaw mumbled for guards but they weren't concerned When they were done and she was lying bloody, broken and bruised One of them niggas pulled out a brand new twenty-two They told him that she was a witness of what she'd gone through And if he killed her he was guaranteed a spot in the crew He thought about it for a minute, she was practically dead And so he leaned over and put the gun right to her head [Sample from "Survival of the Fittest" by Mobb Deep] I'm falling and I can't turn back I'm falling and I can't turn back [Verse 4] Right before he pulled the trigger, and ended her life He thought about the cocaine with the platinum and ice And he felt strong standing along with his new brothers Cocked the gat to her head, and pulled back the shirt cover But what he saw made him start to cringe and stutter Cause he was starring into the eyes of his own mother She looked back at him and cried, cause he had forsaken her She cried more painfully, than when they were raping her His whole world stopped, he couldn't even contemplate

His corruption had successfully changed his fate And he remembered how his mom used to come home late Working hard for nothing, cause now what was he worth He turned away from the woman that had once given him birth And crying out to the sky cause he was lonely and scared But only the devil responded, cause god wasn't there And right then he knew what it was to be empty and cold And so he jumped off the roof and died with no soul They say death takes you to a better place but I doubt it After that they killed his mother, and never spoke about it And listen cause the story that I'm telling is true Cause I was there with Billy Jacobs and I raped his mom too And now the devil follows me everywhere that I go In fact I'm sure he's standing among one of you at my shows And every street cypher listening to little thugs flow He could be standing right next to you, and you wouldn't know The devil grows inside the hearts of the selfish and wicked White, brown, yellow and black colored is not restricted You have a self destructive destiny when your inflicted And you'll be one of gods children and fell from the top There's no diversity because we're burning in the melting pot So when the devil wants to dance with you, you better say never Because the dance with the devil might last you forever

IMMORTAL TECHNIQUE / CAUSE OF DEATH [Talking] Immortal Technique Revolutionary Volume 2 Yeah, broadcasting live from Harlem, New York Let the truth be known.. [Verse 1] You better watch what the fuck flies outta ya mouth Or I'ma hijack a plane and fly it into your house Burn your apartment with your family tied to the couch And slit your throat, so when you scream, only blood comes out I doubt that there could ever be...a more wicked MC 'Cause AIDS infested child molesters aren't sicker than me I see the world for what it is, beyond the white and the black The way the government downplays historical facts 'Cause the United States sponsored the rise of the 3rd Reich Just like the CIA trained terrorists to the fight Build bombs and sneak box cutters onto a flight When I was a child, the Devil himself bought me a mic But I refused the offer, 'cause God sent me to strike With skills unused like fallopian tubes on a dyke My words'll expose George Bush and Bin Laden As two separate parts of the same seven headed dragon And you can't fathom the truth, so you don't hear me You think illuminati's just a fucking conspiracy theory? That's why Conservative racists are all runnin' shit And your phone is tapped by the Federal Government So I'm jammin' frequencies in ya brain when you speak to me Technique will rip a rapper to pieces indecently Pack weapons illegally, because I'm never hesitant Sniper scoping a commission controlling the president [Hook] Father, forgive them, for they don't know right from wrong The truth will set you free, written down in this song And the song has the Cause of Death written in code The Word of God brought to life, that'll save ya soul.. Save ya soul ya soul.. Yeah, yeah, yeah [Verse 2] I hacked the Pentagon for self-incriminating evidence Of Republican manufactured white powder pestilence Marines Corps. flack vest, with the guns and ammo Spittin' bars like a demon stuck inside a piano Turn a Sambo into a soldier with just one line Now here's the truth about the system that'll fuck up your mind They gave Al Queda 6 billion dollars in 1989 to 1992 And now the last chapters of Revelations are coming true And I know a lot of people find it hard to swallow this

Because subliminal bigotry makes you hate my politics But you act like America wouldn't destroy two buildings In a country that was sponsoring bombs dropped on our children I was watching the Towers, and though I wasn't the closest I saw them crumble to the Earth like they was full of explosives And they thought nobody noticed the news report that they did About the bombs planted on the George Washington bridge Four Non-Arabs arrested during the emergency And then it disappeared from the news permanently They dubbed a tape of Osama, and they said it was proof "Jealous of our freedom," I can't believe you bought that excuse Rocking a motherfucking flag don't make you a hero Word to Ground Zero The Devil crept into Heaven, God overslept on the 7th The New World Order was born on September 11 [Hook] [Verse 3] And just so Conservatives don't take it to heart I don't think Bush did it, 'cause he isn't that smart He's just a stupid puppet taking orders on his cell phone From the same people that sabotaged Senator Wellstone The military industry got it poppin' and lockin' Looking for a way to justify the Wolfowitz Doctrine And as a matter of fact, Rumsfeld, now that I think back Without 9/11, you couldn't have a war in Iraq Or a Defense budget of world conquest proportions Kill freedom of speech and revoke the right to abortions Tax cut extortion, a blessing to the wealthy and wicked But you still have to answer to the Armageddon you scripted And Dick Cheney, you fucking leech, tell them your plans About building your pipelines through Afghanistan And how Israeli troops trained the Taliban in Pakistan You might have some house niggas fooled, but I understand Colonialism is sponsored by corporations That's why Halliburton gets paid to rebuild nations Tell me the truth, I don't scare into paralysis I know the CIA saw Bin Laden on dialysis In '98 when he was Top Ten for the FBI Government ties is really why the Government lies Read it yourself instead of asking the Government why 'Cause then the Cause of Death will cause the propaganda to die.. [Man talking] He is scheduled for 60 Minutes next. He is going on French, British, Italian, Japanese television. People everywhere are starting to listen to him. It's embarrassing

LUPE FIASCO Birth name Wasalu Muhammad Jaco Born February 16, 1982 (age 29) Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Origin Chicago, Illinois Genres Hip hop, alternative hip hop Occupations Rapper

Labels Atlantic

Years active 2005–present

Associated acts Child Rebel Soldier, Japanese Cartoon, Matthew Santos, B.o.B, Kanye West, All City Chess Club, Sway DaSafo

LUPE FIASCO FT SKYLAR GREY / WORDS I NEVER SAID [Skylar Grey] It’s so loud Inside my head With words that I should have said! As I drown in my regrets I can’t take back the words I never said I can’t take back the words I never said [Lupe Fiasco] I really think the war on terror is a bunch of bullshit Just a poor excuse for you to use up all your bullets How much money does it take to really make a full clip 9/11 building 7 did they really pull it Uhh, And a bunch of other cover ups Your childs future was the first to go with budget cuts If you think that hurts then, wait here comes the uppercut The school was garbage in the first place, that's on the up and up Keep you at the bottom but tease you with the uppercrust You get it then they move it so you never keeping up enough If you turn on TV all you see’s a bunch of “what the fucks” Dude is dating so and so blabbering bout such and such And that ain't Jersey Shore, homie that's the news And these the same people that supposed to be telling us the truth Limbaugh is a racist, Glenn Beck is a racist Gaza strip was getting bombed, Obama didn’t say shit That's why I ain't vote for him, next one either I’ma part of the problem, my problem is I’m peaceful And I believe in the people. [Skylar Grey] It’s so loud inside my head With words that I should have said! As I drown in my regrets I can’t take back the words I never said I can’t take back the words I never said [Lupe Fiasco - Verse 2] Now you can say it ain't our fault if we never heard it But if we know better than we probably deserve it Jihad is not a holy war, wheres that in the worship? Murdering is not Islam! And you are not observant And you are not a muslim Israel don’t take my side cause look how far you’ve pushed them Walk with me into the ghetto, this where all the Kush went Complain about the liquor store but what you drinking liquor for? Complain about the gloom but when’d you pick a broom up? Just listening to Pac ain't gone make it stop A rebel in your thoughts, ain't gon make it halt If you don’t become an actor you’ll never be a factor Pills with million side effects Take em when the pains felt Wash them down with Diet soda!

Killin off your brain cells Crooked banks around the World Would gladly give a loan today So if you ever miss a payment They can take your home away! [Skylar Grey] It’s so loud inside my head With words that I should have said! As I drown in my regrets I can’t take back the words I never said, never said I can’t take back the words I never said [Lupe Fiasco - Verse 3] I think that all the silence is worse than all the violence Fear is such a weak emotion that's why I despise it We scared of almost everything, afraid to even tell the truth So scared of what you think of me, I’m scared of even telling you Sometimes I’m like the only person I feel safe to tell it to I’m locked inside a cell in me, I know that there’s a jail in you Consider this your bailing out, so take a breath, inhale a few My screams is finally getting free, my thoughts is finally yelling through [Skylar Grey] It’s so loud Inside my head With words that I should have said! As I drown in my regrets I can’t take back the words I never said

LUPE FIASCO / ALL BLACK EVERYTHING sometimes... you just gotta... go! You will never know, what you could ever be, if you never try, you will never see Stayed in Africa where you never leave so there were no slaves in our history Where no slave ships, where no misery, call me crazy, or isn't he? See I fell asleep and I had a dream, it was all black, everything Uh, ... , white man they fear us so he did not destroy it, ... work for free see they had to employ it Built it up together so we equally appoint it first 400 years see we actually enjoyed it constitution written by the ‌ when a reconstruction civil war got avoided Little black ... grows up to be a lawyer Extra extra on the news stands black women voted had of Ku-Klux-Klan Malcom Little dies as an old man, Martin Luther King read the eulogy for ham Followed by Bill O' Rielly who read from the quaran (muslim bible) President Bush sends condolences from Iran where, Fox News report live that Ahmedinedjad wins the Mandela peace prize You will never know, what you could ever be, if you never try, you will never see Stayed in Africa where you never leave so there are no slaves in our history Where no slave ships, where no misery, call me crazy, or isn't he? See I fell asleep and I had a dream, it was all black, everything Uh, And it ain't no projects, keeping it real is not an understood concept Yea, Complexion's not a contest, cause racism has no context Hip hop ain't got a section called conscience Everybody rapping like crack never happened Crips (gang) never occurred, no bloods (gang) to attack them Matter of fact, no hood to attack in Somalia is a great place to relax in, Fred Astaire was the first to do a back spin The Rat Pack was cool group of black men that inspired 5 white guys called The Jacksons Eminem fitted it in, but then again, he inspired a black rapper trying to mimic him And that's the really rose up out of Michigan, the sign of a white rapper by the name of 50 cent, ha! You will never know, what you could ever be, if you never try, you will never see Stayed in Africa where you never leave so there were no slaves in the history Where no slave ships, where to misery, call me crazy, or isn't he? See I fell asleep and I had a dream, it was all black, everything Uh, And I know it's just a fantasy I ... invite you to ask why can't it be? Now we can't do nothing about the past but we can do something about the future that we have We can make it fast or we can make it last, every woman queen and, every man a king and windows color lines come we can't see between, we just close our eyes till it's all black, everything! You will never know, what you could ever be, if you never try, you will never see Stayed in Africa where you never leave so there were no slaves in the history Where no slave ships, where to misery, call me crazy, or isn't he? See I fell asleep and I had a dream, it was all black, everything All black, everything

COMMON Birth name Lonnie Corant Jaman Shuka Rashid Lynn, Jr. also known as Common Sense Born March 13, 1972 (age 39) Origin Chicago, Illinois Genres Hip hop Occupations Rapper, actor, author Years active 1991–present

Labels Warner Bros., Think Common, GOOD Music Associated acts Kanye West, Soulquarians, J Dilla, Prince, John Legend, Bilal, The Roots, Jill Scott, Pharrell, Mos Def,, Alicia Keys, Kid Cudi, Mary J. Blige, No I.D.

COMMON FT DWELE / THE PEOPLE Louder, louder, louder, louder, louder, louder louder, louder,Yeah [Repeat] Yeah, it's for the People [Verse 1] This is street radio, for unsung heroes Riding in they regal, trying to stay legal My daughter found Nemo, I found the new primo Yeah you know how we do, we do it for the people And the struggles of the brothers and the folks With lovers under dope, experiment to discover hopes Scuffle for notes, the rougher I wrote, times were harder Went from rocky starter to a voice of a martyr Why white folks focus on dogs and yoga While people on the low end trying to ball and get over Lyrics are like liquor for the fallen soldiers From the bounce to the ounce, its all our culture Everyday we hustling, tryna get them custom rims Law we ain't trusting them, thick broads we lust in them Sick and tired of bunchin it, I look on the bus at them When I see them struggling, I think how I'm touching them The People [Chorus:] The day, has come Now we, are one Just take, your time And then, you'll find [Verse 2] This is street radio, for unsung heroes Riding in they regal, trying to stay legal My daughter found Nemo, I found the new primo Yeah you know how we do, we do it for the people The people said that I was sharp on TV At the Grammy's, though they tried to India.Arie me Got back stage, and I bumped into Stevie He said no matter what, the people gone see me Can't leave rap alone the streets need me Hunger in they eyes, is what seems to feed me Inside peace mixed with beast seem to breed me Nobody believe, until I believe me Now I'm on the rise doing business with my guys Visions realize, music affected lives A gift from the skies, to be recognize I'm keeping my eyes on the people, that's the prize [Chorus] [Verse 3] This is street radio, for unsung heroes

Riding in they regal, trying to stay legal My daughter found Nemo, I found the new primo Yeah you know how we do, we do it for the people From Englewood to a single hood in Botswana I see the I in We my nigga, yours is my drama Standin in front of the judge with no honor My raps ignite the people like Obama The karma of the streets is needs and takes Sometimes we find peace in beats and breaks Put the bang in the back so the seats can shake Rebel Cadillac music for the people sake The People [Chorus]

COMMON / I HAVE A DREAM [Chorus - and Martin Luther King] (I am happy...I Have a Dream) I got a Dream (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out out out (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out out out (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out (I Have a Dream) I got a Dream (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out out out (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out out out (That One Day ) Were gonna work it out (I Have a Dream) I got a Dream (That One Day) That one day (That One Day) I'ma look deep within myself (I Have a Dream) I gotta find a way... My Dream Is To Be Free My Dream Is To Be My Dream Is To Be My Dream Is To Be Free [Verse 1] In search of brighter days, I ride through the maze of the madness, Struggle is my address, where pain and crack lives, Gunshots comin' from sounds of Blackness, Given this game with no time to practice, Born on the Black list, told I'm below average, A life with no cabbage, That's no money if you from where I'm from, Funny, I just want some of your sun Dark clouds seem to follow me, Alcohol that my pops swallowed bottled me, No apology, I walk with a boulder on my shoulder, It's a Cold War - I'm a colder soldier, Hold the same fight that made Martin Luther the King, I ain't usin' it for the right thing, In between Lean and the fiens, hustle and the schemes, I put together pieces of a Dream I still have one [Chorus] [Verse 2] The world's seen me lookin' in the mirror, Images of me, gettin' much clearer, Dear Self, I wrote a letter just to better my soul, If I don't express it then forever I'll hold, inside I'm from a side where we out of control, Rap music in the 'hood played a fatherly role, My story's like yours, yo it gotta be told, Tryna make it from a gangsta to a godlier role, Read scrolls and stow slaves, And Jewish people in cold cage, Hate has no color or age, flip the page, Now my rage became freedom, Writin' dreams in the dark, they far but I can see 'em,

I believe in Heaven more than Hell, Blessings more than jail, In the ghetto let love prevail, With a story to tell, my eyes see the glory and well, The world waitin' for me to yell "I Have a Dream" [Chorus]

NAS Birth name Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones also known as Nasty Nas Born September 14, 1973 (age 38) Long Island City, Queens, New York Origin Queensbridge, Queens, New York Genres Hip hop Occupations Rapper, actor Years active 1991–present

Labels Columbia, Def Jam, Ill Will, The Jones Experience Associated acts Olu Dara, The Firm, AZ, Bravehearts, Kelis, Mobb Deep, Damian Marley, Large Professor, Wu-Tang Clan

NAS / BE A NIGGER TOO Turn your radios up You are now allowed to listen to the radio The real niggers are back, on the radio No slacking, no begging, no asking, no fasting No disrespect to Islam or Imam pastor No answers to questions the media is asking Why we fight each other in public in front of these arrogant fascists? They love it Putting old niggers versus the youngest Most of our elders failed us How can they judge us, niggers? There's verbal books published by niggers Produced by niggers, genuine niggers so I salute my, niggers Not mad cuz Eminem said nigger cuz he's my nigger, wigger, cracker friend We all black within, okay we all african, okay Some africans don't like us? no way! a killing happened in Johannesburg, yesterday slain artist named Lucky Dube, hijacked some saying N double-A-C-P keep us side-tracked But I don't buy that, I buy Aston Martins faster cars then, Nas-a-Car's in sparking while riding critics, eat a dick journalists see I'm rich With this N-word jargon I'm just starting, bitch I'm a nigger, he's a nigger, she's a nigger, we some niggers, wouldn't you like to be a nigger too? To all my kike niggas, spic niggers, Guinea niggers, chink niggers, that's right, y'all my niggers too I'm a nigger, he's a nigger, she's a nigger, we some niggers, wouldn't you like to be a nigger too? They like to strangle niggers, blaming niggers, shooting niggers, hanging niggers, still you wanna be a nigger too? True Wake up in the morning, shake my third leg in the toilet oozie on the night stand I'm the man you go to war with Not the man you go to war against Patience, i'll get you if that means I can't sleep a whole year I'mma get you, I'm official Not a tisket or a tasket I'll put you in the casket With the biscuit or the ratchet They smoke hibiscus ...

That plant shit trees advance shit we Don't forsake us, you all are fake blood like moviemakers I flow tight as Toothie's braces Who be hating us? I'll be on a State bus in shackles if my 8 bust Cuz y'all some tellers, opposite of bankers I'm the shit for ages My click's still real QB gangsters Click still moving like Freemasons So if i'm in on the floor for the law There's lodgers all across the nation Nas is bred for the plan To hold a grand dragon's head in my hand Come and get me, here I am I'm a nigger, he's a nigger, she's a nigger, we some niggers, wouldn't you like to be a nigger too? To all my kike niggas, spic niggers, guinea niggers, chink niggers, that's right, y'all my niggers too I'm a nigger, he's a nigger, she's a nigger, we some niggers, wouldn't you like to be a nigger too? They like to strangle niggers, blaming niggers, shooting niggers, hanging niggers, still you wanna be a nigger too? Ps: the word ‘nigger’ is insulting and racist as the British called the african slaves this name. Rapper Nas uses this word abundandly to get his point across.

NAS FT DAMIAN MARLEY / STRONG WILL CONTINUE (Nas- Speaking) All I do is stay focused looking straight forward at the world and beyond. I feel people pulling me down. I feel some pulling me up I can’t get stuck. I just keep moving forward. I got places to go man. Let’s go... (CHORUS)1x – Damian Marley) When the Armageddon start get dread A lot of weak are to weep and moan Only the strong will continue do you have it in you? 'Cause we’ve got a journey to go And when the battle get sour and dread A lotta weak heart a wither and moan Only the strong will continue I know you have it in you I know you have it in you (Damian Marley) Hey.. The victory’s found in truth, like innocence found in youth Self defeat is your own dispute and when you put yourself in a ya own shoeses Either you’re winning or losing don’t you get it confused 'Cause you starring in a ya own movie playing of a role you choose so Stand up and fight if you know say you right and no you won’t ever fail Tipping the scale and the wind shall prevail and the boat shall forever sail (hey) There ain’t no stopping our cruising even when you’re battered and bruised Hold gun all di sprinklers and he tell him bust my gat tougher than Zeus (CHORUS)1x – Damian Marley) When the Armageddon’s dark and dread A lot of weak are to weep and moan Only the strong will continue do you have it in you? Come we’ve got a journey to go And when the battle get sour and dread A lot of weak heart a wither and moan Only the strong will continue I know you have it in you I know you have it in you (Nas) As I walk through the valley of the shadow of death New York to Cali for the money, power, respect

It’s a journey, some’ll get left behind coz in life you cannot press rewind Get it right. You only have one first chance to make one first impression that lasts a lifetime Reputations to proceed itself do you believe in hell? Babylon, greed for wealth Do you deceive yourself and let your ego swell And disregard those who most need your help Thick skinned, the dark won’t take my soul Survived spiritual wars, see my welts And the evils felt but faith is stronger I saw grown men fall when I was a youngster But I clenched my fist Ready to go against whoever Tie my Timb’s and rise in the end (CHORUS)1x – Damian Marley) When the Armageddon start get dread A lot of weak are to weep and moan Only the strong will continue do you have it in you? Now we’ve got a journey to go And when the battle get sour and dread A lot of weak heart wither and moan Only the strong will continue I know you have it in you I know you have it in you (Damian Marley) No man live forever but never say never Every goodie want better, just be a go getter And always be clever in every endeavour Coz drastic time call for drastic measure Your girl try to pleasure from ya navel string sever The land and the treasure work for whatever Jah say don’t be a beggar, the alpha omega Will bless every soul no matter which name you prefer The immortal stepper believe in every skin no matter which colour leather Will never let you down no matter which kind of weather You’re destined to rise like the son of Rebecca don’t stop for a second Every man reckon it sure would be good to be there Whether Zion or Mecca when the gates are finally closed

And the saints go marching in (CHORUS)2x – Damian Marley) When the Armageddon start get dread A lot of weak are to weep and moan Only the strong will continue do you have it in you? Now we’ve got a journey to go And when the battle get sour and dread A lot of weak heart a wither and moan Only the strong will continue I know you have it in you I know you have it in you (Nas)Talk: As the weak shall fall to the sideline I get my kid I protect mine with a tech 9 Haters want me to side with em Gangsters want me to ride with em Ladies want me to make brides with em I’m on a low I’m in the zone every evening I’m in the zone every evening walk through the valley of death I’m still breathing Give a bit of life to your ethylene Thief in the night like America seen Coming through in the zone every evening In the zone every evening I know the strong will survive

THE ROOTS Birth name Black Thought, ?uestlove, Kamal Gray, F. Knuckles, Captain Kirk Douglas, Damon ‘Tuba Gooding Jr.’ Bryson, James Poyser, Mark Kelley also known as The Legendary Roots Crew, The Fifth Dynasty, The Square Roots Origin Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. Labels Genres Alternative hip hop, neo soul, DGC, MCA, InterscopeGeffen-A&M, Def Jam soul, funk, alternative rock, jazz-rap Years active 1987–present

Associated acts Soulquarians, Jill Scott, Martin Luther, Jaguar Wright Amel Larrieux, John Legend, Dave Chappelle

THE ROOTS FT DICE RAW / HOW I GOT OVER Uh, uh...uh, uh-huh [Chorus 1: Dice Raw] Out on the streets, where I grew up First thing they teach us, not to give a fuck That type of thinking can't get you nowhere Soooome-onnnne haaaas tooooo care [Black Thought - singing] How I got over... where the people come apart Don't nobody care about cha, only thing you got is God Out here in these streets.. if you get down on your luck You can stand out, with a hand out But nobody give a fuck Out here in these streets, every man is for himself They ain't helpin noone else, it's a hazard to your health Livin life in these cold streets Hey, WHO'S worryin 'bout cha, babe? When you whylin out, runnin 'round in these streets [Chorus 2: Dice Raw (Black Thought)] Out on the streets, where I grew up (How I got over...) First thing they teach us, not to give a fuck (How I got o-) That type of thinking can't get you nowhere (How I got over...) Soooome-onnnne haaaas tooooo care [Black Thought - rapping] Yo.. When you on the corners, there's too much drama Livin with the police right behind ya It's always more than a slight reminder We livin in a war zone like Rwanda Before I go back to the Heavenly Father Pray for me if it ain't too much bother Whatever don't break me a-make me stronger I feel like I can't take too much longer It's too much lyin, and too much fightin I'm all cried out 'cause I grew up cryin They all got a sales pitch I ain't buyin They tryin to convince me that I ain't tryin We uninspired, we unadmired And tired and sick of being sick and tired of livin in the hood where the shots are fired We dyin to live, so to live, we dyin You just like I am [Chorus 3: Dice Raw (Black Thought)] Out on the streets, where I grew up (How I got over...) First thing they teach us, not to give a fuck (How I got o-) That type of thinking can't get you nowhere (Somebody, somewhere..) Soooome-onnnne haaaas tooooo care [Black Thought - singing]

Somebody's gotta care.. And I swear it isn't fair In suspended animation, we ain't tryin to go nowhere Out here in these streets.. We're so young and all alone We ain't even old enough, to realize we're on our own Livin life in these hard streets Where it's like they lost they mind Is there anyway to find? Are we runnin out of time out here? Listen... Hey, WHO'S worryin 'bout cha, babe? When you whylin out, runnin 'round in these streets [Chorus 3 + 1 x2]

THE ROOTS / DEAR GOD 2.0 [Intro:] Dear God, I’m trying hard to reach you Dear God, I see your face in all I do Sometimes, it’s so hard to believe it... But God, I know you have your reasons (Uh huh) [Verse 1:] They said he’s busy hold the line please Call me crazy, I thought maybe he could mind read Who does the blind lead? Show me a sign please If everything is made in China, are we Chinese? And why do haters separate us like we siamese? Technology turning the planet into zombies Everybody all in everybody’s dirty laundry Acid rain, earthquakes, hurricane, tsunamis Terrorist, crime sprees, assaults, and robberies Cops yellin’ stop, freeze Shoot him before he try to leave Air quality so foul, I gotta try to breath Endangered species And we runnin’ out of trees If I could hold the world in the palm of these Hands, I would probably do away with these anomalies Everybody checkin’ for the new award nominee Wars and atrocities Look at all the poverty Ignoring the prophecies More beef than broccoli Corporate monopoly Weak world economy Stock market topplin’ Mad marijuana oxycotton and klonopin Everybody out of it? [Hook:] Well I’ve been thinkin’ about And I’ve been breakin’ it down Without an answer I know I’m thinking out loud But if you’re lost and around Why do we suffer? Why do we suffer? (Uh huh) [Verse 2:] Yeah... It’s still me, one of your biggest fans I get off work Right back to work again I probably need to go ahead and have my head exam Look at how they got me on the Def Jam payment plan Well, I’m in the world of entertainment and Trying to keep a singing man sane for the paying fans

If I don’t make it through the night, slight change of plans Harp strings, angel wings, and praying hands Lord, forgive me for my shortcomings For going on tour and ignoring the court summons All I’m trying to do is live life to the fullest They sent my daddy to you in a barrage of bullets Why is the world ugly when you made it in your image? And why is livin’ life such a fight to the finish? For this high percentage When the sky’s the limit A second is a minute, every hour’s infinite [Outro:] Dear God, I’m trying hard to reach you Dear God, I see your face in all I do Sometimes, it’s so hard to believe it...



SOPRANO Nom Saïd M’Roumbaba Sopra’M’Baba Naissance 14 janvier 1979 (32 ans), Marseille Pays d’origine France, Comores Genres Rap, R&B, dance Activité principale Rappeur Années d’activité Depuis 1997

Labels Hostile Records & Street Skillz Entourage Psy 4 De La Rime, Rohff, La Swija, SniperBlacko, Mino, El Matador, Stromae, BrascoDiam’s, Kenza Farah, Sinik, DJ Abdel, La Fouine, Sefyu

SOPRANO / HIRO J'aurais aimé voyager à travers le temps (bis) Si j'avais eu le pouvoir de Hiro Nakamura Je serais parti revivre la naissance de Lenny et d'Inaya J'aurais été à Sanaa Boycotter le décollage de l'A310 de la Yemenia J'aurais été voir mon grand-père une dernière fois Dire que je m'occupe de sa fille, qu'il ne s'inquiète pas Je serais parti voir Martin Luther King Après son discours, lui montrer la photo de Barack Obama J'aurais été au temple d'Harlem Pousser Malcolm de la scène avant qu'une balle l'atteigne J'aurais été dans la cellule de Mandela Pour lui dire 'tiens l'coup, tes idées seront président du Sud-Africa Amoureux de lady Diana, J'aurais créé un gigantesque bouchon sous le pont de l'Alma J'aurais été aux Bahamas Pas pour les vacances mais pour vider la soute de l'avion d'Aaliyah J'aurais aimé voyager à travers le temps (x3) Si j'avais eu le pouvoir de Hiro Nakamura J'aurais été au combat de Mohamed Ali à Kinshasa Puis, j'aurais été fêter l'indépendance de mes Commores Dans les bras de mon grand-père avant sa mort Puis,un p'tit tour au Paris-Dakar en pleine savane Pour boycotter l'hélico de Daniel Balavoine Moi qui aime les vérités de ceux qui portent un nez rouge J'aurais été crever les pneus d'la moto à Coluche J'aurais été accueillir Mahomet à Médine Puis aller voir la Mer Rouge, laisser passer Moïse J'aurais été à la naissance du fils à Marie Deux heures après, faire la marche du sel avec Gandhi J'aurais été m'asseoir auprès de Rosa Parks Puis à Woodstock pour vivre un live de Jimy Hendrix J'aurais été à l'anniversaire de la Motown Pour aller voir Mickael nous faire le moonwalk J'aurais été à New-York Pour déclencher à 7 h une alerte à la bombe dans les 2 tours J'aurais été en Irak Apprendre aux journalistes à mieux viser avec leur chaussure J'aurais été en Afghanistan Jeter les caméras de la dernière interview du commandant Massoud J'aurais été en Angola Pour aller dire à l'équipe d'Adebayor de ne pas prendre la route J'aurais été à Clichy-sous-Bois Débrancher le transfo d'EDF avant que Zyed et Bouna arrivent J'aurais été chez Kounta Kinte ou sur Gorée Pour leur donner des fusils avant que les colons arrivent J'aurais été voir les tirailleurs africains Pour leur dire qu'on traite leurs enfants de sales immigrés J'aurais été en Autriche,

J'aurais tout fait pour que les parents d'Adolf Hitler ne se rencontrent jamais Même si j'avais eu le pouvoir de Nakamura Qu'aurais-je pu pour Haïti, le tsunami ou Katrina ? Qu'aurais-je pu pour l'Alaska ? Tout c'que la nature nous a donné La nature le reprendra Tellement d'choses que j'aurais voulu changer ou voulu vivre Tellement d'choses que j'aurais voulu effacer ou revivre Mais tout cela est impossible ami Donc j'inspire un grand coup et je souffle sur ma 30ème bougie... J'aurais aimé voyager à travers le temps Mais on ne peut vivre que le présent On ne peut vivre que le présent

SOPRANO FT BLACKO / FERME LES YEUX ET IMAGINE-TOI Blacko Ca n’arrive qu’aux autres, on n’réalise pas tant que ça ne nous touche pas On sait très bien c’qui se passe ailleurs mais on ose se plaindre Relativise, ferme les yeux, imagine toi Tu verra comme ta vie est belle Fermes tes yeux et imagine ta vie, dans ces pays où les hommes politiques sont en treillis Où la liberté d’expression est une conspiration, où le dollar civilise avec des canons, où on peut mourir d’une simple fièvre, où les épidémies se promènent sans laisse Crois-tu vraiment tenir sous la canicule de ces pays où pendant 2mois, tu bronzes, eux toute l’année ils brûlent? Imagine ta vie sans eau potable, une douche les jours de pluie, pas de bouffe ni sur la table Imagine toi dans un hôpital avec une maladie incurable, une maladie qui t’juge coupable Imagine toi enfermé comme Natacha Kampoush, ou brûlé comme Ama Galaidou dans l’bus Ouvre les yeux maintenant et avant d’insulter la vie réfléchis dorénavant Refrain Fermes les yeux, imagine toi quelque part en Afrique, dans un village bâti de terre sous un soleil de plomb, imagine l’air chaud et lourd, cette étendue désertique, ce maigre trou pour de chaînes, ce gamin et ce bâton Imagine cette longue marche que tu dois accomplir afin que tes bêtes puissent paître et se rafraîchir, ces 30 bornes à faire, ces voleurs de bétails et leur kalachnikov qui tirent sans réfléchir Imagine Madagascar et ses montagnes d’ordures, imagine tes 8ans et tes pieds sans chaussures, imagine tes mains dans les détritus pour un bout de pain, mec tu t’y habitues Imagine Paris et son périphérique, quelque part sous un pont pas loin du trafic, imagine toi sous un duvet sale luttant contre le froid, luttant contre la dalle. Maintenant imagine toi dans ta voiture, bloqué dans les embouteillages, l’homme sort lentement de sa couverture, l’homme a ton visage (Imagine) Dis-moi ce que tu ressens, le regarde-tu autrement? Avant d’insulter la vie, réfléchis dorénavant Refrain Karl, imagine toi sans la musique, la santé abîmée par les 3/8, les allers-retours aux assedics Said, imagine toi sans cette réussite en galère, juste le SMIC, prisonnier de cette tour de brique Imagine toi sans Sniper, moi sans psy4, et ces bons moments que d’autres ne connaissent pas Imagine un peu nos vies sans tout ça, c’est pour ça, remercions dieu pour tout ça Pardon pour les jours où j’me plaint, les jours où je ne vois que moi, mon nez et pas plus loin Pardon pour toutes ces fois où j’ai grossi mes problèmes, pour toutes ces fois où j’ai fait tourné le monde sur moi-même Ferme tes yeux juste une seconde, vois la misère du monde, et ta place dans tout ça? Prenons conscience de la chance qu’on a et tu verra peut-être que la vie est belle Ohhhhhh yeahhhh ohhhhhhh Blackooooo Sopranooooo



LOWKEY Birth name Kareem Dennis Born 23 May 1986 (age 25) Origin London, England Genres Poetry, Hip hop, Grime

Years active 2003–present

Occupations Political activist, musician

Associated acts Mongrel, Poisonous Poets, Immortal Technique, Wretch 32, M-1, Outlawz

LOWKEY / OBAMANATION [Intro] This track is not an attack upon the American people It is an attack upon the system within which they live Since 1945 the united states has attempted to Overthrow more than 50 foreign governments In the process the us has caused the end of life For several million people, and condemned many millions More to a live of agony and despair [Verse 1] The strength of your dreamin Prevents you from reason The American dream Only makes sense if you're sleepin It's just a cruel fantasy Their politics took my voice away But their music gave it back to me The land where the lumpen are consumed by consumption Killing themselves to shovel down food and abundance I guess a rapper from Britain is a rare voice America is capitalism on steroids Natives kept in casinos and reservations Displaced slaves never given reparations Take everything from Native Americans And wonder why I call it the racist experiment Afraid of your melanin The same as it's ever been That aint gonna change With the race of the president I see imperialism under your skin tone You could call it Christopher Columbus syndrome [Chorus 2x] Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Doesn't make any difference when they bomb your nation O! Say can you see by the dawn's early light What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming Whose broad stripes and bright stars through perilous fight O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming [Verse 2] The worlds entertainer The worlds devastator From Venezuela To Mesopotamia

Your cameras lie Cause they have to hide the savage crimes Committed on leaders that happen To try and nationalize [ Lyrics from: ] Eating competitions while the worlds been starvin Beat up communism with the help of bin-laden Where would your war of terror be without that man Every day you create more Nidal Hassans Kill a man from the military, you're a weirdo But kill a wog from the Middle East you're a hero Your country is causing screams that are never reaching ear holes America inflicted a million ground zeros Follow the dollar and swallow your humanity Soldiers committing savagery you never even have to see Those mad at me, writing in emails angrily I'm not anti-America, America is anti-me [Chorus 2x] Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Is it Obamas nation or an abomination? Doesn't make any difference when they bomb your nation And the rocket's red glare, The bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night That our flag was still there, O! Does that star spangled banner yet wave O'er land of the free and the home of the brave [Verse 3] I don't care if him and Cheney are long lost relations What matters more is the policies I lost my patience Stop debating bringing race into conversation Occupation and cooperation equals profit makin It's over - people wake up from the dream now Nobel peace prize, jay z on speed dial It's the substance within, not the colour of your skin Are you the puppeteer or the puppet on the string So many believe that they was instantly gonna change There was still Dennis Ross, Brzezinski And Robert Gates What happened to Chas freeman (APAC), What happened to Tristan Anderson it's a machine that Keeps that man breathing I have the heart to say what all the other rappers aren't Words like Iraq, Palestine - Afghanistan The wars on, and you morons were all wrong I call Obama a bomber Cause those are your bombs

LOWKEY / TERRORIST? [Intro] So, we must ask ourselves, what is the dictionary definition of Terrorism? "The systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion." But what is terror? According to the dictionary I hold in my hand, "Terror is violent or destructive acts, such as bombing committed by groups in order to intimidate a population or government into granting their demands." So what's a terrorist? [Chorus] They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is When they put it on me, I tell them this I'm all about peace and love (Peace and love) They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is Insulting my intelligence Oh how these people judge (People judge) [Verse 1] It seems like the Rag-heads and Paki's are worrying your Dad But your dad's favorite food is curry and kebab It's funny but it's sad how they make your mummy hurry with her bags Rather read The Sun than study all the facts Tell me, what's the bigger threat to human society; B.A.E Systems or home made I.E.D's? Remote controlled drones, killing off human lives Or man with home made bomb committing suicide I know you were terrified when you saw the towers fall It's all terror but some forms are more powerful It seems nuts, how could there be such agony? When more Israeli's die from peanut allergies It's like the definition didn't ever exist I guess it's all just depending who your nemesis is Irrelevant how eloquent the rhetoric peddler is They're telling fibs, now tell us who the terrorist is [Chorus] They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is When they put it on me, I tell them this I'm all about peace and love (Peace and love) They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is Insulting my intelligence Oh how these people judge (People judge)

[Verse 2] Lumumba was democracy Mossadegh was democracy Allende was democracy Hypocrisy it bothers me Call you terrorists if you don't wanna be a colony Refuse to bow down to a policy of robberies Is terrorism my lyrics? (is it?) When more Vietnam vets kill themselves after the war than die in it This is very basic One nation in the world has over a thousand military bases They say it's religion, when clearly it isn't It's not just Muslims that oppose your imperialism Is Hugo Chavez a Muslim? Nah... I didn't think so Is Castro a Muslim? Nah... I didn't think so It's like the definition didn't ever exist I guess it's all just depending who your nemesis is Irrelevant how eloquent the rhetoric peddler is They're telling fibs, now tell us who the terrorist is [Chorus] They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is When they put it on me, I tell them this I'm all about peace and love (Peace and love) They're calling me a terrorist Like they don't know who the terror is Insulting my intelligence Oh how these people judge (People judge) [Outro] (You think that I don't know, but I know, I know, I know... You think we don't know, but we know...) [5x] Was building 7 terrorism? Was nano thermite terrorism? Diego Garcia was terrorism I am conscious the Contras were terrorism Phosphorus that burns hands, that is terrorism Irgun and Stern Gang that was terrorism What they did in Hiroshima was terrorism What they did in Fallujah was terrorism Mandella ANC that was terrorism Gerry Adams I.R.A that was terrorism Erik Prince Blackwater was terrorism Oklahoma McVeigh, that was terrorism Every day U.S.A that is terrorism Every day U.K that is terrorism (Every day) [7x] (Oh...) (hey...) (You think that we don't know, but we do...)

Dounia Aerts Fonts: Gill Sans, Impact Printed: 1st. sem. 3de Bach. Graphic Design teachers: Peter Derks & Thomas Desmet 2011-2012



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