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ELEMENTARY BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY FOR LEANERS AND BEGINERS A Self-Study…


Preface Basic and Elememtary English Grammar & Vocabulary, started with the first purpose for expanding knowledge of learners and beginers. This book has been elaborated also with the purpose to have an easy way to learn English, essential vocabulary tells us why English is so important and it is big a nessecity to improve English language every single day. A learner or beginer learn English throught easy and understandable list of words having the responsability to look for the meaning for each word in a good dictionary even in the Internet where it is required to use on the new world. A comunicative English is easy no if it does not have many vocabulary in mind so it is a big responsability to increase vocabulary too. On the other hands, English Grammar has the important acquisition of rules and structures that help learners to imporve by themselves if it has the will to look for vocabulary and meanings. To be shown an easy way to learn English and keep skills in many areas for learning a language, speacially, English is considered a world language and it were just for speaking because it would not be academic. As academic purpose include many skills like learn a lot of vocabulary, definitions and rules and structure of a language.


Acknowledgment

It is a neseecary to have an easy book for learners or beginers students who ask for studying first vocabulary then change that knowledge into a communicative way of English language. That is why Douglas Barquero Elías as an editor kept in mind what a learner has in common for learning. Experiences have shown us that it is required an easy way to have everything in one book.

Co-editors reference  Betty Azar  Raymond Murphy  David Bolton  Patricia K. Wernner  MacMillan, English Dictionary  https://www.english grammar. Com  Google; WordReference

How to use this book, you have the resposibility to look for the meaning of each word or to find out the correct translation into your native language for each word. On google you can type “WordReference” and this is free, and it is like a dictionary of vocabulary and it is better than google translator which should not be allowed for tranlating just for looking the correct meaning. Basically it is necessary to have an excelent dictionary which show you the whole posibility definition.

Dedication I want to thank God first for giving me this opportunity, to my parerents and my whole family cause they were the ones whos just gave me real advices base on experiences, to all my students who just teach me there is a big neccesaty that exist in our real lives. edgargustavorodriguez@gmail.com

First Edition San Salvador, El Salvador 2014-2015


1. Common Words The Aphabeth: A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L- M – N –O –P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – W – X – Y – Z Probably Mistake in Pronuncing: A–I

B–V

C–Z

E–I

K–Q

M–N

P–T

S-X

G–J

J–Y

One Alphabeth + Word: A: Apple

N: Note

B: Book

O: Open

C: Cat

P: Pencil

D: Day

Q: Quiz

E: Elephant

R: Rose

F: Fig

S: Store

G: Grapes

T: Tomatoes

H: House

U: Umbrella

I: Ivory

V: Vacation

J: Jump

W: Window

K: Key

X: Xerox

L: Learn

Y: Yard

M: Movie

Z: Zest

The days of the week: Monday – Tuesday – Wednesday – Thursday – Friday – Saturday – Sunday

The Months of the Year: January – February – March – April – May – June – July – August – September – October – November – December

The four Season:


Spring – Fall (Autumn) – Winter – Summer

2. Numbers

Cardinal Numbers

1 one

13 thirteen

50 fifty

2 two

14 fourteen

60 sixty

3 three

15 fifteen

70 seventy

4 four

16 sixteen

80 eighty

5 five

17 seventeen

90 ninety

6 six

18 eighteen

100 a/one hundred

7 seven

19 nineteen

101 a/one hundred and one

8 eight

20 twenty

200 two hundred

9 nine

21 twenty-one

1.000 a/one thousand

10 ten

22 twenty-two

10.000 ten thousand

11 eleven

30 thirty

100.000 a/one hundred thousand

12 twelve

40 forty

1.000.000 a/one million

1st first

13th thirteenth

50th fiftieth

2nd second

14th fourteenth

60th sixtieth

3rd third

15th fifteenth

70th seventieth

4th fourth

16th sixteenth

80th eightieth

5th fifth

17th seventeenth

90th ninetieth

6th sixth

18th eighteenth

100th hundredth

7th seventh

19th nineteenth

101st hundred and first

8th eighth

20th twentieth

200th two hundredth

9th ninth

21st twenty-first

1.000th thousandth

10th tenth

22nd twenty-second

10.000th ten thousandth

11th eleventh

30th thirtieth

100.000th one hundred thousandth

12th twelfth

40th fortieth

1.000.000th one millionth

Ordinal Numbers


There are two common ways of telling the time

1) Say the hour first and then the minutes. (Hour + Minutes) •

6:25 - six twenty-five

8:05 - eight O-five

9:11 - nine eleven

2:34 - two thirty-four

2) Say the minutes first and then the hour. (Minutes + PAST / TO + Hour) For minutes 1-30 we use PAST after the minutes. For minutes 31-59 we use TO after the minutes. •

2:35 - twenty-five to three

11:20 - twenty past eleven

4:18 - eighteen past four

8:51 - nine to nine

2:59 - one to three

When it is 15 minutes past the hour we normally say: a quarter past •

7:15 - a quarter past seven

When it is 15 minutes before the hour we normally say: a quarter to •

12:45 - a quarter to one

When it is 30 minutes past the hour we normally say: half past •

3:30 - half past three (but we can also say three-thirty)

O'clock We use o'clock when there are NO minutes. •

10:00 - ten o'clock

5:00 - five o'clock

1:00 - one o'clock

Sometimes it is written as o'clock (the number + o'clock)


12:00 For 12:00 there are four expressions in English. Twelve midday midnight

o'clock = noon

Asking for the Time The common question forms we use to ask for the time right now are: What time is it? or What is the time? The common question forms we use to ask at what time a specific event will happen are: What time...? When...? •

What time does the flight to New York leave?

When does the bus arrive from London?

When does the concert begin?

Giving the Time We use It is or It's to respond to the questions that ask for the time right now. •

It is half past five (5:30).

It's ten to twelve (11:50)

We use the structure AT + time when giving the time of a specific event. •

The bus arrives at midday (12:00).

The flight leaves at a quarter to two (1:45).

The concert begins at ten o'clock. (10:00)

We can also use subject pronouns in these responses. •

It arrives at midday (12:00).

It leaves at a quarter to two (1:45).

It begins at ten o'clock. (10:00)


AM vs. PM We don't normally use the 24-hour clock in English. We use a.m. (am) for the morning and p.m. (pm) for the afternoon and night. 3am = Three o'clock in the morning. 3pm = Three o'clock in the afternoon.

Parts of a House: kitchen

stairs

dishwasher

spoon

bedroom

apartment

washing machine

teaspoon

bathroom

table

ironing board

cutlery drawer

dining Room

chair

toaster

cup

living Room

armchair

blender

mug

garden

sofa

mixer

glass

rooms

floor

broom

saucer

balcony

ceiling

sink

jug

sitting room

rug

tap

coffeepot

basement

carpet

waste bin

coffee maker

cellar

fireplace

worktop

teapot

attic

radiator

tea towel

tablecloth

study

lamp

frying pan

napkin

toilet

light

saucepan

bath

door

curtain

pressure cooker

shower

doorbell

wall

kettle

toilet

doormat

wallpaper

bowl

bidet

letter box

television

tin opener

washbasin

window

refridgirator

corkscrew

tap

roof

oven

fork

mirror

chimney

microwave oven

knife

soap


soap dish

shampoo

nailbrush

sheet

towel

conditioner

bedside table

duvet

towel rail

safety razor

bedside lamp

bedspread

bath mat

electric razor

wardrobe

alarm clock

toilet paper

shaving foam

drawers

bed

sponge

toothbrush

mattress

bathmat

comb

hair drier

pillow

hairbrush

toothpaste

blanket

leg

palm

lips

groin

ankle

shoulder

moustache

heart

buttock

wrist

mouth

hip

foot

head

neck

liver

heel

ear

nose

lung

knee

beard

pupil

navel

shin

brain

tongue

stomach

bone

cheek

tooth

thorax

toe

eye

throat

waist

arm

eyebrow

abdomen

rib

elbow

eyelash

armpit

finger

eyelid

back

hand

forehead

breasts

nail

hair

chest

classrooms

library

courts

white boards

laboratries

academic office

gardens

sharpener

Parts of Human Body

Parts of a School


pencil

stapler

lockers

encyclopedia

pen

clips

rest rooms

book

ruler

earaser

gym

test book

desk

masking tape

field

note book

chair

transparent tape

Principal's office

print

computers

mechanical pencil

The Principal

scaner

televitions

marker

the coach

File cabinet

phones

glue

librarian

shelves

teacher

scissors

classmates

sheets of paper

professor

backpack

secretary

Bond paper

Dean

school bag

cook

bulletin board

pencil case

auditorium

teacher room

data show

students

cafeteria

dictionary

record tape

almond

fig

nectarine

artichoke

apple

kiwi

orange

aubergine

apricot

grape

papaya

asparagus

avocado

grapefruit

passion fruit

beans

banana

hazelnut

peach

beetroot

blackberry

lemon

peanut

broccoli

blueberry

lime

pear

brussels

cherry

lychee

plum

cabbage

chestnut

mandarine

raspberry

carrot

coconut

mango

starfruit

cauliflower

cranberry

melon

strawberry

celery

date

morello cherry

watermelon

corn

Fruits and Vegestables:


courgette

lettuce

potato

squash

cucumber

mushroom

pumpkin

sweet potato

eggplant

onion

radish

tomato

garlic

peas

rice

turnip

leek

pepper

rye

watercress

lentils

pickle

spinach

wheat

shirt

jacket

bathrobe

handkerchief

t-shirt

duffel coat

nightdress

gloves

sport shirt

pants

pajamas

scarf

blouse

trousers

socks

shawl

sweatshirt

slacks

ties

cloak

sweater

jeans

underwear

cap

cardigan

shorts

bra

beret

dress

pinafore

knickers

hat

evening gown

sneakers

underpants

bonnet

vest

boots

bathing-suit

helmet

suit

Wellingtons

bikini

coat

slippers

swimming shorts

raincoat

shoes

belt

overcoat

sandals

hood

mackintosh

high-heeled shoes

suspenders

The Clothes

3. Countries & Nationality This list is about many of the countries or nations in the world with the nationality: Name of country


Adjective used for that country (also describes nationality) Look at this example sentences: He comes from France. He is French. His nationality is French. He is a Frenchman. He drives a French car. She speaks French.

Country

Nationality

England

English

Afghanistan

Afghan

Finland

Finnish

Algeria

Algerian

France

French

Australia

Australian

Germany

German

Bahamas

Bahamian

Greece

Greek

Bangladesh

Bangladeshi

Netherlands

Dutch

Barbados

Barbadian

Hungary

Hungarian

Belgium

Belgian

Iceland

Icelandic

Belize

Belizean

India

Indian

Bhutan

Bhutanese

Indonesia

Indonesian

Botswana

Botswanan

Ireland

Irish

Brazil

Brazilian

Italy

Italian

Britain

British

Jamaica

Jamaican

Canada

Canadian

Japan

Japanese

China

Chinese

Kenya

Kenyan

Costa Rica

Costa Rican

Lebanon

Lebanese

Croatia

Croatian

Luxembourg

Luxembourger

Czech Republic

Czech

Madagascar

Madagascan

Denmark

Danish

Malaysia

Malaysian

Dominican Republic

Dominican

Mexico

Mexican

Egypt

Egyptian

Morocco

Moroccan

El Salvador

Salvadorean

Mozambique

Mozambican


New Zealand

New Zealander

Spain

Spanish

Nigeria

Nigerian

Swaziland

Swazi

Korea

Korean

Sweden

Swedish

Norway

Norwegian

Switzerland

Swiss

Panama

Panamanian

Taiwan

Taiwanese

Philippines

Philippine

Tanzania

Tanzanian

Poland

Polish

Thailand

Thai

Portugal

Portuguese

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidadian

Romania

Romanian

Turkey

Turkish

Russia

Russian

Ukraine

Ukrainian

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian

United Arab Emirates Emirati

Scotland

Scottish

United Kingdom

British

Seychelles

Seychellois

United States

American

Singapore

Singaporean

Vietnam

Vietnamese

Slovakia

Slovak

Wales

Welsh

Slovenia

Slovene

Zambia

Zambian

Somalia

Somali

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwean

South Africa

South African

4. Verbs A verb, it is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that an action has been done; a verb is considered the main part of a sentence.

Example of a sentence: Noun (common or proper noun)

Verb (regular or irregular)

Subject of a sentence and Sustantive +

Auxilary or main verb

Predicate +

Object of a sentence


Subject pronoun

Form and Tenses change

Students of this university Sub

enjoy studying

+ verb

Complement

very hard every semester. +

object

Types of verbs: Regular: study – work – talk – walk – change – move – ask – listen – write – love – sit – live – call Irregular: do – hear – tell – keep – come – become – feel – have – take – speak – be – can – think Transitive: bring – buy – cost – get – give – leave – lend – make – offer – owe – pass – pay - play Intrasitive: arrive – go – lie – sneeze – sit – die – eat – run – grow – watch – give – sing – rain - add Linking: feel – taste – look – smell – appear – grow – remain – stay – turn – seem – sound - prove Auxilary: be – do – can – may – might – must – should – could – would – will - ought to

Verbs Followed by Infinitive: Examples: Verbs

Sentences

agree

Tom agreed to help me.

appear

His health appeared to be better.

arrange

Naomi arranged to stay with her cousin in Miami.

ask

She asked to leave.

begin

He began to talk.

can't stand

Nancy can't stand to work the late shift.

care

He doesn't care to participate in the activity.

cease

The government ceased to provide free healthcare.

choose

I chose to help.

claim

She claimed to be a princess.

continue

She continued to talk.

decide

We decided to go to Hawaii.

demand

He demanded to speak to Mr. Harris.

deserve

He deserves to go to jail.


dread

I dread to think what might happen.

expect

They expect to arrive early.

fail

He failed to get enough money to pay for the new project.

forget

I forgot to lock the door when I left.

get

Debbie gets to go to the concert next week! Why can't I?

happen

She happened to be at the bank when it was robbed.

hate

He hates to clean dishes.

hesitate

She hesitated to tell me the problem.

hope

I hope to begin college this year.

intend

We intend to visit you next spring.

learn

I learned to speak Japanese when I was a kid.

like

Samantha likes to read.

love

We love to scuba dive.

manage

He managed to open the door without the key.

need

I need to study.

offer

Frank offered to drive us to the supermarket.

Plan

We plan to go to Europe this summer.

prefer

He prefers to eat at 7 PM.

prepare

They prepared to take the test.

pretend

The child pretended to be a monster.

promise

She promised to stop smoking.

propose

Drew proposed to pay for the trip.

refuse

The guard refused to let them enter the building.

regret

I regret to inform you that your application was rejected.

remember

You remember to lock the door when you left

seem

Nancy seemed to be disappointed.

start

Marge started to talk really fast.

swear

She swore to tell the truth.

tend

He tends to be a little shy.


threaten

He threatened to leave forever.

try

Mary tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy.

wait

She waited to buy a movie ticket.

want

I want to study Spanish.

wish

I wish to stay.

Verbs Followed by Gerunds: Examples:

admit

He admitted cheating on the test.

advise

The doctor generally advised drinking low-fat milk.

allow

Ireland doesn't allow smoking in bars.

anticipate

I anticipated arriving late.

appreciate

I appreciated her helping me.

avoid

He avoided talking to her.

begin

I began learning Chinese.

cease

The government ceased providing free healthcare.

complete

He completed renovating the house.

consider

She considered moving to New York.

continue

He continued talking.

defend

The lawyer defended her making such statements.

delay

He delayed doing his taxes.

deny

He denied committing the crime.

despise

She despises waking up early.

discuss

We discussed working at the company.

dislike

She dislikes working after 5 PM.

don't mind

I don't mind helping you.

dread

She dreads getting up at 5 AM.

encourage

He encourages eating healthy foods.

enjoy

We enjoy hiking.


finish

He finished doing his homework.

forget

I forgot giving you my book.

hate

I hate cleaning the bathroom.

imagine

He imagines working there one day.

involve

The job involves traveling to Japan once a month.

keep

She kept interrupting me.

like

She likes listening to music.

love

I love swimming.

mention

He mentioned going to that college.

mind

You mind waiting here for a few minutes.

miss

She misses living near the beach.

need

The aquarium needs cleaning.

neglect

Sometimes she neglects doing her homework.

permit

California does not permit smoking in restaurants.

Postpone

He postponed returning to Paris.

practice

She practiced singing the song.

prefer

He prefers sitting at the back of the movie theater.

propose

I proposed having lunch at the beach.

quit

She quit worrying about the problem.

recall

Tom recalled using his credit card at the store.

recollect

She recollected living in Kenya.

recommend

Tony recommended taking the train.

regret

She regretted saying that.

remember

I remember telling her the address yesterday.

report

He reported her stealing the money.

require

The certificate requires completing two courses.

resent

Nick resented Debbie's being there.

resist

He resisted asking for help.


risk

He risked being caught.

start

He started studying harder.

stop

She stopped working at 5 o'clock.

suggest

They suggested staying at the hotel.

tolerate

I tolerated her talking.

try

Sam tried opening the lock with a paperclip.

understand

I understand his quitting.

urge

They urge recycling bottles and paper.

5. Simple Present Tense Rules The simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. Also simple present an action that someone or sonthing do every single day. Example: 1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period. I take the train to the office. The train to Berlin leaves every hour. John sleeps eight hours every night during the week. 2. For facts. The President of The USA lives in The White House. A dog has four legs. We come from Switzerland. 3. For habits. I get up early every day. Carol brushes her teeth twice a day. They travel to their country house every weekend. 4. For things that are always / generally true. It rains a lot in winter. The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace. They speak English at work.


In general, in the third person we add 'S' in the third person. Subject

Verb

The Rest of the sentence

I / you / we / they

speak / learn

English at home

he / she / it

speaks / learns English at home

The spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of that verb: 1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person. go – goes catch – catches wash – washes kiss – kisses fix – fixes buzz – buzzes 2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES. marry – marries study – studies carry – carries worry – worries

NOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S. play – plays enjoy – enjoys say – says

Negative Sentences in the Simple Present Tense

To make a negative sentence in English we normally use Don't or Doesn't with all verbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (can, might, should etc.).


Affirmative: You speak French.

Negative: You don't speak French.

You will see that we add don't between the subject and the verb. We use Don't when the subject is I, you, we or they. 

Affirmative: He speaks German.

Negative: He doesn't speak German.

When the subject is he, she or it, we add doesn't between the subject and the verb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negative sentence. We will see the reason why below.

Negative Contractions Don't

=

Do not

Doesn't

=

Does not

I don't like meat = I do not like meat. There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spoken English.

* Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.

Examples of Negative Sentences with Don't and Doesn't:  You don't speak Arabic.  John doesn't speak Italian.  We don't have time for a rest.  It doesn't move.  They don't want to go to the party.  She doesn't like fish.


Questions in the Simple Present Tense To make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation in Spanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.

Affirmative: You speak English.

Question: Do you speak English?

You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make it a question. We use Do when the subject is I, you, we or they. 

Affirmative: He speaks French.

Question: Does he speak French?

When the subject is he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make the affirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in the affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. We will see the reason why below. We DON'T use Do or Does in questions that have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs (can, must, might, should etc.) *Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitive without TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part. Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc. Examples of Questions with Do and Does:  Do you need a dictionary?  Does Mary need a dictionary?  Do we have a meeting now?  Does it rain a lot in winter?  Do they want to go to the party?  Does he like pizza?

6. Short Answers with Do and Does In questions that use do/does it is possible to give short answers to direct questions as follows:


Sample Questions

Short Answer

(Affirmative)

(Affirmative) Answer

(Negative)

Do you like chocolate?

Yes, I do.

No, I don't.

Do I need a pencil?

Yes, you do.

No, you don't.

Do you both like chocolate?

Yes, we do.

No, we don't.

Do they like chocolate?

Yes, they do.

No, they don't.

Does he like chocolate?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn't.

Does she like chocolate?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn't.

Does it have four wheels?

Yes, it does.

No, it doesn't.

7. Simple Past Tense Rules The simple past refers to things that have already happened, and are finished doing their thing.  World War II reminded us bad memories from 1939-1945.  Mom cooked a delicious supper last Saturday.  I watched the dishes in the morning.  Margaret aced her math exam.

Regular Verbs Regular verbs are changed to the simple past by adding -ed to the end of the root form. If the verb already ends in -e, we just add -d.  Play – played  Type – typed  Listen – listened  Push – pushed  Love – loved

Spelling Rules for Regular Past Tense Verbs You will learn the spelling of the simple past form (-ed form.) But before you continue the lesson study the following examples and try to see how the verbs are spelled.


Verbs ending in a... 1. silent e

2. vowel + y

3. consonant + y

4. other forms

close = closed

play – played

marry – merried

miss - missed

die = died

destroy – destroyed

carry – carried

watch - watched

study – studied

fix - fixed

phone = phoned

Regular verbs ending in a silent e take /-d/ in the simple past and past participle: Example: Close = closed Regular verbs ending in a vowel + y take /-ed/ in the simple past and past participle: Example: Play = played Regular verbs ending in a consonant + y take /-ied/ in the simple past and past participle (the y becomes an i followed by /-ed/) Example: Marry = married All the other regular vebs take /-ed/ in the simple past and past participle. Example: Visit = visited Special cases of the -ed forms: Follow these rules when there is a consonant after a vowel (stop, ban, open, offer...) If there is a consonant after a stressed vowel at the end of the word, double the consonant but also if the word has one syllabel only and if there is a vowel in midle of two consonants. stop – stopped ban - banned swap - swapped If the vowel is not stressed, we do not double it: open - opened (Here the stress is on'o', not the 'e'.)


offer - offered ( Here the stress is on 'o', not the 'e'.) In British English we double the last l even though the last vowel is not stressed. Here are some examples: travel - travelled cancel - cancelled level - levelled marvel – marvelled

Affirmative sentences: Use the same form of the auxilary verb every time regardless the subject in the simple past tense. Example; look the chart bellow for regular and irregular verbs. regular verbs

irregular verbs

I played football.

I went to the supermarket.

Negative sentences: Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of do) every time regardless the subject. regular verbs

irregular verbs

I did not play football.

I did not go to the supermarket.

NOTE: Short forms in negative sentences in the Simple Past are used quite often. regular verbs

irregular verbs

I didn't play football.

I didn't go to the supermarket.

Questions: Use the auxiliary did (Simple Past of do) every time regardless the subject. regular verbs

irregular verbs

Did you play football?

Did I go to the supermarket?


Spellinh-final Rule verbs -Ing For many verbs we make the ING form by simply adding -ING to end of the verb. •

eat - eating

speak - speaking

cook - cooking

start - starting

do - doing

stay - staying

fix - fixing

try - trying

Verbs ending with -e (with the exception of verbs ending in -ee and -ie). Drop the -e and add ING •

hope - hoping

ride - riding

make - making

write - writing

Verbs ending with –ee Just add -ING •

agree - agreeing

flee - fleeing

see - seeing

Verbs ending with –ie. Change the -ie to -y and add -ING •

die - dying

tie - tying

lie - lying

Verbs ending with one vowel and one consonant (with the exception of w, x, and y). For one syllable verbs double the consonant and add -ING


jog - jogging

sit - sitting

run - running

stop - stopping

For two syllable verbs; If the 1st syllable is stressed, just add ING •

answer - answering

offer - offering

listen - listening

visit - visiting

If the 2nd syllable is stressed, double the consonant and add ING •

admit - admitting

prefer - preferring

begin - begining

8. Present Continuous: Negatives and Questions Introduction In the present continuous tense, negative and question forms is needed The Verb To Be as an auxiliary, and question forms are made by changing the word order of the sentence. 1. Forming a negative Negatives in the present continuous are formed by adding not or n't after the verb BE: Positive sentence

Negative sentence

Contracted negative

I am eating.

I am not eating.

I'm not eating.

You are working.

You are not working.

You aren't working.

He is driving.

He is not driving.

He isn't driving.

She is teaching.

She is not teaching.

She isn't teaching.

It is raining.

It is not raining.

It isn't raining.


Positive sentence

Negative sentence

Contracted negative

We are reading.

We are not reading.

We aren't reading.

They are writing.

They are not writing.

They aren't writing.

2. Forming a question Yes/no questions are created by moving the verb BE to the beginning of the sentence. WHquestions are formed by moving the verb BE, and then adding the WH- word. Here are the rules: Statement

Yes/no question

WH- question

I am eating.

Am I eating?

What am I eating?

You are crying.

Are you crying?

Why are you crying?

He is going.

Is he going?

Where is he going?

She is arriving.

Is she arriving?

When is she arriving?

It is sleeping.

Is it sleeping?

Why is it sleeping?

We are leaving.

Are we leaving?

When are we leaving?

They are fighting.

Are they fighting?

Why are they fighting?

9. Parts of Speech: Article - nouns – pronouns – adjectives - verbs – adverbs – prepositión – connectors - interjection Article: Definite and Indefinite Definite: a – an Indefinite: the

Nouns: A noun, it is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas. Linguistically, a noun is a member of a large, open part of speech whose members can occur as the main word in the subject of a clause, the object of a verb, or the object of a preposition. Lexical categories are defined in terms of the ways in which their members combine with other kinds of expressions. The syntactic rules for nouns differ from language to language. In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.


Types of nouns: Proper: Michael – Gerardo Barrios university – John F. Kenedy airport – Saint Catarina church – El Salvador Common: table – chair – book – computer – cell pone – pencil – soda – school – cake – sandwhich – plane - cup Concrete: white board – car – wall – floor – picture – chair – table – book – wood – plant - pencil – glass - cap Abstract: love – air – wind – feeling – dream – ghost – honesty – power – evil – hate – faith – belief - happiness Collective nouns: team – furniture – zoo – group – crowd - family – staff – gang – choir – band – forest - army Uncountable noun: sand – salt – sugar – stars – money – electricity – air – dust – water – calm – confidence - fear Countable noun: people – cars – students – friends – pencils – books – cell phones – chairs – tables – computers -

Pronouns: Personal / Subject Pronouns

Object Pronouns

Possessive Adjetives

Possessive Pronouns

Reflexive Pronouns

I

me

my

mine

myself

You

you

your

yours

yourself

he

him

his

his

himself

she

her

her

hers

herself

it

it

its

its

itself

we

us

our

ours

ourselves

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

Demontrative Pronouns: This singular

These plural

near

That singular

Those plural

far

Indefinite Pronouns: everybody

nobody

somebody

anybody

everyone

no one

someone

anyone


everything

nothing

something

anything

Relative Pronouns: who

which

that

whom

whose

Reciprocal Pronouns: each other / one another

Adjectives: In linguistics, an adjective is a "describing word", the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified. Adjectives are one of the traditional eight English parts of speech, although linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that formerly were considered to be adjectives. In the immediately previous sentence, "traditional" is an adjective and "eight", while known traditionally as an adjective, is now classified as a determiner; and in the preceding paragraph, both "main" and "syntactic" are traditional adjectives. Note: Colors are also adjectives Example: adorable

awful

charming

courageous

adventurous

bad

cheerful

crazy

aggressive

beautiful

clean

creepy

agreeable

better

clear

crowded

alert

bloody

clever

cruel

alive

bored

cloudy

curious

amused

brainy

clumsy

cute

angry

brave

colorful

dangerous

annoyed

breakable

combative

dark

anxious

bright

comfortable

dead

arrogant

busy

concerned

defeated

ashamed

calm

condemned

defiant

attractive

careful

confused

delightful

average

cautious

cooperative

depressed


determined

fragile

innocent

outstanding

different

frail

inquisitive

panicky

difficult

frantic

itchy

perfect

disgusted

friendly

jealous

plain

distinct

frightened

jolly

pleasant

dizzy

funny

joyous

poised

doubtful

gentle

kind

poor

dull

gifted

lazy

powerful

eager

glamorous

light

precious

easy

gleaming

lively

prickly

elated

glorious

lonely

proud

elegant

good

long

puzzled

embarrassed

gorgeous

lovely

real

enchanting

graceful

lucky

relieved

encouraging

grotesque

magnificent

repulsive

energetic

grumpy

misty

rich

enthusiastic

handsome

modern

scary

envious

happy

motionless

selfish

evil

healthy

muddy

shiny

excited

helpful

mushy

shy

expensive

helpless

mysterious

silly

exuberant

hilarious

nasty

sleepy

fair

homeless

nervous

smiling

faithful

homely

nice

smoggy

famous

horrible

nutty

sore

fancy

hungry

obedient

sparkling

fantastic

hurt

obnoxious

splendid

fierce

ill

odd

spotless

filthy

important

old-fashioned

stormy

fine

impossible

open

strange

foolish

inexpensive

outrageous

stupid


successful

thankful

unusual

wide-eyed

super

thoughtful

upset

wild

talented

thoughtless

uptight

witty

tame

tired

vast

worried

tender

troubled

victorious

wrong

tense

ugly

wandering

zany

terrible

uninterested

weary

zealous

testy

unsightly

wicked

Amaranth

Coral

Jungle green

Prusian blue

Amber

Crimson

Lavender

Puce

Apricot

Dark blue

Lemon

Purple

Aquamarine

Dark brown

Lilac

Raspberry

Azure

Dark green

Lime

Red

Baby blue

Dark orange

Magenta

Red-violet

Beige

Dark red

Magenta rose

Rose

Black

Dark yellow

Maroon

Ruby

Blue

Desert sand

Navy blue

Salmon

Blue-green

Electric blue

Ocher

Sangria

Blue-violet

Electric green

Olive

Sapphire

Bronze

Electric pink

Orange

Scarlet

Brown

Electric yellow

Orange-red

Silver

Carmine

Emerald

Orchid

Slate gray

Champagne

Gold

Peach

Spring

Chartreuse green

Gray

Pear

Spring bud

Chocolate

Green

Persian blue

Spring green

Cobalt blue

Ivory

Pink

Tan

Coffee

Jade

Plum

Teal

Color in English:


Turquoise

Viridian

Yankees Blue

Violet

White

Yellow

Adjectives; Comparatives and Superlative One-syllable adjectives.

Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative. One-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

tall

taller

tallest

old

older

oldest

long

longer

longest

Mary is taller than Max.

Mary is the tallest of all the students.

Max is older than John.

Of the three students, Max is the oldest.

My hair is longer than your hair.

Max's story is the longest story I've ever heard.

If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form. One-Syllable Adjective with Final -e

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

large

larger

largest

wise

wiser

wisest

Mary's car is larger than Max's car.

Mary's house is the largest of all the houses on the block.

Max is wiser than his brother.

Max is the wisest person I know.


If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form. One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a Single Consonant with a Comparative Single Vowel before It Form

Superlative Form

big

bigger

biggest

thin

thinner

thinnest

fat

fatter

fattest

My dog is bigger than your dog.

My dog is the biggest of all the dogs in the neighborhood.

Max is thinner than John.

Of all the students in the class, Max is the thinnest.

My mother is fatter than your mother.

Mary is the fattest person I've ever seen.

Two-syllable adjectives. With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most. Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

peaceful

more peaceful

most peaceful

pleasant

more pleasant

most pleasant

careful

more careful

most careful

thoughtful

more thoughtful

most thoughtful

This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning.

Max's house in the mountains is the most peaceful in the world.

Max is more careful than Mike.

Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful.

Jill is more thoughtful than your sister.


Mary is the most thoughtful person I've ever met.

If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est. Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -y

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

happy

happier

happiest

angry

angrier

angriest

busy

busier

busiest

John is happier today than he was yesterday.

John is the happiest boy in the world.

Max is angrier than Mary.

Of all of John's victims, Max is the angriest.

Mary is busier than Max.

Mary is the busiest person I've ever met.

Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms. Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -er, -le, or -ow Comparative Form Superlative Form narrow

narrower

narrowest

gentle

gentler

gentlest

The roads in this town are narrower than the roads in the city.

This road is the narrowest of all the roads in California.

Big dogs are gentler than small dogs.

Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.

Adjectives with three or more syllables. For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.


Adjective with Three or More Syllables

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

generous

more generous

most generous

important

more important

most important

intelligent

more intelligent

most intelligent

John is more generous than Jack.

John is the most generous of all the people I know.

Health is more important than money.

Of all the people I know, Max is the most important.

Women are more intelligent than men.

Mary is the most intelligent person I've ever met.

Exceptions. Irregular adjectives. Irregular Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

far

farther

farthest

little

less

least

many

more

most

Italian food is better than American food.

My dog is the best dog in the world.

My mother's cooking is worse than your mother's cooking.

Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst.

Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most. Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

clever

cleverer

cleverest


Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

clever

more clever

most clever

gentle

gentler

gentlest

gentle

more gentle

most gentle

friendly

friendlier

friendliest

friendly

more friendly

most friendly

quiet

quieter

quietest

quiet

more quiet

most quiet

simple

simpler

simplest

simple

more simple

most simple

Adverbs: An adverb is a word that changes or simplifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause, or sentence expressing manner, place, time, or degree. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, in what way?, when?, where?, and to what extent? This function is called the adverbial function, and is realised not just by single words but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses. Types of Adverbs: Adverbs of place: About – above – abroad – anywhere – away – back – backwards – behind – below – down – downstairs - east – elsewhere – far – here – in – indoors – inside - near – nearby – off – on – out outside – over there – towards – under – up – upstairs - where Adverbs of time: now – then – today – tomorrow – tonight – yesterday – annually – daily – fortnightly – hourly monthly – nightly – quarterly – weekly - yearly Adverbs of manner: accidentally – angrily – anxiously – awkwardly – badly – beautifully – blindly – boldly – bravely brightly – busily – calmly – carefully – carelessly – cautiously – cheerfully – clearly – closely –


correctly – courageously - cruelly – daringly – deliberately – doubtfully – eagerly – easily – elegantly enormously – enthusiastically – equally – eventually – exactly – faithfully – fast – fatally – fiercely fondly – foolishly – fortunately – frankly – frantically – generously – gently – gladly – gracefully – greedily – happily – hard – hastily – healthily – honestly – hungrily – hurriedly – inadequately – ingeniously – innocently – inquisitively – irritably – joyously – justly – kindly – lazily – loosely – loudly – madly – mortally – mysteriously – neatly – nervously – noisily – obediently – openly – painfully – patiently – perfectly – politely – poorly – powerfully – promptly – punctually – quickly – quietly – rapidly – rarely – really – recklessly – regularly – reluctantly – repeatedly – rightfully roughly – rudely – sadly – safely – selfishly – sensibly – seriously – sharply – shyly – silently – sleepily – slowly – smoothly – softly – solemnly – speedily – stealthily – sternly – straight – stupidly successfully – suddenly – suspiciously – swiftly – tenderly – tensely – thoughtfully – tightly –truthfully – unexpectedly – victoriously – violently – vivaciously – warmly – weakly – wearily – well wildly – wisely Adverbs of degree: Almost – absolutely – awfully – badly – barely – completely – decidedly – deeply – enough – enormously – entirely – extremely – fairly – far – fully – greatly – hardly – highly – how – incredibly indeed – intensely – just – least – less – Little – lots – most – much – nearly – perfectly – positively practically – pretty – purely – quite – rather – really – scarcely – simply – so – somewhat – strongly terribly – thoroughly – too – totally – utterly – very – virtually - well Adverbs of certainty:

actually – admittedly – altogether – certainly – clearly – definitely – evidently – honestly – literally – maybe - of course – obviously – naturally – presumably – probably – reportedly – simply – surely – undoubtedly – virtually Prepositions: Prepositions are words which link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. Prepositions usually describe the position of something, the time when something happens and the way in which something is done, although the prepositions "of," "to," and "for" have some separate functions. Prepositions can also be used to end sentences. In general, we use as preposition of place and time: at POINT

in ENCLOSED SPACE

on SURFACE


at the corner

in the garden

on the wall

at the bus stop

in London

on the ceiling

at the door

in France

on the door

at the top of the page

in a box

on the cover

at the end of the road

in my pocket

on the floor

at the entrance

in my wallet

on the carpet

at the crossroads

in a building

on the menu

at the front desk

in a car

on a page

also… in these standard expressions: at home

in a car

on a bus

at work

in a taxi

on a train

at school

in a helicopter

on a plane

at university

in a boat

on a ship

at college

in a elevator

on a bicycle

at the top

in the newspaper

on a horse

at the bottom

in the sky

on the radio

at the side

in a row

on the reception

Preposition of place: above – across – against – along – among - around – behind – below – beside – between close to – down – from - in front of – inside – into – near - next to – onto – opposite – out – outside – over – round - through – under – up Preposition of time:


after – ago – before – between - by – during – for - from – past – since – till – until - to – up to – within

Connectors: 1. Examples: (making contrasts) Although - In spite – However – Nevertheless - Even though 2. Examples: (adding) Also – Besides - In addition – That – Moreover - On the one hand - Furthermore 3. Examples: (expressing the result or consequence of something) Therefore - For this reason - As a result – Properly – why – Because - What

4. Revision exercise. Much as – Consequently - On account of – So - Even if – Since – Through – But – For - All the same 5. Examples: (ways of expressing an opinion) In my opinión - As far as 6. Examples: (reaching conclusions) Into account – Briefly - After all - All in all - In short 7. Esamples: (organising the sequence of events, facts and so forth) First of all - In the first place – Firstly - In the second place – Then – Next - After that – Finally - To begin with - To end with - To conclude with – 8. Examples: (giving examples) For instance - As a case in point - Such as Others:


by comparison - on the contrary - in any case - all the same – likewise – similarly - in the same way - above all - most significantly – particularization - in fact – actually - talking of – rather – meanwhile – anyway Interjection: In grammar, an interjection or exclamation may be a word used to express an emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker although most interjections have clear definitions. Filled

pauses such as uh, er, um are also considered interjections. Interjections are often placed at the beginning of a sentence. An interjection is sometimes expressed as a single word or non-sentence phrase, followed by a punctuation mark. The isolated usage of an interjection does not represent a complete sentence in conventional English writing. Thus, in formal writing, the interjection will be incorporated into a larger sentence clause. Several English interjections contain sounds, or are sounds as opposed to words, that do not or very rarely exist in regular English phonological inventory. For example: Ahem [əʔəm] - Gah [ɡæh] – Oops - Psst [psː] - Shh [ʃːː] - Tut-tut [tʌt tʌt] - Ugh [ʌx] - phew [ɸɪu] Yeah [jɛ]

10. WH - Question Words We use question words to ask certain types of questions. We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH-. Question Word

Function

Example

asking for information about something

What is your name?

asking for repetition or confirmation

What? I can't hear you. You did what?

what...for

asking for a reason, asking why

What did you do that for?

when

asking about time

When did he leave?

where

asking in or at what place or position

Where do they live?

what


which

asking about choice

Which colour do you want?

who

asking what or which person or people (subject)

Who opened the door?

whom

asking what or which person or people (object)

Whom did you see?

whose

asking about ownership

Whose are these keys? Whose turn is it?

why

asking for reason, asking what...for

Why do you say that?

asking about manner

How does this work?

asking about condition or quality

How was your exam?

how far

distance

How far Bangkok?

how long

length (time or space)

How long will it take?

how many

quantity (countable)

How many cars are there?

how much

quantity (uncountable)

How much money do you have?

how old

age

How old are you?

How come (informal)

asking for reason, asking why

How come I can't see her?

how

is

Pattaya

from


11. Words with almost similar pronounciation, different in meaning and written form, one phoneme only change: Amuse – abuse –

Look - cook – took – book - hook

Fear – bear – wear – tear – near – dear -

Dust – just –

Site – cite – lite -

Nick - sick – pick – tick – dick – lick - chick

Pow – bow – tow - cow – row – sow – now -

Shame – share – shake – shave – shape –

Bill – pill – gill – hill -

Call - mall – ball – wall – hall – tall – fall -

Set – met – pet – net – bet – let -

Sell – cell – gell – bell – well – dell – tell -

Hat – bat – mat – sat – fat – cat

Back – pack – sack – lack –

Gold – sold – cold – fold -

Feet – meet – sheet – heet – beet –

Cool – pool – wool -

Hut – cut – but – nut – gut – put –

Right – might – night – sight – tight – light –

Fun – run – nun – gun – sun -

Take – make – cake – pake – lake – sake -

Wine – mine – shine – line – nine – fine -

May – say – lay – day – way – bay –

Need – seed – speed –

Tan – pan – pan – man – van –

Five – live – give – dive -

Watch – match – catch –

Send – lend – spend – mend –

Seat – beat – neat – heat – feat – meat -

Land – sand –

Some – come –

Sink – pink –

Lit – sit – pit – hit -

Sound – pound –

Lame – same – name –

Mike - like – dike – pike -

Jar – car – far -

Try – fry – cry – dry –

Mea – seal – deal – peal -

12. Tag Ending or Tag Questions Tag questions are something like negative questions. They are used when someone thinks he or she knows an answer and wants confirmation. There are two very commonly used types of tag questions--one made from affirmative ( + ) sentences, the other made from negative ( - ) sentences:

*Three basic rules that you should keep in mind: 1. Tag questions it is used auxiliaries verbs. 2. Affirmative Sentences use one tag question in NEGATIVE. 3. Negative sentences use one tag question in AFFIRMATIVE.


Examples: With verb to Be in affirmative sentences:

It's a beautiful day, isn't it?

Martha is angry, isn't she?

You are really tired, aren't you?

They're very nice people, aren't they?

You are coming tomorrow, aren't you?

Pedro's flying now, isn't he?

Exception cases:

I'm late, aren't I?

I'm arriving late at night, aren't I?

Verb to Be in negative sentences:

I'm not late, am I?

It isn't a beautiful day, is it?

Martha isn't angry, is she?

You aren't really tired, are you?

They aren't very nice people, are they?

You aren't coming tomorrow, are you?

Pedro isn't flying now, is he?

Verb to Be in Past Tense; affirmative and negative sentences:

It was a beautiful day, wasn't it?

Martha was angry, wasn't she?

You were really tired, weren't you?

You were studying at 6, weren't you?

He was flying when I phoned, wasn't he?

It wasn't a beautiful day, was it?

Martha wasn't angry, was she?

You weren't really tired, were you?

You weren't studying at 6, were you?

He wasn't flying when I phoned, was he?


Another auxiliary verbs:

You went to Costa Rica in 1990, didn't you?

Elena has traveled a lot, hasn't she?

Ann will be here soon, won't she?

Tom should pass his exam, shouldn't he?

You can play the violin, can't you?

He could find a job, couldn't he?

Imperative, suggestions or invitations:

Let's go out for a walk, shall we?

Let's study tomorrow morning, shall we?

Open the door, will you?

Don't smoke in this room, will you?

Summary:

He's from Italy, isn't he?

He isn't from Italy, is he?

She's living in London, isn't she?

She isn't living in London, is she?

There were at the party, weren't they?

They weren't at the party, were they?

She speaks Estonian, doesn't she?

She doesn't speak Estonian, does she?

He had a good time, didn't he?

He didn't have a good time, did he?

She's lived here a long time, hasn't she?

She hasn't lived here a long time, has she?

They'd left when you arrived, hadn't they?

They hadn't left when you arrived, had they?

He can help us, can't he?

He can't help us, can he?


13. Use of Passive Voice Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known, however, who or what is performing the action. Example: My bike was stolen. In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know, however, who did it. Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example shows: Example: A mistake was made. In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone (e.g. You have made a mistake.). Form of Passive Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs) Example: A letter was written. When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following: •

the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence

the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)

the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)

Examples of Passive Tense Simple Present

Simple Past

Present Perfect

Future

Modal aux.

Subject

Verb

Object

Rita

writes

a letter.

Passive: A letter

is written

by Rita.

Active:

wrote

a letter.

Passive: A letter

was written

by Rita.

Active:

has written

a letter.

Passive: A letter

has been written

by Rita.

Active:

will write

a letter.

Passive: A letter

will be written

by Rita.

Active:

can write

a letter.

can be written

by Rita.

Verb

Object

is writing

a letter.

Active:

Rita

Rita

Rita

Rita

Passive: A letter

Examples of Passive Tense

Subject

Present Progressive Active: Rita


Past Progressive

Past Perfect

Future II

Conditional I

Conditional II

Passive: A letter

is being written

by Rita.

Active: Rita

was writing

a letter.

Passive: A letter

was being written

by Rita.

Active: Rita

had written

a letter.

Passive: A letter

had been written

by Rita.

Active: Rita

will have written

a letter.

Passive: A letter

will have been written

by Rita.

Active: Rita

would write

a letter.

Passive: A letter

would be written

by Rita.

Active: Rita

would have written

a letter.

Passive: A letter

would have been written

by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on. Subject

Verb

Object 1

Object 2

Active:

Rita

wrote

a letter

to me.

Passive:

A letter

was written

to me

by Rita.

Passive:

I

was written

a letter

by Rita.

Active / Passive Overview Active

Passive

Simple Present

Once a week, Tom cleans the house.

Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.

Present Continuous

Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.

Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.

Simple Past

Sam repaired the car.

The car was repaired by Sam.


Past Continuous

The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.

The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.

Present Perfect

Many tourists have visited that castle.

That castle has been visited by many tourists.

Present Perfect Continuous

Recently, John has been doing the work.

Recently, the work has been being done by John.

Past Perfect

George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.

Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.

Past Perfect Continuous

Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.

The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.

Simple Future will

Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.

The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.

Simple Future be going to

Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.

A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.

Future Continuous will

At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.

At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.

Future Continuous be going to

At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.

At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.

Future Perfect will

They will have completed the project before the deadline.

The project will have been completed before the deadline.

Future Perfect be going to

They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.

The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.

Future Perfect Continuous will

The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.

The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.

Future Perfect Continuous be going to

The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.

The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.

Used to

Jerry used to pay the bills.

The bills used to be paid by Jerry.


Would Always

My mother would always make the pies.

The pies would always be made by my mother.

Future in the Past Would

I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.

I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.

Future in the Past Was Going to

I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.

I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

14. Used to: We use 'used to' for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens.

I used to smoke a packet a day but I stopped two years ago.

Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn't.

I used to drive to work but now I take the bus.

We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.

There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn't.

She used to have really long hair but she's had it all cut off.

I didn't use to like him but now I do.

We use 'to be used to doing' to say that something is normal, not unusual.

I'm used to living on my own. I've done it for quite a long time.

Hans has lived in England for over a year so he is used to driving on the left now.

They've always lived in hot countries so they aren't used to the cold weather here.

We use 'to get used to doing' to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us.

I didn't understand the accent when I first moved here but I quickly got used to it.

She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleeping during the day.

I have always lived in the country but now I'm beginning to get used to living in the city.

15. Conjugation of Important Verbs: In these conjugations you better pay attention these verbs, they have different role as principal verbs or an auxiliary verbs, others do not have third pronoun conjugations and proggressives and perfect tenses. An asterisk tells you that is not common in English.


Be Personal Pronoun

Present

I

Am

You

Past

Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive + was/were

Present Perfect + (have)

Past Perfect + (had)

Was

Will be

Am being*

Was being*

Have been

Had been

Are

Were

Will be

Are being

Were being

Have been

Had been

He

Is

Was

Will be

Is being

Was being

Has been

Had been

She

Is

Was

Will be

Is being

Was being

Has been

Had been

It

Is

Was

Will be

Is being

Was being

Has been

Had been

We

Are

Were

Will be

are being

Were being

Have been

Had been

You

Are

Were

Will be

Are being

Were being

Have been

Had been

They

Are

Were

Will be

Are being

Were being

Have been

Had been

Personal Pronoun

Present

Past

Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive + was/were

Present Perfect + (have)

Past Perfect + (had)

I

Do

Did

Will do

Am doing

Was doing

Have done

Had done

You

Do

Did

Will do

Are doing

Were doing

Have done

Had done

He

Does

Did

Will do

Is doing

Was doing

Has done

Had done

She

Does

Did

Will do

Is doing

Was doing

Has done

Had done

It

Does

Did

Will do

Is doing

Was doing

Has done

Had done

We

Do

Did

Will do

Are doing

Were doing

Have done

Had done

You

Do

Did

Will do

are doing

Were doing

Have done

Had done

They

Do

Did

Will do

Are doing

Were doing

Have done

Had done

Personal Pronoun

Present

Past

Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive + was/were

Present Perfect + (have)

Past Perfect + (had)

I

Can

Could

*

*

*

Been able

*

You

Can

Could

Been able

He

Can *

Could

Been able

Progressive + am, is /are

Do Progressive + am, is /are

Can Progressive + am, is /are


She

Can

Could

Been able

It

Can

Could

Been able

We

Can

Could

Been able

You

Can

Could

Been able

They

Can

Could

Been able

Personal Pronoun

Present

Past

I

Have

You

Have Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive + was/were

Present Perfect + (have)

Past Perfect + (had)

Had

Will have

Am having *

Was having *

Have had

Had had

Have

Had

Will have

Are having

Were having

Have had

Had had

He

Has

Had

Will have

Is having

Was having

Has had

Had had

She

Has

Had

Will have

Is having

Was having

Has had

Had had

It

Has

Had

Will have

Is having

Was having

Has had

Had had

We

Have

Had

Will have

Are having

Were having

Have had

Had had

You

Have

Had

Will have

Are having

Were having

Have had

Had had

They

Have

Had

Will have

Are having

Were having

Have had

Had had

Personal Pronoun

Present

Past

Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive + was/were

Present Perfect + (have)

Past Perfect + (had)

I

Study

Studied

Will study

Am studying

Was studying

Have studied

Had studied

You

Study

Studied

Will study

Are studying

Were studying

Have studied

Had studied

He

Studies

Studied

Will study

Is studying

Was studying

Has studied

Had studied

She

Studies

Studied

Will study

Is studying

Was studying

Has studied

Had studied

It

Studies

Studied

Will study

Is studying

Was studying

Has studied

Had studied

We

Study

Studied

Will study

are studying

Were studying

Has studied

Had studied

You

Study

Studied

Will study

Are studying

Were studying

Has studied

Had studied

They

Study

Studied

Will study

Are studying

Were studying

Has studied

Had studied

Present

Past

Future + (will)

Present

Past Progressive +

Present Perfect +

Past Perfect + (had)

Progressive + am, is /are

Study Progressive + am, is /are

Write Personal Pronoun


Progressive + am, is /are

was/were

(have)

I

Write

Wrote

Will write

Am witing

Was writing

Have written

Had written

You

Write

Wrote

Will write

Are writing

Were writing

Have written

Had written

He

Writes

Wrote

Will write

Is writing

Was writing

Has written

Had written

She

Writes

Wrote

Will write

Is writing

Was writing

Has written

Had written

It

Writes

Wrote

Will write

Is writing

Was writing

Has written

Had written

We

Write

Wrote

Will write

Are writing

Were writing

Have written

Had written

You

Write

Wrote

Will write

Are writing

Were writing

Have written

Had written

They

Write

Wrote

Will write

Are writing

Were writing

Have written

Had written

16. Places, Buildings and Monuments Places:

Building:

Monument:

School

Empire State

Capitol

University

ONU Building

Brige Tower

Hospital

House

Eifiel Tower

Bank

Apartment

Pissa Tower

Book store

Condonminium

Pharmacy

Bungalow

Church

Castle

City Hall

Masion

Restaurant

Chack

Cafeteria

Hut

Store

Cathedral

Justice Hall Park Discotec Mall Supermark Car Wash Convention Center


Gas Station Stadium Police Station Library Theater Museum Gymnasium Art Gallery Court House Bakery Emabassy Fire Station Factory Post Office Bus Station Taxi Station Air Port Floristry

Vowels IPA

Examples

ʌ

cup, luck

ɑ:

arm, father

æ

cat, black

e

met, bed

ə

away, cinema

ɜ:ʳ

turn, learn

ɪ

hit, sitting

i:

see, heat

ɒ

hot, rock


ɔ:

call, four

ʊ

put, could

u:

blue, food

five, eye

now, out

say, eight

go, home

ɔɪ

boy, join

eəʳ

where, air

ɪəʳ

near, here

ʊəʳ

pure, tourist

Consonants IPA

Examples

b

bad, lab

d

did, lady

f

find, if

g

give, flag

h

how, hello

j

yes, yellow

k

cat, back

l

leg, little

m

man, lemon

n

no, ten

ŋ

sing, finger

p

pet, map

r

red, try

s

sun, miss

ʃ

she, crash

t

tea, getting


check, church

θ

think, both

ð

this, mother

v

voice, five

w

wet, window

z

zoo, lazy

ʒ

pleasure, vision

just, large

17. The Verb To Be Probably the best known verb: "To be" Forms of To Be Present

Past

Perfect Form

Continuous Form

I

am

was

have / had been

am / was being

he / she / it

is

was

has / had been

is / was being

you / we / they

are

were

have / had been

are / were being

Normally we use the verb to be to show the status or characteristics of something or someone. It says what I am, what you are or what something is. Present Simple I am a You are a He /She is It is a car. teacher. student. a student.

We are all teachers.

They are students.

Past Simple I was a You were He /She was a student. a student. student.

It was a nice day yesterday. We were all students once. They were students.

Future Simple I will be You will He / She a be a will be a student. teacher. teacher.

It will be nice later.

We will be teachers.

They will be students.


When used with the present participle of other verbs it describes actions that are or were still continuing auxiliary verb be [+ ing form of the main verb]. Present Continuous I am You are being being He /She is being silly. It is being silly. silly. silly.

We are being silly.

They are being silly.

We were being silly.

They were being silly.

Past Continuous You I was were being being silly. silly.

He /She was being It was being silly. silly.

18. Do and Does as an Auxiliary and and as a Main Verb The verb do can be an auxiliary verb and a main verb in English. Simple Present (do, does, don't, doesn't) Pronouns

Affirmative sentences

Negative senteces

Questions

I

I do my homework.

I do not do my homework.*

Do I do my homework?*

you

You do your homework. You do not do your homework.* Do you do your homework?*

he, she, it

He does his homework.

He does not do his homework.* Does he do his homework?

we, you, they They do their homework. They do not do their homework.* Do they do their homework?

Simple Past (did, didn't)

Pronoun

Affirmative Sentence

Negative Sentence

Question

did a special activity.

did not a special activity.

Did _____ a special activity?

I You He She It We You


They

*Past participle (done) Pronouns

Affirmative sentences

Negative senteces

Questions

I, you, we, you, they We have done the shopping. We have not done the shopping. Have we done the shopping? he, she, it

He has done the shopping. He has not done the shopping. Has he done the shopping?

Present Progressive, Gerund, present participle) – (doing) affirmative

negative

I am doing my homework.

I am not doing my homework.

Doing my homework is not always fun. Not doing my homework is not clever. I saw Jane doing her homework.

I didn't see Jane doing her homework

19. Wh – Question For asking information

Question What When Who Where Why How Example:

Answer Thing Time Person Place Reason Directions/Feelings

Example What is that? When is the game? Who do you live with? Where do you live? Why are you happy? How are you?


20. The Direct / Indirect Object

Direct Object A direct object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. It answers the question "What?" or "Whom?" after an action verb. An action verb with a direct object is called a transitive verb. The direct objects on this page are italicized. Notice each question being answered: "Receives what?" "The action"; "Shows what?" "The question"; etc. Recognize a direct object when you see one. Direct objects are nouns, pronouns, phrases, and clauses that follow transitive verbs [a type of action verb]. If you can identify the subject and verb in a sentence, then finding the direct object--if one exists--is easy. Just remember this simple formula: Subject + verb + what? [sometimes who?] = the direct object Examples:

Zippy accidentally kicked Maurice in the shin.

 Zippy = subject | kicked = verb | Zippy kicked who? Maurice = direct object Sometimes direct objects are single words like soccer and Maurice; other times they are phrases or clauses. The formula nevertheless works the same.

Even worse, Sylina hates when Mom lectures her about hand care.

Sylina = subject | hates = verb | Sylina hates what? When Mom lectures her about hand care [subordinate clause] = direct object Direct objects can also follow verbals--infinitives, gerunds, and participles. Use this abbreviated version of the formula: Verbal + what? (sometimes who?) = direct object Examples:

To see magnified blood cells, Gus squinted into the microscope on the lab table.

To see = infinitive | To see what? Blood cells = direct object Dragging her seventy-five pound German shepherd through the door is Roseanne's least favorite part of going to the vet. Dragging = gerund | Dragging what? Her seventy-five pound German shepherd = direct object Don't confuse direct objects and subject complements.


Only action verbs can have direct objects. If the verb is linking, then the word that answers the what? or who? Question is a subject complement. The space alien from the planet Zortek accidentally locked his keys in his space ship. Alien = subject | locked = action verb | The space alien locked what? His keys = direct object. The space alien was happy to find a spare key taped under the wing. Alien = subject | was = linking verb | The space alien was what? Happy = subject complement. Example:

•

After giving my dog Oreo a scoop of peanut butter, she always kisses me with her sticky tongue.

She = subject | kisses = verb | She kisses who? Me = direct object Because Jo had cut Mr. Duncan's class five times in a row, she ducked out of sight whenever she spotted him on campus. She = subject | spotted = verb | She spotted who? Him = direct object Inside the Predicate Now we will look inside the Predicate, and assign functions to its constituents. Recall that the Predicate is everything apart from the Subject. So in David plays the piano, the Predicate is plays the piano. This Predicate consists of a verb phrase, and we can divide this into two further elements: [plays] [the piano] In formal terms, we refer to the verb as the PREDICATOR, because its function is to predicate or state something about the subject. Notice that Predicator is a functional term, while verb is a formal term: FORM

FUNCTION

Verb

Predicator

Indirect Object An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer. An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase. Example:

•

She gave me the report.

The indirect object is often used right before a direct object and does not follow a preposition, as illustrated in the phrases above. If a preposition is used, then the word becomes the object of that preposition, as in the following, where to and for are prepositions and man and yourself are their objects:


We will make an offer to the man. Get a job for yourself.

Example:

Suellen gave Thomas the answers to the test.

You will recall, that in our discussion of direct objects, the way to find them is to state the action verb in a question ending with "What". In the sentence above we have an action verb, "gave", and an answer to the question "Gave what?", "answers". Therefore we have the direct object, "answers". Is there anything in the sentence that received the direct object? You bet, Thomas! "Thomas" is the Indirect Object. Examples: An indirect object is really a prepositional phrase in which the preposition to or for is not stated but understood. It tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object. Example: She gave me a gift. The indirect object always modifies the verb. It may have modifiers and be compound. It is used with verbs such as give, tell, send, get, buy, show, build, do, make, save, and read. Example: She sent the man and me a gift.

 Find the verb, direct object, and indirect object in the following sentences. 1. Has your boss sent you a notice about the next convention? 2. John read his tiny nephew an exciting story. 3. Our father built the family a redwood picnic table. 4. The doctor sent me a bill for his services. 5. We gave my mother a book for her birthday.

21. The Punctuation Marks in English The Comma (,)


The comma is useful in a sentence when the writer wishes to: pause before proceeding add a phrase that does not contain any new subject separate items on a list use more than one adjective (a describing word, like beautiful) For example, in the following sentence the phrase or clause between the commas gives us more information behind the actions of the boy, the subject of the sentence:

 The boy, who knew that his mother was about to arrive, ran quickly towards the

opening door.

Note that if the phrase or clause were to be removed, the sentence would still make sense although there would be a loss of information. Alternatively, two sentences could be used:

 The boy ran quickly towards the opening door. He knew that his mother was about

to arrive.

Commas are also used to separate items in a list. For example:

 The shopping trolley was loaded high with bottles of beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet

rolls, cereals and cartons of milk.

Note that in a list, the final two items are linked by the word ‘and’ rather than by a comma. Commas are used to separate adjectives. For example:

 The boy was happy, eager and full of anticipation at the start of his summer holiday.

As commas represent a pause, it is good practice to read your writing out loud and listen to where you make natural pauses as you read it. More often than not, you will indicate where a comma should be placed by a natural pause. Although, the ‘rules’ of where a comma needs to be placed should also be followed. For example:

 However, it has been suggested that some bees prefer tree pollen.


The Period (.) A full stop should always be used to end a sentence. The full stop indicates that a point has been made and that you are about to move on to further explanations or a related point. Less frequently, a series of three full stops (an ellipsis) can be used to indicate where a section of a quotation has been omitted when it is not relevant to the text, for example: “The boy was happy… at the start of his summer holiday.” A single full stop may also be used to indicate the abbreviation of commonly used words as in the following examples:  Telephone Number = Tel. No.  September = Sept.  Pages = pp.

Exclamation Mark (!) An exclamation mark indicates strong feeling within a sentence, such as fear, anger or love. It is also used to accentuate feeling within the written spoken word. For example:  “Help! I love you!”

In this way, it can also be used to indicate a sharp instruction

 “Stop! Police!”

or to indicate humour

 “Ha! Ha! Ha!”

The exclamation mark at the end of a sentence means that you do not need a full stop or period. Exclamation marks are a poor way of emphasising what you think are important points in your written assignments; the importance of the point will emphasise itself without a sequence of !!! in the text. An exclamation mark should only be used when absolutely essential, or when taken from a direct quote. The exclamation mark should be used sparingly in formal and semi-formal writing.

Question Mark (?) The question mark simply indicates that a sentence is asking a question. It always comes at the end of a sentence: For example:

 Are we at the end?

Note that the question mark also serves as a full stop.


Semi-colon (;) The semi-colon is perhaps the most difficult sign of punctuation to use accurately. If in doubt, avoid using it and convert the added material into a new sentence. As a general rule, the semi-colon is used in the following ways: When joining two connected sentences. For example:

 We set out at dawn; the weather looked promising.or

Assertive behaviour concerns being able to express feelings, wants and desires appropriately; passive behaviour means complying with the wishes of others. The semicolon can also be used to assemble detailed lists. For example: The conference was attended by delegates from Paris, France; Paris, Texas; London, UK; Stockholm, Sweden; Colombo, Sri Lanka; and Mumbai, India.

Colon (:) The colon within a sentence makes a very pointed pause between two phrases. There are two main uses of the colon:

 It is most commonly used when listing.

For example:

 She placed the following items into the trolley: beer, fruit, vegetables, toilet rolls,

cereals and cartons of milk.

Or it can be used within a heading, or descriptive title.

For example:

 Human Resource Management: Guidelines for Telephone Advisers

Apostrophe (’) The apostrophe, sometimes called an inverted comma has two main uses. The apostrophe indicates possession or ownership. For example:  The girl's hat was green, (girl is in the singular).


This shows the reader that the hat belongs to the girl. The girls' hats were green, (girls in this instance are plural, i.e. more than one girl, more than one hat). This indicates that the hats belong to the girls. Another use of the apostrophe is to indicate where a letter is omitted: For example:

 We're going to do this course. (We are going to do this course.)

Isn’t this a fine example of punctuation? (Is not this a fine example of punctuation?) The time is now 7 o’ clock. (The time is now 7 of the clock)

Note that a common mistake is to confuse its with it’s. It’s indicates to the reader that a letter has been omitted. For example:

 It’s a lovely day is an abbreviated way of saying: It is a lovely day.

Note that in most formal writing, the practice of using abbreviated words is inappropriate.

Quotation or Speech Marks (“….”) Quotation or speech marks are used to: to mark out speech when quoting someone else's speech. For example:  My grandpa said, "Share your chocolates with your friends."

 "George, don't do that!"

 "Will you get your books out please?” said Mrs Jones, the teacher, “and quieten

down!"

It is worth noting that to report an event back does not require speech or quotation marks. For example:  Mrs Jones told the pupils to take out their books and to quieten down.


Hyphen (-) The hyphen is used to link words together. For example:  sub-part  eighteenth-century people  week-end  second-class post  gender-neutral  non-verbal

The hyphen is also used when a word is split between two lines. The hyphen should be placed between syllables at the end of the upper line and indicates to the reader that the word will be completed on the next line. Computer applications such as Word Processors can be set to automatically hyphenate words for you, although it is more common to use extra spacing to avoid hyphenation.

Brackets ( ) Brackets always come in pairs ( ) and are used to make an aside, or a point which is not part of the main flow of a sentence. If you remove the words between the brackets, the sentence should still make sense. For example:  “The strategy (or strategies) chosen to meet the objectives may need to change as

the intervention continues.” Another example is as follows:  “We can define class as a large-scale grouping of people who share common

economic resources that strongly influence the types of lifestyle they are able to lead. Ownership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences. The major classes that exist in Western societies are an upper class (the wealthy, employers and industrialists, plus tops executives – those who own or directly control productive resources); a middle class (which includes most whitecollar workers and professionals); and a working class (those in blue-collar or manual jobs).”

Square Brackets […] A different set of square brackets [ ] can be used: to abbreviate lengthy quotations, to correct the tense of a quotation to suit the tense of your own sentence, to add your own


words to sections of an abbreviated quotation, to abbreviate lengthy quotations in an essay or report

 “We can define class as a large-scale grouping of people who share common

economic resources that strongly influence the types of lifestyle they are able to lead. Ownership of wealth, together with occupation, are the chief basis of class differences. The major classes that exist in Western societies are an upper class […]; a middle class […] and a working class […].”

To adjust a quotation to suit your own sentence. For example, if you were writing about class structure, you might use the following:

 According to Giddens, (1997, p.243) the “[o]wnership of wealth, together with

occupation, are the chief basis of class differences”.

Note, that when using square brackets, only the occasional letter as in the above example or the occasional word (for example when changing the tense of the sentence) would be placed in square brackets in this way.

Slash (/) Many people use the slash instead of or, and etc., but this is not always helpful to the reader. There is, however, a modern convention in gender-neutral writing to use ‘s/he’. Slashes are important symbols in web-addresses. 22. Transition Words Transitions are phrases or words used to connect one idea to the next, transitions are used by the author to help the reader progress from one significant idea to the next, transitions also show the relationship within a paragraph (or within a sentence) between the main idea and the support the author gives for those ideas, different transitions do different things.

Transitions may be "Additive," "Adversative," "Causal," or "Sequential."

Additive Transitions

Addition

Reference

Identification

Introduction

Similarity

Clarification


Adversative Transitions

Replacement

Consequence

Continuation Conclusion

Conflict

Causal Transitions

Emphasis

Digression

Cause/Reason

Concession

Causual Transitions

Effect/Result

Dismissal

Resumption Summation

Numerical

Purpose

Additive Transitions: These show addition, introduction, similarity to other ideas, &c. Addition: indeed,

further,

as well (as this),

either (neither),

not only (this) but also (that) as well,

also,

moreover,

what is more,

as a matter of fact,

in all honesty,

and,

furthermore,

in addition (to this),

besides (this),

to tell the truth,

or,

in fact,

actually,

to say nothing of,

too,

let alone,

much less

additionally,

nor,

alternatively,

on the other hand,

not to mention (this),

Introduction: such as,

as,

particularly,

including,

as an illustration,

for example,

like,

in particular,

for one thing,

to illustrate

for instance,

especially,

notably,

by way of example,

Reference: speaking about (this),

considering (this),

regarding (this),

with regards to (this),

as for (this),

concerning (this),

the fact that

on the subject of (this)

Similarity: similarly,

in the same way,

equally

likewise,

by the same token,

in a like manner,


Identification: that is (to say),

namely,

specifically,

I mean,

(to) put (it)

thus,

Clarification: that is (to say),

another way

in other words,

Adversative Transitions: These transitions are used to signal conflict, contradiction concession, dismissal, &c. Conflict: but,

by way of contrast,

while,

on the other hand,

however,

(and) yet,

whereas,

though (final position),

in contrast,

when in fact,

conversely,

still

above all,

indeed,

more importantly,

besides

but even so,

nevertheless,

even though,

on the other hand,

admittedly,

however,

nonetheless,

despite (this),

notwithstanding (this),

albeit

(and) still,

although,

in spite of (this),

(and) yet,

though, granted (this),

be that as it may,

either way,

whichever happens,

in either event,

in any case,

in either case,

whatever happens,

all the same,

in any event,

(or) rather,

instead

Emphasis: even more,

Concession:

regardless (of this),

Dismissal:

Replacement: (or) at least,

Causal Transitions: These transitions signal cause/effect and reason/result, etc. . . Cause/Reason:

at any rate,


for the (simple) reason that,

being that,

for,

in view of (the fact),

because (of the fact),

seeing that,

as,

owing to (the fact),

due to (the fact that),

in that

since,

forasmuch as,

on (the) condition (that),

granted (that),

if,

provided that,

in the event that,

as/so long as,

unless

given that,

granting (that),

providing that,

even if, only if,

inasmuch as,

Condition: in case,

Effect/Result: as a result (of this),

consequently,

hence,

for this reason,

because (of this),

in consequence,

so that, accordingly

as a consequence,

so much (so) that,

so,

for the purpose of,

in the hope that,

for fear that,

so that,

with this intention,

to the end that,

in order to,

lest

with this in mind,

in order that,

so as to, so,

thus,

therefore,

Purpose:

Consequence: under those circumstances,

then,

in that case,

that being the case,

if so,

otherwise

if not,

Sequential Transitions: These transitions are used to signal a chronological or logical sequence. Numerical: in the (first, second, etc.) place,

initially,

to start with,

to begin with,

at first, for a start,

first of all secondly,

Continuation: subsequently,

previously,

eventually,

next,

before (this),

afterwards,

after (this),

then

thirdly, &c.)


Conclusion: to conclude (with)

as a final point,

eventually,

at last,

last but not least,

in the end,

finally,

lastly,

incidentally,

by the way,

Digression: to change the topic

Resumption: to get back to the point,

to resume

anyhow,

anyway,

at any rate,

as was previously stated,

so,

consequently,

in summary,

all in all,

to make a long story short,

thus,

as I have said,

to sum up,

overall,

as has been mentioned,

then,

to summarize,

to be brief,

briefly,

given these points,

in all,

on the whole,

therefore,

as has been noted,

hence,

in conclusion,

in a word,

to put it briefly,

in sum,

altogether,

in short,

to return to the subject,

Summation:

23. Tips of Listening Skills The Technique. Active listening is really an extension of the rules or tips. To know how to listen to someone else or a speaker, think about how you would want to be listened to.

While the ideas are largely intuitive, it might take some practice to develop some skills like listening. Here’s what good listeners know.

1. Face the speaker; Sit up straight or lean forward slightly to show your attentiveness through body language.

2. Maintain eye contact; to the degree that you all remain comfortable.

3. Minimize external distractions; Turn off the TV. Put down your book or magazine, and ask the speaker and other listeners to do the same.


4. Respond appropriately to show that you understand; Murmur or raise your eyebrows. Say words such as “Really,” “Interesting,” as well as more direct prompts: “What did you do then?” and “What did they say?”

5. Focus solely on what the speaker is saying; Try not to think about what you are going to say next. The conversation will follow a logical flow after the speaker makes her point. 6. Minimize internal distractions; If your own thoughts keep horning in, simply let them go and continuously re-focus your attention on the speaker, much as you would during meditation.

7. Keep an open mind; Wait until the speaker is finished before deciding that you disagree. Try not to make assumptions about what the speaker is thinking.

8. Avoid letting the speaker know how you handled a similar situation; Unless they specifically ask for advice, assume they just need to talk it out.

9. Even if the speaker is launching a complaint against you; wait until they finish to defend yourself. The speaker will feel as though their point had been made. They won’t feel the need to repeat it, and you’ll know the whole argument before you respond. Research shows that, on average, we can hear four times faster than we can talk, so we have the ability to sort ideas as they come in…and be ready for more.

10. Engage yourself; Ask questions for clarification, but, once again, wait until the speaker has finished. That way, you won’t interrupt their train of thought. After you ask questions, paraphrase their point to make sure you didn’t misunderstand. Start with: “So you’re saying…”

Tips of Speaking Skills There are so many exciting ways to learn English and make the learning process fun. Tips of things you can do to improve your speaking skills: 1. Speak and practice every single time; Be confident and speak as often as possible to as many people as you possibly can! Do not be shy to make mistakes! The more you practice the better and more confident you will become in your pronunciation and vocabulary. 2. Read many book you have on your hands; When you are unsure of a word or a pronunciation of a word, ask google! It's easy to use! Enter the word in Google Translate and listen to the correct pronunciation by clicking on the audio button. 3. Listen yourself when you speak; Listen to news bulletins and songs in English to listen to the pronunciation of words. You can also learn new words and expressions this way. The more you listen, the more you learn! 4. Read Out Loud; Read the newspaper or a magazine out to yourself. Hearing yourself read will help you spot your mistakes better. 5. Learn a new word everyday; Choose a word you would like to work on and use practice it in different sentences. Use the word until you have learnt it and keep using it regularly.


6. Watch Films with or without written interprertation; Watch movies in English and pay attention to new vocabulary and pronunciation. Imitate the actors and have fun with it. 7. Attend to conversation clubs; Make friends with English speakers or others learning to speak English and compare notes. Talk about things that you have learnt and exchange ideas. 8. Do Interesting activities in English; Take a cooking course in English or join a book club! Anything you enjoy doing, make sure you do it and communicate it in English. 9. Have a f贸rum and debates; Debate all the topics that interest you with friends in English. Try to use as much vocabulary as you can to get your point across. 10. Use any simple technique to talk; The dictionary has millions of words to choose from! Look up different words and their synonyms and alternate how and when you use them in sentences.

Tips to Improve Your Reading Skills In the modern age of information, reading truly is a fundamental survival skill. Here are ten tips you better use to improve their reading skills: 1. You don't have to be a great reader to get the point; Some people read fast and remember everything. Others read slowly and take a couple of times to get all the information. It doesn't matter, really, so long as when you read, you get the information you're seeking. 2. Know What and Why you are Reading; Are you reading for entertainment or to learn something? Decide why you're reading before you start and you'll greatly improve your comprehension and your enjoyment. 3. You don't need to read everything; Not every magazine, letter, and email you receive contains information you need. In fact, most of it is simply junk. Throw it away, hit the delete key! Just doing this will double the amount of time you have available to read. 4. You don't need to read all of what you DO read; Do you read every article of every magazine, every chapter of every book? If so, you're probably spending a lot of time reading stuff you don't need. Be choosy: select the chapters and articles that are important. Ignore the rest. 5. Scan before you read; Look at the table of contents, index, topic headers, photo captions, etc. These will help you determine if, a) you have a real interest in this reading, and b) what information you're likely to get from it. 6. Prioritize your Reading; You can't read everything all at once (and wouldn't want to). If it's important, read it now. If it's not, let it wait. 7. Optimize your reading environment; You'll read faster and comprehend more if you read in an environment that's comfortable for you. 8. Once you start, don't stop; Read each item straight through. If you finish and have questions, go back and re-read the pertinent sections. If you don't have questions, you got what you needed and are ready to move on. 9. Focus; Remember, you're reading with a purpose, so focus on that purpose and the material. If you lose interest or keep losing your place, take a break or read something else. You can keep track of where you are by following along with your hand. This simple technique helps you focus and increase your concentration. 10. Practice; The more you read, the better reader you'll become (and smarter, too)! So, feed your mind: read!

Tips of Writing Skills Whether we're composing a blog or a business letter, an email or an essay, our goal should be to respond clearly and directly to the needs and interests of our readers. These 10 tips should help us sharpen our writing whenever we set out to inform or persuade. 1. Lead with your main idea. As a general rule, state the main idea of a paragraph in the first sentence-the topic sentence. Don't keep your readers guessing.

2. Vary the length of your sentences. In general, use short sentences to emphasize ideas. Use longer sentences to explain, define, or illustrate ideas.


3. Put key words and ideas at the beginning or end of a sentence. Don't bury a main point in the middle of a long sentence. To emphasize key words, place them at the beginning or (better yet) at the end.

4. Vary sentence types and structures. Vary sentence types by including occasional questions and commands. Vary sentence structures by blending simple, compound, and complex sentences.

5. Use active verbs. Don't overwork the passive voice or forms of the verb "to be." Instead, use dynamic verbs in the active voice.

6. Use specific nouns and verbs. To convey your message clearly and keep your readers engaged, use concrete and specific words that show what you mean.

7. Cut the clutter. When revising your work, eliminate unnecessary words. 8. Read aloud when you revise. When revising, you may hear problems (of tone, emphasis, word choice, and syntax) that you can't see. So listen up!

9. Actively edit and proofread. It's easy to overlook errors when merely looking over your work. So be on the lookout for common trouble spots when studying your final draft. 10. Use a dictionary. When proofreading, don't trust your spellchecker: it can tell you only if a word is a word, not if it's the right word.

24. Words with Prefixes Dis

im

in

mis

pre

disagree

impatient

inactive

misbehave

prearrange

disappear

imperfect

incomplete

mislay

precook

disarm

impolite

incorrect

mislead

prepaid

disconnect

impossible

indefinite

misplace

preschool

dishonest

impure

mispronounce

pretest

dislike

misread

preview

disloyal

misspell

dismount

mistreat

disobey

misuse

disorder disown distrust

re reappear

un remove

unable

unheated


rearm

rename

unafraid

unkind

rearrange

renumber

unbroken

unknown

recount

repack

uncertain

unlike

redo

repaint

uncommon

unlock

reenter

repay

uncooked

unlucky

refill

replace

uncover

unpainted

refresh

replay

undecided

unreal

refried

reread

undress

unselfish

regrew

rerun

unequal

untangle

regroup

resale

uneven

untied

reheat

reshape

unexpected

unusual

rehire

retell

unfair

unwrapped

reload

rethink

unfamiliar

remade

retrace

unfasten

remake

reword

unhappy

remarry

rewrite

unhealthy

Words with Suffix able

exchangeable

trainable

fatten

sharpen

admirable

imaginable

understandable

flatten

shorten

agreeable

laughable

usable

freshen

strengthen

approachable

likable

washable

gladden

sweeten

avoidable

manageable

golden

thicken

believable

moveable

wearable

harden

toughen

breakable

noticeable

workable

lengthen

whiten

comfortable

observable

en

lighten

widen

curable

pleasurable

blacken

loosen

desirable

readable

brighten

moisten

wooden

enjoyable

respectable

cheapen

quicken

er

excitable

salable

dampen

ripen

bomber

excusable

teachable

darken

sadden

catcher


commander

performer

ful

restful

forcible

dancer

pitcher

armful

successful

reversible

defender

pointer

careful

thankful

designer

rancher

cheerful

useful

dodger

robber

colorful

wasteful

driver

ruler

delightful

wonderful

dryer

scraper

fearful

youthful

explorer

settler

forgetful

follower

sharpener

helpful

ible

hopeful

collapsible

gambler golfer

shopper

joyful

collectible

invader

speaker

painful

convertible

juggler

stinger

peaceful

defensible

leader

teacher

playful

digestible

manager

trapper

respectful

expressible

painter

washer

25. Words with Different Roles

Adjective

Adverb

Noun

Verb

Accurate

accurately

accurateness

_____

agreeable

agreeably

agreement

agree

amazing, amazed

amazingly

amazement

amaze

annoying, annoyed

annoyingly

annoyance

annoy

artistic

artistically

art

______

associate

_______

association

associate

attractive

attractively

attractiveness

attract

behaved

_______

behaviour

behave

believable

believably

belief

believe

beneficial

beneficially

beneficiary

benefit

bold

boldly

boldness

______


casual

casually

casualness

______

clear

clearly

clear

______

comfortable

comfortably

comfort

comfort

convenient

conveniently

convenience

_______

commercial

commercially

commerce

_______

creative

creatively

creation

create

critical

critically

criticism

criticize

dated

dateless

datedness

date

decided

decidedly

decision

decide

decisive

decisively

decisiveness

______

deliberate

deliberately

_______

______

different

differently

_______

______

discuss

______

discussion disputable

disputably

dispute

dispute

distracted

distractedly

distraction

distract

ethical

ethically

ethic

______

exact

exactly

exactness

exact

extraordinary

extraordinarily

_______

______

fashionable

fashionably

fashion

fashion

fascinated, fascinating ________

fascination

fascinate

forgivable

________

forgiveness

forgive

fortunate

fortunately

fortune

______

friendly

friendlily

friendliness

______

happy

happily

happiness

______

harmonious

harmoniously

harmony

harmonize

hidden

________

_______

hide

heightened

height

heighten

______

honest

honestly

honesty

______

honourable

honourably

honour

honour


imaginable, imaginary imaginably

imagination

imagine

important

importantly

importance

_______

improvable

________

improvement

improve

inspirational

inspirationally

inspiration

inspire

intrigued / intriguing

intriguingly

intrigue

intrigue

intelligent

intelligently

intelligence

______

inventive

inventively

invention

invent

irritable

irritably

irritant / irritation

irritate

justified

justifiable

justification

justify

legal

legally

legality

legalize

legible

legibly

legibility

_______

legitimate

legitimately

legitimacy

legitimize

liberal

liberally

liberal

liberalize

likely

likely

likelihood

like

logical

logically

logic

_______

lucky

luckily

luck

_______

mature

maturely

maturity

mature

moral

morally

morality

moralize

mortal

mortally

mortality

_______

noticeable

noticeably

notice

notice

offensive

offensively

offensiveness

offend

ordinary

ordinarily

_______

_______

patient

patiently

patience

_______

perfect

perfect

perfection

perfect

________

_________

performance

perform

polite

politely

politeness

_______

possible

possibly

possibility

_______

powerful

powerfully

power

power

preventable

_________

prevention

prevent


probable

probably

probability

_______

professional

professionally

professionalism

_______

protective

protectively

protection

protect

rational

rationally

rationale /rationality

rationalize

recommended / recommending

recommendation

recommend

regular

regularly

regularity

_______

relevant

relevantly

relevance

_______

reliable

reliability

reliability

_______

religious

religiously

religiousness

_______

replaceable

________

replacement

replace

representative

________

representative

represent

respectful

respectable

respectability

respect

responsable

responsibly

responsibility

_______

reversible

reversibility

reverse

reverse

romantic

romantically

romantic

romanticize

satisfactory

satisfactorily

satisfaction

satisfy

significant

significantly

significance

signify

soluble

________

solubility

solution

speedy

speedily

speed

speed

successful

successfully

success

succeed

symbolic

symbolically

symbol

symbolize

talkative

________

talk / talkativeness

talk

tasteful

tastefully

tastefulness

taste

taught / teaching

________

teacher

teach

thrilled / thrilling

________

thrill

thrill

valid

________

validity

validate

26. A Little / A Few The expressions a little and a few mean some. If a noun is in singular, we use a little


Example: a little money

If a noun is in plural, we use a few Example:

a few friends

27. Countable / Uncountable Nouns

In connection with a little / a few people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take a few.

Example:

4 friends – a few friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take a little.

Example:

3 money – a little money

Note: Of course you can count money – but then you would name the currency and say that you have got 3 euro (but not „3 money“). A Little / A few or Little / Few

It's a difference if you use a little / a few or little / few. Without the article, the words have a limiting or negative meaning. a little = some little = hardly any

Example:

I need a little money. - I need some money. I need little money. - I need hardly any money. a few = some

Example:

few = hardly any

A few friends visited me. - Some friends visited me. Few friends visited me. - Hardly any friends visited me.


Without the article, little / few sound rather formal. That's why we don't use them very often in everyday English. A negative sentence with much / many is more common here.

Example:

I need little money. = I do not need much money. Few friends visited me. = Not many friends visited me.

28. Much / many

The words much and many mean a lot of. If a noun is in singular, we use much

Example:

much money

If a noun is in plural, we use many Example:

many friends Use of much / many

In everyday English, we normally use much / many only in questions and negative clauses.

Example:

How much money have you got? Carla does not have many friends.

In positive clauses with so, as or too, we also use much / many. Example:

Carla has so many friends. She has as many friends as Sue. Kevin has too much money.

In all other positive clauses, however, we prefer expressions like a lot of / lots of. Example:

Carla has a lot of / lots of friends.


Kevin has a lot of / lots of money.

In formal texts, however, much / many are also common in positive clauses. This you will notice for example when you read English news. Countable / Uncountable Nouns In connection with much / many people often speak of countable nouns and uncountable nouns. Countable nouns have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take many.

Example:

100 friends – many friends

Uncountable nouns can only be used in singular. These nouns cannot be used with a number (that's why they are called 'uncountable nouns'). Uncountable nouns take much.

Example:

100 money – much money

29. Some & Any

The words some and any are used for countable and uncountable nouns. In general, we could say that some means a few / a little and any means none in negative clauses or a few / a little in questions. Positive Clauses In positive clauses, we usually use some.

Example:

I have bought some bread. I have bought some apples.

Negative Clauses

In negative clauses, we use any. Note, however, that any alone is not a negative - it must be not ... any


Example:

I have not bought any bread. I have not bought any apples.

Questions In questions, we usually use any.

Example:

Have you bought any bread? Have you bought any apples?

30. Compound Words with some & any Some & any can also be part of compound words such as:

Something / anything Someone / anyone Somewhere / anywhere

Note that some & any have to be used with a noun while compound words with some & any can stand on their own.

Example:

I have bought some bread. I have bought something.

However, some and any need not stand directly before the noun. Sometimes, the noun appears somewhere before some or any and is not repeated. So if you are not sure whether to use some or something for example, check if there is a noun in the sentence that you can place after some.

Example:

I do not have to buy bread. Rachel has already bought some [bread].

Exceptions Positive Clauses with Any


We usually use some in positive clauses. But after never, without, hardly, we use any.

Example:

We never go anywhere. She did her homework without any help. There’s hardly anyone here.

Also in if clauses, we usually use any. Example:

If there is anything to do, just call me.

Questions with Some We usually use any in questions. But if we expect or want the other to answer ‚yes‘, we use some.

Example:

Have you got any brothers and sisters?

Some people have brothers or sisters, others don't –

We cannot expect the answer to be ‚yes‘- Would you like some biscuits?

We offer something and want to encourage the other to say “yes”

One Verb for each letter of the Alphabet H

---

Happen

A

----

Apply

I

---

Iron

B

---

Begin

J

---

Jump

C

---

Clean

K

---

Kneel

D

---

Drink

L

---

Learn

E

---

Enjoy

M

---

Mean

F

---

Feel

G

---

Gain

N

---

Need


O

---

Observe

U

---

Unite

P

---

Perform

V

---

Visit

Q

---

Qualify

W

---

Write

R

---

Read

X

---

Xerox

S

---

Save

Y

---

Yearn

T

---

Treat

Z

---

Zoom

31. Quoted Speech and Reported Speech 1. Quoted speech has quotation marks; reported speech does not use quotation marks. 2. In reported speech, the pronoun often changes. For example, in the above sentence with quoted speech the pronoun I is used, whereas the sentence with reported speech uses the pronoun he. 3. In reported speech, the word that is often used after said, but that is optional. 4. Quoted speech is exactly what the person said. 5. The verb in reported speech is changed to the past; some modal verbs do not change. There are rules to follow when changing the verb. Please see the chart below.


Quoted Speech (EXACT)

Reported Speech (NOT EXACT)

Jordan said, "I cook rice every day."

Jordan said that she cooked rice every day.

Jordan said, "I am cooking rice."

Jordan said that she was cooking rice.

Jordan said, "I cooked rice."

Jordan said that she had cooked rice.

Jordan said, "I have cooked rice."

Jordan said that she had cooked rice.

Jordan said, "I had cooked rice."

Jordan said that she had cooked rice.

Jordan said, "I will cook rice."

Jordan said that she would cook rice.

Jordan said, "I am going to cook rice."

Jordan said that she was going to cook rice.

Jordan said, "I can cook rice."

Jordan said that she could cook rice.

Jordan said, "I may cook rice."

Jordan said that she might cook rice.

Jordan said, "I must cook rice."

Jordan said that she had to cook rice.

Jordan said, "I have to cook rice."

Jordan said that she had to cook rice.

Jordan said, "I should cook rice."

Jordan said that she should cook rice.

Jordan said, "I ought to cook rice."

Jordan said that she ought to cook rice.

Jordan said, "I might cook rice."

Jordan said that she might cook rice.

Jordan says, "I cook rice every day."

Jordan says that she cooks rice every day."

Jordan has said, "I cook rice every day." Jordan will say, "I cook rice every day."

Jordan said, "Cook rice."

Note: The past tenses all use had + past participle. To see a list of irregular past participles.

Note: These modals do not change when used in reported speech.

Note: When you use the words say, has said, or Jordan has said that she cooks rice every day." will say (not said), the verb tense remains the Jordan will say that she cooks rice every day." same for both the quoted speech and reported speech. Jordan told me to cook rice.

Note: For commands, use the word told instead of said, and use an infinitive for the main verb.

32. Clauses – noun clause, adverbial clause, A clause is a part of a sentence. There are two main types: independent (main clauses), dependent (subordinate clauses). Independent Clauses


An independent clause is a complete sentence; it contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought in both context and meaning. For example: The door opened. Independent clauses can be joined by a coordinating conjunction to form complex or compound sentences.

Co-ordinating Conjunctions And – but – for – or – nor – so - yet

For example: Take two independent clauses and join them together with the conjunction and: "The door opened." "The man walked in." = the door opened and the man walked in.

Dependent Clauses A dependent (subordinate) clause is part of a sentence; it contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. They can make sense on their own, but, they are dependent on the rest of the sentence for context and meaning. They are usually joined to an independent clause to form a complex sentence.

Dependent clauses often begin with a subordinating conjunction or relative pronoun (see below) that makes the clause unable to stand alone.

Subordinating Conjunctions after

although

as

because

before

even if

even though

if

in order that

once

provided that

rather than

since

so that

than

that

though

unless

until

when

whenever

where

whereas

wherever

whether

while

why

Relative Pronouns that

which

whichever

who

whoever


whom

whose

whosever

whomever

For example:

The door opened because the man pushed it.

Dependent clauses can be nominal, adverbial or adjectival. A nominal clause (noun clause) functions like a noun or noun phrase. It is a group of words containing a subject and a finite verb of its own and contains one of the following: that | if | whether

For example:

I wondered whether the homework was necessary.

Noun clauses answer questions like "who (m)?" or "what?"

An adverbial clause (adverb clause) is a word or expression in the sentence that functions as an adverb; that is, it tells you something about how the action in the verb was done. An adverbial clause is separated from the other clauses by any of the following subordinating conjunctions: after | although | as | because | before | if | since | that | though | till | unless | until | when | where | while

For example:

They will visit you before they go to the airport.

Adverbial clauses can also be placed before the main clause without changing the meaning.

For example:

Before they go to the airport, they will visit you.

Note - When an adverb clause introduces the sentence (as this one does), it is set off with a comma.

Adverb clauses answer questions like "when?", "where?", "why?"

An adjectival clause (adjective clause or relative clause) does the work of an adjective and describes a noun, it's usually introduced by a relative pronoun: who | whom | whose | that | which

For example:

I went to the show that was very popular.


This kind of clause is used to provide extra information about the noun it follows. This can be to define something (a defining clause), or provide unnecessary, but interesting, added information (a non-defining clause).

For example: clause.)

The car that is parked in front of the gates will be towed away. (Defining relative

Information contained in the defining relative clause is absolutely essential in order for us to be able to identify the car in question.

My dog, who is grey and white, chased the postman. (Non-defining relative clause)

A non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. If you take away the non-defining clause the basic meaning of the sentence remains intact.

For example:

My dog chased the postman.

Adjective clauses answer questions like "which?" or "what kind of?"

Summary An adjective clause functions as an adjective (modifies a noun or pronoun); an adverb clause functions as an adverb (describes a verb, adjective or other adverb); a noun clause is used as a noun (subject of a verb, direct object, indirect object, predicate nominative or object of the preposition).

Note - The difference between a clause and a phrase is that a phrase does not contain a finite verb.

Relative Clauses A relative clause follows the noun it modifies. It is generally indicated by a relative pronoun at the start of the clause, although sometimes you can tell simply by word order. The choice of relative pronoun, or choice to omit one, can be affected by the following:


Human or Non-human We make a distinction between an antecedent that is a human — who (m) — and an antecedent which is a non-human — which.

Who (m) is used when the antecedent is a person.

That is used to refer to either a person or thing.

Which is used to refer to anything exept a person.

I met a man and a woman yesterday. The woman, who had long blonde hair, was very pretty.

The man she was with, was the man that / who won the race.

The race was the one that I lost.

The man, to whom the winnings were given, was with the woman who was very pretty.

Note - Whom is not used much in spoken English. Restrictive or Non-restrictive Restrictive relative clauses are sometimes called defining relative clauses, or identifying relative clauses. Similarly, non-restrictive relative clauses are called non-defining or non-identifying relative clauses. In English a non-restrictive relative clause is preceded by a pause in speech or a comma in writing, unlike a restrictive clause.

For example:

The builder, who erects very fine houses, will make a large profit.

This example, with commas, contains a non-restrictive relative clause. It refers to a specific builder, and assumes we know which builder is intended. It tells us firstly about his houses, then about his profits.

 The builder who erects very fine houses will make a large profit.  This second example uses a restrictive relative clause. Without the commas, the sentence states that any builder who builds such houses will make a profit.

Restrictive and Non-restrictive Human

Nonhuman


Subject

who, that, which, that who which

Object

who, whom, that, which, that, who, whom which

After preposition

whom which whom which

Possessive

whose, of whom, whose, of whom, whose, of which

Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses

A clause is a group of related words which has both a subject and a predicate. A clause is different from a phrase because a phrase is a group of related words which lacks either a subject or a predicate or both.

Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses modify nouns or pronouns. An adjective clause nearly always appears immediately following the noun or pronoun.

To test for adjective clauses there are a couple of questions that you can ask. Which one? What kind? Most adjective clauses begin with "who," "whom," "which," or "that." Sometimes the word may be understood. The words "that" or "who," for example, might not specifically be in the sentence, but they could be implied. To determine the subject of a clause ask "who?" or "what?" and then insert the verb.

Example:

The book that is on the floor should be returned to the library.

Occasionally, an adjective clause is introduced by a relative adverb, usually "when," "where," or "why."

Example:

Adverb Clauses

Home is the place where you relax.


Adverb clauses usually modify verbs, in which case they may appear anywhere in a sentence. They tell why, where, under what conditions, or to what degree the action occurred or situation existed. Unlike adjective clauses, they are frequently movable within the sentence.

Example:

When the timer rings, we know the cake is done. OR We know the cake is done when the timer rings.

Adverb clauses always begin with a subordinating conjunction. Subordinating conjunctions introduce clauses and express their relation to the rest of the sentence. Noun Clauses Noun clauses are not modifiers, so they are not subordinators like adjectives and adverbs, and they cannot stand alone. They must function within another sentence pattern, always as nouns. A noun clause functions as a subject, subject complement, direct object, or object of a preposition.

A noun clause usually begins with a relative pronoun like "that," "which," "who," "whoever," "whomever," "whose," "what," and "whatsoever." It can also begin with the subordinating conjunctions "how," "when," "where," "whether," and "why."

Example:

Whoever wins the game will play in the tournament.

33. Verb with Similar Meaning and Different Spelling and Usage and Sentences Subject

+ main verb

Noun (Subject pronoun)

+ (auxiliary) + verb

+ complement

Substantive

+ verb (-s – ed – ing)

+ predicate

+ (auxiliary)

+ object

List of Verbs by group

Sentence for each verb

Rise

The sun rises from the east every morning.

Arise

Every nation arises its flag in the morning.

Get up

Mr. Smith gets up from bed early at 6:00 a.m.

Stand up

I stand up when my teacher ask me to do.

Lift

A strong man lifts 300 pounds at the gym.


Raise

Tom raises his hand in class.

Pick up

My cousin picks up a coin with his finger.

________________________________________________________________________________ Begin

Classes begin at 7:00 a.m.

Start

The concert starts early at 9:00 p.m.

________________________________________________________________________________ Set

The librarian sets some books in order on the shelf.

Lay

My maid lays the pillow on the bed.

Place

I place a flowerpot on the floor.

Put

Someone puts his notebooks under the desk.

________________________________________________________________________________ Win

Barcelona wins the golden cup every season.

Earn

A big company earns a lot of money every year.

Gain

Today professionals gain some experiences at work.

________________________________________________________________________________ Be

Rose and Mark are at home every Sunday.

Stay

The housekeeper stays at home doing her duties.

________________________________________________________________________________ Love

A chef loves cooking apple pie every party.

Want

Children want to watch TV after school.

Wish

People wish to have wonderful life opportunities.

________________________________________________________________________________ Write

The secretary writes a letter to her boss.

Type

Young people type their document in the computer.

________________________________________________________________________________ Ask

The teacher asks a question every single class.

Question

The police question about your ID. Cards.

Claim

Religious people claim about their rights.

________________________________________________________________________________


Speak

Mr. Van Dame speaks English and French languages.

Talk

My friend talks every single day about vacations.

________________________________________________________________________________ Laugh

People laugh because the clown is funny.

Smile

Young girls smile with their funny thing.

________________________________________________________________________________ Steal

Someone steals some apples from the supermarket.

Rob

A thief robs a necklace from the jewelry.

________________________________________________________________________________ Make

The cook makes a delicious pineapple pie.

Do

Students do their homework on time.

________________________________________________________________________________ Can

A sport man can play some different sports.

May

The client may deserve to be assisted by the waitress.

________________________________________________________________________________ Take Guys take some subjects at the university. Carry

A worker carries a pizza by motorcycle.

________________________________________________________________________________ Touch

My friends touch a stone during a camping.

Play

Nice singers play the guitar and the piano in a concert.

________________________________________________________________________________ Hit Somebody hits a person on his head. Beat

Human heart beats every emotion they feel.

Knock

A stranger knocks my door very hard.

Strike

The baseball player strikes the ball strength away.

Bang

She bangs with her feet when she moves.

________________________________________________________________________________ Wed

Miss Royer weds with her husband at the church.

Marry

Sandy and Danny marry together in a lovely season.

________________________________________________________________________________


Collect

My aunt collects some stamps for collection.

Pick up

Children pick up everything they find on floor.

________________________________________________________________________________ Get

Mr. Smith gets nice results about their students.

Obtain

A healthy person obtains vitamins from fruits.

________________________________________________________________________________ Throw Someone throws a stone from the Street. Drop

A correct person drops garbage inside of the trash.

Pitch

The baseball player pitches the ball out of the ground.

________________________________________________________________________________ Hold A boy holds the hands of his girlfriend. Support

A lonely mother supports their kids by herself.

________________________________________________________________________________ Live

Mr. Boyles lives in California.

Dwell

The moppets dwell under the water.

________________________________________________________________________________ Owe

Mrs. O’Conner owes lots of money to the bank.

Must

Students must do their homework every day.

________________________________________________________________________________ Guide

A leader of boy scouts guides his group to the wood.

Drive

The chofer drives a bus to down town very well.

Conduct

That road conducts to the big city.

Lead

The boss leads his employees successfully.

Manage

A mayor manages his institution with humble.

________________________________________________________________________________ Go She goes to the supermarket. Leave

My neighbor leaves from El Salvador to Los Angeles.

Head

The president of United States heads a whole nation.

________________________________________________________________________________ Finish

Students finish their homework on time.


End

The film end at the same moment than other one.

________________________________________________________________________________ Call My classmates call to their friends every single day. Name

Shusmita named as a Godess’ name from India.

________________________________________________________________________________ Listen Young people listen carefully to the radio. Hear

Adult people hear with a lot of patience.

________________________________________________________________________________ Keep Rose keeps her luxury inside of her bag. Save

Mr. Amstrong saves his money in the bank.

Store

A computer technician stores information in a USB.

________________________________________________________________________________ Observe The meteorologist observes changes in the weather. Look at

You look at her face very well.

Watch

Kids watch TV everyday in the afternoon.

See

People see a nice landscape from the mountain.

________________________________________________________________________________ Find

A butler finds a watch on the floor.

Meet

Two friends meet each other at the airport.

________________________________________________________________________________ Take

Students take some books from the table.

Catch

A basketball player catches the ball far away.

________________________________________________________________________________ Cut

The tailor cuts a shirt with some scissors.

Slice

The cook slices a cake in four pieces.

Peel

Mrs. Grut peels a cucumber for eating.

Break

A mechanic breaks a cane from the car.

________________________________________________________________________________ Split

A seller splits a banana in two pieces on the ice cream.

Divide

My grandmother divides a pizza for seven people.


________________________________________________________________________________ Believe

Religious people believe in God every year.

Think

I think that an idea is strong when it comes from heart.

Guess

People always guess about weather reporter.

________________________________________________________________________________ Wait

A boy waits for his girlfriend at the bus stop.

Hope

People hope peace one day in our country.

Expect

The whole world expects new signs form the nature.

________________________________________________________________________________ Lend My friend lends me money every end of month. Borrow

A student borrows a pen to another one in class.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Investigate

A scientific investigates about the cure of migraine.

Research

Students research about a topic project in many books.

________________________________________________________________________________ Reach

Children reach everything they find on their road.

Achieve

New professional achieve their efforts at the university.

________________________________________________________________________________ Occur

A traffic accident occurs every single day in our country.

Happen

The same story happens to me when I was a child.

________________________________________________________________________________ Cry

The baby cries for milk every morning.

Weep

A housekeeper weeps every single time.

________________________________________________________________________________ Move

The Flynn’s move to a new house in Los Angeles.

Quake

A main church in the United States quakes to society.

Shake

The earth shakes every ten years in summer season.

________________________________________________________________________________ Shout

Someone shouts for asking help in the beach.


Yell

A baby yells because he is afraid around strange people.

________________________________________________________________________________ Return He returns from his origins. Come back

He usually comes back when she goes to the market.

________________________________________________________________________________ Spin

The planets spin around the sun.

Turn

She just turns away when she smiled.

________________________________________________________________________________ Spend

Lovers spend beautiful times when they are in love.

Waste

Young people waste their money in shoppings.

________________________________________________________________________________ Allow

English allows you to be in touch with the world.

Permit

Parents permit their sons to have relationship.

Let

Teacher lets his students to do their homework.

________________________________________________________________________________ Jump

Martin jumps highest as a gymnastic person.

Hop

BeyoncĂŠ hops with her waist when she is dancing.

________________________________________________________________________________ Teach

Mr. Peterson teaches English as second language.

Show

John shows a gift to his girlfriend.

________________________________________________________________________________ Taste

A chef tastes a delicious fig pie at the restaurant.

Like

People like different fruits for eating.

_______________________________________________________________________________ Remember Students remember everything when they really study. Remind

My friend reminds me to buy a new cellphone.

________________________________________________________________________________ Know She knows the correct answer for that question Realice

You realize that the weather changes every day.

________________________________________________________________________________


Search

A student searches a specific word in the dictionary.

Seek

One kid seeks other kids behind the tree.

Look for

An old lady looks for her glasses on the ground.

________________________________________________________________________________ Mail

An adult person mails his letters by a post office.

Send

Today, young people send their letters by Internet.

________________________________________________________________________________ Enjoy

Salvadorean family enjoy together their free time.

Delight

On Sunday, people delight a nice piece of cheese cake.

________________________________________________________________________________ Animate

Group dancers animate every musical festival.

Encorauge

Teacher encourages students to participate.

________________________________________________________________________________ Try Children try to do the best in the kindergarten. Treat

The clerk treats very well to the customers.

________________________________________________________________________________ Buy

My cousin buys a new computer for doing his task.

Purchase

Girls purchase different clothes at the mall center.

________________________________________________________________________________ Enter

I enter to the theater before the movie.

Get in

You better get in cause it is raining.

Come in

Mr. Royer come in early to the class.

Access

Tom accesses in the new software.

________________________________________________________________________________ Seem

They seem to be interested on technical words.

Appear

Mr. Konrad Zuse appears to be the first inventor of Pcs.

________________________________________________________________________________ Annoy Kids always annoy when they want something. Bother

My younger nephew bothers me for my TV programs.

Disturb

Patients disturb at silent place of the hospital.


Mind

People mind when I open the windows in the bus.

________________________________________________________________________________ Say

The president says to the people all of his expectations.

Tell

I tell you the true of my wishes.

________________________________________________________________________________ Go

They go to the beach every vacation.

Address

The cup address a group of tourist people.

________________________________________________________________________________ Inhale

A man inhales smoke from the fire.

Pull

An old lady pulls the door of the restaurant.

________________________________________________________________________________ Give

My mom gives me a delicious meal every Saturday.

Provide

Students provide excellent answer to the teacher.

________________________________________________________________________________ Hurry

Guys always hurry when they ask for a cake.

Speed up

Men speeds up with their cars on the Street.

_______________________________________________________________________________ Respond

Tom responds Jerry about his noisy movement.

Answer

Excelent student answers evry question correctly.

________________________________________________________________________________ Comprehend

Adult people comprehend the real exsistences of life.

Understand

You understand the reading if you read it three times.

________________________________________________________________________________ Resquest

She requestes more time to finish the report.

Demand

He demands to to be paid more for his work.

Ask

They ask to change the time of the exam.

________________________________________________________________________________ Evaluate

The teacher evaluates students with a simple exam.

Assess

The arquitec assesses the demages of the house.


________________________________________________________________________________ Provide

The workers provide their afforts evey day.

Give

A nice mother gives to her chirdren the best food.

________________________________________________________________________________

Folleto para 2015  

Mi primer curso basico de inglés

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