“Doubt has no Habitation in the Minds of Determined Men and Women
Ground Truth South Carolina EditionVol 4 Number 20
• Rolling with Barry: The American Ninja Howard Wright • Scared Straight Beverly Birch
• The Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin Linda AH Walker Pg. 09 • Girlfriend FM: The Point of Pain
• Music of Chucho Valdes
COMMENTARY Howard D. Wright A Tale of Two Cities the Vice Presidential Debate . . . . . . . . . .Page 04 Beverly Gadson-Birch: Frankly Speaking -SCARED STRAIGHT . . . . . .Page 06
Linda A.H. Walker: The Poets Corner Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 09
Alton Maddox: Black Solidarity Day When and Where? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 50 Deya Smith: Deya Direct Girlfriend FM: The Point of Pain . . . . . . . . . . .Page 51
09 FEATURES Rolling with Barry: The American Ninja Page 36 Americaâ€™s Classical Chucho Valdes Page 68
Publication of The Sankofa Restoration Project Vol. IV No. 19 PO Box 21757 Hilton Head Island, South Carolina 29922 (843) 290-8110 Fax: (843) 681-3251 Officers Executive Director Howard Douglas Wright National Treasurer Josephine Adeline Wright Ground Truth is the publication of the Sankofa Restoration Project. The Project is dedicated toward advocating, promoting and salvaging the rich heritage for people African of African descent through the world. We, have been, and will continue to seek alliances with other like minded peoples, coalitions and organizations that are willing to help promote our stated agenda. Advertising Rates are made available upon request of the editor at the above address. Ground Truth Staff Executive Director Howard Douglas Wright Senior Editors Yvonne Hairs-Branch Senior Editor, AL Linda A.H. Walker, MD Poetry Editor Associate Editors Nanneen Nelson Staff Writer Beverly Gadson-Birch Alton Maddox, Jr. James Small Renee McClean Deya Smith Ice Pick Slim
Our Story A Tale of Two Cities, the Vice Presidential Debate
harles Dickens’ Famous opening lines about A Story of the French Revolution went as followings: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. There was a king with a large jaw and a queen with a plain face, on the throne of England; there was a king with a large jaw and a queen with a fair face, on the throne of France. In both countries it was clearer than crystal to the lords of the State preserves of loaves and fishes, that things in general were settled for ever. The contrast so eloquently fashioned by Dickens, metaphorically, may have been talking specifically about the vice-presidential debate that just took place between the Democratic candidate, Joe Biden and the Republican candidate, Paul Ryan. Listening to contrast of ideas and the direction in which each party wishes to take the country was so demonstrably embellished by the two debaters that the choice of whose directions you may ultimately choose was clear. The wisdom spoken by the accumulation of Joe Biden’s collective years in office loomed big and the foolishness of Paul Ryan’s immature positions also was big. Throughout the debate clarity was given as to both candidates deeply personal dedication to the well-being of this nation. However, on each occasion the difference in the outlook of Ryan’s deep convictions was centered on draconian positions which would translate into policies that would drag the rest of this nation into his world by squashing the individual’s right to choose from their own personal convictions. Whereas Bidden, who was as deeply committed to his personal beliefs, in contrast, chose to leave the idea of legislating his beliefs into the hands of the people for whom the decision would personally effect. One of the greatest examples came in the exchange between the two men on the issue of abortion when the moderator Martha Raddatz of ABC News asked them:would like to ask you both
to tell me what role your religion has played in your own personal views on abortion. Biden said “My religion defines who I am, and I've been a practicing Catholic my whole life and it has particularly formed my social doctrine, continuing, “Unlike my friend here, the -- the congressman. I -- I do not believe that we have a right to tell other people that -- women can't control their bodies.” Paul Ryan’s statement also showed a contrasting picture: “Now, you want to ask basically why I'm pro-life? It's not simply because of my Catholic faith. That's a factor, of course. But it's also because of reason and science.” Following up he states “All I'm saying is, if you believe that life begins at conception that, therefore, doesn't change the definition of life. That's a principle. The policy of a Romney administration is to oppose abortion with exceptions for rape, incest and life of the mother.” What this exchange signifies is the fundamental fight over who will control the directions of reproductive rights; its philosophy and the right of who will choose: the woman herself or the government through legislation. The other area of deep contrast was over foreign policy. The two candidates fought over the Iraq, Afghanistan Wars; the conflict in Syria, Libya and the role of the government in regards to Iran and nuclear weapons. Here was probably the strongest contrast of age and experience over youth and ideological foolishness. Not only did this prove for me and I imagine for all Americans why The Obama team, hands on the trigger, is the best bet for continuity. Paul Ryan as is Mitt Romney are totally out of their element of understanding the difficult and complex decisions which are made on a daily basis to form American’s foreign policies. They seem to believe that just opposing anything the President does is sufficient to win them an election but in this area Biden took poor Paul Ryan to school and made him look like a total armature. I congratulate the Vice President on a job well done and can only hope that it will lead to a blueprint for President Obama for his upcoming debate with Mitt Rodney. “Doubt Has No Habitation in the Minds of Determined Men and Woman”
FRANKLY SPEAKING Scared Straight Beverly Gadson-Birch
am sure most of you have watched prisoners work with problem students intimidating them for the most part to stay in school. The prisoners are very powerful and methodical in relating their experiences and what landed them in jail. They seem to be badgering the students but they keep on applying pressure until they get the attention of even the worst behaved students. If you were to ask anyone of them what would they do if they
had it to do all over again, the response most often given is “stay in school”. The program is called “Scared Straight”. The goal is to reform the students and get them to stay in school and avoid a life of crime. We are all afraid of something. I am afraid of flying. Some folks are afraid of heights or being in close quarters. And, there are just some folks who are afraid of getting old. If y’all aren’t old just keep on reading anyhow. I don’t know about y’all but
old folks just seem to worry about most things. I used to have one foot in the “old folks” door but I have both in there now; so, y’all aren’t fretting old age alone. I am feeling you. Old folks worry about whether they are going to be able to go to sleep without some type of sleeping pill and then they worry about what happens if they don’t wake up. Oh Lordy, what are my children going to do? Will my husband/wife marry someone younger and blow my hard earned savings? They worry about their next doctor’s appointment and what he/she may find. And, if the electric bill comes today, they worry about paying the bill the same day. No siree, they are not like the young whippersnappers who pay when the late notice arrives or after the lights are cut off. They
worry about the pills that they take for hypertension, diabetes, nerves, foot, headache, back ache, arthritis, and rheumatism that may cause side effects worst than their present ailments. You can’t remember where you put your eye glasses or where you hid your money so you worry about getting Alzheimer. With so many ailments plaguing your body, you swear you are having an out of body experience. No one could have prepared me for old age the way Mother Nature has. She pulled out all of the stops. Then there are the visual body changes. Fat invades the midsection and folks want to know if you are expecting. Your once smooth skin begins to wrinkle, bags form beneath the eyes, teeth falls out, hair begins to thin out and your youthful stride turns into slow motion. Your once coke cola shape is now equivalent to a 3 liter bottle. That’s enough to scare anyone into an early grave but aging is inevitable. It
scares some folks into straightening up and trying to preserve what little is left. In other words, old age would scare some folks straight into the gym, walking five miles a day and into a fitness center. Are y’all with me so far? If y’all aren’t scared yet, read on. Are you registered to vote? Do you even plan to vote? If not, y’all scare me and I am scared for you. This is a very crucial election. It is down to the wire. We don’t need anyone new in the White House that will send us into a tailspin. I am sure y’all have heard the famous “fired up and ready to go” slogan. Well, Mitt Romney is fired up and ready to go to war. He just wants to fight somebody. War is big bucks to the Republicans. And if we aren’t careful, we are going to end up in another senseless war before we bring our troops home from Afghanistan. Check your history and see who the big companies are that have benefitted from wars. Watch the news! Listen to
what Romney says he isn’t going to do. He is ready to cut your entitlement (social security and Medicaid). He has already said he plans to repeal President Obama’s health care plan. This election is not about white or black; it’s about green. We need to get our economy to continue moving in the right direction. It’s about survival. I am just minutes away from the poor house. Romney scares me. If y’all ain’t scared straight yet, well y’all better be. Romney is talking loud. Don’t miss the message. If you think you have it tough now, don’t stay at home, vote! Vote for the President with a well thought out long term plan and not the one with a short fuse. See y’all at the polls! Make sure you vote for Michael Miller for the Charleston County School Board. He has demonstrated his concern for all students by investing his time and money into helping students.
The Black Russian Poet: Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin
impossibility. It was a lesson I would never forget. Search for your own truth. We have too many instances whereby omissions and oversights are used as the tools to control large segments of this society. Now on to Pushkin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian author of the Romantic era of African descent considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. Pushkin's father Sergei Lvovich Pushkin (1767–1848) descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility which traced its ancestry back to the 12th century. Pushkin's mother Nadezhda (Nadja) Ossipovna Gannibal (1775–1836) descended through her paternal grandmother from German and Scandinavian nobility. She was the daughter of Ossip Abramovich Gannibal (1744–1807) and his wife Maria Aleksejevna Pushkina (1745–1818). It was Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, Abram Petrovich Gannibal (1696–1781), who was an African page raised by Peter the Great. Biographers found that he wrote in a letter to Empress Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter; that he was from the town of "Lagon." Russian biographers concluded from the beginning that Lagon was in Ethiopia, a country with Christian associations. Vladimir Nabokov, researching Eugene Onegin, cast serious doubt on this Ethiopian origin theory. Dieudonné Gnammankou outlined the strong case in 1995 that "Lagon" was a town located on the southern side of Lake Chad, now located in northern Cameroon. However, there is no conclu-
I didn’t come across Alexnder Pushkin, heralded and revered as the Father of Russian Literary Letters and quoted routinely to this day by Russian school children, until college. That he was of African descent was even more astounding and that he was political as well…made me clamor for more about him. I was and continue to be stunned at the big and gaping omissions in my traditional training but in this case when I stepped back and critically analyzed why this absence, it was a learning experience in and of itself. I was a child of the Sputnik era and the Russian arms race, when everything Russian was doomsday and evil. Literally, we were trained to hate them…just because. I also grew up smack dab in the middle of the Civil Rights movement. So, you see where I am moving with this; the chance that Alexander Pushkin and his marvelous poetry would be exposed to a young, Black female in the South was a total
sive evidence of either theory. After education in France as a military engineer, Abram Gannibal became governor of Reval and eventually Général en Chef (the third most senior army rank) in charge of the building of sea forts and canals in Russia
in 1831, became regulars of court society. When the Tsar gave Pushkin the lowest court title, the poet became enraged: he felt this occurred not only so that his wife, who had many admirers—including the Tsar himself—could properly attend court balls, but also to humiliate him. In 1837, falling into greater and greater debt amidst rumors that his wife had started conducting a scandalous affair, Pushkin challenged her alleged lover, his brother in-law Georges d'Anthès, to a duel which left both men injured, Pushkin mortally. He died two days later. His last home is a museum now.
Pushkin published his first poem at the age of fifteen, and was widely recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo. near Saint Petersburg. The Russian literary scene recognized his talent widely. After finishing school, Pushkin installed himself in the vibrant and raucous intellectual youth The government feared a political demonstration at his culture of the capital, Saint Petersburg. In 1820 he published funeral, which it moved to a smaller location and made open his first long poem, Ruslan and Lyudmila, amidst much con- only to close relatives and friends. His body was spirited away troversy about its subject and style. secretly at midnight and buried on his mother's estate. Pushkin gradually became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals. This angered the government, and led to his transfer from the capital (1820). He went to the Caucasus and to the Crimea, then to Kamenka and Chiþinau, where he became a Freemason. Here he joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Greece and establish an independent Greek state. He was inspired by the Greek Revolution and when the war against the Ottoman Turks broke out he kept a diary with the events of the great national uprising.
Pushkin had four children from his marriage to Natalya: Maria (b. 1832, touted as a prototype of Anna Karenina), Alexander (b. 1833), Grigory (b. 1835), and Natalya (b. 1836) the last of whom married, morganatically, into the royal house of Nassau to Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau and became the Countess of Merenberg. Of Pushkin's children only the lines of Alexander and Natalia continue. Natalia married Prince Nikolaus Wilhelm of Nassau, and their grand-daughter, Nadejda, married into the British royal family (her husband He stayed in Chiþinau until 1823 and wrote there two was the uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh).The Romantic poems which brought him wide acclaim, The descendants of the poet now live around the globe: in England, Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray. In Germany and Belgium. 1823 Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed with Literary legacy the government, which sent him into exile at his mother's rural Alexander Pushkin is usually credited with developing estate in Mikhailovskoe (near Pskov) from 1824 to 1826. However, some of the authorities allowed him to visit Tsar Russian literature. Not only is he seen as having originatNicholas I to petition for his release, which he obtained. Some ed the highly nuanced level of language which characterof the insurgents in the Decembrist Uprising (1825) in Saint izes Russian literature after him, but he is also credited Petersburg had kept some of his early political poems amongst their papers, and soon Pushkin found himself under the strict control of government censors and unable to travel or publish at will. He had written what became his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, while at his mother's estate but could not gain permission to publish it until five years later. The drama's original, uncensored version would not receive a premiere until 2007. In the year 1831, during the days of Pushkin's growing literary influence, he met one of Russia's other greatest early writers, Nikolai Gogol. After reading Gogol's 1831–1832 volume of short stories Evenings on a Farm near Dikanka, Pushkin would support him critically and later in 1836 after starting his magazine, The Contemporary, would feature some of Gogol's most famous short stories. Later, Pushkin and his wife Natalya Goncharova, whom he married
with substantially augmenting the Russian lexicon. Where he found gaps in the Russian vocabulary, he devised calques. His rich vocabulary and highly sensitive style are the foundation for modern Russian literature. His talent set up new records for development of the Russian language and culture. He became the father of Russian literature in the 19th century, marking the highest achievements of 18th century and the beginning of literary process of the 19th century. Alexander Pushkin introduced Russia to all the European literary genres as well as a great number of West European writers. He brought natural speech and foreign influences to create modern poetic Russian. Though his life was brief, he left examples of nearly every literary genre of his day: lyric poetry, narrative poetry, the novel, the short story, the drama, the critical essay, and even the personal letter. Pushkin's work as a journalist marked the birth of the Russian magazine culture, including him devising and contributing heavily to one of the most influential literary magazines of the 19th century, the Sovremennik (The Contemporary, or Современник). From him derive the folk tales and genre pieces of other authors: Esenin, Leskov and Gorky. Critics consider many of his works masterpieces, such as the poem The Bronze Horseman and the drama The Stone Guest, a tale of the fall of Don Juan. His poetic short drama "Mozart and Salieri" was the inspiration for Peter Shaffer's Amadeus. Pushkin himself preferred his verse novel Eugene Onegin, which he wrote over the course of his life and which, starting a tradition of great Russian novels, follows a few central characters but varies widely in tone and focus. "Onegin" is a work of such complexity that, while only about a hundred pages long, translator Vladimir Nabokov needed two full volumes of material to fully render its meaning in English. Because of this difficulty in translation, Pushkin's verse remains largely unknown to English readers. Even so, Pushkin has profoundly influenced western writers like Henry James. Pushkin's works also provided fertile ground for Russian composers. Glinka's Ruslan and Lyudmila is the earliest important Pushkin-inspired opera, and a landmark in the tradition of Russian music. Tchaikovsky's operas Eugene Onegin (1879) and The Queen of Spades (1890) became perhaps better known outside of Russia than Pushkin's own works of the same name, while Mussorgsky's monumental Boris Godunov (two versions, 1868-9 and 1871-2) ranks as one of the very finest and most original of Russian operas. Other Russian operas based on Pushkin include Dargomyzhsky's Rusalka and
The Stone Guest; Rimsky-Korsakov's Mozart and Salieri, Tale of Tsar Saltan, and The Golden Cockerel; Cui's Prisoner of the Caucasus, Feast in Time of Plague, and The Captain's Daughter; Tchaikovsky's Mazeppa; Rachmaninov's one-act operas Aleko (based on The Gypsies) and The Miserly Knight; Stravinsky's Mavra, and Nápravník's Dubrovsky. This is not to mention ballets and cantatas, as well as innumerable songs set to Pushkin's verse (including even his French-language poems, in Isabelle Aboulker's song cycle “Caprice étrange”). Suppé, Leoncavallo and Malipiero, among non-Russian composers, have based operas on his works. His use of Russian language formed the basis of the style of novelists Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Goncharov, and Leo Tolstoy. Pushkin was recognized by Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol, his successor and pupil, the great Russian critic Vissarion Grigoryevich Belinsky, who produced the fullest and deepest critical study of Pushkin's work, which still retains much of its relevance. Alexander Pushkin became an inseparable part of the literary world of the Russian people. He also exerted a profound influence on other aspects of Russian culture, most notably in opera. Translated into all the major languages, his works are regarded both as expressing most completely Russian national consciousness and as transcending national barriers. Pushkin's intelligence, sharpness of his opinion, his devotion to poetry, realistic thinking and incredible historical and political intuition make him one of the greatest Russian national geniuses. The Secret Journal In 1986, a book entitled Secret Journal 1836–1837 was published by a Minneapolis publishing house (M.I.P. Company), claiming to be the decoded content of an encrypted private journal kept by Pushkin. Promoted with few details about its contents, and touted for many years as being 'banned in Russia', it was an erotic novel narrated from Pushkin's perspective. Some mail-order publishers still carry the work under its fictional description. In 2001 it was first published in Moscow by Ladomir Publishing House which created a scandal. In 2006 a bilingual Russian-English edition was published in Russia by Retro Publishing House. Now published in 24 countries. Staged in Paris in 2006. In 2011 new editions were published in France by Belfond and in the USA by M.I.P. edition was published in Russia by Retro Publishing House. Now published in 24 countries. Staged in Paris in 2006. In 2011 new editions were published in France by Belfond and in the USA by
Our P o e t Corner
The Poetry of
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin Linda A.H. Walker Poetry Editor
Amidst The Noisy Ball,
in Hell Of everyday distress, I’ve seen you, but the secret’s veil Was covering your face. Your fair eyes were sad and bright, And voice was so sweet, As sound of a pipe apart Or murmur of the sea. I’ve liked your fine and slender waist, And thoughtful image, whole, And sound of your voice -- it nests Forever in my soul... When tired, in my lone nights, I lie down to pause -And see your beautiful sad eyes, And hear your merry voice. And, sad, I fall asleep to see My dreams that run above... I’m sure not whether I love thee --
But, maybe, I’m in love.
Poured poison in my soul’s brook.
Talisman My talisman, pray, be my guard, In days of strongest agitation, Of prosecution, lamentation: The day, I've owned you, was hard. When the ocean will ride, Around me the rolls in ire, When clouds will be set in fire, My talisman, pray, be my guard. In life with homeland apart, In peaceful being's boring rattle, In trouble of a flame of battle, My talisman, pray, be my guard. Illusion, sanctified and bright,
My soul's light and consolation
In days, when all earthly impressions
It chanced to be adulteration --
Where utter novelty for me –
My talisman, pray, be my guard.
And looks of maids and noise of groves, And nightingale’s plea, –
So, let the wounds of my poor heart
When highly elevated senses, The love, the liberty, the pride And arts’ fancies Such strongly aggravated blood – Having filled time of bliss and hopes With sudden bitterness of pine, Some genius of the evil scopes Began invade a realm of mine. Our meetings were all sad and secret, dismal His smile and ever charming look, His speeches’ endless evil ringlet,
Will not be touched be recollection,
All th o se secr ets, with h is lo o k o f sad n ess, T h en g o f o r th , n o t sp ar in g em p ty wo r d s, –
Farewell my hope, sleep attraction,
Yo u r d o o m is last, y o u r d estin y is m er ci less.
My talisman, pray, be my guard.
Perfidy Wh en your best fri e nd, t o s ounds of you r wo r ds, Beg ins to answer w i t h s a rc a s t i c s i l e nc e; Wh en he pulls o ut , from a t ouc h of your s, His own hand w i t h vi s ua l re pugna nc e ; Wh en, having pie rc e d you w i t h hi s l ook f r om side, He nods his head i n t he de s pi t e ful fa s hio n , Do n’t say, “He’s i l l , he ’s a n unha ppy c h ild , He ’s tortured by hi s ma dne s s -l i ke de j e ction ,” Do n’t say, “He i s unt ha nkful a nd unfa i r He ’s evil, weak a nd mus t n’t be fri e ndl y tr ea ted, An d all his life’s j us t s ome w ha t of ni gh tma r e…” Or are you right, a nd c a l ml y w i l l re pe at it? I f you were right , he ’s re a dy t o be de a d,
The Maiden (1821)
I f it’s impossible t o be by you forgi ve n, But if you used a s a c re d mi ght of F ri e nd To push him in unha ppi ne s s a nd gri e va nce; I f you insidiousl y s t ung hi s uns t a bl e min d ,
I always said to you: beware the maiden dear!
His fearful imag i na t i on,
I knew she lures hearts with strengths she can’t forebear.
An d was so glad t o fi nd a proud fun I n h is deep pine , s ore t e a rs a nd humi l i ation ; But if you self wa s t he di s gui s e d a dve nt
Oh, my presumptuous friend! I knew that in her shade
Of dirty clemenc y, de s t royi ng a l l hi s sa cred,
Impossible to seek another pretty maid.
But if you bound hi m, w he n he w a s s l ep t, An d, laughing, pus he d hi m t o a re a l m o f ha tr ed, An d he had read i n mut e s oul of yours ,
And, having lost his hope, forgot of treason’s pleasures, In her vicinity a thoughtful youngster blazes, Pets of great gods and captains of fate’s fleets
Bring their love prayers to her charming feet;
Alone, on the bare twigs,
But all their ardency is scorned by the girl proud –
The latest leaf is sadly twisting Under the cold's deadly stings.
Which, cast down her glance, not sees nor hears around.
Farewell, O, Faithful Leafy Groves! (1817) Farewell, O, faithful leafy groves! Farewell, O, careless world of fields, Farewell, funs, – each on light wings hovers – Of days – each so promptly fleets! Farewell, Trigorskoe, where gladness Had met me for so many times! Whether I’d drunk your charming freshness Just to lose you for good at once? From you I’m taking recollections And leaving my heart here for you. May be, – a dream, filled with sweet passion, – I’d come back to walk your fields through;
"I Went Through All My..." I went through all my former wishes, I stopped to love my former dreams; In my poor soul stays affliction -Result of empty-heart disease. Under the fate's fiendish tempests, My wreath of flowers had waned -I live alone with my sadness, And wait: when will come my end? Like, when a snowstorm is whistling,
I’d come under the vaults of lime-trees,
On a slope of Trigorskoe’s hill,
"The Elders" (1836) The elders-anchorites and ever-sinless maidens, To fly with their right heart to the precincts of Heavens, To make it strong enough in earthly storms and fight, Composed many prayers to recite. But not a single pray for me is so dear
A worshiper of freedom ours,
As one which from a priest we often blessed to hear
Of Graces, joy and high mind, still.
In so mournful, so solemn days of Lent.
"I Loved You" I loved you: and, it may be, from my soul The former love has never gone away,
This prayer very oft on lips of mine is set, And fallen me provides with strengths I’d never known:
But let it not recall to you my dole;
Oh, Lord of all my days! The ghost of idleness low
I wish not sadden you in any way.
And sensuality – this cunning snake and hard – And empty talk – don’t pass into my heart.
I loved you silently, without hope, fully, In diffidence, in jealousy, in pain; I loved you so tenderly and truly, As let you else be loved by any man.
But help me, Lord, to see my own sins’ procession, Let ne’er brother of mine receive my condemnation, And let the air of patience, meekness, love And blessed chastity in my heart turn alive.
The Curious (1816) ‘Well, what is new?’ – ‘I swear nothing else.’ – ‘Hey, don’t cheat me; for sure, something you know. It is a shame, that from your mate, the best, You hide the things, as from a hardened foe. Or are you cross: then why, my dear friend? Just say a word; don’t play a stubborn role …’ – ‘Oh, go away, I only know that You are a fool and it isn’t new, in whole.
The Disapora Ghana's Former First Lady to Run for President
By Kwasi Kpodo, ACCRA (Reuters)
ormer Ghanaian first lady Konadu AgyemanRawlings announced on Saturday she has split from the ruling party that her husband founded to run for president under a new banner.
The move, backed by her husband former president Jerry Rawlings, threatens to split support for incumbent John Mahama, who is seeking re-election against his main opposition rival Nana Akufo-Addo on December 2. "I stand before you today because I chose to become bolder and braver, and together we are going forward," AgyemanRawlings said in a speech broadcast on the radio. She had tried to win the ruling NDC party's nomination last year, but lost to then-President John Atta Mills, who died in July and was replaced by Mahama. Ghana, a cocoa, oil and gold producer, is one of West Africa's most stable countries, with more than 20 years of political
transitions through elections following a flurry of coups. Jerry Rawlings, who still enjoys broad popularity, said his wife left the ruling NDC because of bad governance. "The NDC leadership had lost its moral high ground, (and was) involved in things that it should not have gotten into, corruption at the leadership level, etc," he said. Agyemang-Rawlings, 63, is a women's rights advocate and is believed by many to have played an influential role during her husband's rule. A leading member of the NDC said the move, which came days after Rawlings announced he would stand by the ruling party, would have "no consequence" on Mahama's campaign or the simultaneous legislative polls. "I am urging our members to remain steadfast and not be rattled by this development," Richard Quashigah said. Political observer and pollster, Ben Ephson, said he did not expect Agyeman-Rawlings to draw enough support to threaten Mahama's bid for re-election. "...We don't think the party will make any significant impact
Shot Pakistani Girl Responding Well to Treatment
on the fortunes of the NDC this December," he said. Malala Yousufzai, 14, the Pakistani schoolgirl shot in the head by Taliban gunmen, is transferred from the plane aboard a stretcher as she arrives at Birmingham Airport, England
By MARTIN BENEDYK and SYLVIA HUI | Associated Press A teenage Pakistani girl shot in the head by the Taliban for promoting girls' education has responded well to treatment and impressed doctors with her strength, the British hospital where she was being treated said Tuesday. Experts are optimistic that 14-year-old Malala Yousufzai, who was airlifted Monday to Britain to receive specialized medical care, has a good chance of recovery because unlike adults, the brains of teenagers are still growing and can adapt to trauma better. "Her response to treatment so far indicated that she could make a good recovery from her injuries," the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in central England's Birmingham said in a statement. Despite the early optimism, the full extent of Malala's brain injuries has not been made public and outside experts cautioned it is extremely unlikely that a full recovery of all her brain's functions can be made. Instead, they could only hope that the bullet took a "lucky path" â€” going through a more "silent," or less active â€” part of the brain. "You don't have a bullet go through your brain and have a full recovery," said Dr. Jonathan Fellus, chief scientific officer at the New Jersey-based International Brain Research Foundation.
Malala was returning home from school in Pakistan last week when she was targeted by the Taliban for promoting girls' education and criticizing the militant group's behavior when they took over the scenic Swat Valley where she lived. Two of her classmates were also wounded in the attack and are receiving treatment in Pakistan. She arrived Monday in Britain, where she can be protected from follow-up attacks threatened by the militants. The Taliban have threatened to target Malala again because she promotes "Western thinking." There was some concern for the teenager's safety Tuesday when police stopped and questioned two people who tried to visit Malala, but hospital officials and police stressed there was no threat to the girl's safety. The two people, who claimed to be Malala's relatives, were turned away. "We think it's probably people being over-curious," hospital spokesman Dr. Dave Rosser said. Pakistani doctors at a military hospital earlier removed a bullet from Malala's body that entered her head and headed toward her spine. The military has said she was able to move her legs and hands several days ago when her sedatives were reduced. They have not said whether she suffered any brain damage or other permanent damage. On Monday, the military said damaged bones in Malala's skull will need to be repaired or replaced, and she will need "intensive neuro rehabilitation." The decision to send the girl abroad was taken in consultation with her family, and the Pakistani government will pay for her treatment. Doctors say Malala has an advantage because teens are generally healthier and their bodies have a stronger ability to react to the disruption that the injury causes. "It helps to be young and resilient to weather that storm," Fellus, at the International Brain Research Foundation, said. "Because her brain is continuing to develop at that age, she may have more flexibility in the brain."
There's also a psychological aspect to why youngsters have a better shot at recovery. While injured adults often mourn the loss of what they had, teens don't know what they are missing. "They have an amazing capacity for hope," Fellus said. In Malala's case, her strong personality would also help her recover, he added. Still, experts cautioned that it is impossible to say how Malala will do without knowing the path of the bullet and what damages it caused, details that have not been released. "The brain is like real estate," said Dr. Anders Cohen, chief of neurosurgery at The Brooklyn Hospital Center in New York. "Location is everything. "Based on the information we have, it appears that Malala was shot from the front down diagonally, but we don't know what part of the brain the bullet went through, whether it crossed the midline and hit any vessels, or whether the bullet passed through the right or left side of the brain." The attack on the girls horrified people in Pakistan and across the world. Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari said Malala had become "a symbol of all that is good in us." "The work she did is far higher before God than that which is being done by terrorists in the name of religion," he said at the Economic Cooperation Organization Summit in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan. "We will continue her bright work." Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik has announced a $1 million bounty for Pakistani Taliban spokesman Ahsanullah Ahsan, saying he was the one who announced that the Taliban carried out the attack on Malala.
Ethiopia Independent papers say gov't banned them By Kirubel Tadesse| Associated Press Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Temesgen Desalegn, editor in chief of Feteh Two weekly newspapers that have been critical of Ethiopia's ruling party have stopped publication because of government obstruction, the papers' publishers said Monday. The publishers are appealing to the country's newly appointed Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn to intervene. A government spokesman said the Ethiopian government is not telling printers not to print the papers. Both Feteh, the country's largest weekly at 27,500 copies, and Finote Netsanet, which is published by the largest opposition group, Unity for Democracy and Justice, have been unable to reach their readers for several weeks after the state-owned Berhanena Selam printing company refused to continue printing them. "We tried other printers, private ones as well. Some say they don't have the capacity while others first agree to print our paper only later to refuse us without any reasons," said Negasso Gidada, a former president of Ethiopia who now leads an opposition political party with the lone opposition member in the 547-seat parliament. "They simply tell us 'Please don't come back ... we only want sports and medical issue papers ... not politics." The group says its paper was forced off market after fea-
turing critical articles on the legacy of Ethiopia's late leader Meles Zenawi, who died Aug. 20. The opposition group said it sent Hailemariam two letters demanding he stop "authorities' attack of the constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech." Temesgen Desalegn, editor in chief of Feteh, said that his paper's July 20 issue was blocked from distribution because a prosecutor said that the news report it hoped to publish — that Meles had died — was false. The printer has since refused to publish the paper, citing an order by the Ministry of Justice, he said. "They told me if I can bring a written letter from the Justice Ministry saying otherwise we can continue to publish the paper," said Temesgen. "What we are hoping is the spirit of dictatorship that was taken off by the natural death of the late PM is gone. ... Maybe the new prime minister and his government, once settled in, may ease attacks on the free press." Shimeles Kemal, communications state minister, denied that the government is telling the printer not to publish the papers. "It is an absolute lie," he said. "The government does not have the province and jurisdiction to dictate a contract between a public company and its clients." Shimeles said that the printer has the right to refuse to publish a publication that contains "rebellious material and materials that are in violation any written law." A media rights official blamed the government. "Barhanena Selam printing company is controlled by the state and its refusal to print Feteh and Finote Netsanet, two publications critical of the government, is a result of official pressure and political censorship," said Mohamed Keita of the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists. Meanwhile, CPJ last week said Ethiopia should stop harassing journalists covering Ethiopia's Muslim community after a reporter for the U.S.-government-funded Voice of America was briefly detained last week. The reporter was forced to erase interviews she had recorded at a
Dr. Negasso Gidada, former president of Ethiopia
Workers Reject South Africa Gold Mines’ Pay Plan, Union Says
protest by Ethiopia's Muslim community, CPJ said. By Paul Burkhardt Members of South Africa’s biggest union rejected a proposal by gold producers to raise wages in a bid to end a wave of strikes, as Anglo American PLC said a platinum worker was killed at a site disrupted by stoppages. Employees who belong to the National Union of Mineworkers didn’t accept the offer, spokesman Lesiba Seshoka said in a text message in response to a query today. AngloGold Ashanti Ltd. (ANG) and Gold Fields Ltd. (GFI) had offered an additional 2 percent increase on top of an earlier agreement, and Harmony Gold Mining Co. 1.5 percent, Elize Strydom, chief negotiator at the Chamber of Mines, which represents the companies in wage talks, said yesterday. The entrylevel worker category would be eliminated in the proposal, meaning the lowest-paid miners would move up to the next band. About 41 percent of South Africa’s gold output is idled, including all of AngloGold’s mines. Two Gold Fields sites were halted after workers walked out without heeding resolution procedures set out by labor laws, while miners have been absent from Harmony’s Kusasalethu operation since at least Oct. 3. President Jacob Zuma said the mining strikes are hav-
ing a “significant” impact on an economy already struggling to cope with Europe’s debt crisis. The National Treasury estimates that total production lost in platinum and gold mining as of the middle of September was about 4.5 billion rand ($518 million), with 118 million rand lost in coal, Zuma said in a speech to black businessmen in Johannesburg today. Offer Extended The mines chamber has extended the offer, which was to expire today, until Oct. 15, when the parties will meet again, Strydom said after meeting with union representatives. The proposals haven’t changed. Gold advanced 0.4 percent to $1,770.15 an ounce by 6:08 p.m. in London. Village Main Reef Ltd. (VIL), a gold producer where most of the 1,700 workers who are NUM members have been on an unofficial strike since Sept. 27 at its Blyvoor operation, gave workers a second ultimatum to report for duty, it said in a statement. Blyvoor’s output “will be negatively affected during the December quarter as a result of continued illegal strike action,” it said. Most of Anglo American’s platinum mines and its Kumba Iron Ore Ltd. unit’s Sishen iron-ore complex are also shut because of strikes. Talks to end the strike at Sishen have failed, the NUM and the Congress of South African Trade Unions said today in an e-mailed statement. Kumba has appointed an outside mediator. Burning Taxis Xstrata Plc’s Eland platinum mine and Samancor Ltd.’s chrome operations have been disrupted as workers seek more pay. A man was burned alive and another suffered a gunshot wound when around 400 people held an illegal gathering near Anglo’s Bathopele platinum operation at Nkaneng near Rustenburg, police spokesman Dennis Adriao said by phone. “We think the crowd are burning taxis so as to stop miners from entering the mine and going to work,” he said. Anglo American (AAL) said in a statement an Anglo American Platinum Ltd. employee was murdered on his way to work at a tailings re-treatment plant. The company on Oct. 5 fired 12,000 workers for participating in unofficial strike. Police dispersed a group blocking a road to Gold One International Ltd. (GDO)’s Ezulwini mine yesterday, Grant Stuart, a company spokesman, said in an e-mail today. The 1,435 workers fired at the site, which was
South Africa’s Dlamini-Zuma, 1st female African Union chief
calm today, have until tomorrow to appeal their termination, he said. By Kirubel Tadesse, Associated Press ADDIS ABABA, A female leader on Monday was inaugurated into the top leadership position at the African Union for the first time. South Africa’s Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma took charge of the African Union commission where she will be in charge of peace and security functions and keeping track of the political and economic affairs of the continent. Dlamini-Zuma was most recently South Africa’s minister of home affairs and also served as the country’s minister of foreign affairs. Outgoing AU chair Jean Ping gave the gavel to Dlamini-Zuma during a ceremony at the union’s headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ping had held the position since 2008. Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn, who attended the ceremony, wished Dlamini-Zuma good success, but warned that her tasks will be arduous. In her inaugural address, Dlamini-Zuma pledged to work for “a prosperous, peaceful and integrated Africa.” After praising Africa’s ancient civilizations, Dlamini-Zuma spoke of Africa’s troubled centuries of slavery and colonialism, and then lauded post-colonial economic gains and peaceful transfers of power. “In spite of this laudable progress, we must also
acknowledge that there have been some difficulties and setbacks with pockets of instability and conflict,” Dlamini-Zuma said. “It is therefore our responsibility as governments, as citizens, as regional bodies to ensure that the democratic process is irrevocable and to pledge ourselves to work for its success.” Dlamini-Zuma vowed ‘to spare no efforts’ to try and resolve the conflict in Mali and the Sahel region she said poses a threat to spread. “Drawing on the lessons learnt from recent conflicts on the continent, we will take appropriate measures to improve cooperation and coordination with the United Nations,” said Dlamini-Zuma.
Congo, Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa and elsewhere are all trying to join the pornographicfilm industry in Africa or abroad. The world pornography market (adult video networks, pay-per-view movies on cable and satellite, websites, in-room hotel movies, phone sex, sex toys, magazines and DVDs) is estimated to be tens of billions of dollars, according to Dan Miller, managing editor of XBIZ Premiere, a trade publication for the adult entertainment industry . A Small Industry in Africa
By contrast, the largely Web-oriented African market is small but emerging. The leader on that continent Young Africans Who would be South Africa, which hosted Sexpo, a public expo focused on all aspects of sexuality, in the second Want to Be Porn Stars half of 2010. "The size of the entire adult industry in South Africa is said to be worth 60 million rand ($8.9 million), but that cannot be independently verified. It is probably the biggest in Africa. Nigeria should be worth about half of that," says Tau Morena, co-founder of Sondeza ("Bring it closer" in isiZulu), an African adult online network with more than 39,000 members (almost half of them South African) and an average of 7,000 unique visitors daily. Why hasn't the African pornographic sector taken off? Morena blames video piracy, which he says that most governments are not really interested in curbing: "In South Africa in the '90s ... about a million units were sold per annum, but now with the onslaught of piracy, roughly 150,000 units of all titles are sold on average, Hundreds of youths try to escape poverty by going into and the numbers keep declining." Africa's porn industry. Few realize how difficult and unsafe it Another brake is legislation. Producing -- and somecan be. times even possessing -- pornographic material is illegal in several African countries. And yet pornographic By: Habibou Bangré content is increasingly available in Africa, mainly I have been dreaming of becoming a porn actor since because of greater access to the Internet and to fora very young age. I live in the Ivory Coast and I am eign channels that broadcast adult movies. looking for a producer or a director to sign a contract and to be in a movie ... I am relying on you to make A Growing Market my dream come true. This is the advertisement that André (not his real That content is also increasingly sought after. "There is name), a 21-year-old, posted on the Internet with his a strong demand from the lower and upper middle email address and cell phone numbers. This computer classes that have equipped themselves with communiscience student in Grand-Bassam -- a town some 25 cation and video equipment (PCs, modems, webcams). miles from Abidjan, the capital of Ivory Coast -- is There is also international demand: Nigeria, home to not unusual in Africa. Hundreds of young men and one of the world's largest domestic film-production women in Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the industries, "exports videos and makes different types of
content it later puts online on Internet portals," says Philippe Di Folco, the French author of the Dictionnaire de la Pornographie. Foreign demand explains why "African actresses become specialized in different forms of pornography in Europe," says Cameroonian activist AmĂŠly-James Koh Bela, who monitors the pornographic sector. She identifies two porn-film companies, Concorde and Maeva, as the top providers of "special black" pornography that floods the Internet. In the meantime, the underground amateur African pornographic sector keeps growing. More than that: Koh Bela says that three major cities in her home country (Douala, YaoundĂŠ and Kribi) have been turned into porn-filmmaking centers where some actors boast about what they do for a living. Alex (his name has been changed) has long been proud of his job. The young Cameroonian with an Afro hairstyle directed a handful of movies and founded a company he called Sexe Images Nature Africaine to "create jobs and fight local prostitution -- less profitable than pornography." He also starred in two short movies and was paid 1,500 euros ($2,100) for both by a producer based in France. This was all before he retired from the business because he "found God." "Super sexy cute South African porn star" South African Palesa Mbau is not likely to be retiring anytime soon. The 23-year-old auditioned for a movie cast through Sondeza.com about a year ago. "The idea of creating a local film was inspired by our members, who asked us to produce something 100 percent local and relevant to our market," says Morena, who produced the film. "We asked for members of the website to come forward and be part of this experience, as there are no professional porn stars in South Africa." There were more than 1,000 candidates (mainly men) from all walks of life. Mbau was chosen, along with four other amateurs -- two women and two men -- for Mapona ["naked" in Sesotho], Volume 1, which has sold some 5,000 copies since its release last September. "I am getting proud because it is a black [pornographic movie]," says Mbau. "That is raising black empowerment because the porn films that you [commonly] see in South Africa are all white." Is Mapona a turning point in the pornographic career that she started three years ago for "personal reasons"? One thing is for sure: The light-skinned actress, who met high-profile representatives of the adult industry at Sexpo, is determined to get somewhere in the X sector. "I have a full-time job in a call center, but I see my
future over there. ... I do not have any problem saying that," she says. Mbau has already tagged herself "super sexy cute South African porn star" on the Facebook fan page she opened at the end of 2010, and where she today has some 2,200 fans. The woman with a teenage voice from Midrand, in the northern province of Gauteng, is using the page to make a name for herself and share sexual feelings and jokes with her fans. She is also building a reputation with her website, where she posted some explicit pictures of herself and where she sells private shows to "high-class clients." For instance, the rates for "personal photos and video -additional" range from 500 to 1,000 rands (from $75 to $150), depending on whether she has to provide a cameraman . Exploitation, Human Trafficking and Health Risks No wonder, says Koh Bela, that some African youths see pornographic actors as examples of success -- all the more because some manage to earn far more money with one film than the average African does in a month. What these young people do not always know, though, is that big money is rare in this sector. Besides, the threat of human trafficking -- the third most widespread criminal activity worldwide, according to the United Nations -- is worrying in some countries. She is also building a reputation with her website, where she posted some explicit pictures of herself and where she sells private shows to "high-class clients." For instance, the rates for "personal photos and video -additional" range from 500 to 1,000 rands (from $75 to $150), depending on whether she has to provide a cameraman. Exploitation, Human Trafficking and Health Risks No wonder, says Koh Bela, that some African youths see pornographic actors as examples of success -- all the more because some manage to earn far more money with one film than the average African does in a month. What these young people do not always know, though, is that big money is rare in this sector. Besides, the threat of human trafficking -- the third most widespread criminal activity worldwide, according to the United Nations -- is worrying in some countries. Around 5 percent of the victims of human trafficking identified in Western and Central Europe are of African origin, mainly coming from "West African communities, in particular Nigerian women and girls," according to "The Globalization of Crime -- a Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment," (pdf), a report released in June 2010 by the United Nations Office on
Drugs and Crime. "Studies of Nigerian victims report that acquaintances, close friends or family members play a major role in the recruitment of victims. ... The vast majority of West African women and girls are exploited in street prostitution." Are the victims exploited in the pornographic sector, too? "When a child is caught in a network, the human trafficker exploits it in every possible way," states Anne-Sophie Faysse, project leader at the French branch of ECPAT, an international network fighting child sexual exploitation. "You can find cases of rape; prostitution, which is much more visible; and pornographic-material production. In this last case, this is almost exclusively cyber pornography [photos, movies]." Adults -- women, for the most part -- may also be trapped. Koh Bela, who is president of Mayina, a French association against human trafficking, indeed warns that human traffickers do not hesitate to force some victims into extreme forms of pornography, such as bestiality. "Some young women or mothers of victims told us that Western tourists, for the most part, rented villas where they organize private parties," says Koh Bela. "They make the girls drunk and drug them before giving them to the dogs for hours of sexual intercourse. At the end of the party, the girls can earn 150,000 FCFA [about $325]." Like some of their Western counterparts, African actors are also exposed to serious health risks. The use of condoms is often not allowed during shoots, and HIV testing is not always compulsory. This can add to the AIDS burden of Africa, where 22.5 million of those living in sub-Saharan countries are already infected, according to the latest Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) global report. Tau Morena insisted that the use of condoms be visible in each sex scene of Mapona and in his next movies, including Mapona, Volume 2, which is scheduled to be released in a few months. "Better" Opportunities Beyond Africa? The Ivorian André does not really think about the risks. He is still focusing on building a career that he believes will get him and his family out of poverty. Fela shares the same motivations. A native of Benin and mother of a 5-year-old girl, she says that she earns $200 to $300 a month when business -- organizing special events in nightclubs -- is good, and sometimes as little as $100. So she has decided to combine
business and pleasure. "I love all that goes with eroticism, sex and seduction," says Fela, who lives in Lomé, the capital of neighboring Togo. "It is like second nature. My friends circulate amateur sex videos of me free of charge, and I hope that one day, someone will pay attention to me and call me for a shoot." Hers may not be the best approach. "I spoke several times by email with so-called directors who had seen my ads," says André. "In the end, they asked for pictures of my penis. I sent them and never heard from them again Diana, 28, has managed to avoid such tricks. Just like Fela, she is a single mother struggling to make a decent living for her 11-year-old child. Just like Fela, she wants to work in pornography "for pleasure and money." Still, the Cameroonian, living in Bata, the second-largest city in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, is determined to wait for a better opportunity -- and it may not be in Africa. "I remember an Ivorian film shot in the bush," she says. "Everything looked dirty. There were flies everywhere ... Western movies look classier to me." Koh Bela, who is the author of Mon Combat Contre La Prostitution ("My Battle Against Prostitution"), confirms that observation. She has reviewed hundreds of African sex films, some of which are sold in Château Rouge, a neighborhood of Paris with a strong African presence. "The rare movies with African actors that have good production values have been directed by European producers -- among others, French, Dutch and German," she says. "After having flooded the Internet, these movies are finding a place in the DVD market, while African-produced movies are usually so poor at every level that big producers will never distribute them." This may explain why some youths attend informal pornographic classes. "There are initiation circles in Douala and Abidjan," Koh Bela reveals. "In dedicated apartments, young women watch movies to learn every kind of caress, sexual positions and Western-style pornographic techniques. The 'teachers' do not hesitate to show the girls how to do things right. ... They also test men's and women's abilities." Is this the best way to enter the sector? Not necessarily, according to Philippe Di Folco. "The amateur quality is what buyers want," he says. "Today, consumers value the effect of realism because it is like they are voyeurs of private scenes, present in the bedroom or in the spot where the sexual intercourse is
Anti-Kony Video Campaign Draws Criticism in Uganda taking place." Meanwhile, AndrĂŠ relies on the visual experience he got perusing movies and magazines. He also counts on luck. When he shares his aspirations with his male friends who also want Joseph Kony to become porn actors, they find hope in their fellow Africans who have had the opportunity to perform in adult movies in France. Habibou BangrĂŠ is a freelance journalist based in France. By:Rodney Muhumuza, Associated Press, KAMPALA, Uganda The wildly successful viral video campaign to raise global awareness of a brutal Central Africa rebel leader is attracting criticism from Ugandans, some who said Friday that the 30minute video misrepresents the complicated history of Africa's longest-running conflict. The campaign by the advocacy group Invisible Children to make militia leader Joseph Kony a household name has received enormous attention on YouTube and other Internet sites this week. But critics here said the video glosses over a complicated history that made it possible for Kony to rise to the notoriety he has today. They also lamented that the video does not inform viewers that Kony originally was waging war against Uganda's army, whose human rights record has been condemned as brutal by independent observers. "There is no historical context. It's more like a fashion thing," said Timothy Kalyegira, a well-known social critic in Uganda who once published a newsletter called The Uganda Record. Kony's Lord's Resistance Army began its attacks in Uganda in the 1980s, when Kony sought to overthrow the government. Since being pushed out of Uganda several years ago, the LRA has terrorized villages in Congo, the Central African Republic and South Sudan. The group takes young women into sexual slavery and forces children to commit heinous attacks. In the years when Kony's men roamed northern Uganda, the Ugandan government was often accused of failing to do enough to capture or kill Kony, with some government
investigations showing that army officers profiteered from a protracted war. Olara Otunnu, a former U.N. diplomat who worked on children and armed conflict, has long accused the Ugandan government of committing genocide in northern Uganda as it pursued Kony. Invisible Children said in a statement posted on its website that it does not defend any of the human rights abuses committed by the Ugandan government. But it said: "The only feasible and proper way to stop Kony and protect the civilians he targets is to coordinate efforts with regional governments." "Theirs is a narrow perspective," he said of Invisible Children's work. "They just want the war to end so that children can go back home. That's all." Latigo said that the Ugandan government, by failing to deploy enough soldiers to prevent the LRA from abducting children over the years, had been partly responsible for the rebel group's success as a recruiter of children. "Our position was clear. We told the government, 'There are not enough soldiers,'" he said. "We hope it will be helpful," she said. "What it leads to remains to be seen, but the goal to bring pressure on key leaders, to protect civilians and to apprehend LRA leadership is important, absolutely." Burnett added that while the LRA issue is important, Uganda's military also needs to be accountable and professional -- "and there's still a long way to go in that regard." Luis Moreno-Ocampo, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, where Kony is wanted for war crimes, told The Associated Press this week he thinks the attention Invisible Children has raised is "incredible, exactly what we need." Kony is now thought to be hiding in the Central African Republic, where he fled before an aerial assault on his forested base in Congo in 2008. Ugandan officials say the LRA -with some 200 core fighters at most -- is weakened and is merely trying to survive. Invisible Children's new campaign comes five months after President Barack Obama sent 100 U.S. forces to help regional governments eliminate Kony and his lieutenants. American troops are now stationed in Uganda, the Central African Republic, the Congo, and South Sudan, countries where Kony's men operate. Ugandan officials say that, with the help of U.S. troops, the hunt for LRA leaders has intensified in recent months. Asked what the chances were of eliminating the LRA, Rear Adm. Brian L. Losey, the top U.S. special operations commander for Africa, told journalists last month: "I don't see failure."
THE CARIBBEAN AND SOUTH OF THE BOARDER Obama: 'Today We Celebrate Cesar Chavez'
Associated Press/Carolyn Kaster - President Barack Obama walks with Cesar Chavez' widow Helen F. Chavez, left, and Dolores Huerta, Co-Founder of the United Farm Workers, as they tour the Cesar E. Chavez National Monument Memorial Garden, Monday, Oct. 8, 2012, in Keene, Calif. (AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster) President Barack Obama on Monday designated the home The 187-acre site, known as Nuestra Senora Reina de la Paz of Latino labor leader Cesar Chavez as a national monument, (Our Lady Queen of Peace), or simply La Paz, was the union's calling Chavez a hero who brought hope to millions of poor, planning and coordination center starting in 1971. Chavez and disenfranchised farm workers who otherwise might have many organizers lived, trained and strategized there. remained "invisible" to much of the nation. Obama's action designates 105 acres at the site near ""Today, we celebrate Cesar Chavez," Obama said at a cer- Bakersfield, Calif., as a national monument, the fourth monuemony at La Paz, the California farmhouse where Chavez ment he has designated under the Antiquities Act. lived and worked for more than two decades. "Our world is a The action could shore up support from some Hispanic and better place because Cesar Chavez decided to change it." progressive voters for Obama, whose 2008 "yes we can" sloChavez, who died in 1993 at age 66, is buried on the site gan borrowed from Chavez's motto, "Si, se puede." where the monument was dedicated. His widow, Helen, still When the Arizona-born Chavez began working as an lives there. organizer after World War II, "no one seemed to care about the
invisible farm workers who picked the nation's food," Obama said. "Cesar cared. And in his own peaceful, eloquent way he made other people care, too. Where there had once been despair, Cesar gave workers a reason to hope." As head of the United Farm Workers of America, Chavez staged a massive grape boycott and countless field strikes, and forced growers to sign contracts providing better pay and working conditions to the predominantly Latino farmworkers. He was credited with inspiring millions of other Latinos in their fight for more educational opportunities, better housing and more political power. Obama seemed to tie Chavez to his own re-election campaign, saying: "Even though we have a difficult road ahead, I know we can keep moving forward together. " Obama's 2012 campaign motto is "Forward." Helen Chavez and son Paul Chavez were among those attending the ceremony. Dolores Huerta, co-founder with Chavez of the UFW, and current union president Arturo S. President Hugo Chavez, front, gestures during a campaign rally Rodriguez also were present, as were Interior Secretary Ken in Maracay, Venezuela Salazar, California Gov. Jerry Brown and other officials. Associated Press writer Matthew Daly in Washington con- the oil-exporting nation. Capriles had vowed to seriously address violent crime that tributed to this report. has spun out of control, streamline a patronage-bloated bureaucracy and end rampant corruption, but his promises proved inadequate against Chavez's charisma, well-oiled political machine and legacy of putting Venezuela's poor first with generous social welfare programs. Nevertheless, Chavez only got 135,000 more votes this time around than he did six years ago, while the opposition boosted its tally by 1.85 million. Chavez appeared to acknowlAssociated Press Caracas, Venezuela President Hugo Chavez put to rest any doubts about his edge the opposition's growing clout. "I extend from here my recognition of all who voted against masterful political touch in winning a third consecutive sixus, recognition of their democratic weight," he told thousands year term after a bitterly fought race against a youthful rival of cheering supporters from the balcony of the Miraflores preswho has galvanized Venezuela's opposition. The state governor, who lost Sunday's presidential vote, idential palace. Tensions were high Sunday night as announcement of the Henrique Capriles, had accused the flamboyant incumbent of unfairly leveraging to his advantage Venezuela's oil wealth as results were delayed. Finally, fireworks exploded over downtown Caracas amid well as his near total control of state institutions. a cacophony of horn-honking by elated Chavez supporters Capriles also narrowed Chavez's margin of victory to his waving flags and jumping for joy outside the presidential smallest yet in a presidential contest. This time, the former army paratroop commander who led a failed 1992 coup won palace. Chavez will now have a freer hand to push for an even big54 percent of the vote against 45 percent for Capriles. In 2006, ger state role in the economy, as he pledged during the camChavez's margin of victory was 27 points. Nevertheless, the populace endorsed once again Chavez's paign, and to continue populist programs. He's also likely to further limit dissent and deepen friendships with U.S. rivals. stated aim of converting Venezuela into a socialist state. A Capriles victory would have brought a radical foreign Capriles said in his concession speech that he rejects the policy shift including a halt to preferential oil deals with allies idea of two Venezuelans divided by ideology and class. "I will continue working to build one country," said the such as Cuba, along with a loosening of state economic conwiry, 40-year-old grandson of Holocaust survivors who uni- trols and an increase in private investment. President Raul Castro of Cuba, which could have been fied and energized the opposition while barnstorming across
Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez Wins Another 6 Year Term
badly hurt by a Chavez loss, was among Latin American leaders sending warm congratulations to the former paratrooper on his victory after nearly 14 years in office. "I can't describe the relief and happiness I feel right now," said Edgar Gonzalez, a 38-year-old construction worker. He ran through crowds of Chavez supporters packing the streets around the presidential palace wearing a Venezuelan flag as a cape and yelling: "Oh, no! Chavez won't go!" "The revolution will continue, thanks to God and the people of this great country," said Gonzalez. Voter turnout was an impressive 81 percent, compared to 75 percent in 2006. Chavez paid close attention to his military-like get-out-the-vote organization at the grass roots, stressing its importance at campaign rallies. The opposition said he unfairly plowed millions in state funds into the effort. Chavez spent heavily in the months before the vote, building public housing and bankrolling expanded social programs.
Vendors grilled meat and some people drank beer. Chavez's critics accused the president of inflaming divisions by labeling his opponents "fascists," `'Yankees" and "neoNazis," and it's likely hard for many of his opponents to stomach another six years of the loquacious and conflictive leader. Some said before the vote that they'd consider leaving the country if Chavez won. Gino Caso, an auto mechanic, said Chavez is power-hungry and out of touch with problems such as crime. He said his son had been robbed, as had neighboring shops. "I don't know what planet he lives on," Caso said, gesturing with hands blackened with grease. "He wants to be like Fidel Castro -- end up with everything, take control of the country."
Mexico Navy: Zetas Cartel Leader Apparently Killed
"I think he just cranked up the patronage machine and unleashed a spending orgy," said Michael Shifter, president of the Washington-based Inter-American Dialogue think tank. But Shifter also didn't deny the affinity and gratefulness By Mark Stevenson | Associated Press Top Zetas drug cartel leader Heriberto Lazcano has apparVenezuela's poor feel for Chavez. "Despite his illness, I still think he retains a strong emotional connection with a lot of ently been killed in a firefight with marines in the northern borVenezuelans that I think were not prepared to vote against der state of Coahuila, the Mexican navy said late Monday. If confirmed, Lazcano's death would mark a huge victory him." Chavez spoke little during the campaign about his fight with cancer, which since June 2011 has included surgery to remove tumors from his pelvic region as well as chemotherapy and radiation treatment. He has said his most recent tests showed no sign of illness. Capriles told supporters not to feel defeated. "We have planted many seeds across Venezuela and I know that these seeds are going to produce many trees," he told them at his campaign headquarters. Despite winning a February primary that unified the opposition, Capriles was unable to sufficiently erode Chavez's firm base of loyal support. One pro-Chavez voter, private bodyguard Carlos Julio Silva, said that whatever his faults, Chavez deserved to win for spreading the nation's oil wealth to the poor with free medical care, public housing and other government programs. The country has the world's largest proven oil reserves. "There is corruption, there's plenty of bureaucracy, but the people have never had a leader who cared about this country," Silva said after voting for Chavez in the Caracas slum of Petare. At many polling places, voters began lining up hours before polls opened at dawn, some snaking for blocks in the baking Caribbean sun. Some shaded themselves with umbrellas.
for Mexican law enforcement, and mark the end of a founder of one of the world's bloodiest cartels. The navy said there were "strong indications" the body of one of two men killed in the shootout Sunday was Lazcano, known as "El Lazca." But it added that more forensics tests would have to be carried out to confirm the identification. "Information was obtained after the first forensics tests were carried out that yielded indications that suggest that one of the bodies is Heriberto Lazcano," the navy's statement said. "The Navy Department is coordinating efforts with Coahuila state, and will be awaiting the conclusions of the forensics examination in the case," the statement said. The death of Lazcano would be a major victory for Mexican law enforcement. The Zetas cartel that he helped found with other deserters from an elite army unit went on to carry out some of Mexico's bloodiest massacres, biggest jail breaks and fiercest attacks on authorities. Lazcano, who is also known as "El Verdugo" (the Executioner) for his brutality, is suspected in hundreds of killings, including the June 2004 slaying of Francisco Ortiz Franco, a top editor of a crusading weekly newspaper in Tijuana that often reported on drug trafficking. Ortiz Franco was gunned down in front of his two young children as he left a clinic. The United States has offered a $5 million reward and Mexico an additional $2.3 million for information leading to Lazcano's arrest. The Sunday shootout came in the rural area of Progreso, Coahuila, about 80 miles (125 kilometers) west of the Texas border, near Laredo. The navy said it received complaints about armed men in the area and sent out a patrol to check out the reports. Gunmen tossed grenades at the patrol from a moving vehicle, wounding one of the marines. His injuries were not life-threatening. Two of the gunmen were killed in the ensuing shootout, the navy's statement said. In the gunmen's' vehicle, authorities found a grenade launcher, 12 grenades, what appeared to be rocket propelled grenade launcher and two rifles. Under Lazcano's leadership, the Zetas recruited more hit men, many of them former Mexican soldiers, and hired "kaibiles," Guatemalan soldiers trained in counterinsurgency, transforming what had been a small group of assassins into a ruthless gang of enforcers for the Gulf cartel. The Zetas also were in charge of protecting the Gulf cartel's drug shipments. The Zetas finally split from their former bosses in 2010 and have since been fighting a vicious battle for control of the drug business in northeastern Mexico, the traditional home base of the Gulf cartel. The result has been a surge of drug-related killings. Lazcano "is credited with strengthening the organization ...
he created a new structure of regional cells that specialize in specific crimes," Mexican federal prosecutors say in their profile of Lazcano. The Zetas earned their notoriety for brutality by becoming the first to publicly display their beheaded rivals, most infamously two police officers in April 2006 in the resort city of Acapulco. The severed heads were found on spikes outside a government building with a message signed "Z'' that said: "So that you learn to respect." Even with the death of Lazcano, the Zetas would still be run by a ruthless capo, Miguel Angel Trevino Morales, who has a reputation for being even more brutal than Lazcano. Trevino Morales, also known was "Z 40," has taken on a greater leadership role and has even been reported to have replaced Estrada, right, shares a moment with his mother, Lisa Lazcano as operational chief. The report of Lazcano's death came just hours after the navy nabbed a suspected Zetas regional leader accused of involvement in some of the country's most notorious crimes in recent years. Navy spokesman Jose Luis Vergara said Salvador Alfonso Martinez Escobedo was arrested Saturday in Nuevo Laredo, across from Laredo, Texas. The official said Martinez is believed to have masterminded the massacre of 72 migrants in the northern state of Tamaulipas in 2010. The man known as "Squirrel" also has been linked to the escape of 151 prisoners in 2010 from a jail in the city of Nuevo Laredo, the recent flight of 131 prisoners in the city of Piedras Negras and the killing of U.S. citizen David Hartley in 2010 on Falcon Lake, which straddles the U.S.-Mexico border. The death of Hartley drew wide attention as it appeared Hartley and his wife, Tiffany, were on a personal trip when he was shot by Mexican criminals on Sept. 30, 2010. The Hartleys were using personal watercraft on Falcon Lake when David Hartley was shot in the head and fell into the water. The navy is also blaming Martinez for the killing of the Tamaulipas state police commander and chief investigator on the case, an attack that hampered the investigation. The navy said Martinez is also a suspect in dozens of killings of people who were buried in mass graves at the same site of the 2010 massacre of migrants. Nearly 200 bodies were discovered in April 2011 in the town of San Fernando, close to the U.S. border. Those two crimes have been the most fatalities since Mexico's federal government launched an armed offensive against drug traffickers in December 2006. Associated Press writers Olga R. Rodriguez and E. Eduardo Castillo contributed to this report
appreciation. To achieve its objective the Fund invests in issuers that are likely, in the Advisor's view, to benefit from economic, political, structural and technological developments in the countries in the Caribbean Basin, which the Fund considers to consist of Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, the Bahamas, the Dominican Republic, Barbados, Aruba, Haiti, the Netherlands Antilles, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and the United States. There can be no assurance that this objective will be met. About Thomas J. Herzfeld Advisors Thomas J. Herzfeld Advisors (www.herzfeld.com), Inc., formed in 1984, is a registered investment advisor based in Miami specializing in closed-end fund investment strategies for institutions and individuals. Herzfeld Advisors manages The Virtus Herzfeld Fund (Class A: VHFCX), an open-end mutual fund focused on closed-end fund strategies, as subadviser to Virtus Investment Partners. The firm publishes monthly research on closed-end funds and calculates the Herzfeld Closed-End Average, an index of price performance and pre-
Herzfeld Caribbean Basin Fund Net Asset Value Makes New All-Time High MIAMI, FL
Witch doctor of the Shona people close to Great Zimbabwe
The Herzfeld Caribbean Basin Fund, Inc. ( NASDAQ : CUBA ) (Cusip:42804T106) announced that the net asset value of the Fund as of October 5, 2012, was $8.55 per share, which represents a new high. As of the Oct. 5 close, the net asset value of the fund is up 19.25% calendar year-to-date. From inception on September 10, 1993, the net asset value is up 155.82% (performance figures adjusted for distributions). The Fund's share price is up 16.04% calendar year-to-date through October 5, 2012*. As of the close on that date, the share price of the Fund was $7.45 per share. From inception in September 10, 1993, the share price is up 124.82% (performance figures adjusted for distributions). *This information is not intended to be a buy or sell recommendation. Past performance is not an indication of future results; figures above are unaudited. About the Herzfeld Caribbean Basin Fund The Herzfeld Caribbean Basin Fund, Inc. is a closed-end fund managed by HERZFELD/CUBA, a division of Thomas J. Herzfeld Advisors, Inc. The Fund seeks long-term capital
mium/discount levels of representative domestic U.S. equity closed-end funds, published weekly in Barron's. Information about the advisor and the Fund can be found at www.herzfeld.com. Information about research published by Thomas J. Herzfeld Advisors, Inc is available at www.herzfeldresearch.com. Investors should consider the Fund's investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses carefully before investing. This and additional information about the Herzfeld Caribbean Basin Fund, Inc. may be obtained by calling 305-271-1900. Investing in the Fund involves risk, including possible loss of principal. Closed-end funds generally have a one-time initial public offering and then are subsequently traded on the secondary market through one of the stock exchanges. The investment return and principal value will fluctuate so that an investor's shares may be worth more or less than the original cost. Shares of closed-end funds may trade above (a premium) or below (a discount) the net asset value (NAV) of the fund's portfolio. There is no assurance that a fund will achieve its investment objective. Past performance does not guarantee future results. Closed end funds that specialize in single geographic region may carry additional risks. The above is for information purposes only and should not be considered as an offer, or solicitation, to deal in any of the investments mentioned herein. Thomas J. Herzfeld Advisors, Inc. does not warrant the accuracy, adequacy or completeness
of the information and materials contained in this document has been progress in recent decades, but the wage gap between and expressly disclaims liability for errors or omissions in such men and women still prevails. The process of closing this gap information and materials. has been very slow because misguided stereotypes and perceptions of the roles of men and women have distorted interactions, not only in the workplace but also at home. These stereotypes, which arise even in early childhood, discourage women, thus limiting their access to careers with a better future in the labor market,” explains Hugo Ñopo, an IDB specialist in education and author of this study. Women have a tendency to work part-time, on a selfemployed basis and in informal activities. While one in every • Even with more education than men, ten men works part-time, one in every four women works on women are still concentrated in lowerthis basis. This labor flexibility, which allows women to parpaid occupations such as teaching, health ticipate in labor markets while still being able to take care of care or the service sector. multiple responsibilities at home, comes at a cost reflected in • When comparing men and women of the same lower wages. age and educational level, men earn 17 percent Likewise, women usually enter the labor market at a later more than women in Latin America. This stage and participate in it irregularly, on account of raising chilwage gap has been decreasing in recent years, dren, for example. This might deter their experience and probut at a pace that remains slow. fessional development, thus increasing the wage gap with age. • Changing household roles and stereotypes is essential to attaining gender equality in the What needs to be done? labor market. In order to close the gender wage gap, the study recommends distributing household chores equally and encourages Despite recent gains, the wage gap between men and women to study science and mathematics and to take measwomen in Latin America still prevails, according to a new ures that give them a better chance to participate in labor marInter-American Development Bank (IDB) study entitled kets. The latter can be exemplified with the expansion of serv“New Century, Old Disparities,” which compares surveys of ices for early childhood development centers. Not only could representative households in 18 Latin American and this help women to increase their working day, passing from Caribbean countries. part-time to full-time employment, but it could also increase The study was released at the POWER Conference, a high- human capital for the next generation. level meeting of experts including U.N. Women Executive An equal maternity leave for both parents could help Director Michelle Bachelet and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary level the playing field with respect to decisions of hirClinton who gathered in Lima, Peru, to explore how to achieve ing women and men. Furthermore, it could encourage gender equality in the labor markets. men and women to dedicate more time to their newThe study, which also examines wage differences across borns, generating more equal decisions. ethnic minorities of the region, points out that, although the Ethnic minorities in comparison to white and mixed-race average gender wage gap decreased from 25 percent to 17 per- majorities cent between 1992 and 2007, the disparity remains quite high The book also presents a regional and country-specific outand there is still plenty of work to be done. look of the wage penalties faced by ethnic minorities in According to the household surveys, women hold only 33 Ecuador, Chile, Paraguay, Guatemala, Brazil, Peru and percent of the better-paid professional jobs in the region, which Bolivia. For these groups, the gaps are even bigger than those include those related to architecture, law or engineering. In related to gender. Guatemala and Paraguay show the highest these professions, the wage gap between men and women is ethnic income gaps: 68 percent and 60 percent, respectively. significantly higher: 58 percent on average. These jobs require According to the study, the challenge for this population group quantitative skills, and despite women’s progress in educa- must be even greater because of the high level of occupationtion—leading men by half a year of education on average— al and hierarchical segregation, as well as the lower educationthey tend to focus on careers like psychology, teaching or nurs- al achievement of these minorities, among other measures. ing, where those skills are not developed. “In terms of women’s participation in the work force, there
Latin American and Caribbean Women: Better Educated, Lower Paid
Southwark Calls on Black African and Caribbean Residents to Contribute to Borough Archive Southwark Council has launched a new initiative to encourage the borough's black African and Caribbean communities to contribute to the borough's archive held at Southwark Local History Library in Borough High Street The "Building the archive" campaign – which coincides with a snapshot of Southwark's current African and Caribbean communities in order to recognise and celebrate their ongoing accomplishments. All sections of the African and Caribbean community are encouraged to take part including
community groups, business owners and local social groups. The archive is also happy to accept photographs, films, newspaper clippings and official documents to help build a picture of the present and changing history of Southwark. "We want to collect records of the lives of individuals and families, items like personal letters, journals or certificates and photographs and film that show individuals and families at work and play in their homes and communities," said Dr Patricia Dark, local history library and archive manager. "We don't need posed or professional family portraits that don't show anything about the lives of the people in them, and it helps a lot if you can identify as many people in a shot as possible." The campaign fits in with the theme of Southwark's Black History Month festivities – 'Celebration' – from the Queen's Jubilee to 50 years of independence for Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago and the amazing Olympic and Paralympic Games. The Mayor of Southwark, Cllr Althea Smith has already added material to the archive alongside Southwark Olympic torchbearer Ahmed Jalloh-Sheriff and Sunny Lambe from Black Business Initiative. "As a community we have so much to shout about and celebrate so it is vital that we all contribute to the archive," said Cllr Smith. "Our successors need to have a foundation to build upon to continue to do great things. Whilst reflecting on all the greatness achieved over the years remember that you too have been part of it so we need your contribution.
In his hands: Babatunde Lea Channels Af Drumming Traditions
By David Cazares, Minnesota Public Radio, St. Paul, Minn. Babatunde Lea likes to tell people that, as a child of an African-American family that loved Afro-Caribbean music, he knew how to dance the mambo and cha-cha-cha before he could walk. "I grew up seeing all kinds of drums, going to parades, going to concerts," said Lea, who spent his youth in Englewood, N.J. "Going to the Apollo," he said, referring to the legendary theater in Harlem, "was at least a monthly occasion for me. I saw everybody." Early on, that exposure to a multitude of sounds helped Lea to recognize the commonality of African rhythms in the music of the Americas, a shared heritage the percussionist has explored in a career that spans five decades. Lea has pursued an African musical vision since 1959, when at 11 he first heard the drummer Babatunde Olatunji, a performance would inspire him to drop his given name of Michael. A few years later, he started to play congas and later, the trap drums, developing expertise that would launch a career in San Francisco and New York.
Now living close to the Twin Cities, Lea brings a spiritual jazz steeped in the African tradition to the local scene. He brings his eclectic style to shows on Friday and Saturday at St. Paul's Artists Quarter, where guitarist Zacc Harris, bassist Chris Bates and pianist Richard Johnson will join him on stage. Though he has been hailed as a stellar performer of jazz and world music, Lea would say what's important isn't him, but the fountain from which his music springs. "I call it jazz steeped in the rhythms of the African diaspora because I've learned a great many drumming traditions, you know, from Afro-Cuban to Afro-Brazilian to Senegalese to Nigerian," he said. "And I bring all those elements to my music, as well as straight ahead. It all depends on what composition and where your head is when you hear us." But first, Lea who plays the traponga, may have to explain his instrumentation. He will play three congas with his left hand, a cajete or cowbell with a pedal with his left foot, and trap drums and cymbals with his right hand. "I've developed a lot of patterns to fit my compositions. I've been developing it for a while now," Lea said. "And it's coming along really good. It's my niche ... and my innovation."
Cuban Embargo Issue in Jamica
For more than four decades, he's worked with a slew of acclaimed artists, from percussionist Bill Summers and singer Leon Thomas to sax great Pharoah Sanders. He has no doubt that the spirit of African ancestors drives the music of much of the Americas, from Afro-Cuban Santeria and Haitian voodoo to Brazilian candomble and even the music of the black church. The call to Africa that emerges from the drum, Lea said, is about one unifying spirit. "These are all the same people that were brought over here during the slave trade," Lea said. "That's what people don't know. They separate African-Americans, Afro-Cubans, AfroBrazilians and ... Haiti and Dominican Republic. It's like we're different people. No, we're the same people that was brought over here. We're just are separated by different languages. "We're calling the ghost constantly. Our music is our music." In concert, Lea will playing a variety from his recordings for Motema music, particularly from his last two works: "Suite Unseen" and "Umbo Weti: A Tribute to Leon Thomas." Besides Lea, "Umbo Weti" also features Dwight Tribbles on vocals, Ernie Watts on tenor saxophone, Patrice Rushen on piano and Gary Brown on bass. The percussionist hopes to bring the group to the Twin Cities. For Lea, his exploration of the African spirit also is about reaching a higher level of consciousness or humanity, a goal he and his wife, Virginia, strive to foster in others through the Educultural Foundation they founded. Also an activist, he teaches classes on how polyrhythmic drumming can help one understand different cultures -- and combat racism, sexism homophobia and classism. "We have to understand that we as humankind are connected and that we have to deal with each other," said Lea, who wants people to focus on eliminating child suffering. "We have to deal with each other humanely in that being that we are on this planet together all we can do is help each other. Everything else is false and a lie. "We need to be connected," he said. "That's the lesson from the master drummer."
By: Alicia Dunkley, Jamaica WI Opposition Member of J a m a i c a ’s Par liam en t ( MP) Pear n el Ch ar les h as ca l l e d f o r a n ew ap p r o ach in p r essu r in g th e Uni t e d States o f Am er ica to r em o v e th e d ecad es -o l d economic embargo it has imposed on Co m m u n ist Cu b a. T h e Ho u se o f Rep r esen tativ es h as, f o r t h e p ast th r ee y ear s, p assed m o tio n s in su p p o rt o f Cu b a’s r eso lu tio n tab led in th e Uni t e d Natio n ’s Gen er al Assem b ly callin g f o r a n en d to th e b lo ck ad e.” L ast y ear, Jam aica a n d 1 8 5 o th er UN m em b er states v o ted in f a v o r o f th e r eso lu tio n . Bu t sp eak in g o n th e r eso lu tio n b r o u g h t once again by Government MP Anthony Hy lto n ( Wester n St An d r ew) , Ch ar les sa i d an o th er tactic was n eed ed . “Fo r y ear s we h av e b een p assin g r eso l u tio n s in th is Ho u se ab o u t Cu b a b u t n o th i n g h as h ap p en ed , th er e h av e b een so m e ad ju st m en ts b y th e Cu b an g o v er n m en t an d t h e Am er ican g o v er n m en t b u t th e r eal ad ju st m en t we ar e lo o k in g f o r is a r em o v al o f t h e em b arg o . I t say s to m e th at h av in g p a sse d r eso lu tio n s f o r sev er al y ear s an d n o t h i n g h as h ap p en ed , sh o u ld we b e lo o k in g at ot h e r
Pearnel Charles .. for years we have been passing resolutions in this House about Cuba but nothing has happened
ways?” Charles told the House of Rep resentatives duri ng i t s s i t t i ng a t G or d o n Ho use in downto w n K i ngs t on. The veteran M P w a nt e d t o know w heth er Jamaica has decided to canvass the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and oth er countries a nd l e a d a prope r de l e gatio n to the US on the ma t t e r. “ Just passing r e s ol ut i ons w he re s ome p eo ple curse the Ame ri c a n gove rnme nt a nd v ilif y them is not g oi ng t o he l p. I a m s ugg esting that the resol ut i on mus t now s a y t o th e Go vernment of J a ma i c a s e e k t o l e a d a d elega tion on behalf of C a ri c om a nd ot he r co u n tr ies to the Ameri c a n gove rnme nt , di a lo g u e is the way. The Mi ni s t ry of F ore i gn A ff air s co uld initiate thi s de l e ga t i on, ” C ha rl e s said . “ The Cuban go ve rnme nt ha s done a l o t f o r the people of Jama i c a i n a gri c ul t ure , h ealth an d technology. F or 50 ye a rs w e ha ve b een living as a free c ount ry a nd C uba ha s b een living in bondage . . . ye t C uba ha s done so mu ch more,” he a dde d. Mining and Energy Minister Phillip Pa ulwell agreed t ha t w hi l e “ t he re ha s b een s o m e m a rg i n a l p r o g r e s s i t i s c l e a r l y n o t en ough”. “ I n just a few w e e ks t he U ni t e d States will elect a new pre s i de nt a nd w e hope an d urge whoever th e e ve nt ua l w i nne r, t hat th e iss u es related to C uba w i l l be hi gh on th e agenda as it specifically relates to the r emoval of the bl oc ka de a nd t he re moval o f the designation of C uba a s a s t a t e s po n so r of terrorism,” Pa ul w e l l s a i d. H e not e d th at this should also i nvol ve t he fre e i ng of th e f ive Cuban hero e s w ho w e re i nc a rc e ra t ed in the US 1998 on t e rrori s m c ha rge s . O ne h as sin ce been freed but i s not a l l ow e d t o retu r n to h is country pe rma ne nt l y unt i l 2014. “ We call for the re l e a s e of a l l fi ve priso n ers and for the i r s a fe a nd s w i ft re t urn to Cuba,” Paulwell said, noting that while Cub a has suffere d unde r t he e mba rgo i t h as still managed to e xt e nd a he l pi ng ha n d to oth ers in several di ffe re nt a re a s , i nc l ud in g me dicine and tec hnol ogy. Also speaking on the issue, the O p p o s i t i o n ’s D r K e n n e t h B a u g h s a i d t h e
stan d - o ff sp elt d isaster f o r th e g lo b al co m m u n ity if n o t r eso lv ed . “I t is im p o r tan t to n o te th at we d o ha v e clo se r elatio n s with b o th th ese co u n t ri e s. Cu b a is o n e o f o u r clo sest n eig h b o u r s a n d th is em b arg o o n Cu b a h as sig n if ican ce fo r us... The world has moved on from the 1 9 6 0 s an d ’ 7 0 s, th is em b arg o is a r em n a n t o f th e p ast wh en th e wo r ld was p o lar ised b y id eo lo g ies, we h av e m o v ed o n . T h is wo r l d i s a g lo b al co m m u n ity, we ar e in ter co n n ec t e d an d in ter d ep en d en t an d if we d o n o t f in d a f o r m u la f o r co - o p er atio n in m an y ar eas t h e n th e wo r ld is d o o m ed ,” Dr Bau g h said . Only this year the United States Go v er n m en t im p o sed a $ 6 1 9 - m illio n f in e o n th e Du tch Ban k I NG f o r car r y in g o u t tr a n sactio n s with Cu b a in Un ited States d ol l a rs — th e h ig h est f in e ev er im p o sed o n a fo reig n b an k f o r d o in g b u sin ess with Cu b a. Hy lto n , m ak in g h is call ag ain st th e b a c k g r o u n d th at “th e b lo ck ad e is a v io latio n o f in ter n atio n al law an d is co n tr ar y to th e p u rp o ses an d p r in cip les o f th e UN Ch art e r” am o n g o th er th in g s, u rg ed th e Go v er n me n t to th r o w its weig h t b eh in d d ialo g u e b etwe e n th e su p er p o wer an d Cu b a to war d s th e e n d in g o f th e b lo ck ad e. Cu b an Am b assad o r to Jam aica Yu r i Ga l a L o p ez was o n h an d Tu esd ay d u r in g d eb a t e o n th e r eso lu tio n , wh ich was u n an im ou sl y car r ied . As a r esu lt o f th e em b arg o , th e u se o f t h e American dollar in Cuba's international tr an sactio n s is p r o h ib ited so Cu b an s can n o t ex p o r t an d im p o r t p r o d u cts an d ser v ices t o o r f r o m th e Un ited States. Cu b an s ar e n o t allo wed to h av e US d o llar acco u n ts in b an k s o f th ir d p ar ty co u n tr ies, n eith er ar e t h e y allo wed to access d r u g s f o r tr eatm en t o n c e th ey ar e m an u f actu r ed in th e US o r if s u c h d r u g s co n tain an y m ater ial f r o m th e US. Un til 2 0 0 9 , a tr av el b an r em ain ed in p l a c e with str ict r u les o n th e n u m b er o f v isits b y Cu b an - Am er ican s to th e Car ib b ean co un t ry an d r estr ictio n s o n h o w m u ch m o n ey ex p a tr iate f am ily m em b er s co u ld sen d h o m e. Bu t t h a t y e a r, U S P r e s i d e n t B a r a c k O b a m a r elax ed th e b an , allo win g Cu b an - Am er ic a n s to tr av el f r eely.
State Side Rolling with Barry: The American Ninja
Opinion By: Howard D. Wright, Sr. must admit that I was depressed after the dismal showing of President Barrack Obama after the first debate with his challenger former Governor Mitt Romney. I have been involved with politics one way or the other since 1960 when my father would trot me out on demonstration lines to integrate Kings County Hospital in Brooklyn and wearing buttons to support John F. Kennedy. I have seen and been in the presence of some of the most powerful political people in American; I have seen how they roll and have been both surprised and astonished as to the things politicians have said and
done in the course of my lifetime. So I should have been prepared for the lackluster performance of President Obama (AKA Barry (known to those who are affectionately close to him.) The truth of the matter is Barry just didnâ€™t show up. He was the proverbial empty seated character that Clint Eastwood produced in the Republican Convention last August. I watched a commanding lead disappear in a race too close to call with the exception of a few swing states that stabilized and showed a steady path of potential for Barry . When Joe Bidden revived the fledging campaign with his stellar defeat of his more inexperienced opponent, Congressman Paul Ryan, I was somewhat relieved. But, even then, my mind
would intermediately go back to Barry’s bad performance and rhetorically ask myself where the hell was the president and who was the imposter debating a lying Romney . So for the next week I was consumed with the notion of what Barry could do to turn his personal crisis around. Would my hero show up and reinsert himself into the national debate and put this election back on track; even a hour prior to the debate I had to resign myself to the fact that if Barry didn’t show up the country might be inclined to turn its reign over to a clever fraud. I was terrorized as what it would look like in a post Obama administration with a horrible conservative right wing reversal. This was the state of my mind when at 9:00 PM the moderator Candi Crowley opened up the words: “We will set aside that agreement just this once to welcome President Barack Obama and Governor Mitt Romney.” At first Romney started out strong and with his confidence “I know what it takes to get this economy going. With half of college kids graduating this year without a college - excuse me, without a job.” It looked like he was well on the way to a repeated performance of his previous debate. But something very strange happened, shortly after that Barry showed up and demonstrated that, as my boys in Brooklyn would stay, how we roll. Just a note to people who are not familiar with this colloquial expression and why we use it in the manner that we do, it is not just an expression of control which seeks to tell our adversary that they are about two learn a serious lesson; it also comes with attitude that is intent to tell them that if you F---K with me it will be the last time that you will. Barry, in effect, told Mitt “Boy, Let me show you how we roll in Chicago” and from that moment like, Surg Knight, he verbally pulled Romney by the collar and began to roll. I was elated it was like watching a Ninja operating on the stage and methodically cleaning the former governor’s clock. Even the strongest hole card for Romney was the attack he had been waging on the president concerning the embassy in Benghazi, Libya. Romney who had been salivating at the mouth to line Barry up for the kill and close the deal said
after the president stated that he called the situation an act of terror on day two that Barry was not telling the truth and would hold him to fact checkers. It was at this point that Ms. Crowley in real time corrected Romney and confirmed that Barry had in fact told the American people that he would not tolerate this “Act of Terror”. The crowd applauded and if to say approvingly that they were tired of Mitt’s distortions. But that was only symptomatic of the whole debate it was not Crowley’s comments that sealed the deal it was the American Ninja Barry’s response. When a steely cold steer and a self determined feeling of outrage he because an angry black man and stood up the bullying tactics of Mitt’s and took him to school staying: “Secretary Clinton has done an extraordinary job. But she works for me. I'm the president and I'm always responsible, and that's why nobody's more interested in finding out exactly what happened than me. The day after the attack, governor, I stood in the Rose Garden and I told the American people in the world that we are going to find out exactly what happened and that this was an act of terror and that we're going to hunt down those who committed this crime. And then a few days later, I was there greeting the caskets coming into Andrews Air Force Base and grieving with the families. And the suggestion that anybody in my team, whether the Secretary of State, our U.N. Ambassador or anybody on my team would play politics or mislead the American people when we've lost four of our own, governor, is offensive. That's not what we do. That's not what I do as president, that's not what I do as Commander in Chief.” And with that exchange he eliminated Mitt and relegated him to a sad character trying to find his way off the stage as soon as he could. Now when the debate and all the smoke cleared Barry was smiling and Mitt was demoralized. I can only tell you that this was one of the proudest moments in my political life. Tmis was the day that Barry showed us how he rolled and I guess I will be rolling with him in November.
Job well done Mr. President; Job well done.
Huey Newton, Bobby Seale Founded Black Panther Party on October 16, 1966
By D.L. Chandler As one of the most-storied African-American groups during the turbulent late 1960s, the Black Panther Party For Self Defense (or the Black Panther Party) stood out not only for their militant appearance but also for their work in impoverished neighborhoods as well. As students at Oakland’s Merritt College (formerly Oakland City College), Huey Newton (pictured right) and Bobby Seale (pictured) were inspired by the teachings of Malcolm X, who was slain just a year before they began the Party. Newton and Seale, growing tired of police brutality and other forms injustice against Blacks, formed the Black Panther Party on this day in 1966. Fashioning themselves as left-wing revolutionaries, the Black Panthers felt that Blacks in America needed protection against police, underscoring their emphasis on self-defense. Since Newton was a reader of Karl Marx, Frantz Fanon, Vladimir Lenin, and other revolutionary figures, the Black Panthers taught socialist and
Marxist ideology to its members. Newton maintained the title of defense minister while Seale was recognized as the group’s chairman. Along with forming the party, the group’s landmark “Ten Point Program” was also introduced after being inspired by Stokely Carmichael (aka Kwame Toure) and his activism in Alabama. The Party’s platform called for equal rights for Blacks, a call for jobs for the community, housing, education, and other demands. Party members were also famous for being armed publicly, after Newton learned that a loophole in California law allowed them to bear guns in plain sight as long as they weren’t aimed. The Panthers claimed Oakland as a “territory” with the police being enemies of their land and acted as both a community support system and militia-like force. With racial tensions rising, so did the Panther’s activity. After first denying his involvement, Newton admitted to the killing of Officer John Frey, which gal-
vanized the Panthers even further. H. Rap Brown (now serving life in prison for the 2000 killing of Georgia officer Ricky Kinchen) and James Forman used the moment to stage a huge “Free Huey” rally months later, calling for violence and the assassination of public officials if their leader was not set free. Newton fled trial and escaped to Cuba but still led the Panthers as much as he could from afar. Beyond their many conflicts with law enforcement officials, the Panthers’ “survival programs” were the stuff of legend. The group provided free food, selfdefense training, tutoring, first aid, clothing, drug and alcohol rehab, and many more social programs for those in need. This would land the Party on the radar of the FBI and the insidious “COINTELPRO” program, which then-director J. Edgar Hoover enacted to halt the growth of the group. The FBI infiltrated the inner workings of the Panthers and pitted other similar groups against them, according to documents and personal accounts regarding the matter. The Black Panther Party dealt with criticism of its violent nature, which often overshadowed the group’s good works. Some members wanted a focus on the socialist aspect, while others wanted to be even more confrontational. The decline of the party was readily apparent in the 1970s, especially in 1974 when Newton appointed Elaine Brown as the Party’s first chairwoman.
Stokely Carmichael AKA Kwame Ture, 1941-1998
The death of Notorious BIG 15 years later: What if he lived? By Mychal Denzel Smith It's difficult to imagine what hip-hop might look like, had The Notorious B.I.G. lived. We know what it looks like now, in the wake of his tragic and untimely death at the hands of a still-unknown gunman, but his was such a presence that it completely altered the time he lived in, and undoubtedly would have had a huge impact for many more years. Rappers have imitated his style, adopted his flow, borrowed his lyrics, and rocked puffy Gucci links, attempting to fill the void the overweight wordsmith left. But, ain't no other kings in this rap thing; Biggie Smalls reigns supreme. On the 15th anniversary of his passing, it's futile to ask "what if?" We're long past the time of wondering, and must accept the fact that he's truly gone. It is, however, an opportunity to take a look at his legacy and remember just what he meant to hip-hop culture, and the legions of fans that adored him. Biggie's legacy is inextricably linked to Tupac Shakur. The infamous "East coast/West coast" beef started and, sadly, ended with these two. Tupac was a larger than life figure, a firebrand that drew controversy with every utterance. Given more time, he may have been able to channel that energy where he often felt inclined to go, into community organizing, maybe, or politics. But his time was his time, and, unfortunately, he spent many of his last days declaring war on fellow rappers that eventually bled out into the streets. Fairly or not, he still catches a lot of heat for escalating the feud that played a part in his death. Not so for Biggie. He threw a few slick jabs here and there, but he was mostly on defense, trying to defuse the situation. As 'Pac repeatedly accused him and Puff Daddy of having knowledge of, or being involved in, the 1994 robbery and shooting that only added to Tupac's legend, Biggie kept cool. He was naturally laid back, but it was particularly necessary at a time when emotions were running high and no one knew when the powder keg might erupt. Then September 13, 1996 happened. Tupac had laid in the hospital a full week before succumbing to gunshot wounds inflicted in Las Vegas. The blood had been spilled, and no one wanted to see any more. Biggie didn't want to see any more. He knew the whole idea of an "East/West" beef was silly. He recorded an ode to California, and worked with Oakland native Too Short on his next album.
He knew if he didn't work to stop it, Tupac wouldn't be the last. blacks wearing baseball caps backward — are much more likely to be stopped, searched and questioned for He wouldn't get to see the fruits of his labor. On March 9th, “suspicious” behavior. “They just pull aside anyone who they don’t like the 1997, he himself would be shot and killed in Los Angeles, at way they look — if they are black and have expensive the age of 24. Amid all the violence that surrounded him, one never got clothes or jewelry, or if they are Hispanic,” said one the impression that Biggie was himself a violent person. True, white officer, who along with four others spoke with many of his lyrics were grim and nihilistic, but he could flash The New York Times on the condition of anonymity. The T.S.A. said on Friday that it had opened an that infectious smile and make anyone and everyone in the room with him feel safe and at home. He was enjoying him- investigation into the claims. While the Obama administration has attacked the self as a young black superstar that turned stories of his neighborhood and the people he knew into songs that moved mil- use of racial and ethnic profiling in Arizona and elsewhere, the claims by the Boston officers now put the lions. From what you saw, you couldn't help but like him. Of course, there are the messier parts of his life that must be agency and the administration in the awkward position dealt with, namely the physical abuse of his wife, singer Faith of defending themselves against charges of profiling in Evans. It's still unclear just how often, and how violent, he was a program billed as a model for airports nationwide. At a meeting last month with T.S.A. officials, offitoward her, but it puts him into a long line of supremely talented, yet troubled black male artists that are known to have cers at Logan provided written complaints about proput their hands on women in ways we all regret (David Ruffin, filing from 32 officers, some of whom wrote anonymously. Officers said managers’ demands for high Miles Davis, James Brown, etc.). But what the world knew most of him was a gentle giant numbers of stops, searches and criminal referrals had that let his Brooklyn flow and hardcore poetics talk for him. led co-workers to target minorities in the belief that There are still very few rappers that have been able to master those stops were more likely to yield drugs, outstandmultiple styles as effortlessly as Biggie, pleasing the hip-hop ing arrest warrants or immigration problems. The practice has become so prevalent, some officers purists, the hustlers upstate, the suits in the high rises, and the Billboard pop charts. He had something for everyone, and on said, that Massachusetts State Police officials have the anniversary of his death we will all remember what that asked why minority members appear to make up an thing was and cherish it. We may dust off the Super Nintendo, overwhelming number of the cases that the airport or Sega Genesis, and for a moment just let everything be all refers to them. “The behavior detection program is no longer a good. Follow Mychal Denzel Smith on Twitter at @mychalsmith behavior-based program, but it is a racial profiling program,” one officer wrote in an anonymous complaint. A T.S.A. spokesman said agency inspectors recently learned of the racial profiling claims in Boston. “If any of these claims prove accurate, we will take immediate and decisive action to ensure there are consequences to such activity,” the statement said. The agency emphasized that the behavior detection program “in no way encourages or tolerates profiling” BOSTON and bans singling out passengers based on nationality, More than 30 federal officers in an airport program race, ethnicity or religion. intended to spot telltale mannerisms of potential terIt is unusual for transportation agency employees to rorists say the operation has become a magnet for come forward with this kind of claim against co-workracial profiling, targeting not only Middle Easterners ers, and the large number of employees bringing combut also blacks, Hispanics and other minorities. plaints in Boston could prove particularly damaging In interviews and internal complaints, officers from for an agency already buffeted with criticism over patthe Transportation Security Administration’s “behavior downs, X-ray scans and other security measures. detection” program at Logan International Airport in Reports of profiling emerged last year at the behavBoston asserted that passengers who fit certain profiles ior programs at the Newark and Hawaii airports, but in — Hispanics traveling to Miami, for instance, or much smaller numbers than those described in Boston.
Airport Security “Behavioral Detection” is Smoke and Mirrors for Racial Profiling
Airport Security Behavioral Detection is Smoke and Mirrors for Racial Profiling The complaints from the Logan officers carry nationwide implications because Boston is the testing ground for an expanded use of behavioral detection methods at airports around the country. While 161 airports already use behavioral officers to identify possible terrorist activity — a controversial tactic — the agency is considering expanding the use of what it says are more advanced tactics nationwide, with Boston’s program as a model. The program in place in Boston uses specially trained behavioral “assessors” not only to scan the lines of passengers for unusual activity, but also to speak individually with each passenger and gauge their reactions while asking about their trip or for other information. The assessors look for inconsistencies in the answers and other signs of unusual behavior, like avoiding eye contact, sweating or fidgeting, officials said. A passenger considered to be acting suspiciously can be pulled from the line and subjected to more intensive questioning. That is what happened last month at Logan airport to Kenneth Boatner, 68, a psychologist and educational consultant in Boston who was traveling to Atlanta for a business trip. In a formal complaint he filed with the agency afterward, he said he was pulled out of line and detained for 29 minutes as agents thumbed through his checkbook
and examined his clients’ clinical notes, his cellphone and other belongings. The officers gave no explanation, but Dr. Boatner, who is black, said he suspected the reason he was stopped was his race and appearance. He was wearing sweat pants, a white T-shirt and high-top sneakers. He said he felt humiliated. “I had never been subjected to anything like that,” he said in an interview. Officers in Boston acknowledged that they had no firm data on how frequently minority members were stopped. But based on their own observations, several officers estimated that they accounted for as many as
80 percent of passengers searched during certain shifts. The officers identified nearly two dozen co-workers who they said consistently focused on stopping minority members in response to pressure from managers to meet certain threshold numbers for referrals to the State Police, federal immigration officials or other agencies. The stops were seen as a way of padding the program’s numbers and demonstrating to Washington policy makers that the behavior program was producing results, several officers said. Instead, the officers said, profiling undermined the usefulness of the program. Focusing on minority members, said a second officer who was interviewed by The Times, “takes officers away from the real threat, and we could miss a terrorist we are looking for.” Some Boston officers went to the American Civil Liberties Union with their complaints of profiling, and Sarah Wunsch, a lawyer in the group’s Boston office, interviewed eight officers. “Selecting people based on race or ethnicity was a way of finding easy marks,” she said. “It was a notch in your belt.” The transportation agency said it did not collect information on the race or ethnicity of travelers and could not provide such a breakdown of passengers stopped through the behavior program. But the agency defended the program’s overall value. Behavior detection “is clearly an effective means of identifying people engaged in activity that may threaten the security of the passengers and the airports and has become a very effective intelligence tool, enabling law enforcement to bust larger operations and track any trends in nefarious activity,” the agency said in its statement. “In addition, the deterrent value of the program can’t be overstated,” it said. Monitoring passengers’ behavior “adds another layer of security to the airport environment and presents the terrorists with yet one more challenge they need to overcome” in their efforts to defeat airport security measures, the agency said. But government analysts and some researchers say the idea of spotting possible terrorists from their behavior in a security line relies on dubious science. A critical assessment of the program in 2010 by the Government Accountability Office noted that aviation officials began the behavior program in 2003, in the wake of the Sept. 11 attacks, without first determining if it had a scientific basis.
Nine years later, this question remains largely unanswered, even as the agency moves to expand the program, the accountability office said in a follow-up report last year. It said that until the agency is able to better study and document the validity of the science, Congress might consider freezing tens of millions of dollars budgeted for the program’s growth. Based on past research, the accountability office said the link between a person’s behavior and mental state is strongest in reading “simple emotions” like happiness and sadness. But the link is weak in determining from behavior whether someone is lying, the report said, and “nonexistent” for determining “when individuals hold terrorist intent and beliefs.” Representative Peter T. King, a New York Republican who has pushed for more aggressive counterterrorism measures, said he was troubled by the reports of profiling in Boston. “If it is going on, it is wrong and can’t be defended,” Mr. King said. Meanwhile, the Massachusetts Port Authority, which runs Logan airport, is eager to review the findings of the T.S.A. investigation, said David S. Mackey, executive director of the agency. “There is no place for racial profiling in any security program,” Mr. Mackey said. “It is illegal, and it is not effective.”
The death of Notorious BIG 15 years later: What if he lived? By Mychal Denzel Smith It's difficult to imagine what hip-hop might look like, had The Notorious B.I.G. lived. We know what it looks like now, in the wake of his tragic and untimely death at the hands of a still-unknown gunman, but his was such a presence that it completely altered the time he lived in, and undoubtedly would have had a huge impact for many more years. Rappers have imitated his style, adopted his flow, borrowed his lyrics, and rocked puffy Gucci links, attempting to fill the void the overweight wordsmith left. But, ain't no other kings in this rap thing; Biggie Smalls reigns supreme. On the 15th anniversary of his passing, it's futile to ask "what if?" We're long past the time of wondering, and must accept the fact that he's truly gone. It is, however, an opportu-
The Sankofa Project is Calling On Everyone Who Wishes To Explore Further Information Into Their Families History Write To Us At email@example.com Share With The World Your Give Of Ancestry 43
and worked with Oakland native Too Short on his next album. He knew if he didn't work to stop it, Tupac wouldn't be the last.
Biggie Smalls nity to take a look at his legacy and remember just what he meant to hip-hop culture, and the legions of fans that adored him. Biggie's legacy is inextricably linked to Tupac Shakur. The infamous "East coast/West coast" beef started and, sadly, ended with these two. Tupac was a larger than life figure, a firebrand that drew controversy with every utterance. Given more time, he may have been able to channel that energy where he often felt inclined to go, into community organizing, maybe, or politics. But his time was his time, and, unfortunately, he spent many of his last days declaring war on fellow rappers that eventually bled out into the streets. Fairly or not, he still catches a lot of heat for escalating the feud that played a part in his death. Not so for Biggie. He threw a few slick jabs here and there, but he was mostly on defense, trying to defuse the situation. As 'Pac repeatedly accused him and Puff Daddy of having knowledge of, or being involved in, the 1994 robbery and shooting that only added to Tupac's legend, Biggie kept cool. He was naturally laid back, but it was particularly necessary at a time when emotions were running high and no one knew when the powder keg might erupt. Then September 13, 1996 happened.
He wouldn't get to see the fruits of his labor. On March 9th, 1997, he himself would be shot and killed in Los Angeles, at the age of 24. Amid all the violence that surrounded him, one never got the impression that Biggie was himself a violent person. True, many of his lyrics were grim and nihilistic, but he could flash that infectious smile and make anyone and everyone in the room with him feel safe and at home. He was enjoying himself as a young black superstar that turned stories of his neighborhood and the people he knew into songs that moved millions. From what you saw, you couldn't help but like him. Of course, there are the messier parts of his life that must be dealt with, namely the physical abuse of his wife, singer Faith Evans. It's still unclear just how often, and how violent, he was toward her, but it puts him into a long line of supremely talented, yet troubled black male artists that are known to have put their hands on women in ways we all regret (David Ruffin, Miles Davis, James Brown, etc.). But what the world knew most of him was a gentle giant that let his Brooklyn flow and hardcore poetics talk for him. There are still very few rappers that have been able to master multiple styles as effortlessly as Biggie, pleasing the hip-hop purists, the hustlers upstate, the suits in the high rises, and the Billboard pop charts. He had something for everyone, and on the anniversary of his death we will all remember what that thing was and cherish it. We may dust off the Super Nintendo, or Sega Genesis, and for a moment just let everything be all good. Follow Mychal Denzel Smith on Twitter at @mychalsmith
Tupac had laid in the hospital a full week before succumbing to gunshot wounds inflicted in Las Vegas. The blood had been spilled, and no one wanted to see any more. Biggie didn't want to see any more. He knew the whole idea of an "East/West" beef was silly. He recorded an ode to California,
address this problem now." On Saturday, a series of lectures will be held at Jones Memorial Church on 3050 N. 22nd St. followed by a luncheon to raise funds for the Justice for Trayvon Martin Foundation. Martin was shot dead by George Zimmerman, a neighbor in a Florida housing development who said he mistook him for a burglar. Zimmerman invoked Florida's so-called "Stand Your Ground Law" which allows homeowners to shoot intruders if they can prove self-defense. Zimmerman is free on bail awaiting his court hearing for charges of second degree murder. "The Trayvon Martin case is what gets people's attention," said Peters. "If its white on black crime, we are a little more vigilant than when it is black on black in Philadelphia. We need to bring that issue back to the forefront." "We're still angry about Trayvon, however we need to be equally outraged when its black children killing other black children in our cities." Peters said the event is a collaborative effort of 20 independent organizations partnering with the International Caucus of Women of the African Diaspora. "We have a lot of great African-American groups, but we weren't always getting together as a community," said Peters. "We need to put interests aside and focus on our children and their safety. Everyone has great resources, and we just want to pull them together to face this issue as one." Joe Trinacria at firstname.lastname@example.org or 215-854-2771.
Event To Raise Awareness of AfricanAmerican issues By: Joe Trinacria
The Greater Philadelphia Caucus of Black Women will be holding a series of events this weekend to raise awareness of pressing issues in the African-American community. The event, titled the Trayvon Martin Project Conference, is named for the 17-year-old boy who was fatally shot in Florida last February. The conference will focus on a wide range of issues from the violence plaguing urban areas to the education of children. The conference opens with a Friday evening Town Hall panel at Zion Baptist Church at Broad & Venango Streets, on school safety and violence prevention that includes Benjamin Crump, legal counsel for Martin's parents. "The overall gist of the conference is to address violence occurring in the black community, ensure accountability, and to become more diligent in the prevention of violence," said Monica Peters, spokesperson for the Trayvon Martin Project Conference. "These issues are very urgent. Sometimes the politics takes too long, and we don't necessarily want to wait for policies or laws to be passed. We need to come together and
Is Los Angeles Police Brutality on the Rise Again? By Imani Gandy The death of 35 year-old mother of two Alesia Thomas, and the brutal arrests of 34-year-old nurse Michelle Jordan and 20year-old college student Ronald Weekley, Jr. have refocused national attention on Los Angeles, a city which was nearly brought to its knees following the acquittal of four officers who stood trial for the brutal beating of Rodney King in 1992, the ensuing riots, as well as the subsequent Rampart scandal, which saw shocking revelations of witness tampering and evidence planting brought to light. These recent incidents have raised the question of whether Los Angelesâ€™ age-old police brutality problem is making a comeback, a mere three years after a federal judge released the LAPD from the settlement obligations that ushered in an era of sweeping reforms meant to reduce corruption and incidences of police misconduct in the wake of the Rampart scandal.
able tactics and improper comments.) Crump notes, incredulously, that the police have thus far refused to release the video, instead choosing to describe the contents of the video, “as if we need them to interpret it for us.”
The Los Angeles Police Department have revealed they are investigating the death of a 35-year-old woman Alesia Thomas
Benjamin Crump, the civil right attorney who represents Trayvon Martin’s family, also represents Alesia Thomas’s family and Ronald Weekley, Jr., and he is increasingly concerned about this alarming trend –so concerned, in fact, that he wrote to Attorney General Eric Holder, and requested that the Department of Justice investigate what he described as “a recurring present day theme” of police misconduct by Los Angeles police department officers. Crump maintains that the tragic death of Trayvon Martin opened people’s eyes and helped members outside the African-American community see that in his words, “a problem exists when it comes to profiling and equal justice.” Crump points to the videos of two of the incidents as stunning examples of police brutality, and credits the public for recording and publicizing the videos. The video of Michelle Jordan’s arrest for a cell phone violation shows two officers dragging her from her car and twice slamming the young woman (who was wearing a dress) to the ground twice before giving each other a congratulatory fist bump. The video of Ronald Weekley’s arrest shows police officers tackling Weekley for skateboarding on the wrong side of the road in front of his home, and punching the college student repeatedly in the face while onlookers pleaded for the officers to leave him alone and recorded part of the arrest. As for video in the case of Alesia Thomas’s death, it is unclear what will be revealed because Crump’s efforts to obtain the surveillance video of the circumstances that lead to Thomas’s death have been met with resistance (though the LAPD has admitted that the video “revealed some question-
“It’s just sad,” Crump said. Crump hopes that public demand for justice will force the police department to release the video tape and account for the “questionable tactics” and “inappropriate comments” of the officers involved in Thomas’s arrest. Crump has similar concerns about the less-than-forthright manner in which the LAPD is handling the Ronald Weekley case. In the course of his representation of Mr. Weekley, Crump requested that the LAPD conducted an investigation into the allegations by Mr. Weekley of police misconduct. In response, the LAPD has begun to conduct its investigation, but seems to be doing so in a manner that unjustly burdens Weekley’s constitutional rights. Despite what appears to be clear evidence that police officers used excessive force against the twenty year old college student, the LAPD has not yet dropped the criminal charges against Weekley for resisting arrest. That the LAPD maintains these charges against Weekly seems calculated. Charlie Beck, the Chief of Police recently informed Crump that the investigation into Weekley’s police misconduct allegations would proceed without any input from Weekley himself if Weekley continued to refuse to make himself available for an interview. According to Crump, Chief Beck’s request that Weekley submit to questioning about the circumstances surrounding his arrest while criminal charges are still pending as a result of that very same arrest raises constitutional questions: if Weekley makes himself available for questioning in connection with the police misconduct investigation, he risks voluntarily relinquishing his Fifth Amendment right to remain silent. Crump views the videos of these incidents of police brutality as well as the manner in which these incidents are being handled as part of a pattern of misconduct on the part of the LAPD. Reggie Roberts, a Los Angeles attorney who is a partner at the downtown Los Angeles law firm, Sanders Roberts, and who has handled police brutality cases on behalf of both plaintiffs and defendants, has a slightly different take. Roberts notes that the LAPD is comprised primarily of upstanding police officers who follow the rules set for them, and do not engage in the sort of police brutality that one sees in these videos. “The police department provides a valuable service to communities in Los Angeles,” Roberts says. Roberts acknowledges that these sorts of incidents occur, but he does not see a significant uptick in frequency as com-
pared to ten years ago. He attributes media attention on these incidents to the prevalence of smart phones and mobile videorecording technology, which offer a relatively new and important weapon in the fight against police brutality. Roberts says he viewed the video of Michelle Jordan’s arrest and that it presents a clear case of excessive force and abuse of authority. He notes with some chagrin that her arrest, specifically, may ultimately inure to the benefit of all victims of police brutality. Because Michelle Jordan is a young white woman, that in and of itself has raised awareness of police brutality, which is generally seen as a problem only in the black community. Najee Ali, a local civil rights activist and spokesman for the Thomas family has been outspoken about police brutality in Southern California and disagrees. He sees these incidents as part of a disturbing trend. “The police have not learned their lesson since the days of Rodney King,” says Ali. Ali agrees that smart phones and technology have helped shine a light on police brutality, but his concern that these incidents are occurring with increasing frequency is not diminished. Still, he hopes that YouTube and smart phones will lead to increased awareness and, ultimately, a solution. As for Ben Crump, he hopes that renewed public interest in police brutality in Los Angeles will result in the release of the video in the Thomas case, and ultimately, in justice for Mr. Weekley and Alesia Thomas’s family. Follow Imani Gandi on Twitter at @angryblacklady
First 189AW African American Colonel Retires By Mychal Denzel Smith Col. Steve Eggensperger (left), commander of the 189th Airlift Wing, presents Col. Ron McDaniel his Certificate of Retirement during his retirement ceremony held at the Little Rock Air Force Base theater. On August 30, 2012, Col. Ronald W. McDaniel retired from the Arkansas Air National Guard. His retirement ceremony was held at the Little Rock Air Force Base theater on August 4, 2012. McDaniel, who most recently served as the 189th Airlift Wing Maintenance Group Commander, closed out a military career that began in 1972 as an enlisted airman. He graduated from Crossett High School, Crossett, Arkansas in 1970 and attended the University of Arkansas at Monticello, Arkansas beginning in 1971, prior to entering the United States Air Force
later in August 1972. His first military assignment was with the 314th Medical Squadron at Little Rock Air Force Base as an enlisted member in 1972. His job title was Medical Administrative Technician apprentice, and he served until February 1979. At that time, he separated from active duty and joined the 189th Medical Squadron at the rank of Staff Sergeant as a Drill Status Guardsman.
In 1984 McDaniel received his commission as a Second Lieutenant and was assigned to the 189th Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron (CAM) in the Drill Status position of aircraft maintenance officer. In 1986 he was made executive officer for the squadron and served in this capacity until 1994. In this position he reached the rank of Captain. In 1994 he was selected for a full-time position with the Arkansas Air National Guard as an aircraft maintenance officer, and transferred from the Postal Service to the Air National Guard. At the same time, he was selected to be the Commander of the 189th Aircraft Generation Squadron. He was promoted to Major in 1995 and served as Commander of Aircraft Generation Squadron until assuming the dual position of Supply Management Officer and Chief of Supply in 1997. In January 2003, he was selected for the position of Commander of the 189th Logistics Readiness Squadron. In April 2004, he assumed the position as Commander of the 189th Maintenance Squadron where he served until June of 2008, at which time he assumed his current position as Commander of the 189th Maintenance Group. In May of 2009 McDaniel made history in the wing by being the first African-American full-bird colonel. The 189th traces its roots back to 1925 where the force was all male and
all white until the early 1970s. “When I became a full-bird colonel I think that added a lot more sensitivity to diversity in this organization,” McDaniel said. “If you don’t have a program to entice minorities and women to come in and provide opportunities for them, for advancement, you will lose out. I feel it has absolutely changed for the better.” His military awards include the Meritorious Service Medal (First Oak Leaf Cluster), Air Force Commendation Medal and the Air Force Achievement Medal, and all were awarded for exemplary performance. When asked what he felt was his biggest accomplishment while at the 189th, he felt that his sense of fairness to all took precedence. “I feel my biggest accomplishment while being here at the 189th was instilling a sense of fairness wherever I went as far as treating people,” McDaniel said. “I always try to treat people fairly based upon the circumstances. I also treat people respectfully. If you want respect, you’re going to have to give it.” In October 2005, McDaniel volunteered for Hurricane Katrina relief support. During that operation he lived for three weeks in Port Sulfur, Louisiana, which is about one hour south of New Orleans. The experience is something that has further motivated him to become more involved in his own community. “McDaniel has a reputation as a ‘people person’,” Col. Steve Eggensperger, 189th Airlift Wing commander said. “He loves to make people smile and he is passionate about taking care of his guard family. It’s been a pleasure to work with him and I’ve learned things from him about how to be positive role model in the local community and the Air Force. “ In retirement, he plans on relaxing, traveling and continuing to help with local service clubs, the Jacksonville Senior Activities and Wellness Center and volunteering at the Jacksonville Military Museum. He is also considering looking for a paying non-profit organization job in 2013. Lt. Col. Mark Sicard succeeds McDaniel as the Maintenance Group Commander. “I am so pleased that my successor, Lt. Col. Mark Sicard, is taking over,” McDaniel said. “He’s such a wonderful person and it’s very nice that you can hand it off to someone that you have so much admiration and respect for. That’s a good feeling.” Lt. Col. Mark Sicard succeeds McDaniel as the Maintenance Group Commander.
Arkansas GOP Calls Candidates' Statements 'Offensive' By Chuck Bartels | Associated Press Arkansas Republicans tried to distance themselves Saturday from a Republican state representative's assertion that slavery was a "blessing in disguise" and a Republican state House candidate who advocates deporting all Muslims. The claims were made in books written, respectively, by Rep. Jon Hubbard of Jonesboro and House candidate Charlie Fuqua of Batesville. Those books received attention on Internet news sites Friday. On Saturday, state GOP Chairman Doyle Webb called the books "highly offensive." And U.S. Rep. Rick Crawford, a Republican who represents northeast Arkansas, called the writings "divisive and racially inflammatory." Hubbard wrote in his 2009 self-published book, "Letters To The Editor: Confessions Of A Frustrated Conservative," that "the institution of slavery that the black race has long believed to be an abomination upon its people may actually have been a blessing in disguise." He also wrote that AfricanAmericans were better off than they would have been had they not been captured and shipped to the United States.
Charlie Fuqua, a Republican candidate for State Rep. in Arkansas
Fuqua, who served in the Arkansas House from 1996 to 1998, wrote there is "no solution to the Muslim problem short of expelling all followers of the religion from the United States," in his 2012 book, titled "God's Law." Fuqua said Saturday that he hadn't realized he'd become a target within his own party, which he said surprised him. "I think my views are fairly well-accepted by most people," Fuqua said before hanging up, saying he was busy knocking on voters' doors. The attorney is running against incumbent Democratic Rep. James McLean in House District 63. Hubbard, a marketing representative, didn't return voicemail messages seeking comment Saturday. He is running against Democrat Harold Copenhaver in House District 58. The November elections could be a crucial turning point in Arkansas politics. Democrats hold narrow majorities in both chambers, but the GOP has been working hard to swing the Legislature its way for the first time since the end of the Civil War, buoyed by picking up three congressional seats in 2010. Their efforts have also been backed by an influx of money from national conservative groups.
not reflect the viewpoints of the Republican Party of Arkansas. While we respect their right to freedom of expression and thought, we strongly disagree with those ideas." Webb, though, accused state Democrats of using the issue as a distraction. Democrats themselves have been largely silent, aside from the state party's tweet and Facebook post calling attention to the writings. A Democratic Party spokesman didn't immediately return a call for comment Saturday. The two candidates share other political and religious views on their campaign websites. Hubbard, who sponsored a failed bill in 2011 that would have severely restricted immigration, wrote on his website that the issue is still among his priorities, as is doing "whatever I can to defend, protect and preserve our Christian heritage." Fuqua blogs on his website. One post is titled, "Christianity in Retreat," and says "there is a strange alliance between the liberal left and the Muslim religion." "Both are antichrist in that they both deny that Jesus is God in the flesh of man, and the savior of mankind. They both also hold that their cause should take over the entire world through violent, Rep. Crawford said Saturday he was "disappoint- bloody, revolution," the post says. ed and disturbed." In a separate passage, Fuqua wrote "we now have "The statements that have been reported portray a president that has a well documented history with attitudes and beliefs that would return our state and both the Muslim religion and Communism." country to a harmful and regrettable past," Crawford said. U.S. Rep. Tim Griffin, R-Ark., kicked off the GOP's response Saturday by issuing a release, saying the "statements of Hubbard and Fuqua are ridiculous, outrageous and have no place in the civil discourse of either party." "Had I known of these statements, I would not have contributed to their campaigns. I am requesting that they give my contributions to charity," said Griffin, who donated $100 to each candidate. The Arkansas Republican House Caucus followed, saying the views of Hubbard and Fuqua "are in no way reflective of, or endorsed by, the Republican caucus. The constituencies they are seeking to represent will ultimately judge these statements at the ballot box." Then Webb, who has spearheaded the party's attempt to control the Legislature, said the writings Jon Hubbard "were highly offensive to many Americans and do
Making it Plain
Black Solidarity Day: When and Where? By Alton Maddox
rooklyn New York activist Jitu Weusi called me on Wednesday and left a voice message which amounted to my participating in Black Solidarity Day 2012 on November 4, at Boys and Girls High School in Brooklyn. It invariably happens on the weekend and Monday before Election Day. Black Solidarity Day is the brainchild of Dr. Carlos Russell. Wednesday evening, the New York Police Department invaded a political assembly
of the United African Movement at Elks Plaza in violation of the First Amendment. The New York Police Department routinely violates the Fourth Amendment rights of Blacks and Latinos. Now, it is suppressing political rights. Councilman Al Vann represents the territorial area of the Elks Plaza in the New York City Council. I am inviting Councilman Al Vann to attend a political assembly on Thursday night at the Elks Plaza to address legislative recommendations for the New York Police Department. I have been informed that Jitu Weusi owns a business across the street from the Elks Plaza and, therefore, he has a personal interest in attending the forum this evening. To end state-sponsored harassment, assaults and murders, you must have the right person in Gracie Mansion with a prior history of protracted struggle and sacrifice including withstanding continued attacks from the political establishment. There must also be community control of the NYPD. This can happen with a legislative initiative. A referendum can be placed on the ballot. Councilman Vann can explain this process
tonight. Tonightâ€™s forum at Elks Plaza, 1068 Fulton Street in Brooklyn, at 7:00 p.m. is an emergency meeting with the recent attack on United African Movement and continued assaults on Blacks and Latinos. Utrice Leid and myself are already scheduled to be keynote speakers. Utrice Leid had an outstanding record with the now defunct, Brooklyn-based City Sun. This was followed with an exemplary record at WBAI-FM. Black Solidarity Day should be a state of mine and not simply a ceremonial date on the calendar. With so many issues affecting our people, time is of the essence. Our community, at the outset, should fashion a political message forthwith for November 6. This is more important than putting a rubber stamp on political candidates who have already been selected by whites.
would not cooperate. I asked her when I would be able to resume my exercise regime. Her response was that since I had not handled my pain when it first occurred, it would take my body longer to heal. So it is when we've been hurt emotionally, too. Because we either do not realize or we're not ready to deal with what happened to us, we keep on moving in life - staying busy, refusing to talk about it, and refusing to feel it. However, the symptoms of your pain have a way of getting your attention. It may manifest itself as indifference, bitterness, anger, sadness, depression, eating, drinking or in other ways. The longer your pain goes on unaddressed, the louder your symptoms become. They will start altering your life; you'll gain or lose weight, mishandle your work, family and relationships. You'll become overly dependent on substances to numb your pain. We all have areas of deep pain, but how you cope with the pain will either make you or break you. Just like when a child learns that the stove is hot when they get burned, our pain can be used to teach us lessons or, for that matter, propel us to our legacy. My mentor, Terri McFaddin, spoke once about how pain can work for our good. For instance, if you grew up poor, the pain, struggle and displeasure of it may motivate you to work hard and become successful because you never want to be poor again. The point here is do not be afraid to look at and deal with your pain. It can teach you something significant about yourself. Also, it is healthier for you to deal with your pain than have your pain, by force, deal with you in a destructive way, or before it's too late. If you're one of those people who's lived with your pain for a long time, know that once you start your healing process, it may take you a long time to heal. Please do not get discouraged, and don't give up. You know what they say: No pain, no gain. Finally, my friend, if you've already been healed or you're in the process of healing,don't let your pain be in vain. What you've been through, someone else is going through. Your willingness to tell the truth and share your story could save someone's life. What's the use of sitting back and watching your brother or sister in pain? Use your pain for the good. Push someone else forward. Believe me,that alone can help you release the pain. Deya "Direct" Smith is a producer on "The Tom Joyner Morning Show" and host of Girlfriend FM and Beyond the Studio celebrity interviews on BlackAmericaWeb.com. She is also a motivational speaker, actress and social commentator. She can be reached at DeyaDirect@aol.com.
Deya Direct GIRLFRIEND FM: The Point of Pain
t's "Take a Loved One to the Doctor" season at the "TJMS," and we all have ailments of a certain kind that need to be addressed - physical and beyond. Have you ever been in physical pain so bad that you could barely move? The movements and tasks you normally performed became gargantuan projects; you had no choice but to slow down. Did the pain become so nagging that you had to get help, didn't care who did it or how - just knew you needed to be fixed up, and I mean right now? When you went to the doctor, hospital or, in my case, the chiropractor, did you find out that your pain was not the problem, but the result of something that happened? Did you find out that because you walked around with that pain for some time, it would take that equivalent amount of time to resume your normal activities? That is what happened to me once. Somehow, by making the wrong move, I managed to sprain my back rib. Oh, the pain was unbelievable. When I finally went to the chiropractor, she adjusted my back in two places, but the place where my back hurt the most - in the middle - she could not adjust. She tried twice, but said my back was not ready; it
IN THE SPIRIT First African-American Clergyman in U.S. was Torrington Pastor in 1785
According to research found on Fold3.com, a web collection of military records on African American Patriots of the Revolutionary War, Lemuel Haynes was the first African American ordained by a mainstream Protestant Church in the United States. Haynes, the abandoned child of an African father and “a white woman of respectable ancestry,” was born in 1753 in West Hartford, Connecticut. Five months later, he became an indentured servant until the age of 21. With only a rudimentary formal education, Haynes developed a passion for books, especially the Bible and books on theology.
As a young man, he frequently conducted services at the town parish, sometimes reading his own sermons. n 1774, when his indenture ended, Haynes enlisted as a “Minuteman” in the local militia. While serving in the militia, he wrote a lengthy ballad-sermon about the April, 1775 Battle of Lexington. Although the poem emphasized the conflict between slavery and freedom, it did not directly address black slavery. After the war, Haynes turned down the opportunity to study at Dartmouth College, instead choosing to study Latin and Greek with clergymen in Connecticut. In 1780 he was licensed to preach. He accepted a position with a white congregation in Middle Granville and later married a young white schoolteacher, Elizabeth Babbitt. In 1785, Haynes was officially ordained as a Congregational minister. Haynes held three pastor ships after his ordination. The first was with an all-white congregation in Torrington, Connecticut, where he left after two years due to the active prejudice of several members. His second call to the pulpit, from a mostly white church in Rutland, Vermont that had a few “poor Africans,” lasted for 30 years. During that time, Haynes developed an international reputation as a preacher and writer. In 1804, he received an honorary Master of Arts degree from Middlebury College, the first ever given to an African American. In 1801, he published a tract called “The Nature and Importance of True Republicanism...” which contained his only public statement on the subject of race or slavery. A project by the Public Broadcast Service produced by WGBH Boston, called “Africans in America” dedicated a segment to Haynes. In its Portrait of Lemuel Haynes, it described him as a lifelong admirer of George Washington and an ardent Federalist. Also according to biographical essay on Haynes by WGBH, Haynes had conflicts with his congregation in 1818, allegedly over politics and style. This led to him leaving and there was some speculation that the church’s displeasure with Haynes stemmed from
racism. His last appointment was in Manchester, Vermont, where he counseled two men convicted of murder; they narrowly escaped hanging when the alleged “victim” reappeared. Haynes’s writings on the seven-year ordeal became a bestseller for a decade. He developed an international reputation as a preacher and writer, arguing on moral grounds for an immediate end to slavery in opposition to proponents of gradual emancipation and articulated a vision of an America without slavery. For the last eleven years of his life, Haynes ministered to a congregation in upstate New York. He died in 1833, at the age of 80. Nearly 150 years after his death, a manuscript written by Haynes around 1776 was discovered, in which he boldly stated “That an African... has an undeniable right to his Liberty.” The treatise went on to condemn slavery as sin, and pointed out the irony of slave owners fighting for their own liberty while denying it to others. Haynes’s writings are regarded as the fullest record of a black man’s religion, social thought, and opposition to slavery in the late-18th and early-19th century.
Bishop David Benenoch of Communion Church Set to Divorce Wife of 20 Years By James O Bakare
During a chapel service lately, Bishop David Benenoch, the Founding pastor of Breaking of the bread Chapel, Lagos and also the Leader Bishop of Communion Chapel Worldwide, announced the end of his marriage to his wife of two decades and mother of his three children, Esther Benenoch. He was stated to tell his church that he’s looking for divorce for spiritual reasons and didn’t explain further to his stunned worshipers. However, it had been said that Esther Benenoch who is a blogger has written a lot of articles on associations, relationships, marriages partnerships, and she’s always written against divorce. Now the big question is how does a writer against divorce get so swallowed up in the problem of divorce that she couldn’t foresee, let alone avert the encroaching disaster? Why would a Man of God want divorce when it has not been reported that his partner is unfaithful?
More African-Americans Putting Aside Religious Faiths Although African-Americans remain a largely religious demographic, Black atheists and agnostics, such as the Black Skeptics of Los Angeles, are becoming more appealing and leaving religious faiths behind, writes University of Southern California’s Intersection South LA publication. According to the American Religious Identification Survey of 2008 (ARIS 2008), the number of Black persons without any religious affiliation jumped from 6 to 11 percent between 1990 and 2008, mirroring a national trend amongst all Americans that saw a jump from 8 to 15 percent “There have always been African-American free thinkers, humanists, agnostics and atheists who have really foregrounded the connection between eschewing religion and the liberation struggle, particularly as it pertains to women and the LGBT community,” said Black Skeptics of Los Angeles founder Sikivu Hutchinson to Intersections South LA. Ms. Hutchinson is part of a national effort led by the group AfricanAmericans for Humanism, leading to a controversial billboard ad in Los Angeles openly questioning religion. Black church leaders have sat at the table with the Black Skeptics group, coming to an understanding that many former churchgoers are fed up with the politics
of the church. “They’re very turned off by the church,” said Seth Pickens, pastor of Zion Hill Baptist Church. “Some of the politics and some of the scandals and everything that happens in the church, it turns people off.” This past February, Pickens and the Black Skeptics met for a roundtable discussion and have come to an understanding that the Black community needs a unified front regardless of religious conviction. “Whether you believe in God, whether you confess Christ or not, if you see someone hungry you should feed them and many of the Black atheists feel the same way. So, I don’t see why we can’t work together,” said Pickens. ot to be found exclusively in any one place any longer. There is an apataki or 'Important History' where Obatalá had a servant (Eshu) who was envious of Obatalá's exalted position in the world. This envy grew to the point that Eshu set about a plot to assassinate the Lord of All The Orishas. One day as he accompanied Obatalá to the side of a cliff on a tall mountain, he saw
his chance. With one push he toppled the Great Orisha off the top of the mountain where he crashed among the rocks below. Pieces of Obatalá were everywhere. Orunmila arrived on the scene a little while later, having heard of this great 'mishap' that had occurred. Knowing that the preservation of order in the world depended on it, Orunmila went about attempting to put all the pieces of the Great Orisha back together. While he was able to re-assemble most of the parts of Obatalá, the task was so great that not even the wise and patient Orunmila could find all the pieces that were strewn across the entirety of the world. In the same way, the truths of our religion are strewn across the world, on two distant continents. Each area, be it Brazil, Cuba, Trinidad, Puerto Rico or even Nigeria, has only pieces of these truths. And it is up to us to try to complete as well as we can, the monumental task begun by Orunmila, so that our beloved religion may once again be whole. With Wisdom, Love for the Orishas and a true sense of Brotherhood (and Sisterhood) we just may succeed in this daunting task.
Our Friends at New York Cityâ€™s African Burial Ground 55
Notices Danny Simmons, the founder of Rush Philanthropic Arts Foundation, is curating the exhibition. If you are interested in being a sponsor for this historic exhibition, call 212-8652982. Contribute onlin
FROM COVER TO COVER - CONTRIBUTION! You may also contribute via our website or by mailing a check or money order to African Voices, 270 W. 96th Street, NY 10025. Thanks for your support! Please pass the e-mail forward to family, friends and colleagues about the upcoming events! Take care, Carolyn Butts www.africanvoices.com
Happy Birthday To: Amiri Baraka
From African Voices DEAR FRIENDS, I want to give you a chance to get a pair of tickets for The Sensational Josephine Baker, a wonderful play at The Beckett Theatre on 42nd Street. The first ten people to make a contribution to our fundraising campaign will get the tickets! There are other gifts to thank you for donating. African Voices will present "From Cover to Cover: 20 Years of African Voices," an art exhibition showcasing the talented artists whose works have graced our front and back covers for the past two decades. The exhibition will run from December 8, 2012 to Jan. 19, 2013 at the historic Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in Harlem.
Deija Kutebee Ben Vereen
Carolyn A. Butts
Khalid Ibn Malik Wright
Bishop Desmond Tutu
Online Novel Writing Workshop, Mondays
ATLANTA, GA African Americans or the Arts: Collective Exhibition
(Lecture Available 24 hours) Enjoy a writing workshop from the convenience of your own home! Get the help you need to begin, revise or complete your novel from a professional editor and published author. Writing a novel requires a solid understanding of all the tools that a fiction writer must use to hold a reader's interest. In this course, you will learn the basics of plot, characterization, point of view, voice, theme, dialogue, pacing and exposition. Using a combination of lecture, exercise and critique from the instructor, you will sharpen your skills and complete the first fifty pages of your book. Sessions: 8. Registration Fee: $200. Instructor: Anita Diggs.
12:00p to 6:00p More dates & times (2) Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History Atlanta, GA The Auburn Avenue Research Library, in collaboration with the African Americans for the Arts (AAFTA), a local non-profit art advocacy group, will host the 2012 African Americans for the Arts Collective Exhibition. This exhibit will highlight the original art work created by AAFTA members, in celebration of the rich artistic legacy of African Americans
Online Lecture Dates: 10/15, 10/22, 10/29, 11/5, 11/12, 11/19, 11/26, 12/3. REGISTER NOW! Memoir Writing: Telling the World Your Story (8 sessions)
SAVANNAH, GA ANNUAL EVENTS
Wednesdays, October 10 - November 28, 2012 6:30 pm-8:30 pm
SAVANNAH JAZZ FESTIVAL Located in beautiful Forsyth Park and various venues in Savannah. P.O. Box 60205, Savannah, GA 31420 (912) 6755419 - (visit website) Celebrating jazz as a living art form-built on a constantly evolving tradition will offer all types of jazz, and blues. SAVANNAH MUSIC FESTIVAL (March) 200 East St. Julian Street, Suite 601 (912) 234-3378 - (visit website) Features artists of symphonic music, blues, jazz, gospel, chamber music, bluegrass, rock. OTHER EVENTS
Do you have a story to tell the world? This eight-week workshop is for anyone interested in writing everything from autobiographies to the intimately personal memoir. Research, interviews and soul searching are some of the ingredients that make-up the journey of a good memoir or biography. You will be guided in the process of crafting a well-told story that resonates with readers. Specific writing exercises will be used to help you tap into your creativity and work past writer's block. The workshop's goal is to get you started on working on the first draft of your memoir, create an outline for your book or revise previously written work in a nurturing environment with your peers. The instructor will provide guidance and professional critique to assist you in reaching your personal writing goals. Sessions: 8. Registration Fee: $200. Instructor: MICHEL MARRIOTT. Sessions: 10/10, 10/17, 10/24, 10/31, 11/7, 11/14, 11/21, 11/28.
SEPTEMBER Joe Turner Football Classic Annual football game between Savannah State University and another HBCU; Savannah; http://www.soulofamerica.com/2009-black-college-footballclassics.phtml Savannah Jazz Festival Week long celebration of jazz and blues music; Savannah;
NEW YORK, NY United African Movement SCHEDULE OF EVENTS
ELKS PLAZA: WEDNESDAY After a fire on June 26, 2012, UAM will resume its weekly forums on Wednesday, September 26, 2012 at 7:00 p.m. at Elks Plaza, 1068 Fulton Street (nr. Classon Avenue) in Brooklyn. Dr. Leonard Jeffries will be the keynote speaker for this forum. His topic will be "The Need for African Unity: Ramifications of African Disunity". Dr. Jeffries conducted field trips to Ghana and Haiti this summer. ELKS PLAZA: THURSDAY The presidential debate between President Barack Obama and his Republican challenger, Mitt Romney, will occur on Wednesday, October 3, 2012. The next evening, October 4, 2012 at 7:00 p.m. UAM will replay the presidential debate and Alton Maddox will dissect the debate with the teachings of Prof. Melvin Tolson, the classic methods of argument, the techniques of critical thinking and a history of the presidents in the "Executive Mansion" and the "White House" (1799Present). Field Trip to Baltimore and Washington Every year, hundreds of thousands of white children are transported by airplanes, trains and buses to the nation's capital to become familiar with historic buildings, monuments and statues in addition to the design of the streets of the city, among other things. This trip fails to give them a true history of those objects, designs and matters in additional to the urban planning and architecture. In the meantime, most Blacks parents refuse to invest any money in their children to give them a true, historic meaning of those objects, designs, architecture, urban planning and other matters. If the Black children do go on a tour of the nation's capital, the tour guide must be white. This means a "white-out" of history.
Black people actually reinforce the "doctrine" of Negro inferiority by either withholding the truth from their children or putting money on their feet instead of putting it in their "heads". Thus, white educators tell their story. Our story -the true story-- is never told. This gives white children a leg up on life. Tony Browder is the best tour guide of Washington, DC in the nation. He traces the architecture of Washington back to ancient Egypt. This is the purpose of "Nile Valley on the Potomac" field trip. Added features are the "Blacks in Wax Museum" in Baltimore, MD and the "African American Civil War Museum" in Washington, DC. By acquiring a grasp of our history, our children can change the European-centered, educational system and turn Brown v. Bd. of Education on its head. Black history has never been a part of the school curriculum. Our children can change education by giving black history answers to white history questions. Let truth decide the correct answers. Black parents, guardians and students should depart Brooklyn on the "FREEDOM BUS" to Baltimore and Washington, DC on the evening OF OCTOBER 5, 2012. The bus returns on the evening of OCTOBER 7, 2012. The educational fun starts immediately with the bus departing Brooklyn. For more information, call Freedom Retreat for Boys and Girls at 718-834-9034.
PROMOTE YOUR FILM OR BUSINESS IN THE REEL SISTERS PROGRAM JOURNAL!
Ad & Vending Opportunities at Reel Sisters! Promote your film, event or business to the Reel Sisters' festival attendees by placing an ad in our program journal! You may support the festival by taking out a special ad to congratulate our Reel Sisters' honorees. Rates are as reasonable as $20 for a business card sized ad or $15
for a 50-word listing. You may also vend at the festival for $100 PER DAY OR ($180 FOR BOTH DAYS). Please note vending opportunities are limited so call now!
their affinity towards the natural elements while others investigate family relationships and the paradox of living in an urban setting. The six artists have collaborated to create installations in CAAM’s courtyard that include paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, furniture, assemblage, and text
To reserve an ad or vending space call: (212) 865-2982. E-mail ads with journal ad contract to email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org Please download the ad contract at www.reelsisters.org.
.SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 2012, 2:00PM - Art Workshop - Nature and The Urban Being
AD RATES (B&W): O FULL-PAGE BACK COVER $500 O FULL-PAGE INSIDE COVERS $400 O FULL-PAGE AD - $300 O HALF PAGE- $150 O QUARTER PAGE - $75 O BUSINESS CARD - $20 O 1 LINE GREETING $15 (50-WORDS MAX.) 4 COLOR ADS (FULL-PAGE ONLY): O FULLPAGE BACK COVER $1,200 O FULL PAGE AD - $1,000
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 20, 2012, 1:00PM Presentation & Discussion - Healing Through Creativity
All ads must be camera ready (PDF, JPEG and Microsoft Word files accepted. JPEGS must be 300 dpi). All ads and payment must be received by the DEADLINE: FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 2012. Please mail checks to Reel Sisters c/o African Voices, 270 W. 96th Street, New York, NY 10025.
ANGELES, CA California African Americans Museum June 22- December 23, 2012 CAAM and the California Artist Coalition of Los Angeles (CACLA) have partnered to present new and exciting work by local artists Charla Puryear, Nikki Presley, Duane Paul, Michael Massenburg, Pam Douglas and Tanya Aguiñiga. Shared Thread explores the connections between us and our physical environments. Some artists choose to emphasize
Duane Paul challenges you to make an art object that combines natural elements with cultural fragments of our city landscape. RSVP (213) 744-2056.
Artist Pam Douglas discusses painting from her Water and Fire series and actively engages us in the creative process to ultimately discover and heal our inner self. RSVP (213) 7442056. SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 2012, 1:00PM Art Workshop - The Ties That Bind Michael Massenburg's masterly use of collage/assemblage will inspire you to create a window pane filled with images of your loved ones. Further decorate with found objects that connect to your family story. Please bring small copies of your favorite pictures and personal heirlooms. RSVP (213) 744-2056. Enjoy a writing workshop from the convenience of your AFRICAN AMERICAN MILITARY PORTRAITS FROM THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR: Selected Images from the Library of Congress Collections Through January 20, 2013 Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the American Civil War (1861-1865), this exhibit features remarkable photographic portraits of African American soldiers and sailors who took part in this epic chapter of our nation’s history. Reproduced in large format from the original antique photographs Commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the American Civil War (1861-1865), this exhibit features remarkable photographic portraits of African American soldiers and sailors who took part in this epic chapter of our nation’s history. Reproduced in large format from the original antique photographs, these images are selections from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs and the Gladstone Collection of African American Photographs, both
of which are housed at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. These photographs are visual reminders of the pride, determination, and sense of destiny that filled these men with a profound resolve as they sought a rightful place in the fabric of this nation for themselves and an entire people. The portraits in this exhibit are supplemented with biographical research, original period documents, artifacts, and historically-accurate reconstructions. All images are from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. the instructor, you will sharpen your skills and complete the first fifty pages of your book. Sessions: 8. Registration Fee:
ATLANTA, GA International Dance Commission
The fee is $505.00, click go to this link and make your payment today. Click Here to Pay in Full
For installment payments for your desired amount. Full balance must be paid by January 10, 2013. Click Here to Pay by Installment(s) We are looking for potential coordinators across the globe to take part in initiating the vision and mission of Beginning in January 2013 the International Dance Commission by serving as a IDC leaders in your state, city, country or territory. If The Sons of Zadok Mentorship Program is a 12 week you don't just want to dance but be a active part in Intensive Training winter and fall course. In which you equipping others and impacting your government will learn great knowledge about the bible as it relates . to worship, in the “Sons of Zodak ” course. It is not Apply Today...it's your IDC! mandatory to have usage of a webcam to take this Learn what it is to be a Servant Leader to many. course . Unbelievable benefits (and enjoy it)! The next course begins Thursday, January 10, 2013 at Organize an IDC Chapter with support staff 9PM EST. Registration is open. You can complete your Submit a proclamation in support of Liturgical Dance registration with payment in full on today or make Day in your state additional installments. All payments must be Serve as a legislative agent completed by January 10, 2013.� Organize & Conduct successful workshops and conferences Travel the nations Fundraising opportunities Monthly networking calls and planning of events Marketing of your products, events, and school Pool of resources from other IDC leaders 3-6 months advance training and specializing Lobby & Connect IDC members from all around the world for active engagement Volunteer Opportunities Learn how to partner with organizations for funding Prayer support groups Apply Now! Visit International Dance Commission at: http://intldancecommission.ning.com/?xg_source=msg_mes_ne twork
BURLINGTON, NEW JERSEY
SOUTH CAROLINA HILTON HEAD Heritage Library Foundation
African-American History Will Be Highlighted At Open House BURLINGTON CITY — The Underground Railroad Educational Center is hosting an open house from noon to 7 p.m. Saturday at its African-American history museum at 18 E. Union St. The site served as a stop on the Underground Railroad. For more information, visit www.ugrrburlington.webs.com. The Underground Railroad Educational Center PO Box 266 16-18 East Union Street Burlington, New Jersey 08016 email@example.com ♦ Ph: 609-225-4173 Open Wednesday - Saturday: 12 Pm – 5:00 pm Sunday: Call for special events The Underground Railroad Educational Center is a unique facility located on a New Jersey State designated Underground Railroad site behind Wheatley’s Drug store on High Street in the City of Burlington, New Jersey.
Fall Lecture Series: Tuesday, October 9: The English Settlement 1:30 - 3:00 Tuesday, October 16: Revolution to Rebellion 1:30 - 3:00 Tuesday, October 23: Occupation and Isolation 1:30 - 3:00 Tuesday, October 30: The First "Snow Birds"1:30 - 3:00 Fees: Members $8 (Couples $12); Nonmembers $10 (couples $15). Volunteers welcome; no charge. Fall Genealogy Classes: Wednesday, October 17: Get with the Program! Using Family Tree Maker 2012. 1:30 - 3:30 Wednesday, October 24: Genealogy on the Web. 1:30 - 3:30 Wednesday, October 31: Newspapers: A Genealogist's Treasure Trove. 1:30 - 3:30 Fees: Members $20, non-members $25. Volunteers welcome, no charge. Open House Sunday October 14 Special treat: Rosemary Staples, a library volunteer, will share her extensive research on "Clara Barton: Her Life and Times in the Lowcountry." This program is free and light refreshments will be served. Bring a friend to introduce to the library. Barbara Muller
Listen to the Story of The New York City African Burial Howard D. Wright, Sr. Speaks with in a two Part Interview Wright Reveals the internal and community points of view concerning the Communityâ€™s Struggle to Memorialize The Site. For More Information Call 843 290 8110
America s Only Classical Music (The Art Style Formally Known as Jazz)
Featuring Chucho Valdes
t the age of 70, with more than a half-century of innovation behind him, Chucho Valdés would be forgiven if he chose to sit back and relax. But that’s precisely what the renowned Cuban pianist, composer and bandleader is not doing. Instead, Valdés— winner of five Grammy awards and three Latin Grammys—has been touring almost constantly. He has played more dates than at any other time in his career—more than 120 concerts in 2011-2012—touching down in such far-flung locales from Argentina to Australia, Cuba to Colombia. All along the way, Valdés has received plaudits that
are usually reserved for cutting-edge artists half his age. In a review of Valdés performance earlier this year at Carnegie Hall, JazzTimes magazine enthused, “He remains a marvel at the keys, agile and inventive. His solos are virtually flawless, dazzling, and as a bandleader he is assured and commanding—even as he lays back to take in what his cohorts are producing, there is no doubt who is calling the shots…Chucho Valdés is emblematic of the evolution of Afro-Cuban jazz during recent decades, and is still at the top of his game.” Valdés—who was recently chosen by Carnegie Hall as one of its Artistic Advisors (alongside Gustavo Dudamel, Gilberto Gil and Osvaldo Golijov) in its
month-long celebration of Latin music—will return to the storied venue on December 1. He will perform at Carnegie’s Zankel Hall room along with his exciting quintet: Valdés (piano) Yaroldy Abreu Robles (percussion), Dreiser Durruthy Bombalé (bata drum, vocals), Rodney Yllarza Barreto (drums) and Angel Gaston Joya Perellada (bass). The esteemed Latin jazz outfit will perform, for the first time in concert, music that will be included on Valdés’ forthcoming new CD. “Playing in the quintet, almost all the responsibility is on the piano, which has to become the ‘orchestra,’” says Valdés, “so it’s more complicated work for me, but very exciting! At the upcoming Carnegie show, he says, “We are going to do a wide selection of songs, and the whole show will have a very different sound because the new musicians play differently, and think differently rhythmically. That has completely changed the sound of the quintet. The whole feel is more contemporary.” Valdés will debut his new Sakai piano for this special occasion. He is the first artist to have his own piano line for Sakai; the Japanese company developed the piano with Valdés’ favorite sounds and touch in mind. Valdés’ new, more contemporary sound will be apparent on the new studio recording, due for release next spring. The eagerly awaited release is the followup to 2010’s Chucho’s Steps, which won a Grammy for Best Latin Jazz Album and received uni-
versally glowing reviews from the media. The All Music Guide said that the recording “demonstrates the pianist’s continuing vitality and invention, along with his reverence for the history of jazz,” while the Washington Post described it as a “keyboard tour de f o r c e . ” For the as-yet-untitled CD—to be released by Four Quarters Entertainment in the United States and Harmonia Mundi in the rest of the world—Valdés will expand his stylistic palette beyond the realm of Latin jazz by moving closer to the roots of Afro-Cuban music (including Yaruba chanting) as well as incorporating elements of flamenco and Indian music. Using a streamlined ensemble—plus special guests Buika and Roy Hargrove—and placing his piano more front-andcenter, Valdés’ new music promises to be some of the most engaging and exciting of his lengthy career. That career began humbly when Chucho began taking piano lessons from his father, the pioneering Cuban bandleader Bebo Valdés. Chucho’s natural affinity for the instrument led him to the Municipal Music Conservatory of Havana, where he graduated at the age of 14. After achieving success with various bands, Chucho formed Irakere in 1973. The multi-faceted group became an international success, winning a Grammy in 1979. Turning solo in the 1980s, Chucho Valdés has remained one of the most popular exponents of Latin jazz in the world, recently receiving an honorary degree from the Berklee College of Music for his impressive body of work. In addition, Valdés presently lives in Spain, where he moved in order to be closer to his ailing father. With a new album arriving soon, worldwide touring in his past and more concerts booked, and an endless stream of new ideas in his mind, Chucho Valdés enjoys that rare honor of being both living legend and an enduring force of nature.
Published on Oct 28, 2012
Published on Oct 28, 2012
Ground Truth is the publication of the Sankofa Restoration Project. The Project is dedicated toward advocating, promoting and salvaging the...