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Keys to Practical Exercises 1 Articles Exerci s e I (note that '-' indicat e s that no article is requir e d.) la ,- 2- ,-,-;a 3 a, a 4 a, -; a; a ,- 5A,-,- 6- ,a,an 7 A, -, a, a ,-, a 8- ,-;a ,- 9A,10 a, a; a, an II a, a ;-: a, -,a 12 -, an, an ;- 13 a, a; a; a, a 14 -, an 15 A, a; a; a, a 16 an, a ;-, an ,-, a, a 17 a ,-; a ,- 18- ,a 19 a; a ,- 20 a, a; a; - 21 A; a, an; a 22- ,a, an, a 23- ,a, an 24 a ,-; a 25 a: a, a 26 a, a :- 27 an, a ,-,28 -;- 29 a, a ,-,- 30 an; a, a, a: a;- I 31 a, a; an, a 32 a, a, a, a 33- ,a, a 34 a, a 35 a, a 36- ,a Exerci s e 2 (As before '-' indicat e s that no article is require d , '( the )' indicat e s that the article is option al.) 1 The ,-, the ,- 2 the; the, the 3 -,-,-, the 4 -,- 5 the; the, the ;- 6 -,-,-; the, the ,-; the 7 the, the ;-,- 8- ,-,t h e 9 -; -,- 10 the, the; the II-,-; the, the; the 12 the, the, the, the, - 13 -,-,- 14 -, -,-,- 15 -,-, the 16 -,-,-, the 17 -, the, the, - 18 -,- 19 -,-, -,-,- 20 the, the, the 21 the, -; -,the 22 The, -; the ;-,-,- 23 -; the, the, the 24 -;-; the 25 -, the ,-, the 26 -, -,-,the, the; The, -,the; the, the, the, the, -, the, the 27 -, the, the; - 28 the, the; The, the, the, the 29 -, -, the, the, -,- 30 -,-,-;-,- 31 -,-, the, - 32 The, -;-,-,the 33 -, (the), the, the, the 34 (the), (the); -,-,-,-, the 35 -. - 36 the, the, the, the, the, the Exerci s e 3 (Two words sep a r a t e d by an obliqu e, e.g. the/his, indicat e that eith er is a possible answ e r. The first word is nor m ally the preferr e d answ e r.) 1 a, the; a, a 2 an, the, the 3 a, the ,-,- 4 the, a, the, -.-.( the) 5 a, -,the, a 6 a, a/th e , an, the 7 a ,-, an, the, the, the, the 8 a, the, the 9 a, a 10 the, the, the, the, an 11 -.-.( the), a 12 a, the, 13 the, a, the, the, the 14 -;-,-,- 15 The, the, the; the, the 16 the, the, a ,-: (the), the, the ,- 17 a 18 a; the; a: a 19 a, th e : a, -; The, the 20- ,the; the; a, an 21 The, a, a ,-,- 22 the, a, - , the, a, the, the, the, the 23 a, a, a, the, -, the; The, -, -; The, the, -; -, the ,-, an 24 the, the, a 25 a, the, the 26- ,the; the; -,the;- ,a, - 27 a, the, the ,- 28 a ,-, an 29 -,-, -,- 30 a, an, an, a :-, -, -, -, the 31 a; the, the, the: a, - 32 the, an, the; -, the, -: the, the, a 33 -,-; the 34 -; a, the, -,a 35 -, the; a 36 a, a, a, the; the, the, Exerci s e 4 1 his 2 your, your 3 -, their 4 the 5 his, his 6 his, - 7 an, the 8 a 9 a, my 10 the II a ,-, a, his ,- 12 his 13 -, her 14 his 15 the 16 our 17 the, her 18 his 19 your 20 his, the 2 1 the 22 your 23 -, his 24 -.our/th e 25 his 26 the/his 27 your, the, the 28 a 29 a 30 a, a 31 your, (a) 32 her, the 33 a, his 34 your 35 your 36 my


2 Exerci s e 5 1 One, a, a 2 A, a: one; a; one, a; a: a 3 A, a 4 a, a, an 5 a, a/th e, a/your 6 one; a; an 7 a, a 8 One, a 9 (a), a, a; a; One 10 a; One 11 a/th e; a, a/th e ;- 12 a, a, one 13 one; one; a 14 a; a, a 15 a, one, a, a, a 16 a, a; one 17 One, a, a 18 -, a; a; one, a; A, a 19 a; a 20 One; an, an 21 a, a/th e , a; a, a, an 22 One, a. -, an 23 One, a ,-, a, a 24 one; a; a; a; One, an; a 2 Auxiliary verbs Exerci s e 6 Nega tiv e answ e r s in eac h cas e: the auxiliary verb + not . not is usu ally contr a c t e d and add e d to the verb, e.g. may not/ m a y n ' t cost. will + not is contr a c t e d to won't , can + not is contr a c t e d to can't . Interro g a tiv e answ e r s , exce p t for 1, 13 and 19, are in the following form: auxiliary verb + subject + infinitive, e.g. Should they eat less? 1 Is it likely to cost/Do you think it will cost? 13 Are they likely to come /Do you think they will com e ? 19 Is he likely to be at hom e /D o you think he'll be at hom e ? Exerci s e 7 Negativ e: I don' t hav e 2 does n ' t ne e d 3 didn't use 4 don' t hav e 5 does n ' t do 6 does n ' t nee d 7 didn' t hav e 8 didn' t hav e 9 didn' t nee d 10 does n ' t do II does n ' t hav e 12 didn' t hav e 13 does n ' t do 14 does n ' t hav e 15 don't hav e 16 didn't dar e 17 didn't do 18 does n ' t hav e 19 does n ' t dare 20 didn' t hav e 21 didn' t do 22 does n ' t nee d 23 didn' t hav e 24 didn' t hav e 25 didn' t use 26 don' t do 27 didn't hav e 28 didn' t dar e Interro g a tiv e : I do they hav e 2 does he ne e d 3 did he use 4 do they hav e 5 does she do 6 does he ne e d 7 did he hav e 8 did she hav e 9 did her hair nee d 10 does he do 11 does she hav e 12 did she hav e 13 does he do 14 does he hav e 15 do the childre n hav e 16 did she dare 17 did you do 18 does he hav e 19 does he dar e 20 did they hav e 21 did the drink 22 does my watch ne e d 23 did he hav e 24 did you hav e 25 did she use 26 do you do 27 did he hav e 28 did he dar e Exerci s e 8 I was n' t 2 didn' t 3 couldn' t 4 had to 5 wouldn' t 6 could 7 was n' t 8 was n' t 9 didn't ne e d to 10 hop e d that Tom would 11 did 12 said that Ann might 13 was 14 did 15 did... could 16 could 17 had to 18 dar e d 19 didn' t 20 had 21 were 22 Had you to/Did you hav e to 23 didn ' t nee d to 24 hop e d , he'd 25 might 26 Did you und er s t a n d . . . he was saying? I didn' t 27 were 28 might 29 didn' t 30 were n' t, were 31 thoug h t, might


3 32 want e d . . . if she could 33 couldn' t 34 was, would 35 could, couldn' t 36 didn't, would. Exerci s e 9 (Affirma tiv e answ er s all begin with Yes + the first of the answ e r s given. Negativ e answ e r s all begin with No + the secon d of the answ e r s given.) 1 Yes, it is. No, it isn't. 2 I do/do n' t 3 I can/c a n ' t 4 he does/ d o e s n ' t 5 it is/isn't 6 I am/I' m not 7 I mus t/n e e d n ' t 8 we are/ ar e n ' t 9 he did/didn' t 10 it would/wouldn ' t II you ma y/ m a y n ' t 12 it is/isn't 13 she will/won' t 14 I do/don ' t 15 you should/s h o uld n ' t 16 I can/c a n ' t 17 I am/I' m not 18 they could/could n' t 19 it is/isn't 20 they were/w er e n ' t 21 she will/won't 22 you ought/o u g h t n ' t 23 you should/s h o ul d n ' t 24 he was/w a s n ' t 25 I hav e/ h a v e n ' t 26 we mus t/ n e e d n ' t 27 he did/didn' t 28 I would/would n' t 29 it is/isn't 30 I do/do n' t 31 you can/c a n ' t 32 I will/won't 33 I am/I' m not 34 you are/ a r e n ' t 35 you mus t/n e e d n ' t 36 it was/w a s n ' t Exerci s e 10 Part I The answ e r s in this section all begin with So . I So has John. 2 . . . is she. 3 . . . can his wife. 4 . . . ough t you. 5 . . . should you. 6 . . .will Tom. 7 . . . was the secon d. 8 . . . did my broth e r. 9 . . . mus t your son. 10 . . . does that. 11 . . . is my friend. 12 . . . did I. Part 2 The answ er s in this section all begin with Neit h e r / N o r . 13 Neither/Nor has Tom. 14 . . . should Tom. 15 . . . mus t I. 16 . . . can his sister. 17 . . . does Ann. 18 . . . could Andrew. 19 . . . are you. 20 . . .does that. 21 . . . will mine. 22 . . . had the taxi- driver. 23 . . . did anyo n e else. 24 . . . would my mot h e r. Part 3 The answ er s in this section all begin with But. 25 But Mary was n' t. 26 . . . she was. 27 . . . your broth e r nee d n ' t . 28 . . . I can't. 29 . . . Jame s did. 30 . . . Stanley mus t. 31 . . . a dog would. 32 . . . his wife won't. 33 . . . my neighb o u r has. 34 . . . that beac h isn't. 35 . . . you ne e d n ' t. 36 . . . I do. Exerci s e 11 Part 1 1 Yes, we mus t. 2 Yes, you were. 3 Yes, she does. 4 Yes, she ma y. 5 Yes, he could. 6 (Oh), so ther e is! 7 Yes, he does. 8 (Oh), so it is! 9 Yes, it was. 10 Yes, it might. 11 Yes, they did. 12 Yes, it is. Part 2 All answ e r s begin with No. 13 No, they don' t. 14 . . . he didn' t. 15 . . . it isn't. 16 . . . he can't. 17 . . . it was n' t. 18 . . . it wouldn' t. 19 . . . it has n' t. 20 . . . they don't. 21 . . . they didn't. 22 . . . it has n' t. 23 . . . you don't. 24 . . . he might n ' t. Part 3 25 No, I'm not. 26 Yes, you did. 27 (Oh) yes, they were! 28 (Oh) yes, you were! 29 No. she wouldn' t. 30 No, I didn' t. 31 No, you can't. 32 No, it does n ' t. 33 (Oh) yes, he did! 34 (Oh) no, they don' t. 35 No, they shouldn' t. 36 No, she didn't.


4 Exerci s e 12 1 are you 2 is she 3 do you 4 did he 5 is it 6 was she 7 has he 8 will you 9 did 1 10 does he II do you 12 does it 13 should they 14 are you 15 could they 16 do you 17 was ther e 18 nee d 1 19 was it 20 did you 21 will it 22 does she 23 did it 24 should he 25 could she 26 are you 27 would you 28 had he 29 were they 30 would you 31 does he 32 has he 33 could he 34 ne e d 1 35 were ther e 36 was it Exerci s e 13 1can' t they 2 isn't he 3 didn't he 4 hav e n ' t they 5 wa sn't he 6 shouldn' t he 7 couldn' t it 8 isn't he 9 isn't it 10 can't he 11 won't it 12 does n ' t she 13 has n' t she 14 didn't they 15 does n ' t she 16 does n ' t he 17 didn' t he 18 don't they 19 hav e n ' t 1 20 has n' t he 21 isn't she 22 didn' t they 23 might n ' t he 24 mus t n ' t we 25 had n' t you 26 wouldn' t you 27 don' t they 28 ought n ' t she 29 was n' t it 30 don' t they 31 won't you 32 didn' t he 33 won't ther e 34 had n' t you 35 wouldn' t you 36 couldn' t you Exerci s e 14 1 don't you 2 do you 3 is it 4 does it 5 was n' t it 6 was ther e 7 didn't they 8 wasn' t ther e 9 did they 10 does she 11 does n ' t she 12 wouldn' t she 13 didn' t he 14 did he 15 wasn' t she 16 ought n ' t he 17 did they 18 do they 19 can't they 2 0 does he 21 is it 22 did it 23 aren ' t they 24 had n' t we 25 wouldn' t it 26 would it 27 isn't it 28 wouldn' t she 29 shouldn' t they 30 were n' t they 31 didn' t she 32 does he ' 33 didn't ther e 34 is ther e 35 will he 36 does it Exerci s e 15 1- 2 to 3 to 4 to 5- 6 to 7 to 8- 9- 10 to 11 to 12 to 13 (to) 14- 15- 16 -, to 17 to 18 to 19- 20- 21 to 22 to 23- 24 to 25- 26 to 27 -.( to) 28- 29- 30 to 31 - 32 to 33 to 34 - 35 to 36Exerci s e 16 1 can/co uld 2 be able 3 had 4 had 5 mus t, ne e d n ' t 6 didn' t dar e 7 ought/will hav e 8 used 9 is to be 10 could 11 shall 12 would, might 13 would 14 had 15 don' t hav e/ n e e d 16 was to hav e 17 should/o u g h t to 18 might/s h o ul d 19 will hav e 20 use d, would 21 should 22 will 23 mus t hav e 24 may 25 were 26 hav e 27 ought n ' t 28 might Exerci s e 17 (As me n tion e d in the not e, the do/di d form could be use d throu g h o u t exce p t in no. 27, and of cours e for the future.) 1 has n' t eve n (got) 2 has (got), has/h a s always got 3 don' t hav e, hav e (got) 4 has (got) 5 hav e n ' t you (got) 6 did you hav e/ h a d you . 7 has the alph a b e t (got) 8


5 do the hous e s hav e/ h a v e the hous e s (got) 9 hav e you (got), hav e n ' t (got) 10 do you ever hav e II he'll hav e 12 don't usu ally hav e 13 hav e you (got) 14 don't always hav e 15 has n' t your door (got) 16 hav e you (got), hav e 17 hav e n ' t (got) 18 has (got) 19 hav e you 20 has this desk (got), don' t ever hav e/ n e v e r hav e 21 do you ever hav e 22 do babie s hav e 23 has/h a s a pent a g o n got 24 has, does she hav e 25 hav e, won't/do n ' t hav e 26 do you hav e 27 hav e you (got), hav e (got) 28 hav e you (got), I only hav e/ h a v e only (got), will hav e 29 hav e you (got) 30 hav e you (got), hav e, hav e n ' t (got) 31 has n' t he (got) 32 hav e, didn't hav e/ h a d n ' t 33 didn't you hav e 34 do red- haired people always hav e/ h a v e red- haire d people always got 35 has n' t (got) 36 hav e you (got) Exerci s e 18 1 are having 2 did you hav e/ h a d you 3 is having 4 are having 5 does he hav e, he usu ally has 6 do you hav e 7 do you hav e, hav e 8 do you hav e, hav e 9 don't you hav e 10 were having II did you hav e/ h a d you 12 are having 13 will you hav e 14 are having 15 had 16 did you hav e 17 am having 18 are having 19 was having 20 do English people always hav e 21 don't hav e/ h a v e n ' t 22 are having 23 don' t hav e 24 did you hav e/ h a d you, had 25 did you hav e/ h a d you 26 am having 27 does he hav e 28 did you hav e/ h a d you 29 had 30 are having 31 didn't hav e/ h a d n ' t 32 are having 33 am having 34 is having 35 does he ever hav e 36 had, did you hav e/ h a d you Exerci s e 19 lam having 2 will hav e 3 had 4 am having 5 hav e just had 6 am having 7 did you hav e 8 does he hav e 9 do you hav e 10 don' t you hav e 11 do you hav e 12 am having 13 hav e it x-raye d 14 hav e it rep air e d 15 hav e the m short e n e d 16 am having the m typ e d 17 hav e it tun e d 18 hav e the docu m e n t photoco pi e d 19 had the m dye d 20 hav e it me n d e d 21 hav e it set 22 hav e just had it re- charg e d 23 to hav e it enlarg e d 24 hav e just had the m shar p e n e d 25 hav e my car service d 26 hav e it see n to 27 had my watch clean e d 28 is having her portr ait paint e d 29 they had the ma n arre s t e d 30 he had the car towe d 31 are having a gara g e built 32 hav e my window s clean e d 33 had my eye s test e d 34 is having his fortun e told 35 had the oyst e r s ope n e d 36 had my ears pierc e d Exerci s e 20 1 is being/will be ruine d 2 is to mak e /is making 3 were 4 being, being 5 were to be/s h o uld be exting uis h e d 6 hav e you bee n 7 is being pulled down 8 was to put 9 isn't it 10 are to stay 11 should be ask e d 12 were 13 I am to go 14 is being carrie d 15 to be 16 were 17 were to hav e take n 18 is being taug h t 19 was, will be, were 20 to be 21 was to hav e bee n 22 should be sent 23 will ther e be 24 had be e n 25 is to open/is ope nin g 26 were being take n 27 was to hav e bee n 28 would you be 29 is to be/is being/will be 30 was to hav e run 31 was still being paint e d 32 should be print e d 33 are being/h a v e


6 bee n transla t e d 34 were 35 was to do 36 is to be Exerci s e 21 (Affirma tiv e s are not given in their contr a c t e d form but would norm ally be contr a c t e d in spe e c h.) 1 It is, It is 2 is it, It is 3 It was, ther e were 4 It is, There will be 5 it was 6 It is, it is 7 There are, ther e is 8 There is; It will be, it is, it is, ther e will be 9 There is, it is 10 It was, it was 11 There was; There were 12 There was; There were 13 It is, it is 14 It is; There are 15 It is; It is 16 It will be; ther e will 17 There is; Is it 18 There are, it is 19 It is 20 it was 21 ther e are: ther e is; It is 22 It is, it is 23 There is, ther e are; It is or There was, ther e were; It was 24 Is ther e; it is; ther e is/th er e will be 25 ther e was; ther e was 26 There was; It was, ther e was 27 There are; There is, it is, isn't it 28 It is; ther e is; There is, ther e is/will be 29 There are: It is, ther e is 30 It is; It is; It is 31 ther e is; it was, was n' t it 32 it was/would be 33 It was; it was, ther e was 34 Is ther e; ther e is; is it 35 There is 36 It is; There is Exerci s e 22 1 can, could, can' t/co uld n ' t 2 will be able to 3 won't be able to 4 can't . . . can't or couldn' t . . . couldn' t 5 shall/will be able to 6 will nev er be able to 7 couldn' t, can't 8 will you be able to 9 won't be able to 10 could, couldn' t 11 can, can, can't 12 can' t, can't/co uld n ' t, can't/co uld n ' t 13 could/w a s able to 14 was able to 15 could/w a s able to, couldn' t/w a s n ' t able to 16 were able to 17 were you able to/could you 18 couldn' t/w a s n ' t able to 19 was able to 20 were able to 21 could/w a s able to 22 was able to 23 was able to 24 was able to 25 could/c a n , could 26 could, couldn' t 27 could, couldn' t, can' t 28 could 29 couldn' t/w o uld n' t be able to 30 couldn' t/w o uld n ' t be able to 31 could/ca n, can' t 32 could, could 33 could/ca n, couldn' t/c a n ' t 34 couldn' t/w o uld n' t be able to 35 couldn' t/w a s n ' t able to, couldn' t/w a s n ' t able to 36 could Exerci s e 23 1 may 2 might 3 ma y/ mi g h t 4 ma y/ mi g h t 5 might 6 may 7 ma y 8 might 9 may 10 was allow ed to 11 might 12 may 13 may/ mig h t 14 may/ mig h t, ma y/ mi g h t 15 might 16 may 17 ma y 18 may 19 ma y/ mi g h t 20 might 21 might 22 may/ mig h t 23 may/ mig h t 24 may 25 might 26 ma y/ mi g h t 27 might/ m a y 28 ma y/ mi g h t 29 ma y 30 might 31 might 32 may/ mig h t 33 may 34 might 35 ma y/ mi g h t 36 has n' t bee n allowe d to Exerci s e 24 1 has to 2 mus t 3 has to 4 hav e to 5 mus t 6 hav e to 7 had to 8 has to 9 had to 10 hav e to 11 mus t 12 will hav e to/h av e to 13 mus t 14 has to 15 mus t 16 hav e to 1.7 hav e to 18 mus t 19 mus t 20


7 hav e to 21 had to 22 mus t 23 hav e to 24 mus t 25 has to 26 mus t 27 will hav e to 28 mus t 29 had to 30 hav e to 31 will hav e to 32 had to 33 hav e to 34 mus t/will hav e to 35 mus t 36 hav e to Exerci s e 25 (Add not to each of the following verbs.) 1 nee d 2 mus t 3 mus t 4 nee d 5 mus t 6 mus t 7 nee d 8 mus t 9 ne e d 10 nee d l1 ne e d 12 mus t 13 ne e d 14 mus t 15 mus t 16 ne e d 17 mus t 18 mus t 19 ne e d 20 ne e d 21 mus t 22 mus t 23 nee d 24 mus t 25 mus t 26 mus t 27 nee d 28 nee d 29 nee d 30 ne e d 31 nee d 32 mus t 33 nee d 34 mus t 35 mus t 36 nee d Exerci s e 26 (didn't hav e to is replac e a bl e by didn 't ne e d to.) 1 he does n 't hav e/ h a s n ' t (got) to 2 did you hav e to 3 I don' t hav e to 4 they will hav e to 5 we didn't hav e to 6 we didn't hav e to 7 you ne e d n ' t com e 8 I nev er hav e to 9 sha n' t/w o n ' t hav e to 10 you ne e d n ' t II shall we hav e to 12 you don't hav e to 13 I didn' t hav e to 14 we don' t hav e to 15 hav e you got to/mu s t you/n e e d you 16 do people hav e to 17 shall I hav e to 18 don' t hav e to 19 we didn' t hav e to 20 you ne e d n ' t 21 we didn' t hav e to 22 do we hav e to/mu s t we 23 did you hav e to 24 I didn' t hav e to 25 you won't hav e to 26 they didn' t hav e to 27 do you hav e to/h av e you got to 28 did you hav e to/ha d you to 29 didn' t hav e to 30 shall I hav e to 31 do you hav e to/ha v e you got to 32 I didn't hav e to 33 do French childre n hav e to 34 did you hav e to 35 I didn't hav e to 36 did you hav e to Exerci s e 27 1 mus t hav e be e n 2 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n 3 nee d n ' t hav e help e d 4 mus t hav e left 5 can't/co uld n' t hav e esca p e d 6 ne e d n ' t hav e given 7 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e see n 8 mus t hav e start e d 9 can't hav e be e n 10 ne e d n ' t hav e boug h t 11 mus t hav e bee n 12 mus t hav e borrow e d 13 mus t hav e stolen 14 nee d n ' t hav e don e 15 nee d n ' t hav e said 16 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e und e r s t o o d 17 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e don e 18 mus t hav e bee n 19 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e walked 20 can' t hav e bee n 21 mus t hav e bee n 22 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e had 23 nee d n ' t hav e wat er e d 24 mus t hav e take n 25 can't/co uld n' t hav e bee n 26 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e water e d 27 mus t hav e be e n 28 ne e d n ' t hav e sent 29 nee d n ' t hav e ma d e 30 mus t hav e be e n 31 mus t hav e be e n 32 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e see n 33 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e com e 34 nee d n ' t hav e lent 35 ne e d n ' t hav e spoke n 36 mus t hav e fallen 3 Present and past tenses Exerci s e 28 1 wishe s 2 pas s e s 3 helps 4 chan g e s 5 watch e s 6 worries 7 cas h e s 8 carries


8 9 wash e s 10 goes 11 lays 12 bounc e s 13 asto nis h e s 14 does he like 15 costs 16 fishes m 17 forge t s 18 catch e s 19 miss e s 20 mixe s 21 freez e s 22 flies 23 mat c h e s 24 realizes 25 use s 26 does he do, does , lies 27 hurries 28 push e s 29 kisse s 30 boxe s 31 dres s e s 32 relies 33 snatc h e s 34 fries 35 rises 36 does Exerci s e 29 Negativ e: 1 don't know 2 does n ' t hav e 3 does n ' t love 4 don' t wear 5 does n ' t trus t 6 does n ' t try 7 does n ' t clos e 8 does n ' t miss 9 don't like 10 does n ' t finish 11 does n ' t live 12 does n ' t bully 13 does n ' t hea t 14 does n ' t hav e 15 does n ' t carry 16 does n ' t believ e 17 does n ' t danc e 18 don't re m e m b e r 19 does n ' t play 20 does n ' t worry 21 don' t work 22 does n ' t leav e 23 does n ' t arra n g e 24 does n ' t agre e 25 don't bark 26 don' t complain 27 does n ' t enjoy 28 does n ' t eng a g e 29 does n ' t look 30 don't sell 31 does n ' t charg e 32 does n ' t cut 33 don' t pick 34 does n ' t leav e 35 does n ' t relax 36 does n ' t refus e Interro g a tiv e : I do you know 2 does he hav e 3 does he love 4 do they wear 5 does he trust 6 does he try 7 does the park close 8 does he miss 9 do the childre n like 10 does he finish 11 does he live 12 does he bully 13 does it he a t 14 does she hav e 15 does she carry 16 does he believ e 17 does she danc e 18 do you rem e m b e r 19 does she play 20 does he worry 21 do thes e thiev e s usu ally work 22 does he leav e 23 does Ann arra n g e 24 does she agre e 25 do their dogs bark 26 do their neigh b o u r s often compl ain 27 does Tom enjoy 28 does he eng a g e 29 does Tom look 30 do they sell 31 does he charg e 32 does she cut 33 do they pick 34 does the last train leav e 35 does he relax 36 does she refus e Exerci s e 30 1 isn't working, is swim min g 2 is teac hin g 3 isn't Ann wearing 4 is flying 5 is Tom doing, is cleanin g 6 is going, is som e o n e bringing 7 is it raining, is raining 8 are you me n din g 9 aren ' t telling, am not telling 10 is moving, is painting 11 is swe e pin g 12 are you rea ding, am rea din g 13 is shining, are singing 14 is knocking, am just coming, am just washing 15 is always ringing up and asking 16 are you making, is som e o n e coming 17 is lying 18 are you using 19 are you doing, am going 20 are having, is catchin g 21 am doing 22 are you typing, you are making 23 is resting 24 are digging, are they doing, are looking 25 is making, are rep airing 26 are doing, are cutting 27 are you waiting, am waiting, is just getting 28 are saying, is making 29 is always losing . . . and asking 30 are you looking . . . is som e t hi n g hap p e ni n g 31 am bathing 32 are rushing, are jumping out and unrolling 33 is pouring, are stoppin g, is trying 34 is climbing, is helping, are


9 sliding 35 is waving, is going 36 is coming, is carrying, is/ar e che erin g Exerci s e 31 1 don't build, use 2 is having 3 drinks, is drinking 4 does she do, plays, watch e s 5 is raining, hav e n ' t 6 leave s 7 spe ak s , don' t und er s t a n d 8 is making, mak e s 9 wears 10 don' t like 11 am wearing 12 is rea din g 13 am red e c or a tin g 14 is boiling 15 are you enjoying, am enjoying, want 16 do you get, go, am going 17 are you putting, am going, are you coming, do you mind 18 do you owe, I owe, do you inten d 19 do you belong, do you rea d, do you chan g e , I chan g e 20 learns , does n ' t see m 21 always buy/a m always buying, win 22 do you like, am giving 23 pro mis e, pro mis e 24 do you always write 25 do you love, like, don't love 26 do you dre a m , dre a m , eat, hav e 27 smells, do you keep 28 are always compl ainin g/ alw a ys complain 29 are using 30 is always saying/ alw a ys says, does 31 do you know, falls 32 are you writing, write, do you want 33 are having, wond e r, are talking 34 do you believ e, don't believ e, do you read 35 is making, do you think, does n ' t ma t t e r, mak e s 36 is smoking, exp e c t, are building, does, does n ' t see m , don' t you put Exerci s e 32 1 does Tom think, thinks, agr e e 2 does this one cost, it costs 3 do you he ar, is blowing 4 do you see, am looking, don' t see 5 listen s , is always thinking 6 des er t s , goes 7 do you und e r s t a n d , don' t und er s t a n d 8 do you hav e, eat, drink 9 rises, see, are picketin g 10 are you walking, walk, am hurrying, am me e ti n g, does n ' t like II wish, kee p s , think, want s 12 do you recog nize, think, don't rem e m b e r 13 wond er, waiting for 14 is waiting, want 15 don' t you see, see, am not wearing, does it say, says 16 is always borrowing/ alw a ys borrow s, re m e m b e r s 17 do you ne e d, do you feel 18 does it sav e, take, does n ' t ma t t e r 19 am saving, am going 20 think, are gettin g 21 are looking, is just taking 22 does , is always working 23 is he doing, think, is polishing 24 is coming, do you want 25 is Peter gettin g on, see m s 26 is Mrs Pitt looking/do e s Mrs Pitt look, is smoking, and (is) droppin g 27 leave, arrive, spe n d , set, soun d s , get 28 mak e s , finds, goes , does not forget, retur n s , looks 29 finds, recog nize s , coils, kills 30 does the snak e feel, don' t know, ends 31 do you end, begins, put, prefers 32 does the word ' cata s t r o p h e ' me a n , me a n s 33 are you waiting, am waiting, does n ' t open, know, want, start s/is starting 34 are you smoking, don't smok e, am smoking, want, says, remov e s 35 owns, don't know, uses , knows, owns 36 do you mind, ask, dep e n d s , conc er n s , refus e Exerci s e 33 1 went 2 me t 3 wore 4 ma d e 5 got 8 spoke 9 left 10 read 11 ate 12 saw 13 san g 14 16 thoug h t I knew 17 rose 18 took 19 boug h t 20 23 knew, want e d 24 paid 25 bit 26 smelt 27 cost drank 31 grew 32 rode 33 fell 34 fough t, met 35

6 und er s t o o d 7 shut cried, was 15 knew dre a m t 21 laid 22 felt 28 hurt 29 lay 30 put 36 slept


10 Exerci s e 34 Negativ e: the answ e r in each cas e is did not/didn' t + infinitive, e.g. I did not/didn' t see Interro g a tiv e : the answ er in eac h cas e is did + subject + infinitive, e.g. 1 did she see The infinitives are as follows: I see 2 he ar 3 slee p 4 look 5 drink 6 set 7 think 8 catch 9 hide 10 find 11 blee d 12 choos e 13 lend 14 teac h 15 hurt 16 bre ak 17 come 18 lose 19 write 20 fly 21 draw 22 lay 23 fall 24 lose 25 forbid 26 send 27 keep 28 ride 29 spe n d 30 sell 31 ring 32 rise 33 run 34 shak e 35 forgive 36 broa dc a s t Exerci s e 35 I were doing, was playing, was listening 2 was getting 3 were rushing 4 was trav elling 5 was wearing 6 was red e c or a ti n g 7 were working 8 was running 9 were playing, were leaning 10 was working, was shoppin g 11 was sailing 12 were going 13 were talking 14 was stud ying 15 was cooking 16 was dieting, was trying 17 were you talking, was talking 18 was climbing 19 was working 20 were bathing, were looking, were playing 21 was he living 22 was stan din g, was waiting 23 was practising 24 were carrying 25 were fighting, was trying, were they fighting 26 was sitting, was rea din g 27 were doing, was wee din g, was cutting 28 were me n din g 29 was/w er e clappin g 30 was making, was saying 31 was learnin g 32 was rep airing 33 was always trying 34 were fishing 35 were writing 36 was wand e rin g Exerci s e 36 I was burning 2 was writing 3 was making 4 left 5 was just leaving 6 was watchin g, turn e d, went 7 stood 8 was playing, insist e d 9 was walking 10 was having, lunch e d 11 wore, carrie d 12 did you think, liked 13 shar e d , was always compl ainin g/ alw a ys complain e d 14 realize d, was trav elling 15 was playing, threw 16 was just openin g, blew 17 was openin g, he ar d, put, crawle d 18 was looking, found 19 saw, were you doing 20 were playing, hear d, hid, took 21 was cleanin g, went, killed 22 didn' t allow, was blowing 23 was crossing/cro s s e d , step p e d , fell 24 was still lying, saw 25 saw, stop p e d 26 did you da m a g e , ran, were driving, were going 27 was gettin g/g o t, start e d , fell 28 called, was alre a d y getting up 29 was me n din g/ m e n d e d , got 30 hear d, went, ope n e d , didn' t recog nize, wasn' t wearing 31 were sitting, was doing, was knitting, were readin g, smiled, said 32 were dancing, broke, stole 33 knew, were looking, hid, went 34 was always buying 35 told, was spen din g/ s p e n t , listen e d 36 beg a n , bang e d Exerci s e 37 1 woke, was always gettin g/ alw a ys got, went, boug h t 2 had to, usu ally graz e d/w a s usu ally grazing 3 didn' t nor m ally chas e , ma d e , was crossing, went 4 anno ye d , beg a n 5 was carrying, was raining, threw, ran 6 stopp e d , beg a n , was doing 7 awok e, was sitting, was looking, called, turn e d , smiled 8 did you interru p t, was


11 having 9 was carrying, he ar d 10 was looking, notice d 11 were walking/w alk e d , hear d, turn e d, held, stopp e d 12 arrived, was waiting, was wearing, (was) looking/look e d , saw, wave d, shout e d , was saying/s ai d, was making 13 esc a p e d , was working, was wearing 14 was trav elling, beg a n 15 didn't like, was trying 16 was making, felt, broug h t , was able 17 saw, was painting, did you like, was only just startin g, saw 18 took, was being, were still listening, left/w er e leaving 19 was, had to, was enjoying 20 were coming, stop p e d , said, was looking, aske d 21 saw, were you using, was using, were you riding 22 was knitting 23 was, said, hop e d , was enjoying 24 was wat ering, beg a n , put, went 25 was just writing, rem e m b e r e d , had 26 found, was digging, belong e d 27 saw, was hurrying, aske d, was going, said, was spe akin g, was n' t 28 called, was still working 29 ca m e , was smoking, had, threw, hop e d 30 notice d, was rising, were you smoking, ca m e , ask e d 31 was swim mi n g, stole, had to 32 said, were working, want e d 33 said, was building, thoug h t 34 woke, said, thoug h t, was trying 35 did you lend, was still readin g, didn' t know, were still readin g 36 cam e , woke, start e d , woke, ca m e , said, said, didn' t hear, was barking, went, telep h o n e d Exerci s e 38 1 Have you bee n, I've be e n 2 hav e you had, hav e 3 has the post com e , has 4 hav e you see n, hav e n ' t 5 has som e o n e wound, has 6 hav e n ' t finish e d 7 has just gon e 8 has take n 9 has stopp e d 10 hav e you he ar d, hav e n ' t 11 hav e just was h e d 12 has stolen 13 hav e you explain e d, hav e 14 hav e gon e 15 hav e you had, hav e had 16 has Charles pas s e d , has 17 has the milkma n left, has left 18 hav e lived 19 hav e you known, hav e known 20 hav e just ma d e 21 has Mary wat er e d , has 22 hav e n ' t you ma d e , hav e n ' t 23 hav e n ' t you me n d e d , hav e n ' t had 24 hav e you dived, hav e n ' t 25 hav e you ever left, hav e n ' t 26 hav e aske d 27 has always refus e d 28 hav e you ever ridde n 29 hav e boug h t 30 has he post e d 31 has n' t he finishe d, has had 32 hav e often see n, hav e nev er spoke n 33 hav e you ever eat e n , hav e n ' t 34 hav e just he ar d 35 hav e reca p t u r e d 36 hav e n ' t paid Exerci s e 39 1 hav e, wound 2 hav e n ' t , ate 3 has, fed 4 hav e n ' t , hav e only rep air e d 5 hav e don e, did 6 hav e n ' t , hav e n ' t found 7 hav e, ma d e 8 hav e n ' t, hav e bee n 9 hav e n ' t , hav e n ' t see n 10 hav e, went 11 hav e driven, drove 12 has n' t, has, went 13 hav e, was 14 has, spok e 15 hav e only spen t, hav e 16 hav e n ' t save d , hav e save d 17 has n' t, went 18 hav e n ' t see n, saw, didn' t see 19 hav e, paid 20 hav e n ' t , flew 21 bit, has bitte n 22 plant e d , hav e n ' t 23 has, wrote 24 hav e n ' t, drank,


12 hav e n ' t drunk Exerci s e 40 1 hav e you lived/h a v e you be e n living, hav e lived/h a v e bee n living 2 lived, went 3 did you wear, insist e d 4 left, cut, hav e worn 5 wrote 6 has writte n, has just finish e d 7 flew, did you see 8 hav e n ' t see n 9 has n' t smok e d 10 comp o s e d II did he arrive, arrive d 12 did you lock 13 read, enjoye d 14 hav e n ' t finishe d 15 hav e nev er drunk 16 hav e writte n 17 has stopp e d 18 hav e just clean e d 19 left, got 20 did, was 21 has just gon e 22 went 23 hav e you had, had 24 met 25 did you see 26 beg a n , laste d, enjoye d 27 has just begu n 28 has the news p a p e r com e 29 arrive d, start e d 30 has bee n 31 wrot e 32 hav e miss e d 33 broke 34 has bee n 35 worked, retire d, went 36 hav e you bee n, spe n t, did you hav e, stopp e d Exerci s e 41 1 hav e n ' t see n, told 2 boug h t, did you pay, paid 3 did you find, found, didn't you leav e 4 hav e lost, hav e you see n, hav e n ' t , did you last wear, wore, left 5 has just left, has be e n, has nev er boug h t 6 left, did he go, didn' t see, went 7 serv e d, did that war begin, beg a n , last e d 8 did you vote, vote d, wasn' t, was, lost 9 did you like, liked, quarr elle d, dis mis s e d , were, was 10 didn' t know, knew, hav e you known, hav e known 11 has n' t had, hav e bee n 12 did you hear, did, did you think 13 didn't know, were, hav e you bee n, hav e bee n, hav e you bee n, went 14 hav e you tried, tried, found, start e d 15 hav e you see n, has anyt hin g happ e n e d , hav e esca p e d 16 has Mary fed, fed, did she give, gav e 17 hav e you known, hav e known, did he do, cam e , was 18 hav e you see n, has n' t be e n boug h t 19 has the plumb e r bee n, staye d , did he do, turn e d , emp ti e d 20 hav e you be e n, hav e be e n, did you enjoy, took, did you win, ca m e 21 has that bee n, has bee n, hav e writte n, has bee n 22 hav e just bee n, hav e you see n, hav e n ' t, hav e n ' t read, read, was, did Tolstoy write, wrote, did he write 23 broug h t , did he do, want e d 24 hav e you be e n, hav e be e n, did he take, did, did it hurt 25 said, has n' t phon e d 26 hav e just receive d , hav e n ' t paid, didn't I give, did, spe n t/ h a v e spen t 27 hav e you be e n, hav e just start e d , did you find, answ e r e d 28 hav e you finish e d, hav e don e 29 hav e cut, did it hap p e n , slippe d 30 did you get, got 31 did you me e t , did, had 32 lost, has bee n, did he lose, was 33 has be e n, did you see, happ e n e d , ran 34 phon e d , got 35 did not wear, hav e worn 36 has be e n, hav e just take n, has boug h t Exerci s e 42 Affirma tiv e: the answ e r in eac h cas e is hav e/ h a s + b e e n + pres e n t participle, e.g. I hav e bee n making Negativ e: hav e / h a s + not + b e e n + pres e n t participle, e.g. 16 hav e n ' t be e n eatin g Interro g a tiv e : ha v e / h a s + subject + b e e n + pres e n t participle, e.g. 6 hav e you bee n doing


13 Pres e n t participles are as follows: 1 making 2 ringing 3 overworking 4 cutting 5 looking 6 doing, working 7 stud ying 8 waiting 9 raining 10 arguin g 11 bat hin g 12 driving 13 wearing 14 saying 15 trying 16 eatin g 17 spe akin g 18 flying 19 playing 20 shoppin g 21 living 22 eatin g 23 looking 24 leaking 25 digging, helping 26 asking 27 using 28 driving 29 going 30 snowing 31 crying, peeling 32 making 33 drinking 34 smoking 35 eating 36 trying Exerci s e 43 I hav e walked 2 hav e bee n walking/h a v e walke d 3 hav e bee n walking/h a v e walked 4 hav e be e n making 5 hav e you ma d e , hav e ma d e 6 has eat e n 7 has n' t stop p e d 8 has be e n drinking 9 hav e pulled 10 hav e be e n pulling 11 hav e you bee n doing, hav e bee n picking 12 hav e you picked, hav e picked 13 hav e slept 14 has be e n slee pin g/ h a s slept 15 has bee n riding 16 hav e ridde n 17 has bee n making 18 hav e bee n working/h a v e worked 19 hav e hear d 20 hav e bee n he aring/ h a v e he ar d 21 hav e bee n gre a sin g 22 hav e bee n polishing 23 hav e bee n working/h a v e worke d, has nev er said 24 has bee n teac hin g/ h a s tau g h t 25 hav e taug h t , hav e nev er me t 26 hav e you be e n, hav e be e n pum pin g/ h a v e pu mp e d 27 hav e pum p e d 28 hav e bee n looking/h a v e looke d, hav e n ' t found 29 has be e n coughing/ h a s cough e d 30 hav e you he ar d, hav e known 31 hav e be e n trying, hav e said 32 has bee n soun din g 33 has be e n raining/h a s raine d, has be e n post p o n e d 34 has bee n hoping, has n' t dar e d 35 hav e be e n whisp e rin g, hav e you be e n helping, has he be e n helping 36 hav e you bee n making, hav e lost, hav e be e n trying, hav e bee n throwing Exerci s e 44 1 for 2 for 3 since 4 for 5 for 6 since 7 since 8 since 9 for 10 since 11 for 12 for 13 for 14 for 15 since 16 since 17 for 18 since 19 for 20 since 21 since 22 since 23 for 24 since 25 since 26 since 27 for 28 since 29 since 30 for 3 1 for 32 since 33 for 34 for 35 for 36 since 4 Future forms Exerci s e 45 1 are startin g 2 is making 3 am taking 4 is calling 5 is playing 6 am me e tin g 7 are not startin g 8 are you gettin g, am going, is driving 9 is coming 10 are you giving, am giving Hare being 12 is coming 13 are having, are going 14 are you going, am going 15 is not giving 16 am having 17 am buying 18 are being 19 am having 20 is/ar e me e ti n g 21 are celebr a tin g 22 am lending 23 are returnin g 24 are ope ning 25 are


14 moving 26 am not taking 27 are getting 28 are you doing, am going 29 is flying 30 is starting 3 1 is giving, are you going 32 is being, am me e tin g 33 am catchin g, are you leaving, am not taking 34 is sen din g 35 am going, is taking 36 am lending Exerci s e 46 Affirma tiv e: the answ e r in eac h cas e is am/is/ ar e + going to + infinitive, e.g. I are going to miss Negativ e answ e r s : am /i s / a r e + not + goi n g to + infinitive, e.g. 22 am not going to do Interro g a tiv e answ e r s : is/are + subject + goi n g to + infinitive, e.g. 3 are you going to pay Exerci s e 47 (b e goi n g to is possible in all the s e sent e n c e s , but wher e the pres e n t continu o u s tens e is given in the key, that is the bett e r one to us e.) 1 am playing 2 is having 3 am going to light 4 are having 5 is being, are you putting, am putting 6 are you going, am going, am not buying/ a m not going to buy 7 am not going to do Sam having 9 is coming, are you puttin g, am puttin g 10 is startin g II am spen din g 12 is going to build 13 are you going to tell, am going to tell 14 is startin g 15 is ope ning 16 is spe a kin g 17 is closing 18 are you having, am having 19 am collecting 20 are taking 21 am giving 22 is singing 23 is going, is he flying, is going 24 is seein g 25 is he going to was h 26 is ringing 27 is going to ask 28 are giving, are inviting 29 is playing, is playing 30 are launching, are you coming 31 are you going to do 32 am picking 33 are you going, am going, is calling 34 am comp e tin g 35 isn't coming 36 am going to rea d Exerci s e 48 Affirma tiv e answ er s : 1st pers o n will/shall + infinitive, 2nd and 3rd pers o n will + infinitive, e.g. I will/shall know Negativ e answ e r s : as abov e with not . e.g. 7 will not/won' t catch Interro g a tiv e answ e r s : as abov e with will/ s h a ll + subject + infinitive, e.g. 2 will you be Exerci s e 49 (shall can be replac e d by will in thes e answ e r s . Contr ac tio n s ma y be used.) 1 shall recog niz e 2 will see/ a m seein g (' am seeing ' implies a definite arra n g e m e n t ) 3 is playing 4 is coming 5 am going 6 shall know 7 shall owe 8 shall believ e 9 am having 10 will hav e His being/will be 12 is coming 13 is catching 14 are you me e ti n g, am me e ti n g 15 are you riding/will you ride 16 will Mrs Pitt say, won't mind 17 will it ma t t e r 18 won't forget 19 is leaving 20 shall rem e m b e r 21


15 will bre ak 22 will nev er forgive 23 will like 24 are laying 25 will see 26 will grow 27 will und e r s t a n d 28 will scratc h 29 shall be 30 won't pas s 31 is going 32 am moving 33 will soon forge t 34 will wait 35 won't write 36 will be Exerci s e 50 (s h a ll can be replac e d by will. Contra c tion s may be use d.) 1 will go 2 will telep h o n e 3 will send 4 am going to learn 5 are you going to do 6 will call, will transla t e 7 are you going to buy, am not going to eat, am going to eat 8 are you going to red e c or a t e 9 am going to chan g e , will help 10 are you going to put 11 am going to put 12 are you going to do, am going to be 13 am going to short e n 14 won't lend 15 will cut 16 am going to att e n d 17 will ask 18 am going to open 19 is going to take 20 will ask 21 am going to get 22 am going to dev elo p 23 will mak e 24 are going to tow 25 am going to give up/a m giving up 26 will say 27 will lend 28 are going to raffle 29 are going to clear 30 will me n d 31 will give 32 am going to mak e 33 am going to short e n 34 am going to buy 35 are you going to do 36 am going to give Exerci s e 5 1 1 will you ope n 2 are you going to do 3 are you going to paint 4 will you rea d 5 are you going to eat 6 are n' t you going to climb 7 will you listen 8 will you put 9 will you hav e 10 are you going to mak e 11 are n' t you going to answ e r 12 will you com e 13 are you really going to read 14 are you going to buy, will you buy 15 will you lend, are you going to fish 16 are you going to finish 17 will you give, are you going to mak e 18 are you going to leav e 19 are you going to bath, will you help 20 will you drive 21 are you going to ride 22 are you going to eat 23 will you hav e 24 are you really going to call 25 are you going to paint 26 will you be read y 27 will you sit 28 will you do 29 will you be angry 30 are you going to work 31 will you call 32 are you going to walk 33 will you sign 34 are you going to give 35 are you going to explore 36 will you cook Exerci s e 52 Form of affirma tiv e answ e r: sh all or will (1 1) as appro pria t e + b e + pres e n t participle, e.g. I shall/will be sitting. Negativ e answ e r: 19 won't be looking. Interro g a tiv e answ e r s : 23 will the childre n be doing 26 will the tide be doing Ex e rcis e 53 (shall can be replac e d by will in thes e answ e r s . Contr ac tio n s ma y be used.) 1 will be walking 2 will walk 3 shall be bathing 4 will was h 5 shall be doing 6 shall be working/ a m working 7 will hav e 8 will be looking 9 shall be thinking/s h all think 10 will ass e m bl e 11 will me e t , shall I recog nize, will be wearing 12 will leav e, shall be


16 going/ a m going 13 will be deb a tin g/ a r e deb a tin g 14 will go 15 will be working 16 will post, shall be going/ a m going 17 will be dancing/will danc e 18 will be letting off . . . and making/will let off . . . and mak e 19 will rem ai n 20 shall be sitting, won't be rea din g 21 will be going/will go 22 will be chan gin g/will chan g e 23 will come 24 will bring 25 shall all be living 26 will be going/will go 27 shall not be playing 28 will be ope ning/will ope n 29 will drive 30 shall be ent erin g 31 will han d 32 will be arriving/will arrive 33 will be leaving 34 will be using . . . and leaving/will use. . . and leav e 35 will bring, will catch 36 will put ' Exerci s e 54 (In thes e answ e r s I/w e w o n't can be replac e d by I am not goi n g to/ w e ar e not goi n g to without any chan g e in me a ni n g . It is also gra m m a t i c ally possible to replac e you / h e / t h e y w o n't by the goi n g to form, but this would mak e the neg a tiv e much less emp h a tic , sh a n ' t is replac e a bl e by w o n't .) 1 won't help 2 won't be me e ti n g 3 won't cut 4 won't be cutting 5 won't be coming/is n' t coming 6 won't come 7 won't lend 8 won't be spe a kin g/is n' t spe akin g 9 won't work 10 sha n' t be working 11 won't hav e 12 sha n' t be teac hin g/ a m not teac hin g 13 won't spe a k 14 sha n' t be writing 15 won't feed 16 won't go 17 won't paint 18 sha n' t be taking 19 won't borrow 20 won't wash 21 sha n' t be using 22 won't send 23 won't play 24 won't be singing/isn' t singing 25 won't play 26 won't be taking part/is n' t taking part 27 won't eat 28 shan ' t be eating 29 won't ride 30 won't be riding/isn' t riding 31 won't give 32 won't be drinking 33 won't ope n 34 won't tell 35 won't eat 36 won't be wearing Exerci s e 55 1 are you going to feed 2 are you letting/ a r e you going to let/will you be letting 3 will you light 4 are you wearing/ a r e you going to wear/will you be wearing 5 will you wear 6 will you com e 7 will you hav e 8 are you having/ a r e you going to hav e 9 are you going to study/will you be studying 10 will you be spe a kin g 11 will you turn 12 Any one of the four forms is possible her e: 'Will you take ' implies that the ma t t e r has not yet bee n decid e d and that the spe ak e r is offering a choice of dat e s . The other forms would imply that the ma t t e r has alre a d y be e n arra n g e d and that the spe ak e r is mer ely asking for inform a tio n. 13 will you be listenin g/ a r e you going to listen 14 will you help 15 will you be stayin g 16 will you lend 17 are you me e ti n g/ a r e you going to me e t /will you be me e ti n g 18 will you com e 19 will you hav e 20 will you transla t e 21 will you be using/ ar e you using/ ar e you going to use 22 will you be going/ ar e you going, will you get 23 will you com e 24 will you be pas sin g/ a r e you going to pas s/ ar e you pas sin g, shall be spen din g/ a m going to spe n d / a m spen din g, will you get 25 are you going to keep 26 are you trav elling/ ar e you going to trav el 27 are you going to rep air 28 will


17 you hold 29 are you going/will you be going 30 will you kindly explain 31 will you recog nize 32 are you sendin g/ a r e you going to sen d 33 will you tell 34 are you going/will you be going 35 are you going to type/will you be typing 36 will you stop Exerci s e 56 (will an d will not may be contr a c t e d . ) 1 shall/will 2 will 3 shall 4 shall 5 shall 6 shall 7 shall 8 will 9 shall 10 shall 11 shall 12 will 13 shall 14 shall 15 will 16 will 17 will 18 shall/will 19 will, will 20 shall 21 will 22 shall 23 will 24 shall 25 will, shall/will 26 will 27 shall, will 28 will 29 shall/will 30 shall/will 31 shall 32 won't, won't 33 will 34 shall 35 will, will 36 shall/will Exerci s e 57 (will and shall may be contr a c t e d . ) 1 retur n s 2 are 3 strikes 4 he ars 5 shall/will hav e 6 com e s 7 turn 8 gets 9 won't start 10 goes 11 will see 12 will be 13 shall/will lend 14 will wake 15 will he ring 16 goes 17 is 18 shall/will give, com e s 19 see 20 get 2 1 shall/will go 22 hav e 23 will fall 24 goes 25 arrives 26 lifts 27 will go on 28 will beco m e 29 won't mov e 30 will goon 3 1 learns 32 leap 33 shall/will hav e 34 get 35 begins 36 arrives Exerci s e 58 Answers will all be: hav e + pas t participle of the verb in brack e t s , shall can be use d inste a d of will for the 1st pers o n, e.g. I will/shall hav e take n , will can be contr a c t e d to 'll . Exerci s e 59 (Contr a c tio n s may be use d.) 1 hav e take n 2 hav e finishe d/finish 3 hav e had 4 hav e be e n 5 goes/h a s gone 6 gets/h a s got 7 has don e 8 hav e don e 9 will see 10 hav e had 11 shall/will take 12 go 13 hav e see n 14 goes/h a s gon e 15 won't let 16 shall/will let 17 see s 18 won't he ar 19 has pas s e d / p a s s e s 20 has sold 21 hav e swep t/ s w e e p 22 will get 23 will give 24 says 25 hav e retur n e d /r e t u r n 26 has be e n 27 hav e sign e d 28 won't know 29 hav e subsid e d/ s u b si d e 30 has left 31 shall/will hav e 32 hav e had 33 shall/will stay 34 hav e ma d e 35 has eat e n 36 will come /co m e Exerci s e 60 (should is replac e a bl e by would in nos. 6, 14, 26, 27, 30.) 1 would 2 would 3 should 4 would 5 would 6 should 7 should 8 would, would 9 should 10 would 11 should 12 would 13 would 14 should 15 should 16 would 17 should 18 would, would 19 should 20 would 21 should 22 should 23 should 24 should 25 should 26 should 27 should 28 would 29 should 30 should/wo uld, would 31 should 32 should, should 33 would 34 should 35 should 36 should


18 Exerci s e 6 1 1 should, should 2 would 3 should 4 should 5 would, would, would, would 6 should 7 should 8 would, would 9 should, should/w ould 10 should 11 would 12 would, should 13 should 14 should 15 should, would 16 should 17 should 18 would, should 19 should 20 would 2 1 should 22 would 23 should 24 should 25 would, would 26 would 27 should 28 would 29 should 30 should, should, would 31 should 32 should 33 should/wo uld, would 34 would, would 35 should 36 would, would 5 Conditionals Exerci s e 62 1 will give 2 stan d 3 eat s 4 will telep h o n e 5 will arres t 6 read s 7 will ste al 8 does n ' t open 9 was h e s 10 nee d s II don't go 12 mak e s 13 is 14 he ars 15 will mak e 16 will bury 17 won't be 18 does n ' t start 19 won't let or don' t let (habit) 20 goes 21 sells 22 will you rep a y 23 rises 24 works 25 turns/will turn 26 burns 27 don't like 28 will hav e 29 see 30 will you pro mis e 31 don' t believ e 32 likes 33 will mak e 34 sha n' t/w o n ' t be able 35 knows 36 ring Exercis e 63 1 would type 2 knew 3 would look 4 playe d 5 wouldn' t mak e 6 were 7 had 8 would you visit 9 gav e 10 would buy 11 clean e d 12 would you be able 13 didn't belon g 14 won 15 would you do 16 knew 17 gav e 18 stopp e d 19 wouldn' t come 20 saw 21 would/s h o uld be 22 would not be bitte n 23 had 24 did 25 would grow 26 re mo v e d 27 would kee p 28 lived 29 bann e d / w e r e to ban 30 would offer 31 got 32 paint e d 33 chan g e d 34 would you spe n d 35 had 36 was n' t Exerci s e 64 (s h o u l d in the following answ e r s ma y be replac e d by w o ul d ; contr a c tio n s may be use d in the affirma tiv e and neg a tiv e.) 1 should hav e visited 2 would hav e won 3 had arrive d 4 had be e n 5 should hav e bee n 6 had not see n 7 would hav e fallen 8 would you hav e acce p t e d 9 had had 10 had known 11 should hav e offere d 12 would not hav e stun g 13 had realized 14 should hav e stopp e d 15 should hav e reach e d 16 should not hav e lent 17 had not sne e z e d 18 had put 19 would not hav e got 20 would not hav e tried 21 had spoke n 22 would not hav e bee n 23 had known 24 had tried 25 would not hav e got 26 would not hav e put 27 had be e n 28 would hav e com e 29 would not hav e turn e d 30 had looked 31 would hav e be e n capt ur e d 32 had tried 33 should hav e take n 34 would hav e save d 35 had not called 36 would not hav e


19 burnt Exerci s e 65 (In the affirm a tiv e and neg a tiv e sh all and sh o u l d can be; replac e d by will and w ou l d res p e c tiv ely; and contr a c tion s ma y be use d. sh o u l d in sent e n c e s 1, 7, 11 how ev e r does not chan g e .) 1 find/s ho uld find 2 shall hav e 3 will happ e n 4 had had 5 will you stay 6 would you choos e 7 gets/s h o ul d get 8 come s 9 will sit 10 didn' t talk II shall/sho uld I do 12 had read 13 had 14 shall go 15 would you do 16 run 17 will not be 18 com e s 19 would not hav e 20 had worn 21 leave s 22 will fall 23 don' t chan g e 24 should not hav e boug h t 25 hung 26 would be able to/could 27 should hav e brou g h t 28 would hav e be e n 29 would not hav e printe d 30 should not buy 31 want 32 won't be 33 would jump 34 would answ e r 35 had ma d e 36 had known Exerci s e 66 Open- end e d sent e n c e s . No answ e r s given. Exerci s e 67 1 could I spe a k 2 spe a kin g 3 could you com e and do 4 couldn' t 5 could com e 6 could you com e 7 could get, would 8 wouldn' t, would, leav e 9 thoug h t you said 10 could get, couldn' t mak e 11 having, does n ' t like 12 is always trying, cleanin g, thinks/s a ys 13 does she want/wo uld she like you to do 14 would like/w a n t s me to work 15 says/t hinks it would be 16 worke d, would know 17 are you really thinking 18 like, like 19 would get 20 would Wedn e s d a y suit 21 would, to come 22 will, let 23 will, won't 24 will, do

6 Infinitive Exerci s e 68 1 do 2 sing 3 to swim 4 to live 5 to go, rain 6 say, und e r s t a n d 7 to see 8 rep e a t 9 use 10 ask, use 11 to get, start 12 rem e m b e r 13 to do 14 to go, wait 15 leave 16 open 17 (to) argu e 18 to smok e 19 (to) mov e 20 play 21 to acce p t 22 to arrive 23 know 24 wait 25 tell 26 send 27 go, to me e t 28 to hav e 29 leav e, want, to take 30 to go, mak e, go 31 go, to visit 32 to know, to live 33 not to inform, (to) disob e y 34 come , stay 35 take, mak e , drink 36 to disap p oin t, let, hav e Exerci s e 69 1 to be 2 wish to mak e 3 want, to know 4 rem e m b e r , look 5 to learn, to know 6 to be 7 not to feed 8 see, to spe a k 9 to trav el, to arrive 10 know, to use, show 11 to sign 12 ope n/o p e ni n g , mov e/ m o vin g 13 to


20 mak e , believ e 14 to hav e miss e d, go 15 shak e/ s h a ki n g 16 to try, to com e 17 go, pro mis e , not to tell 18 like to come , walk 19 to ask, to tell, to get 20 to put, (to) kee p 21 to read, answ e r 22 show, to ope n 23 say, to say 24 to be 25 want, to tell, to call, to discus s 26 to give, see/ b e seeing, not to forge t 27 ope n/o p e ni n g , throw/t hro win g 28 to carry, help 29 to pick, to handle 30 rash/cr a s hin g, burst/b u r s tin g 31 to do, wait, to let 32 crow/crowing 33 tell, be, to check 34 come , go, be/h a v e bee n 35 to learn 36 be, look Exerci s e 70 No answ e r s given. Exerci s e 71 1 too youn g to hav e 2 too cold to bat h e 3 so kind as to answ e r/kind enou g h to answ e r 4 too old to wear 5 long enou g h to reach 6 enou g h mon e y to live on 7 too furious to spe a k 8 hot enou g h to boil 9 foolish enou g h to tell/so foolish as to tell 10 thin enou g h to slip 11 too ill to eat 12 too wide to get throu g h 13 stron g enou g h to danc e on 14 too terrified to mov e 15 big enou g h to har m 16 stron g enou g h to kee p 17 too dee p to wad e 18 too lazy to get up 19 early enou g h to catch 20 so good as to forward/ g o o d enou g h to forward 21 thick enou g h to walk on 22 too drunk to answ e r 23 too cold to hav e 24 ras h enou g h to set off/so ras h as to set off 25 high enou g h to see 26 old enou g h to und er s t a n d 27 too snob bis h to talk 28 too thick to pus h throu g h 29 too me a n to give 30 too impa ti e n t to listen 31 too tired to walk 32 not dark enou g h to see 33 hot enou g h to fry 34 too bitter to eat 35 so kind as to turn down/kind enou g h to turn down 36 too selfish to put Exerci s e 72 1 to leav e 2 only to find 3 You are to go 4 so kind as to lend/kind enou g h to lend 5 to me n d / t o be me n d e d 6 to he ar 7 for him to hear 8 It was stupid of me to be rude 9 to play with 10 for everyo n e to know 11 to sit 12 only to find 13 It was very brav e of him to rush 14 to wear 15 He is exp e c t e d to broa d c a s t 16 to cook in 17 only to learn 18 to ope n it with 19 see m s to hav e be e n com mit t e d 20 Is he likely to arrive 21 just abou t to leav e 22 You are to be me t 23 for the m to hav e 24 He is said to hav e be e n 25 to continu e the strike 26 kind enou g h to transla t e / s o kind as to tran sl a t e 27 for us to leav e 28 It was stupid of you to sign 29 She is said to hav e 30 to swim 31 He is believ e d to be 32 He app e a r s to hav e bee n killed 33 to realize 34 The eart h is said to hav e bee n 35 only to discov er 36 The murd e r e r is said to be hiding Exerci s e 73 (s h o u l d is replac e a bl e by ou g h t to.) 1 mus t hav e be e n 2 can't/co uld n' t hav e see n, mus t hav e dre a m t 3 may/ mig h t hav e broke n


21 4 ne e d n ' t hav e carried 5 should hav e gon e 6 were to hav e be e n 7 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n, mus t hav e bee n 8 shouldn' t hav e eat e n 9 may/ mig h t not hav e und e r s t o o d 10 nee d n ' t hav e given 11 mus t hav e esca p e d 12 shouldn' t hav e lied 13 may/ mig h t hav e bee n, can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n 14 mus t hav e cooke d 15 ne e d n ' t hav e broug h t 16 mus t hav e told 17 was to hav e unveiled 18 may/ mig h t hav e bee n 19 mus t hav e met 20 should hav e don e 21 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e caug h t 22 ne e d n ' t hav e ope n e d 23 mus t hav e betr a y e d 24 shouldn' t hav e driven 25 could hav e climb e d 26 would hav e ask e d 27 should hav e bee n abolish e d 28 shouldn' t/ n e e d n ' t hav e boiled 29 was to hav e playe d 30 ma y/ mi g h t hav e bee n 31 should hav e take n 32 mus t hav e had 33 may/ mig h t/ c o uld hav e fallen 34 mus t hav e be e n 35 nee d n ' t hav e transla t e d 36 shouldn' t hav e looked Exerci s e 74 (I'd is replac e a bl e by I sh o u l d , sh o u l d (obligation) is replac e a bl e by ou g h t to in nos. 5, 9, 13, 17. m a y / m i g h t in the affirma tiv e is norm ally replac e a bl e by co ul d . ) 1 was to hav e marrie d 2 ne e d n ' t hav e rep e a t e d 3 see m s to hav e bee n 4 were to hav e set out 5 shouldn' t hav e eat e n , ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n (may indicat e s that the dang e r is still pres e n t ; mig h t that it is over). 6 mus t hav e worke d 7 ne e d n ' t hav e brou g h t 8 I'd like to hav e bat h e d /I' d hav e liked to bath e /I'd hav e liked to hav e bath e d 9 should hav e writte n 10 wouldn' t hav e com e 11 might/s h o uld hav e told, would hav e gon e, wouldn' t hav e liked 12 ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n, can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n 13 ne e d n ' t/ s h o uld n ' t hav e boug h t 14 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n 15 see m s to hav e enjoye d 16 mus t hav e bee n 17 should hav e stood 18 was to hav e gone 19 I'd like to hav e photo g r a p h e d /I' d hav e liked to photo gr a p h /I'd hav e liked to hav e photo g r a p h e d 20 mus t hav e be e n 21 ma y/ mi g h t hav e bee n 22 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n driving 23 mus t hav e take n 24 may/ mig h t not hav e 25 I'd like to hav e gon e/I'd hav e liked to go/I'd hav e liked to hav e gon e 26 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e see n 27 may hav e bee n 28 may/ mig h t hav e bee n start e d 29 mus t hav e had 30 may/ mig h t hav e read, can' t/co uld n' t hav e rea d, mus t hav e told 31 may/ mig h t hav e bee n waiting 32 mus t hav e mish e a r d 33 might hav e borrow e d 34 I'd like to hav e aske d/I'd hav e liked to ask/I'd hav e liked to hav e aske d 35 mus t hav e bee n 36 is said to hav e be e n 7 Gerund, infinitive and participles Exerci s e 76 1 seein g 2 having 3 to me e t 4 to work 5 to see 6 waiting 7 not to touch 8 to lock, going 9 not to spe a k 10 beh a vin g II to explain, to listen 12 smoking 13 to know 14 to disguis e, dres sin g 15 to wait 16 showing, to work 17 walking, catch up 18 to und e r s t a n d 19 exce e di n g 20 playing, doing 2 1 to inform 22 overh e a ri n g 23 smoking, to smok e 24 going, saying 25


22 writing, waiting 26 to avoid being 27 giving, to spe ak 28 to pers u a d e , to agre e 29 cleanin g, to be clea n e d , to do 30 shuttin g, sitting 31 sne ezin g, sitting 32 talking, to finish 33 to give up jogging 34 stoppin g, forget tin g to wind 35 realizing, helping 36 to mak e, rubbing Exerci s e 77 1 answ e rin g, ring 2 letting, chas e , being 3 driving, being driven 4 to start looking 5 lending, to cas h 6 Lying, sitting 7 to go 8 neglec ting to take 9 to show, to use 10 going, to see/s e e i n g 11 telep h o nin g, asking, to look 12 hearin g, not to ent e r 13 to hav e, writing 14 to answ e r, replying 15 to explain, to listen, gru m bling 16 offering, to leave, (to) work 17 making, to do 18 having to get up 19 to forge t, worrying 20 rem ainin g, to help, to stay 21 to run, to hav e recov er e d 22 listenin g, hearin g 23 to learn, rea din g, listenin g 24 to start, to wait 25 discus sin g, having reach e d 26 having, to ride 27 (to) leav e, me e ti n g, recog nize 28 paying 29 to give 30 interru p tin g, rep e a tin g 31 cutting, to go 32 buying, selling 33 giving, to explain 34 asking, telling, to buy 35 to tell, looking 36 to be, to erupt/ e r u p tin g Exerci s e 78 1 to ride, to do, coming, to com e 2 spen din g, earning 3 being, to apologize 4 to eat 5 working, spen din g 6 looking, being 7 posting 8 to lock, go, do 9 to learn, saying 10 trying to interru p t , to wait, talking 11 doing, to mov e/ m o vin g 12 leaving, to go 13 to drink 14 being, to wait 15 trying to mak e , addin g 16 going, stay 17 to look, (to) take, looking, to do 18 gettin g up, walking 19 listenin g, listenin g 20 to mak e/ m a ki n g , to see 21 doing 22 to put, to prev e n t , climbing 23 taking, to eat 24 ringing, asking, to do 25 waiting, to clear, to set 26 rep e a t , to mak e, to do 27 leaving, sen ding, to tow 28 borrowing, asking, to do 29 to offend, annoyin g 30 to be able to tell, gazing 31 getting, to walk 32 to ask, to leav e 33 setting, having bee n 34 to go 35 to go, (to) try to sav e, cutting 36 earn, scrub bin g, mak e , black m ailing Exerci s e 79 1 beginning to slip/be gin to slip/be gin slipping, to save, falling 2 falling, trying to keep 3 to lend, taking 4 to open 5 rea din g, to rea d 6 to book, to keep, to lose 7 to avoid being, being/to be, waiting 8 to get, to ask 9 making, spe a k/ s p e a ki n g 10 to win, che a tin g 11 firing/to fire, graz e 12 strike/s triking, to get 13 ringing/ring, to be coming to ope n 14 to go, to give 15 to put, (to) watch, chan g e / c h a n g i n g 16 to see, to avoid hitting 17 to be, crackling 18 climbing, to explain, to say, to let, go 19 convincing, to get, leap 20 driving, doing, to do 21 to sit, (to) hear, howling 22 getting, climbing, to do 23 roar/ro a rin g, to mov e/ m o vi n g, waving 24 writing, to do, to go,


23 see 25 walking, to cross, thinking, to chas e 26 to be having, thud din g 27 getting, to pay 28 to com e , sta n din g 29 to like making and flying . . . doing 30 to arrive, rising 31 sawing, fall/falling 32 to see/s e ei n g , crying/cry 33 jump/ju m pi n g , fall/falling 34 to wake, (to) he ar, be a tin g 35 beginnin g to roll/be gin to roll/begin rolling, to do, to stop 36 laughin g, slipping/slip Exerci s e 80 1 Knowing that he was poor, I offere d 2 Having barrica d e d the window s, we ass e m b l e d 3 Beco min g tired of my complain t s , she turn e d it off 4 Finding/h a vin g found no one at hom e , he left 5 Hoping to find the will, she searc h e d 6 Having remov e d all trac e s of his crime, he left 7 Realizing that he had miss e d the train, he beg a n 8 Exhau s t e d by his work, he threw 9 Having spen t all his mon e y, he decid e d 10 Having esc a p e d from prison, he looke d 11 Having hear d the story befor e, she didn' t want 12 Having found the mon e y, they beg a n 13 Entering the roo m sudd e nly, she found 14 Turning on the light, I was 15 Having visite d the mus e u m , we decid e d 16 Thinking we were lost, he offere d 17 Having found his revolver and load e d it, he sat 18 Realizing that she couldn' t mov e it alon e, she aske d 19 Having fed the dog, he sat 20 Addres sin g the congr e g a tio n, he said 21 Thinking he had ma d e a mist ak e som e w h e r e , he went 22 Looking/h a vin g looked throu g h the fashion ma g a zin e s , I realize 23 The tre e, uproot e d by the gale, had fallen 24 People slee pin g in the next roo m were 25 Knowing that the murd e r e r was still at large, I was 26 Having stolen the silver, he looked 27 Soake d to the skin, we reach e d 28 Sitting/S e a t e d in the front row, and using . . . I saw 29 . . . sitting by the fire, you will take 30 Knowing that . . . , I didn' t like 31 Believing that she could trust him, she gav e 32 Slate s , rippe d off by the gale, fell 33 The lion, finding his cag e door open and seeing no sign of his keep e r , left 34 The gover n m e n t , trying to tax peopl e according to the size of their hous e s , once put a tax 35 Having hear d that the cave s were dang e r o u s , I didn't like 36 Wearing extr e m e l y fashion a bl e cloth e s and surrou n d e d by photo g r a p h e r s and pres s me n, she swep t Exerci s e 81 I When leaving a car . . . you mus t leav e the brak e s 2 As/When I was wading etc. or Wading acros s . . . I was swept off my feet by 3 When a tank is being filled/Wh e n you are filling a tank 4 Running into the roo m, she caug h t her foot on a rug and fell 5 When I read the letter 6 When carrying . . . you should nev er point it 7 When plantin g . . . you mus t take care 8 In his first race, the hors e he was riding fell 9 When paying by cheq u e , you mus t show 10 Knowing me to be . . ., he was asto nis h e d to he ar that II As he


24 believ e d that 12 As I pas s e d / or As/Whe n I was pas sing 13 When I am rea ding/Wh e n I rea d 14 As he left 15 I led the dog, barking furiously, out 16 After I had paid my taxe s , the amo u n t 17 As I was writing 18 The boat, tied to a post, was being toss e d up and down by the sea 19 As the ques tio n had bee n misun d e r s t o o d , the wrong answ e r 20 We saw the first star, shining in the sky 21 It is eas y to hav e an accide n t when one is/you are driving 22 The ma n saw a notice pinn e d to the door 23 They rea d the words ' No Entry ' writte n in 24 While he was clea ning his gun it went off 25 When/As I was wond erin g wher e to go, an adv er tis e m e n t 26 As I rush e d out of the hous e , a lorry 27 As I sat by the fire, it al l com e s back 28 We thou g h t he would nev er survive after falling from 29 When a fuse is being chan g e d , the electricity . . . or When you are chan gin g a fuse you should switch 30 I saw a trailer with a boat on it being tow e d behind 31 As he was sitting at the foot . . . a ston e fell 32 The road was blocke d by a hug e tre e (which had bee n) uproot e d 33 When he drov e to work the traffic jams infuriat e d him 34 As I sat in the dentis t' s chair an idea 35 I felt sure that . . . would kill him, weak e n e d as he was by his last illnes s 36 A scorpion bit him as he got out of bed 8 Passive Exerci s e 82 I wine should be ope n e d . . . before it is used 2 step s had bee n cut 3 my shoe s had bee n clean e d and my suit brus h e d 4 room is use d 5 nails mus t not be ha m m e r e d 6 pigs are use d 7 a light was switch e d on and the door ope n e d 8 pictur e had bee n slas h e d 9 the a t r e is being pulled down 10 wasn' t the roof me n d e d 11 All the shop window s were broke n 12 syst e m was being start e d bec a u s e books were not being retur n e d 13 each of us was aske d 14 refres h m e n t s will be serv e d 15 bicycles mus t not be left 16 books may be kept . . . they mus t be retur n e d 17 hole had bee n cut 18 it is being deliver e d 19 he has alre a d y bee n told 20 bells were rung 21 nothing can be don e unles s we are given mor e 22 far more is being spe n t on food now tha n was spen t 23 painting s will be exhibit e d 24 nothing mor e will be said . . . if the . - . gun is retur n e d 25 he was told 26 My dog was stolen and broug h t back only when a Đˆ20 rew ar d was offere d. 27 he was given two weeks 28 flowers are ma d e Exerci s e 83 I seals are fed 2 who was it writte n by? 3 comp a r e cloth e s was h e d by us with cloth e s was h e d by any oth er 4 he exp e c t e d to be offere d 5 she was shown 6 oak was struck by lightning 7 it couldn' t hav e bee n paint e d by T. bec a u s e that kind of dres s was n' t worn 8 she was stun g by a jellyfish 9 special edition for . . . has be e n writte n 10 herbs use d to be carried by judg e s 11 what was it writte n


25 with? It was writte n with 12 shot was succe e d e d by an une a s y silenc e 13 were you inter e s t e d by the idea? 14 he was given det ails 15 da m s are ma d e by beav e r s 16 engin e s use d to be start e d by hand, now they are start e d by electricity 17 this was oppos e d by mos t people 18 a lot of the work is being don e by stud e n t s 19 dock was to hav e be e n open e d by the PM 20 They reco m m e n d that new factories should be open e d 21 a lot of me n will be ma d e redu n d a n t by the closur e 22 instruction s could be und er s t o o d by anyo n e 23 children . . . will not be ad mit t e d 24 ship is to be ma n n e d by boys 25 cam p was flood e d by a rainst or m 26 He was kept aw ak e all night by the howling 27 They sugg e s t e d that the tes ts shou ld be ma d e 28 All this da m a g e couldn' t hav e bee n done by children Exerci s e 84 I why don' t you get an oculist to tes t your eye s ? 2 the aut h oritie s are to introd uc e this . . . limit 3 they are lengt h e ni n g the runw a ys 4 nurs e s are wake nin g patie n t s 5 peopl e say that B. lived 6 British fisher m e n mus t offer any sturg e o n that they catch to the Quee n 7 som e o n e has alter e d this notice 8 squ a t t e r s hav e bee n using their hous e b o a t 9 they were towing the . . . ship 10 get a builder to put in a lift 11 The firm ma d e a profit . . . but a loss of . . . which they ma d e . . . canc elle d this 12 gue s t s will wear eve nin g dres s 13 the aut h oritie s put the ship . . . and forba d e pas s e n g e r s and crew 14 we shall hav e to find som e o n e 15 They ma d e him surre n d e r his pas s p or t 16 our oppo n e n t s mus t hav e start e d 17 the New Arts Gallery is to exhibit my painting s 18 exp er t s hav e prove d that this scientific theory is false 19 they are to salva g e the car which the wind blew 20 police are guar din g the hous e wher e they found the de a d ma n to prev e n t anyo n e from ent erin g it and interfering with the evide n c e 21 why didn' t you eith er lock the car or put it 22 people are saying that the gover n m e n t is spen din g too little mon e y 23 you could put your mon e y to good use inste a d of leaving it idle 24 people believ e d that the eart h was flat 25 no one has rea d this copy: no one has cut the pag e s 26 the police led aw ay the stud e n t who threw the ston e s 27 people say that early Egyptia n and Greek sailors use d carrier pigeo n s 28 a stron g police guar d was escorting the refer e e 9 Indirect speech Exerci s e 85 (In ma n y of the s e exa m pl e s oth er prono u n s would be equ ally correct.) 1 told her I had . . . to show her 2 said nothing grew in her gard e n . . . it nev er got 3 told his moth e r he was going away the next day 4 said he had bee n . . . he had n' t had 5 re m a rk e d that it wasn' t so foggy that day as it had bee n the day


26 before 6 said that the und er p a s s was being open e d two days later 7 said they had mov e d into their flat but they didn' t like it . . . their last one 8 said they had . . . it didn' t work 9 said that . . . window s of his flat he could see 10 said she' d no idea what the time was but she' d dial 11 his wife had just bee n ma d e 12 said she' d com e with me . . . she was 13 said he had . . . that aftern o o n ... he had n' t don e his hom e w o rk 14 warn e d her if she let . . . she would scorch her cloth e s 15 point e d out I hadn ' t given him . . . bill was . . . I'd paid him 16 English m e n ma d e . . . they were 17 she liked me n . . . she didn't like the m . . . She preferr e d . . . me n looke d silly 18 The report stat e d that the new Rolls Royce ran . . . all you could he ar was . . . The Managing Director replied that they' d hav e 19 said she didn' t know . . . her plums. She suppo s e d (said she suppo s e d ) she' d hav e to . . . trouble was no one in her family ate 20 explain e d they liked working . . . they got 21 that he was . . . and he did all his own 22 told Joan she could keep that one if she liked as he had 23 sa id he was going fishing with his moth e r that after n o o n and they were just going 24 told her she had got my umbr ella and that hers was in her bedroo m 25 explain e d to his client that he knew what they had said bec a u s e he had bugg e d 26 said he'd sit up till she cam e in but he hop e d she wouldn' t 27 told me that if I gav e him . . . he' d . . . for me 28 said she had . . . it didn' t see m . . . to her weight 29 said it was . . . and that he used one of the m hims elf 30 said her new hous e was supp o s e d to be . . . but that so far she had n' t see n 31 said that if we answ e r e d all the ques tio n s . . . we might win 32 said that if he pres s e d his ear . . . he could he ar . . . were saying Exerci s e 86 (See not e abov e key to Exercis e 80. Wher e ther e is no introdu c t o r y verb, us e '... said (tha t) . . .')) 1 he had n' t bee n able to get . . . he had lost his key, so he had had to bre ak 2 the mirror was ther e . . . he could see hims elf when he was dancin g 3 told him she had writte n to him two days befor e and wond e r e d why he hadn ' t 4 if the grou n d was dry . . . his hors e might win 5 advis e d me to slow down as ther e was 6 said that if Tom want e d . . . he' d bett e r apply 7 they had walked . . . the previou s night . . . prot e s t abou t their rent. The Minister had be e n . . . had pro mis e d . . . what he could for the m 8 said they should put traffic lights ther e , oth erwis e ther e ' d be 9 told the m it was time they beg a n training for their . . . 10 said to me that if I left . . . I should be ther e 11 if it raine d that aftern o o n it would be . . . the following day 12 told her gues t she had me a n t . . . she had plugg e d . . . She was always doing 13 he had be e n inten din g . . . the next day . . . didn' t think he'd be 14 told Mrs Smith that Bill should do . . . he had don e very well at the school 15 told her hus b a n d she didn' t think his fath er liked her 16 told her the ste ak was . . . and


27 said/a d d e d that he was not complaining but was just pointing . . . she said she wishe d he' d stop 17 report e d that the burglars had n' t be e n able . . . had carried it 18 told me that if I saw her fath e r I'd recog nize him . . . He was 19 he had found . . . the day befor e . . . was going . . . that after n o o n 20 he had got out . . . while he was stan din g . . . the ge ars (had) eng a g e d . . . and the boat had gone/w e n t 21 says he has don e 22 aske d if he would like me to go with him. He said he' d rath e r go . . . or, I offere d to go with him, but he said 23 told me I might take his car if I liked and said he wouldn' t be ne e din g it the next day or the day after that 24 that the previous day Tom and she had gon e/ b e e n to look . . . he was thinking . . . It was rath e r . . . and had a lovely gard e n but Tom had decid e d . . . was opposit e 25 his wife want e d to take . . . he' d rath e r she conc e n t r a t e d on their hom e 26 she didn't know what my fath er would say when he saw . . . my puppie s had ma d e of the Đˆ5 note 27 it was high time I pas s e d my tes t; she was tired 28 said I wishe d she had see n it Exerci s e 87 1 aske d what had happ e n e d 2 aske d which . . . (had) inherit e d 3 aske d who was going 4 aske d what would hap p e n 5 aske d which tea m had won 6 aske d which tea m (had) won 7 aske d who was playing the following week 8 aske d who would be umpiring 9 aske d who want e d 10 aske d who had just dropp e d 11 aske d wher e the . . . office was 12 aske d what she should do with her . . . 13 aske d what platfor m the train left 14 aske d when it arrive d 15 aske d when the time t a bl e had bee n chan g e d 16 aske d why the 2.30 had be e n . . . 17 aske d how muc h a day return cost 18 aske d why the price went up 19 aske d how he could get 20 aske d when they were coming 21 aske d if a return . . . was 22 aske d if puppi e s trav elle d 23 aske d if she could bring her dog . . . with her 24 aske d if the train stop p e d 25 aske d if you could telep h o n e 26 aske d if the 2.40 had 27 aske d if you could get 28 aske d if they broug h t 29 aske d if ther e were 30 aske d if he had Exerci s e 88 I aske d what country I cam e from 2 aske d how long I'd bee n her e 3 aske d if I was working 4 aske d if I had 5 aske d what I was going to study 6 aske d if I had enrolled 7 aske d if I want e d to buy 8 aske d if I had see n 9 aske d if I playe d 10 ask e d if I would hav e 11 aske d if I had playe d for my . . . 12 aske d if I was inter e s t e d 13 aske d if I would like 14 aske d what I thou g h t Each of the following will begin: she ask e d/w a n t e d to now/e n q uir e d 15 how long it had be e n 16 if I liked 17 if he was 18 how ma n y . . . ther e were 19 how big the class e s were 20 if the class e s were 21 what the aca d e m i c stan d a r d was like 22 if par e n t s could visit 23 if ther e was 24 if they taug h t 25 what . . . could the childre n learn 26 if ther e was 27 if they act e d 28 what . . . plays they had don e 29


28 what ga m e s they playe d 30 if the fields were 31 if they were taug h t 32 if the childre n could get 33 if the food was good 34 if ther e was 35 how often it met 36 if our boys had bee n/w e r e happ y Exerci s e 89 (if is interch a n g e a b l e with w h e t h e r condition al sent e n c e s . )

exce p t in

1 ask e d why he was looking 2 aske d who had put . . . in his coffee 3 ask e d which of the m knew 4 aske d why he had trav elled 5 inquire d how she could run in high- heele d shoe s 6 aske d the m what their new hous e was like 7 aske d wher e he was supp o s e d to go 8 aske d him whos e car he had borrow e d the previou s night 9 aske d me what she was/h a d be e n wearing when I saw her last 10 aske d who owne d the revolver 11 aske d Mr J. wher e h e had bee n the previous night 12 ask e d the boy what else he had see n 13 aske d whet h e r he had don e that sort 14 aske d her if she could rea d 15 inquire d whet h e r they had und er s t o o d what I had said to the m 16 aske d the custo m e r if he was being att e n d e d to 17 aske d him if he would go . . . the other s did 18 ask e d Mary if she saw what he saw 19 inquire d who had left 20 aske d him if he had gon e . . . and if he want e d 21 aske d why his hous e was . . . and whet h e r his fath er had bee n 22 aske d if he was leaving that day or the following mornin g 23 aske d how far it was and how long it would take 24 aske d if he could spe a k to Mrs Pitt. The au pair girl answ e r e d that she was afraid she was out and aske d if she could take 25 aske d t he little boy if he was sorry for what he had don e 26 ask e d her if she was going to 27 aske d the woma n if she would mind if he looke d inside her bag 28 aske d the stud e n t if he would know what to do if som e o n e fell at his feet 29 aske d her why she thoug h t it might be 30 aske d him if he knew. . .sho e s he was wearing were n' t Exerci s e 90 (The following are possible answ e r s . Other introdu c t o r y verbs are often possible.) 1 He told her to switch off the TV 2 She told Tom to shut 3 I aske d Mary to lend me her pen 4 I warn e d the m not to watch 5 He warn e d me not to believ e everyt hin g I he ar d 6 aske d me to fill up the 7 I told the m not to hurry 8 warn e d Mary not to touch the switch 9 order e d the bank clerk to open 10 begg e d me to do as he said II told Peter to help his moth e r 12 told the childre n not to mak e 13 told us to do what e v e r we liked 14 warn e d the m not to miss their train 15 advis e d his client to rea d it befor e he sign e d it 16 beg g e d her to sing it again 17 warn e d us not to put our hand s 18 advis e d him to buy 19 begg e d him not to drive 20 told the boys not to lean their bicycles agains t his window s 21 aske d her to com e with him 22 advis e d her to cook it 23 warn e d the lady not to touch 24 told the boys not to argu e


29 with him 25 told him to pull as hard as he could 26 order e d the port er to sen d 27 advis e d us not to lend 28 told us to mak e a list of what we want e d 29 told her to look 30 warn e d the peopl e on the platfor m to stan d clear 31 aske d the childre n to see if they could 32 warn e d her not to go 33 aske d the custo m e r to pay 34 the notice told us to leav e the spac e clear 35 I remind e d the m to write to their 36 warn e d her to think well befor e she answ e r e d Exerci s e 91 (See not e abov e key to Exercis e 90.) 1 told me to get out of his 2 order e d me to climb 3 aske d the custo m e r to pay 4 aske d her to open her 5 told Mrs P. not to worry but (to) leav e it all to him 6 warn e d him not to use 7 told the taxi- driver to follow the car 8 reco m m e n d e d me to wash 9 urg e d me to hav e confide n c e in him 10 told the lift- ma n to take him 11 advis e d the pas s e n g e r s to rea d 12 told her always to cook. . . and nev er to use 13 told him not to argu e with his 14 remind e d me to prun e 15 told her to wait for him 16 advis e d her not to eat . . . and to avoid 17 advis e d me not to say 18 the notice told/as k e d peopl e not to ask 19 told her not to forge t 20 advis e d/ t old me to cross 21 aske d him to write to her as often as he could 22 told him to put his 23 aske d the port er to find him 24 told me not to forge t my 25 told the childre n not to go 26 told his me n to searc h 27 told her not to mak e 28 told/w ar n e d him to put the gun down as it was load e d Exerci s e 92 (See not e abov e key to Exercis e 90.) 1 advis e d us to mak e . . . our time as we wouldn' t get 2 urge d the public not to wait till the following day but to post . . . that day 3 warn e d the m to be . . . and remin d e d me to drive 4 said he couldn' t open it and told/a sk e d Peter to hav e 5 told me to go and get him . . . and to com e 6 said som e o n e was coming and told/urg e d me to get 7 warn e d us to give way to . . . the/o ur right 8 beg g e d us to sen d what e v e r we could spar e 9 advis e d him to wear a wig if he didn' t want to be recog niz e d 10 warn e d / t old the m not to bath e when the red flag was flying 11 told him not to forge t/r e mi n d e d him to tha nk . . . when he was saying 12 told me to watch . . . and not to let it 13 told/a dvis e d /w a r n e d me not to shelt e r . . . as the tre e might 14 told me to put the me s s a g e . . . and throw 15 told me to rea d it for mys elf if I didn't believ e what he said 16 re min d e d me to use my 17 told her hus b a n d not to drive . . . or the baby would 18 beg g e d her to mak e . . . stron g e r and said that it had be e n . . . the previou s night 19 warn e d us to bew ar e 20 told me to smell it and aske d if I thoug h t it had gon e bad 21 told him not to take his coat off as they were going 22 told her to stan d by the window and


30 tell him if anyo n e went 23 told his pupil not to mov e till . . . wave d him on 24 told me not to touch it as I would only mak e 25 warn e d him to be careful as the ste p s were 26 told/as k e d the girl to ask her boss . . . and said that my nu mb e r was . . . She aske d me to rep e a t it 27 . . . told him to tell the m not to work . . . as if they finishe d . . . they wouldn' t get 28 The placar d warn e d us to prep a r e to me e t our doo m as the end of the world was at hand 29 The instruct or re min d e d me to put 30 Keiko aske d him to take off his Exerci s e 93 1 he invited me to hav e lunch with him 2 offere d me/h e r/ hi m a 3 aske d if they' d mind not smoking/ a s k e d the m not to smok e 4 told her to take the . . . and to shut the door as she went 5 ask e d me to help her as she couldn' t 6 said it was a . . . and advis e d me to ask 7 advis e d me to try to/a n d get 8 offere d to wait for me/s ai d she' d wait if I liked 9 re min d e d me to switch off when I'd finish e d 10 aske d/ t old me to check the figures for him 11 advis e d me to apologize 12 aske d him to check 13 told me to sit/s aid he wishe d I'd sit . . . aske d how I exp ec t e d him to paint me when I kept jerking my hea d 14 advis e d him to go by train as it was 15 The notice aske d gue s t s not to play 16 aske d me to wait 17 stron gly advis e d me to see 18 advis e d the m to plant 19 aske d me to sign 20 aske d me to forward . . . while he was 21 The police aske d anyo n e who has see n the . . . to get in touch with their near e s t 22 warn e d me not to leave my . . . as our host' s dogs might mist ak e me 23 told me to answ e r the lett er and remind e d me to kee p 24 aske d me to mov e my car as it was blocking his 25 Mrs Jones aske d the m to let her know when their . . . cam e in 26 The coach told the first tea m to report 27 Tom aske d Ann to sew on the butto n for him. Mary advis e d him to sew it on hims elf as butto n s . . . usu ally ca m e off 28 The girl aske d me to sit down and said . . ./said that if I sat down the fortun e teller would be with me Exerci s e 94 1 aske d if he could get 2 said she couldn' t ope n . . . Tom offere d to do it for her 3 aske d the official to tran sl a t e it 4 wond er e d if they would ever me e t 5 aske d if I would be ther e the next day. I said that I would 6 aske d if she could lose . . . the doctor said (that) she couldn' t 7 offere d me a drink 8 urg e d us to install 9 aske d me to read it 10 aske d (me) if she should tell him what had hap p e n e d 11 aske d if I wouldn' t like to look 12 said she was going . . . Tom said he was too and offere d her a lift/ask e d if she' d like a lift 13 aske d for a swe e t/ a s k e d if he could hav e a swe e t 14 aske d if they could stay 15 aske d for the week e n d / a s k e d if he could hav e 16 aske d if he could


31 leav e 17 aske d (him) why he didn' t like 18 advis e d him to take up 19 ask e d wher e he should han g his . . . and if it would look 20 aske d what I should/w a s to do if the car wouldn' t start 21 aske d if I had enou g h . . . and offere d to lend me som e 22 aske d if he would be able to guide me or if I should bring 23 remind e d him to shut 24 aske d (her) if she would like to see 25 aske d me to pe el 26 said that he' d got two tickets and invited me to come / g o with him 27 aske d if I could use . . . I said (tha t) I couldn' t 28 aske d if I'd mind living by mys elf 29 aske d me to pay/ a s k e d if I'd mind paying 30 aske d why she didn't trus t him. She said (tha t) she nev er trus t e d Exerci s e 95 (See not e abov e key to Exercis e 90.) 1 told me to rem e m b e r to get . . . when I was or re min d e d me to get, etc. or said that when I was at . . . I was to get 2 told/a dvis e d me to sit down and put my hea d betw e e n my kne e s if I felt or said that if I felt faint I was to put/s ho uld put 3 aske d what he was to do/sho uld do with my purs e if he found it. I told/a sk e d him to keep it till he saw me 4 told me/ a s k e d me to give him a drink if he arrived before she got back or said that if he arrive d befor e she got back I was to give 5 told me if anyo n e rang up to say or said that if anyo n e rang up I was to say she' d be 6 told me when I was driving always to look in my mirror or said that when I was driving I should always look 7 told me to leav e the key und er the mat if I went out or said that if I went out I was to leav e 8 told me to shut the window if I thoug h t the room was cold or said that if I thou g h t the room was cold I was to hut/s h o uld shut 9 told me to ring him up if I felt lonely any time or said that if I felt lonely I was to ring 10 said that if she didn't eat me a t I was to offer her an omel e t t e { the tell cons tr uc tion would be very clum s y here) 11 told me to get the car off the road if I had a punct u r e and not to leav e or said that if I had a punct ur e I was to get/s h o ul d get . . . and not leav e 12 told me to take the lett er to the police if he was n' t back by that time the next day or said that if he wasn' t back by . . . I was to take 13 told her husb a n d not to forge t/r e mi n d e d him to tha nk Mrs Pitt when he saw her 14 told me to take the me a t out of the oven when the bell rang or said that when the bell rang I was to take/s h o ul d take 15 told the m to give their . . . if they were take n . . . but to refus e to answ e r or said that if they were take n . . . they were to give . . . but (to) refus e 16 told the m to shut . . . and go . . . when they hear d or said that when they he ar d . . . they were to shut . . . and go 17 told me to pres s . . . if the lift should stop/s t o p p e d or said that if the lift should stop/s t o p p e d ...I was to pres s/ s h o ul d pres s 18 told me to ask a client if he had a weak hear t befor e I allowe d him or said that befor e I allow ed anyo n e ...I was to ask/s ho uld ask 19 aske d what she should/w a s to say


32 if the police stopp e d her 20 aske d what she should do if he refus e d to let her in. I told her to write 21 aske d/w o n d e r e d what would hap p e n if the strike continu e d 22 . . .how they would get food if it went on 23 . . . aske d if they could go . . . the rain stop p e d 24 said that when they' d . . . they were to 25 advis e d her to switch . . . if she didn' t like 26 aske d whet h e r /if the bank would rep a y . . . if I lost 27 told me I had/' d bett e r compl ain . . . if the noise got 28 said I was to ring him and give him . . . as soon as I found Exerci s e 96 Part 1 (Altern a tiv e constru c tion s are often possible.) 1- 14 Ann sugg e s t e d having a party on the following Satur d a y. Mary agr e e d and ask e d who they should invite. Ann was agains t making a list and sugg e s t e d they should just invite everyb o d y. Mary said they didn' t want to do much cooking and propo s e d making it a wine and che e s e party. Ann then sugg e s t e d that they should ask everyo n e to bring a bottle. Mary remind e d her that they had n' t ma n y glass e s left and sugg e s t e d hiring glass e s from their local wines h o p. Ann sugg e s t e d having the party in the gard e n if it was war m and the n Mary put forward the idea of a barb e c u e . Ann thou g h t this was a good idea and said they could ask Paul to do the cooking. Mary rem e m b e r e d that last time they had had a barb e c u e the neighb o u r s had complain e d abou t the noise, and she wond e r e d if they should ask everyo n e to spe a k in whisp e r s . Ann sugg e s t e d going roun d to the neigh b o u r s inste a d and apologizing in adv a n c e . Mary, how ev e r, propos e d inviting the neighb o u r s , adding that the n the nois e wouldn' t mat t e r . Ann thoug h t that was a clever idea and sugg e s t e d ringing everyo n e up that night, but Mary prud e n tly sugg e s t e d working out how much it would cost first. Part 2 15 Mrs Smith sugg e s t e d . . . but her hus b a n d sugg e s t e d rentin g ..., adding that it was all they could afford. 16 I sugg e s t e d that Ann should complain, saying that the boss was mor e likely to listen to her 17 She remind e d him that he use d to be . . . and sugg e s t e d that he should 18 He propo s e d walking . . . as it was not far and I agr e e d 19 Ann sugg e s t e d (our) joining a weaving class, adding that ther e was one 20 The children sugg e s t e d orga nizing . . . the teac h e r propo s e d 21 I ask e d Bill wher e we should me e t and he sugg e s t e d the hotel 22 I sugg e s t e d to Ann that she should ring him and ask him what he thoug h t 23 I point e d out I was doing . . . and sugg e s t e d that he should give me/hi m giving me 24 He propos e d leaving/t h a t they should leav e adding that he hat e d 25 Their fath e r sugg e s t e d that the childre n should go 26 I sugg e s t e d his/him asking the m what they would like to do 27 He sugg e s t e d that we should begin training . . . I said I had . . . and sugg e s t e d that he should ask


33 Paul 28 They sugg e s t e d me/ m y putting an adv er tis e m e n t in the local pap e r. Exerci s e 97 (The following are possible answ e r s only.) 1 warn e d us not to walk on the ice as it was n' t 2 introdu c e d Miss White to Miss Brown 3 gav e/ h a n d e d her the keys, advising/ a n d advis e d her to wait 4 beg g e d me not to tell . . . I pro mis e d not to/pro mis e d (that) I wouldn' t 5 offere d him my torch but he refus e d as/ex pl aining that he had one of his own 6 Tom offere d to pay. Ann prot e s t e d but he insiste d. 7 invited us to com e in and look roun d, ass uring us that ther e was no 8 thre a t e n e d to kill the boy if they didn' t pay 9 refus e d to answ e r any ques tio n s 10 complain e d that he exp e c t e d . . . agr e e d (with her) II wishe d it would 12 point e d out that I had pres s e d . . . He warn e d me not to do. .. I might hav e 13 exclaim e d that her weight had gon e up . . . she ad mit t e d / a g r e e d that it had 14 hop e d I'd hav e a good journ e y/wis h e d me a good journ e y and remind e d me to send a card when I arrive d 15 exclaim e d with delight that he had pas s e d . . . I congr a t ul a t e d him and wishe d him luck 16 She agre e d to wait 17 wishe d him ma n y happ y retur n s of his . . . and he thank e d us 18 point e d out/re m a r k e d that my door was ...I agre e d (with h er)/l ad mitt e d it 19 He offere d me a cigar e t t e and I acce p t e d 20 Their mot h e r thre a t e n e d to sell . . . if they kept . . . The childre n begg e d her not to do that, pro misin g not to quarr el/a s s u rin g her that they wouldn' t quarr el 21 offere d me Đˆ500 to keep my 22 He pro mis e d to wait for me 23 I apologize d for being late and explain e d that the bus had broke n 24 accus e d him of leaking . . . He denie d it. Tom called him a liar. 25 thre a t e n e d to drop us from the tea m if we did not train 26 compl ain e d that if the boys did . . . he called the m his sons, but that if they did . . . he called the m hers. 27 Tom sugg e s t e d having a rest and Ann agr e e d . 30 He exclai m e d with disgus t that ther e was a slug in his . . . and called Ex e rcis e 98 (Other altern a tiv e s are possible here.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Tom: Would you like to com e for a drive, tomorrow, Ann? Ann: I'd love to. Where are you thinking of going, Tom? Tom: Well, I'll leav e it to you. Ann: What abou t Stratford? I hav e n ' t bee n ther e for age s . Tom: Good idea!/AII right. We might go on the river if it's a fine day. Ann: I wond e r what' s on at the Royal Shak e s p e a r e Thea tr e . Tom: We'll find out when we get ther e.


34 9 It's usu ally possible to get sea t s on the day of the play. 10 Can you be read y by ten? 11 Ann: I'm afraid not, Tom/I' m very sorry, Tom, but I can' t. I hav e to typ e a report first. 12 Tom: Working on Satur d a y! What a horrible idea! 13 I'd chan g e my job if I were you. 14 Ann: Don't be ridiculous, Tom! 15 I volunt e e r e d to type the report in retur n for a free aftern o o n next week. 16 I didn't know you were going to ask me out, after all. 17 Tom: Oh well, I suppo s e it's all right. 18 But don't mak e a habit of volunt e e ri n g for week e n d work, will you? 19 Ann: No, I pro mis e I won't. 20 Tom: (gloo mily) I supp o s e you'll be busy all morning. 21 Ann: No, no! I'll be finishe d by 11.00. 22 Shall I me e t you at the bus stop at Hyde Park Corner? 23 Tom: That isn't a very good me e ti n g plac e. I'll call for you. 24 Ann: That' s very good of you, Tom. I'll be waiting in the hall. 25 Tom: Let's climb to the top. The view from ther e is marv ellou s. 26 Ann: But we've be e n climbing for thre e hours alre a d y. I'm too tired to go any furth e r. 27 Why don't you go on up? I'll go down and wait ther e. 28 Tom: All right. Here are the car keys. You'd bett e r wait in the car./You could wait in the car, couldn' t you? 29 I'll be as quick as I can. 30 Ann: There' 1 1 be no lunch left if you'r e too long. I'll hav e eat e n it all! 10 Purpose Exerci s e 99 (so as is interch a n g e a b l e with in order.) 1 to paint 2 to remin d 3 to feed 4 so as not to fright e n 5 to put his savings in 6 to drink out of 7 to sav e 8 so as not to strain 9 in order to get 10 to tell 11 so as not to get 12 to fright e n 13 so as not to mak e 14 to prot e c t 15 to put on the fire 16 so as not to disturb 1.7 to stud y 18 in order to discus s 19 so as to be able 20 to elud e 21 to prev e n t 22 to reduc e 23 (in order) to rea d 24 to watch 25 in order to hav e 26 in order to kee p 27 (in order) to learn 28 to buy 29 to warn 30 to avoid 31 to prot e c t 32 so as to be able 33 to warn 34 to avoid 35 (in order) to look 36 so as not to alar m Exerci s e 10 0 (I/w e w o u l d is replac e a bl e by I/w e sh o u l d . w o ul d / w o u l d n ' t in neg a tiv e purpo s e claus e s is usu ally replac e a bl e by sh o u l d / s h o u l d n ' t . Wher e an in finitive phra s e is possible the infinitive given in the key is not nece s s a rily the only one that could be us ed. To sav e spac e not more than two possible answ e r s are given for any one


35 exa m pl e . Som e ti m e s the in ca s e constru c tion would also be possible , in ca s e can be followed by sh o u l d + infinitive, thou g h an ordinary pres e n t or pas t tens e is mor e usu al.) 1 so that nobod y should/w ould know or to prev e n t anyo n e knowing 2 in cas e som e b o d y knocks 3 so that rep air work may/c a n continu e or to allow rep air work to continu e 4 so that it wouldn' t get broke n or to prev e n t it getting broke n 5 so that he wouldn' t be recog nize d or to avoid being recog ni zed 6 so that her fruit wouldn' t be stolen or to prev e n t her fruit being stolen 7 so that I wouldn' t overh e a r or to prev e n t my overh e a rin g 8 in cas e you get bitte n 9 so that the crew ma y/c a n esca p e or to ena bl e the crew to esc a p e 10 so that my childre n may/will hav e 11 so that the cows won't get or to prev e n t the cows getting 12 so that the call wouldn' t be or to prev e n t the call being 13 so that the birds won't eat or to prev e n t the birds eating 14 in cas e ther e is 15 so that nobod y will/can climb or to prev e n t anyo n e climbing 16 in cas e you hav e 17 so that the snow would/could slide 18 so that everyo n e may/will und e r s t a n d or to en a bl e everyo n e to und e r s t a n d 19 so that anyo n e who finds him will/may know 20 so that the birds would know or to let the birds know 21 in cas e we are 22 so that the birds won't build or to prev e n t the birds building 23 in cas e he forge t s 24 so that she wouldn' t fright e n or to prev e n t her fright e nin g 25 in cas e the chimn e y catch e s 26 so that I couldn' t/w o uld n' t be able to call or to prev e n t me calling 27 in cas e it is 28 so that youn g childre n won't be able to turn or to prev e n t young children turning 29 in cas e he bre a k s 30 so that the gover n m e n t may/c a n discus s or to let the gover n m e n t discus s 31 in cas e it is 32 so that ped e s t ri a n s might/co uld cross or to let ped e s t ri a n s cross 33 so that his secre t a r y could/would be able to 34 in cas e they set 35 so that the rest of the party would know or to let the rest of the party know 36 so that the me a t won't burn or to prev e n t the me a t burning or in cas e the me a t burns 11 some, any etc. and relatives Exerci s e 10 1 I som e 2 som e , any 3 any, som e 4 any 5 som e , any 6 som e, any 7 any, som e 8 Som e, som e 9 any 10 any, any 11 Any 12 som e / a n y 13 any, any 14 Som e, som e 15 any 16 som e 17 any/s o m e 18 any 19 any 20 Any 21 som e 22 som e , som e 23 som e 24 any 25 any, som e / a n y 26 Any 27 any 28 som e 29 som e 30 som e 31 any 32 som e 33 any 34 som e , som e 35 any 36 som e/ a n y, som e Exerci s e 10 2 (In som e of the answ e r s the relativ e prono u n is enclos e d in brack e t s ; this me a n s that it can be omitt e d . The answ e r s given are not nec e s s a rily the only possible answ er s to the que s tion s .


36 Notice carefully the pres e n c e or abs e n c e of com m a s . ) I (a) The 8.10 is the train (which/t h a t ) Mr Black usu ally catch e s , (b) The 8.40 is the train (which/t h a t ) he caug h t tod a y , (c) Mr White is a ma n who usu ally trav els up with Mr Black , (d) Mr Brown is the ma n whos e pap e r Mr White borrow e d , (e) Mr Black usu ally catch e s the 8.10, which is a fast train , (f) Today he miss e d the 8.10, which anno ye d him very much. (g) He caug h t the 8.40, which does n ' t get in till 9.40. 2 (a) The brown umbr ella was the one (which/th a t ) Mr Penn left at hom e tod a y or the one (which/th a t ) he didn' t take tod a y , (b) The black umbr ella was the one (which/th a t ) he took or the one (which/th a t ) he left on the bus. (c) The blue umbr ella was the one (which/t h a t ) Mr Penn took by mist ak e , (d) Mr Count was the ma n whos e umbr ella Mr Penn took. 3 (a) Malta is the plac e Tom and Jack want e d to go to/we n t to or Malta is the plac e to which Tom and Jack want e d to go. (b) The Blue Skies Agency is the age n c y Tom went to or the age n c y to which Tom went. (c) The Blue Seas Agency is the age n c y Jack went to or the ag e n c y to which Jack went. (d) the MS Bana n a is the ship Ja ck trav elle d on/in or the ship on/in which Jack trav elle d , (e) Julia is the girl (who (m)/th a t ) Jack met on board. (0 Tom liked flying, so he went to the Blue Skies Agency, who booke d or Tom, who liked flying, went etc. (g) Jack, who hat e d flying, went to the Blue Seas Agency, who book e d 4 (a) Georg e and Paul were (the) two me n who were working on Mr Jones' s roof. (b) Bill was a/th e burglar who saw the m going aw ay or who stole the jewellery etc. (c) Tom was a stud e n t who lodg e d with Mr Jones , (d) Mrs Jones was the lady whos e jewellery was stolen , (e) Mr and Mrs Smith were the peopl e the Jones e s were playing cards with or the people with who m the Jones e s were playing cards. (f) the ladd er Bill climb e d up or up which he climb e d , (g) the window he climb e d throu g h or throu g h which he climb e d , (h) the screw driv er he used or the screw driver he ope n e d the draw e r with or with which he ope n e d etc. (i) Georg e and Paul, who were working on the roof, left the ladd er (j) Mr and Mrs Jones, who were out playing cards, knew nothing (k) Bill, whos e finger print s were on the screw driver, was later caug h t 5 (a) The Gree n s are the people Ann works for or for who m Ann works. (b) The 12.10 was the train (which/th a t ) Ann caug h t or the train (that/w hich) Ann cam e up on. (c) The 12.30 was the train (which/th a t ) Tom met. (d) Peter was a boy (who( m)/t h a t ) Ann me t on the train. (e) Paul was the boy (who( m)/t h a t ) Mary had com e to me e t or the boy (who( m)/t h a t ) Mary was waiting for. (f) The Intre pid Fox is the bar wher e Tom usu ally goes for lunch or the bar Tom usu ally goes to for


37 lunch or the bar wher e Tom usu ally has his lunch , (g) Mrs Gree n, who thoug h t Ann looke d tired, gav e her (h) Peter, who hat e d eatin g by hims elf, hop e d (i) Tom, who had only an hour for lunch, couldn' t wait (j) Mary, whos e boyfrien d didn't turn up, end e d by (k) Tom and Ann wast e d half an hour at the station, which me a n t (1) Tom and Ann very nearly miss e d one anot h e r , which show s Exerci s e 10 3 (Relative s in brack e t s may be omitt e d .) 1 for the pres e n t (which/t h a t ) you sent. 2 She was dancing with a stud e n t who had or The stud e n t with who m she was dancing 3 I'm looking after som e childre n who are or The childre n I'm looking after are 4 The bed I slee p on has 5 Rome o and Juliet were two lovers whos e par e n t s 6 There wasn' t any director y in the box (which/th a t ) I was phoning from. 7 This is Mrs Jones, whos e son 8 The chair (which/t h a t ) I was sitting on collaps e d or The chair on which I was sitting collaps e d . 9 Mr Smith, who m I had com e esp e ci ally to see, was too bus y 10 The ma n (who( m)/t h a t ) I had com e to see was II I miss e d the train (which/th a t ) I usu ally catch and had to trav el on the next, which was 12 His girlfriend, who m he trust e d abs olut ely, turn e d out 13 The car (which/t h a t ) we were in had bad brak e s and the ma n who was driving didn't know 14 This is the story of a ma n whos e wife sudd e nly loses 15 the frontier, which will be 16 a small girl whos e han d had bee n cut 17 into a que u e of peopl e, four of who m 18 refug e e s , ma n y of who m 19 The ma n who( m)/t h a t ) I was waiting for didn't or the ma n for who m I was 20 in patch e d jeans, which surpris e d the gues t s , mos t of who m were 21 The firm (which/t h a t ) I work for is sen ding 22 The Smiths, whos e hous e had bee n des tro ye d , were given 23 I saw sev er al hous e s , mos t of which were 24 at 2 a.m., which didn't suit me 25 a grou p of boys whos e plan e 26 The string (that/w hich) they tie the parc els up with 27 his stud e n t s , mos t of who m were 28 for 12 egg s, four of which were 29 The people (who( m)/t h a t ) he was spe akin g to didn't know or The people to who m he was spe akin g 30 The boy (who( m)/t h a t ) Peter shar e d a flat with was or Peter shar e d a flat with a boy who 31 four very bad tyres , one of which burs t 32 the wond e rful view (which/t h a t ) she had be e n told abou t 33 by a ma n (who (m)/t h at) I me t on a train. 34 The bar (which/t h a t ) I was telep h o ni n g from was or the bar from which I was te lepho nin g was 35 The ma n who answ e r e d the phon e said 36 The hors e (which/th a t ) I was on kept stoppin g to eat gras s , which anno ye d Exerci s e 10 4 1 Tom, who had be e n driving all day, was tired 2 Ann, who had be e n slee pin g, felt 3 Paul, whos e tyre s were new, want e d 4 Jack, whos e tyres were old, want e d 5 Mary, who didn' t know abou t mou n t ai n s , thou g h t 6 to his ma n a g e r , who pas s e d 7 were thiev e s ,


38 which turn e d out 8 the Chief of Police, who order e d 9 dry bre a d , mos t of which was 10 a prison e r, whos e hand c uffs rattle d II a fire, which soon dried 12 acros s the Atlantic, which had nev er 13 a bus- load of children, six of who m were 14 refus e s to use mac hin e s , which mak e s 15 I me t Mary, who aske d 16 praye d aloud all night, which kept 17 and in dee p water the next, which mak e s it uns af e 18 Mary, whos e children couldn' t swim, said 19 Ann, whos e childre n could swim well, said 20 clea ning ten window s, mos t of which 21 Jack, whos e injuries were very slight, is being allowe d to play, which is a good thing 22 Tom, whos e leg is still in band a g e s , will hav e to 23 didn' t get a sea t, which put him in a te m p e r and caus e d him to be rude to his junior part n e r, who in turn 24 Tom, who had a hang o v e r , felt 25 His boss, who didn' t drink, saw 26 The report, which should hav e bee n on his desk by 2.00, still had n' t arrive d. 27 Tom, whos e hea d a c h e was now much wors e, put down the receiver withou t answ e rin g, which 28 Ann, who liked Tom, cam e 29 the report, which should hav e take n an hour and a half, took 30 to Munich, which 31 The he a d w ait e r, whos e na m e was Tom, said . . . recog nition, which disap p oin t e d Mr Jones, who liked 32 with Lucy, who m he was particularly anxious to Exerci s e 10 5 I what, which 2 which 3 what, what 4 which 5 which 6 what, which 7 which 8 what 9 which 10 which 11 which 12 which 13 what 14 what 15 which 16 which, what 17 which 18 what 19 what 20 which 21 which 22 what 23 which 24 which 25 which 26 which 27 what 28 which 29 what, which 30 which, which 31 which 32 which 33 what, which 34 which 35 what 36 what Exerci s e 10 6 I what e v e r 2 wher e v e r 3 what e v e r 4 wher e v e r 5 which ev e r 6 whoev e r 7 when e v e r 8 how ev e r 9 whoev e r 10 which ev e r 11 whoev e r 12 how ev e r 13 what e v e r 14 how ev e r 15 when e v e r 16 whoev e r 17 whoev e r 18 how ev e r 19 what e v e r 20 when e v e r 21 whoev e r 22 whichev e r , whoev e r 23 what e v e r, whichev e r 24 whoev e r Ex e rcis e 10 7 Part I 1 a river to swim in 2 som e o n e to play with 3 a family to cook for 4 accou n t s for you to check 5 anyt hin g to ope n it with 6 lett er s to write 7 anyo n e to go with 8 a gard e n for him to play in 9 anyt hin g to sit on 10 a brus h to swe e p it with I la box to kee p the m in 12 anyo n e to sen d cards to Part 2 13 the first ma n to leav e 14 the last pers o n to see 15 the only one to realize 16 the only ma n to survive 17 the first to come and the last to go 18 the large s t ship to be built 19 the last pers o n to leav e 20


39 the only pers o n to see 21 the seco n d ma n to be killed 22 the first ma n to walk on 23 the first wom a n to take 24 the fifth ma n to be interview e d 12 Prepositions Exerci s e 10 8 I to; at; in; to 2 to; at, in 3 to, at; at; at 4 to; at, in 5 in; to 6 at, in 7 in; at 8 in, at; at 9 to; at 10 to, at; to II at, to, to 12 to, to, in 13 At, in, to 14 at, at; to, in 15 In, at 16 At, to, in 17 At, at 18 to, at, at; at, in 19 at, to, in, at, at 20 in 21 at, to; in; to, to 22 in; at 23 in, at, in 24 in, at 25 at; to, in 26 in, at 27 to, in 28 to, at, to; to 29 in, at 30 in, at 31 in, at 32 at, to, in 33 in, to 34 To, in; to 35 at, to, to 36 in; in; at Exerci s e 10 9 I on, with; with; by; in 2 in, on/into 3 to; on; On, by, in, on 4 at, out, to, of 5 at; on, off 6 to, in; on 7 to, in, on 8 on; with, of 9 of, into, in/with 10 at, on II out of, on 12 in, at, on; in 13 with, to, of 14 to; to, of, at, to/on; to, on 15 at/fro m, off/out 16 with, in; out of 17 into/ou t of, of, off; in, on 18 on; on, into 19 with, of, in 20 in; in; into, on 21 at, with, in; on 22 By, of; with, on 23 on, to, in/on; to, of 24 with, und er, of 25 on, to, of 26 of, to 27 in, of; in; in, at/by, of, at, in 28 into, in, by, of 29 in/at; of, at, on; with, in 30 by, on 31 off; on, in 32 into, into, with 33 by, by, on, of 34 of, at, of 35 of, in, to 36 off; on; to Exerci s e 11 0 I in, for 2 at, since 3 At, of, for 4 in, for; During, in 5 for, on, in; from; for/on 6 und er, with: in, during/in 7 by, of, in, in 8 by, for, in, of 9 from, since; on; of, to 10 for, during II with; for; for; in 12 for; of, for 13 und er, with, for 14 in, for, in, till/until, of 15 for, on/for 16 In, of, off 17 in, by, from 18 on, to, by 19 for/to, from; in 20 at, during, for 21 by; on, for 22 by, in, on, in, in, over 23 of; in, for 24 in, for, of 25 of, from, to or to, from; for, to, by, for 26 at/by; for 27 from, at, with, for 28 for, till; with, for 29 on/into, off/out of, at, at 30 from, with/a t; in, in, in, of 31 of; in, with 32 for, in 33 with, into/to, with 34 from, with, for; und e r/of, till 35 of, on; from 36 on; for Exerci s e 11 1 Ion 2 in, from 3 in, in 4 of; In, of, in 5 on; on, in/at; at, at, at/on 6 to, with; on with; on 7 in; on with; of 8 in, by 9 of, at 10 to, for, of II At, to 12 abou t, to 13 in/by, in, up 14 for; for, for, over 15 for/ab o u t , on; abou t 16 of, for, from 17 for; in 18 in, with, for 19 on; for 20 with, into, with 21 for, in, on 22 In, to, to 23 by/with, out, in, of 24 of, after, in; with 25 at, aw ay/off 26 to, of, to, aw ay/off 27 to; on 28 In, with, of, from 29 to; und e r 30 on, to 31 of, to 32 abou t, off, at/by 33 to, of 34 for, with 35 of, of, of 36 und er,


40 for, for Exerci s e 11 2 I-, for 2 -.for 3- ,to 4 -, for 5 -, of 6 for; In, for, for 7 to ,- 8 in/at, -; of, for 9 for/to, in 10 -; for II to, for 12 -, of/in 13 for, for; of ,-, for 14 for ;- 15 on ;- 16 to/p a s t ,-, of 17 -, at/in ;-, on 18 -;-,-; to, for 19 for, for, in/at; for ,- 20 to, in 21 to ,-,22 -, in; -.with 23 -, for, at/by/o n 24 to, to, in 25 -; to 26 -,-; with, of 27 -, in, in 28 to ;-, of 29 -, of 30 on ,-, for, for/- 31 -, in, for 32 -, till, in/- 33 -, -, to: -, -, with 34 -; to, in/with 35 -, -, in 36 to, -, in Exerci s e 11 3 Part 1 (till is always replac e a bl e by until.) I to 2 till 3 to/till 4 till 5 till 6 till 7 to/till 8 to 9 to/till; till 10 to, till 11 to; till 12 to; till Part 2 I since; for 2 since 3 since 4 since 5 for 6 Since 7 for 8 since; for 9 since; for 10 for 11 for 12 Since Part 3 I then/ aft e r w a r d s ; after 2 after 3 After; Afterw ar d s 4 the n/ aft e r w a r d s 5 then, then 6 then 7 after 8 the n 9 after/ aft e r w a r d s 10 then II then 12 the n; Then 13 afterw a r d s 14 afterw a r d s 15 then 16 the n 13 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives Exerci s e 11 4 (sh o u l d use d for obligation is replac e a bl e by ou g h t to . m ay / m i g h t in the affirma tiv e is replac e a bl e by coul d .) 1 mus t hav e worke d/ b e e n working 2 ne e d n ' t hav e tran sl a t e d 3 may/ mig h t hav e forgott e n , should hav e telep h o n e d 4 ma y/ mi g h t hav e got lost, should hav e given, ma y/ mi g h t hav e had, wouldn' t/co uld n ' t hav e delaye d 5 may/ mig h t hav e stopp e d and got, ma y/ mi g h t hav e run 6 shouldn' t hav e fed 7 mus t hav e bee n 8 should hav e gon e 9 couldn' t hav e bee n att a ck e d , mus t hav e see n . . . and thoug h t 10 mus t hav e waite d/ b e e n waiting (co ul d / m a y / m i g h t could replac e mu s t .) 11 may/ mig h t hav e fallen . . . and bee n eat e n . . . or bee n kidna p p e d . . . or caug h t . . . and died 12 were to hav e start e d 13 ne e d n ' t hav e walked, could hav e come 14 mus t hav e be e n stolen, may/ mig h t hav e driven 15 couldn' t hav e got, mus t hav e drunk 16 shouldn' t hav e bee n riding 17 ma y/ mi g h t hav e take n, ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n 18 might/s h o uld hav e told, could hav e got 19 would hav e won 20 ne e d n ' t hav e writte n 21 were to hav e built 22 wouldn' t/s h o uld n ' t hav e notice d, would/ mig h t hav e spre a d 23 should/ mig h t/c o uld hav e waite d 24 may/ mig h t hav e come , couldn' t/c a n ' t hav e com e , ma y/ mi g h t hav e com e 25 nee d n ' t hav e don e 26 should hav e bee n 27 nee d n ' t hav e cooke d 28 would/s h o uld hav e broug h t , wouldn' t/s h o uld n ' t hav e com e 29 shouldn' t hav e throw n, might/co uld hav e killed 30 could hav e paint e d , could hav e paint e d 31 may/ mig h t hav e dropp e d , may/ mig h t hav e bee n 32 could


41 hav e bee n start e d , could hav e bee n 33 mus t hav e carried, couldn' t hav e don e, would hav e be e n, mus t hav e waite d 34 nee d n ' t hav e don e 35 couldn' t/c a n ' t hav e be e n, mus t hav e bee n walking 36 Couldn' t it hav e bee n, mus t hav e be e n Exerci s e 11 5 (See not e s to Exercis e 114 abov e .) 1 wouldn' t/ s h o ul d n ' t hav e had 2 should hav e aske d 3 should hav e bee n 4 ma y/ mi g h t hav e gon e; would hav e told 5 ma y/ mi g h t hav e kept; wouldn' t hav e kept 6 may/ mig h t hav e gon e; ma y/ mi g h t hav e bee n; would hav e rung; couldn' t hav e rung 7 mus t hav e had; would hav e bee n 8 couldn' t hav e boug h t 9 should hav e waite d 10 couldn' t hav e carrie d; mus t hav e help e d II couldn' t hav e bee n; mus t hav e bee n 12 mus t hav e cras h e d ; would hav e report e d 13 may/ mig h t hav e blown up; may/ mig h t hav e plant e d , ma y/ mi g h t hav e had 14 may/ mig h t hav e tried; ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n 15 ma y/ mi g h t hav e gon e, ma y/ mi g h t hav e bee n; couldn' t hav e bee n 16 ma y/ mi g h t hav e collaps e d ; would hav e take n over 17 shouldn' t hav e don e, should hav e said 18 mus t hav e bee n 19 nee d n ' t hav e don e; should hav e told; shouldn' t/w o uld n ' t hav e wast e d 20 could hav e pas s e d ; should/co uld hav e worke d 21 couldn' t possibly hav e ope n e d ; couldn' t hav e got 22 mus t hav e let; mus t hav e followed . . . slippe d 23 ne e d n ' t hav e boug h t 24 mus t hav e drugg e d . . . dum p e d ; might/wo uld hav e bee n run; may/ mig h t hav e bee n 25 mus t hav e bribe d; may/ mig h t hav e followed; couldn' t hav e don e; would/s ho uld hav e see n 26 nee d n ' t hav e sta m p e d 27 couldn' t hav e don e; mus t hav e given 28 mus t hav e bee n 29 could hav e take n; may/ mig h t hav e bee n; ma y/ mi g h t hav e hopp e d in . . . snatc h e d 30 should hav e told; would/co uld hav e lent 31 nee d n ' t hav e take n; could hav e walked 32 mus t hav e bee n watchin g/ m u s t hav e watch e d 33 nee d n ' t hav e rung/s h o uld n ' t hav e rung; could hav e dialled/s h o ul d hav e dialled 34 mus t hav e had 35 could hav e had/ mig h t hav e had; couldn' t hav e had 36 could hav e marrie d; mus t hav e loved; mus t hav e be e n Exerci s e 11 6 (m a y / m i g h t in the affirm a tiv e is replac e a bl e by co ul d . In 1, 7, 10, 20, 23 s houl d is replac e a bl e by ou g h t to .) 1 should hav e be e n 2 ma y/ mi g h t hav e writte n, couldn' t hav e writte n 3 mus t hav e fallen 4 ma y/ mi g h t hav e liked 5 mus t hav e bee n 6 nee d n ' t hav e sent 7 might/s h o uld hav e left 8 ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n 9 can't/co uld n' t hav e bee n, may/ mig h t hav e bee n 10 shouldn' t hav e gon e 11 may/ mig h t hav e bee n 12 were to hav e bee n 13 should/wo uld hav e bee n 14 nee d n ' t hav e carrie d 15 ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n 16 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n, mus t hav e bee n 17 mus t hav e bee n 18 was to hav e bee n 19 would hav e reac h e d 20 could/s h o uld hav e cross e d 21 should hav e broug h t 22 ma y/ mi g h t hav e be e n 23 mus t hav e be e n


42 24 can' t/co uld n ' t hav e be e n, mus t hav e bee n 25 may/ mig h t not hav e hear d 26 could hav e put you up 27 would hav e fallen 28 should hav e check e d 29 nee d n ' t hav e apologize d 30 may/ mig h t not hav e realized 31 might/s h o uld hav e thank e d 32 was to hav e gon e 33 should hav e warn e d 34 would hav e known 35 nee d n ' t hav e boug h t 36 mus t hav e bee n 14 Present, past and perfect tenses Exerci s e 11 7 (Nega tiv e s are given in their contr a c t e d form, affirm a tiv e s are not given in their contr a c t e d form, but in spe e c h pres e n t continu o u s tens e s are norm ally contr a c t e d in the affirm a tiv e.) 1 are you going; am going, do you want 2 do you smok e; I don' t smok e, smok e s , I do; spen d s 3 see s; are you waiting; am waiting 4 you usu ally go; belong s , wants ; is using 5 go; take s , pas s e s ; is working, am que u ei n g 6 Are you coming, are you waiting; think, wait, are, looks 7 are waiting; is dialling; Do you know; phon e s 8 does he come ; com e s ; spe a k s 9 wond e r, is spe a kin g; come s , supp o s e , is spe a kin g 10 are having; are openin g; writes; get; hav e you (got) II says, is coming, want s 12 Do you hav e/H av e you got; don't think; don' t see; does a traffic ward e n do 13 walks, stays, parks, sticks 14 is puttin g; see s ; hat e s 15 want; are just closing; we always close, does n ' t want 16 is listening, is rea din g, is doing, is writing 17 rea d s ; knits, isn't knitting 18 goes , does n ' t go; likes; prefers 19 are watchin g; are enjoying, don't und er s t a n d 20 happ e n s ; Does the teac h e r give; gives, shows, discus s e s 21 gets; sits, sta n d s , walks, runs 22 is that ma n stan din g; is trying, is waiting; does n ' t he use/isn' t he using; don't both e r; prefer 23 are wearing; Do you like; suits, does n ' t fit 24 spe a k, com e 25 is taking, is coming 26 talk; prefer; are talking; are n' t talking 27 are having; am me e ti n g; Do you go 28 go, am going; take s , costs 29 Are you doing; am packing, am catchin g; are you staying 30 Are you going; I am staying; are coming; Do you invite; invite 31 am just going; is pouring; don' t you wait; stops 32 gets, was h e s , shav e s , gets, don' t hear; hear, mak e s 33 gets; mak e s , wake s; sings, bang s , drops, plays 34 don' t you ask; me n tion, does n ' t do; says, does n ' t mak e, think, believ e s 35 Do you see; keep s ; Do you think, is asking; exp e c t, is making; do you mak e; stop, ask, write 36 starts , stays ; mov e s ; take s , does, wishe s Exerci s e 11 8 1 writes, know, is doing: Does your son write; he ar; see m s 2 cost; Do you think; dep e n d s 3 am seeing; am chan gin g; are always chan gin g; don't you leav e 4 look/ar e looking, are you thinking, am thinking; are only just startin g; know, am readin g, says, start s 5 is always knocking on my door and asking; does she do; puts; don't mind, anno ys , knows, ne e d s , take s 6 does she do, runs out; borrows, take s , want s, finds 7 does she owe; don' t know, don' t keep; is leaving,


43 is getting; am trying 8 don't you offer; soun d s ; does n ' t realize, owes 9 says, owe, see m, owes, rem e m b e r 10 don't think, is enjoying; keep s , is enjoying; enjoys; know, want s, is exp e c tin g/ e x p e c t s II are you staying; am leaving; am going 12 are you coming, are you going; dep e n d s ; agr e e s ; exp e c t 13 is seeing; don' t you com e 14 Do you see; is watchin g; do you know, is watching; com e s , goes , mak e s 15 are all thes e peopl e doing, are they wearing; they are making; are working 16 soun d s ; Do you think; don't know, see, finish, are still taking on 17 Is Ann acting; does n ' t act; imagin e, knows 18 lives, com e, see; does n ' t both e r, climbs, knocks 19 are moving; are you leaving; suits; know, does, is/ar e pulling down; are widenin g; say 20 ask, likes, says, don' t know, thinks, suits, is mer ely being 21 want; tells, says, thinks 22 Does your sister' s frankn e s s anno y; does; does n ' t want; wants 23 hear; am not living; are still working, is taking 24 think, take, exp e c t s ; are they doing; are puttin g; see m , smok e, slows 25 are always ha m m e ri n g; keep s , begins, hear: shak e s 26 is stirring, is stan din g: says, are boiling; don't think, mat t e r s , cook, don' t know, isn't gettin g; thicke n s 27 is being paint e d , isn't looking; Do they stop; are having 28 does the word ' Esta blish m e n t ' me a n ; does n ' t give; me a n s , hav e 29 say, belong s , imply, acce p t s ; isn't trying/d o e s n ' t try 30 Do all rich me n belon g; do, are always jeering/ alw a ys jeer; is used 31 is being pulled; are using; go, get 32 smell; do; think, is coming; is prob a bly ironing; irons, watch e s , gets, forge t s , is pres sin g; is thinking 33 are you looking; am looking; am always looking, puts; put; don't you try 34 are trav elling; is rea din g, is doing, is looking out; stops, falls 35 spe n d s ; amu s e s ; is watching, see s 36 does; checks; does n ' t nee d; happ e ns, mak e s ; mak e s Exerci s e 11 9 1 decid e d 2 chos e 3 looked, were getting, was mixing, was washin g 4 were, aske d, was doing 5 replied, was going, went, knew, were looking 6 beg a n , found, were 7 were waiting/w ait e d , rem e m b e r e d , had 8 start e d , was telep h o nin g, did, cam e 9 gru m bl e d , was always telep h o ni n g 10 retort e d , was always complaining 11 worked 12 start e d / w e r e starting, rang 13 was, want e d , was playing 14 staye d , went 15 left 16 return e d , cam e , wast e d 17 said 18 thoug h t 19 was just climbing, rang 20 said, was getting, went, open e d 21 was, was coming, arriving Exerci s e 12 0 1 was walking, realized, was following 2 walked, turn e d , stopp e d 3 app e a r e d , stop p e d 4 went 5 stop p e d , stopp e d , looked, was 6 looked, was wearing/w or e, wond er e d 7 decide d 8 was stan din g 9 cam e , rang, mov e d off/was moving off, jump e d


44 10 miss e d, got, was following/follow e d 11 crawle d 12 pulled, looked, was gettin g/g o t 13 chan g e d , got 14 left, boug h t 15 was sta n din g, ca m e 16 was carrying, got, sat, read 17 looked, was getting/ g o t 18 was beco mi n g / b e c a m e , went, sat, ask e d, was following 19 said, was n' t following, thre a t e n e d , ad mit t e d 20 told, was, was trying 21 told, advis e d, didn't want, was being followe d Exerci s e 12 1 1 was sitting, saw; see m e d 2 was snowing, woke; rem e m b e r e d , was coming, decide d , lost 3 reach e d , realized, did not know; was wond e rin g, tap p e d 4 was running/r a n , struck 5 looked; was going; was drawing 6 were listenin g, were whisp ering, was rea din g; hat e d , rea d 7 was rea ding, burst, rush e d 8 went, didn' t find; said, didn' t know, was doing, thoug h t, was prob a bly playing 9 stopp e d / u s e d to stop; close d, gav e 10 pro mis e d , saw, was telling 11 picked, dialled; found; were planning 12 me t; were; was studyin g, was n' t, spen t 13 was just startin g, open e d , leapt 14 were you doing, said; was clea ning 15 looked, said, was leaving the district and (was) going; said, was, was going, told, was getting/ g o t on 16 were building, was 17 were rea din g, were just turning over: was knitting, was playing; ope n e d , said 18 was; were they doing; hear d, were looking; Did they find; discov er e d 19 told, ma d e ; was just pulling 20 was just sticking, cam e ; tried, refus e d 21 took; Was she actu ally working 22 said, was coming, wond e r e d 23 was wond e rin g, ca m e , boug h t 24 was always borrowing, aske d, said, had n' t, knew, want e d 25 went, had, was being; turn e d , saw 26 bum p e d , aske d, said, was having 27 att a ck e d , was putting; thrus t, tore; cont ain e d ; patc h e d 28 did you bre ak; fell, was puttin g, was, was, was going 29 didn' t go; canc e lled, spe n t 30 was just rising, shout e d ; looked 31 was raining, playe d/w e r e playing; was trying, didn' t get/w a s n ' t gettin g on, kept 32 were you doing, rang; was making; did you do, hear d, went; ope n e d , was 33 rang, found, said, was making 34 Was, rang; answ e r e d , was talking, saw; went 35 didn' t get, were having/ h a d ; rang up, said, were making; point e d out, was, had; said, were always having 36 were you doing/did you do, got; was working/w ork e d; did you stay, staye d ; left, were always going; bec a m e / w a s beco mi n g Exerci s e 12 2 Part 1 1 I hav e n ' t playe d for ten years . 2 I hav e n ' t sung since I ca m e 3 I hav e n ' t milked one since 4 I hav e n ' t put one up since 5 I hav e n ' t ma d e one for 6 I hav e n ' t rea d any since 7 I hav e n ' t bat h e d a baby for 8 I hav e n ' t rep air e d one since 9 I hav e n ' t skiied since 10 I hav e n ' t rea d one for II I hav e n ' t ma d e one


45 since 12 I hav e n ' t sewn any on since 13 I hav e n ' t driven (one) for 14 I hav e n ' t take n a te m p e r a t u r e for 15 I hav e n ' t ridde n one since 16 I hav e n ' t rowed since 171 hav e n ' t paint e d / d o n e any painting for 18 I hav e n ' t type d for Part 2 19 I hav e n ' t had a punct ur e for 20 He has n' t earn e d any mon e y for 21 He has n' t shav e d since 22 I hav e n ' t drunk cha m p a g n e since 23 I hav e n ' t bee n in Rome for 24 I hav e n ' t see n Tom since 25 I hav e n ' t eat e n raw fish since 26 Mary has n' t spoke n French for years 27 I hav e n ' t had a good night' s slee p for 28 He has n' t paid taxe s since 29 I hav e n ' t eat e n me a t for 30 The windows hav e n ' t bee n clean e d for 31 I hav e n ' t take n any photo g r a p h s for year s. 32 I hav e n ' t watch e d TV since 33 He has n' t writte n to me for 34 I hav e n ' t bee n paid for 35 I hav e n ' t be e n abro a d since 36 That hous e has n' t bee n lived in for Exerci s e 12 3 1 hav e playe d / h a v e be e n playing; Have you playe d , ca m e ; hav e playe d ; joined, arrive d 2 Have you playe d ; hav e playe d ; hav e had, hav e won, didn't really des e rv e 3 playe d , was, left, dropp e d , took 4 hav e n ' t see n; hav e you be e n; I've be e n; me a n t , hadn ' t/ did n' t hav e; Did you hav e/H a d you, were; was; hav e only just got; enjoye d ; skiied, danc e d 5 skiied, was, broke, hav e n ' t don e 6 ca m e , was; has be e n built, has beco m e 7 has n' t start e d ; has he bee n, has bee n, spen t 8 hav e just hear d; didn' t you know; flew; Have you hear d; got; told; didn't say, liked; has only be e n 9 didn't know, were; explod e d , burnt 10 has bee n; used, rode, hav e had 11 ma d e ; has he bee n; we hav e only had; resign e d , was 12 has left; left; Has anyb o d y be e n appoint e d ; hav e applied/ a p plie d, has bee n decid e d 13 Did you hav e/H a v e you had; was, hav e ever had, took; thou g h t, was, searc h e d , anno u n c e d , was; took off 14 did you spen d; took, fed, walked, boug h t, didn't ne e d; pas s e d 15 Have you book e d; wrote, hav e n ' t answ er e d 16 didn' t know you were; hav e bee n; arrived 17 met, said; ma d e , found, nee d e d , see m e d 18 Did you know, arrived; didn' t know 19 hav e you learnt/ b e e n learnin g; hav e bee n learnin g 20 beg a n , did; dropp e d , forgot; spe n t, studie d, hav e bee n studying/ h a v e studie d 21 rang, said; spen t, couldn' t/w a s n ' t able to, rang; hav e n ' t see n, said; went, hav e n ' t come ; went 22 hav e just had; did it go; did you enjoy; didn' t actu ally hit, ma d e 23 sold, boug h t, left; arrived; was n' t, said; has n' t be e n take n 24 saw; thou g h t , worked, said; worked, explain e d , went, told; gav e: hav e worke d 25 Have you bee n; went; were; Did you go; went; hired 26 hav e you bee n, ca m e ; hav e be e n 27 hav e see n; did you go; went; took 28 Did you see, were; saw; walked, aske d, had, said, has just retur n e d 29 Have you bee n; hav e be e n: hav e n ' t be e n 30 Have ; you see n; went, saw; Did you like; loved, didn' t und er s t a n d 31 has just died; knew;


46 worked; didn't see, left, kept 32 thou g h t , was, turn e d; shout e d ; said, didn' t know, were 33 Hasn' t Tom com e; ca m e ; went; didn't he ar 34 has just given; hav e just touch e d , didn' t feel 35 ca m e ; went; looke d; cough e d , spun: exclaim e d , didn't see 36 you hav e just agr e e d ; didn't realize, want e d Exerci s e 12 4 1 boug h t, hav e n ' t sold 2 was, beg a n ; ran, ma d e 3 caug h t , didn't get in, arrive d 4 looked up, cam e : hav e bee n, growle d 5 rang, said; said, hav e n ' t had; didn't you tell 6 met, said, didn' t see; Did you miss: didn' t miss, replied; hav e n ' t miss e d; gav e 7 went; worke d, went 8 has be e n; did she go; went 9 boug h t, aske d; told, hav e waite d/ b e e n waiting, has n' t come 10 me t, offere d; said; hav e just had 11 arrive d, land e d , climb e d out; recog nize d; exclaim e d ; didn' t know, knew; hav e only just learnt, said; went 12 tried, he ar d, called out; hav e you bee n; has bee n 13 Have you bee n; went; Did you like; didn' t see; was 14 hav e just boug h t; Have you rea d: hav e n ' t read; hav e n ' t eve n see n 15 Have you bee n; was; did you get; took 16 Have you see n; rang, got; has bee n; flew, decide d ; Have you hear d; got, arrive d 17 hav e you bee n; hav e bee n; did you do/w er e you doing; worked/w a s working 18 did you work; worked; Did you like; didn't like; did you stay 19 was, staye d , playe d ; did you play; playe d; lost 20 did you begin; beg a n , was; went; staye d , went 21 was, start e d ; did you get; hav e n ' t got; hav e only be e n 22 left; rang; answ e r e d ; said; has just gone, said 23 Have you be e n; was; Did you go; hitch- hiked 24 hav e n ' t see n; has be e n ill; collaps e d , was take n; sent, has n' t com e 25 was; Did you see; took, was, said, nee d e d ; hav e n ' t bee n able, hav e n ' t watch e d 26 Have you ever bee n; spen t; went, me t, want e d , didn' t get 27 said; said; has n' t com e; rang, were; said; got; didn' t come 28 dicta t e d , told; rang; Have you finish e d, aske d; said, hav e don e, hav e n ' t start e d 29 Have you found out; rang, answ er e d , didn't see m; said; has be e n 30 said, Has Jack mov e d; said, didn't see; was n' t 31 hav e you be e n; hav e bee n; boug h t/ h a v e boug h t; found, got 32 hav e playe d, ca m e ; has bee n, inherit e d ; Did you ever play; playe d, died, arrive d 33 Have you see n; left; put 34 Have you me t; me t; did you talk; talked 35 did, boug h t, has ma d e ; hav e always don e, hav e always found 36 had; hav e had, got; told, were; has be e n, hav e chan g e d Exerci s e 12 5 I hav e be e n telep h o nin g; Haven ' t you nearly finish e d; hav e n ' t got; hav e bee n trying, has bee n 2 has failed; has bee n practising, has got 3 hav e often wond e r e d ; hav e just found out 4 has bee n playing; has only just stop p e d 5 hav e n ' t you broug h t; Have n' t you type d 6 Have you bee n sunb a t hin g; has bee n raining/ has raine d


47 7 hav e be e n building; hav e bee n watchin g/h a v e watch e d 8 hav e n ' t found, has be e n; has bee n helping 9 hav e pulled down, hav e n ' t touch e d 10 hav e searc h e d / h a v e bee n searc hin g, hav e n ' t see n 11 hav e bee n waiting, hav e waite d 12 has bee n; has be e n looking, has n' t found 13 hav e bee n doing, hav e n ' t finishe d; hav e don e 14 hav e just picked; hav e grown/h a v e be e n growing, hav e nev er had 15 hav e you bee n doing; hav e bee n using 16 has just sold; hav e bee n painting, hav e n ' t sold 17 has this happ e n e d ; hav e had, hav e throw n 18 hav e you don e: has just gon e; has finishe d 19 has worke d/ h a s bee n working, has nev er once bee n; hav e/ h a s just pres e n t e d 20 hav e bee n me n din g/ h a v e me n d e d , hav e on ly don e, has broke n down 21 has collect e d / h a s bee n collecting; has collect e d 22 hav e be e n looking, hav e comple t el y forgott e n ; has hap p e n e d 23 has be e n getting/ h a s got, has be e n rising/h a s risen; has com e 24 has eat e n , has lost count, has att e n d e d ; Has he put on 25 hav e be e n ringing up; has gon e; has bee n working; has found out 26 has bee n using; hav e n ' t be e n 27 hav e be e n stan din g; has n' t mov e d; has just shut . . . and gone off 28 has/h a v e bee n consid e ring; hav e just given, hav e decide d 29 hav e be e n playing, hav e n ' t playe d 30 hav e be e n, hav e n ' t got 31 has bee n sta n din g; has alre a d y gon e 32 has happ e n e d ; hav e be e n waiting/h a v e waite d; has often kept, has nev er be e n 33 has be e n living/h a s lived, has nev er said 34 hav e just rem e m b e r e d , hav e n ' t paid; has n' t rung; hav e be e n; hav e paid; has lost 35 hav e bee n shoppin g/ h a v e shop p e d ; has be e n losing/h a s lost, hav e ma d e , hav e bee n told, hav e known 36 hav e you be e n doing; hav e bee n looking; hav e bee n building Exerci s e 12 6 1 gav e, thank e d , said, had enjoye d , knew, had n' t rea d, were 2 had see n, retur n e d , didn' t hav e/ h a d n ' t 3 didn' t hav e, had alre a d y don e, was 4 didn't hav e, did, left 5 had, was; decid e d 6 picked, went, slam m e d 7 felt, had remind e d 8 had searc h e d and found, re m e m b e r e d , was 9 had left 10 rem e m b e r e d , were 11 arrive d; had be e n told, was, was 12 aske d, said, hadn ' t be e n 13 want e d , had com e 14 told 15 ad mitt e d , nev er boug h t/ h a d nev er boug h t, ass ur e d , sold, was n' t 16 retur n e d , saw, had broke n in, was, was 17 were, had only just left 18 Proba bly they (had) hear d/Th e y (had) prob a bly he ar d, had run/r a n 19 had helpe d, was, pour e d 20 wond er e d , had found, hop e d 21 had be e n given, had died 22 hadn ' t had, had n' t liked 23 see m e d , had tak e n 24 put, took, had forgott e n /forg o t, had put 25 cam e , said, had just swallow e d 26 thoug h t, left, was, arrive d, lea rn t, had just left 27 found, had be e n using/h a d use d 28 park e d , rush e d; cam e , was 29 wond er e d , had stolen, had driven 30 was, was, had bee n working/h a d worke d 31 was, had had 32 broug h t , had n' t com e 33 kept, had see n 34 looked, went, saw 35 got up, was, wond e r e d , had staye d , had gon e aw ay and come back 36 ope n e d , saw 37 had clearly


48 bee n listenin g, wond er e d , had hear d 38 aske d, had bee n doing/w a s doing, said, had drop p e d , had bee n looking for/was looking for 39 didn' t see, found, had prob a bly dropp e d , open e d 40 had be e n taking 41 were, turn e d , aske d 42 pulled, ran off 43 (had) recov er e d , had disap p e a r e d 44 mov e d , found, had be e n sta n din g 45 had bee n telling/w a s telling Exerci s e 12 7 1 Where did they go? 2 How long does it take to get ther e ? 3 What did you think of it? 4 How much does he earn? 5 How I muc h was Tom fined? 6 How big is your room? or What size is your roo m? 7 When did they leav e?/How long ago did they leav e? 8 How did they come ? 9 How long hav e you be e n her e? 10 Wher e did the stud e n t s go? 11 How ma n y miles to the gallon does the car do/Wha t does it do to the gallon? 12 Wher e did he me e t her? 13 What did the neighb o u r s complain abou t? 14 What did the clerk mak e him do? 15 Who ate the apple s ? 16 How did he get in? 17 Who boug h t the ticket s ? 18 What were the road s like? 19 How ma n y cigar e t t e s do you smok e a day? 20 What was the hotel like? 21 How far aw ay is the mark e t ? 22 How long hav e you had that cough? 23 What did Guy Fawkes try to do? 24 Who would you like to spe ak to? 25 Whos e is this? 26 How did he stop the train? 27 How long hav e you bee n waiting? 28 Wher e did Mary put it? 29 Why did you throw it aw ay? 30 How ma n y hot els are ther e in the town? 3 1 Wher e did they leav e the lawn m o w e r ? 32 How did you find her addr e s s ? 33 What did Ann give you for lunch? 34 How de e p is the lake? 35 Whos e car did you borrow? 36 What did he do with it? Exerci s e 12 8 1 What did he tell you? 2 What is the bridg e built of? 3 Wher e are you all going to? or What are you all going to do? 4 How did he bre ak his leg? 5 How or Why did Tom lose his job? 6 Which did you buy? 7 What is the new the a t r e like? or What does it look like? 8 How ma n y would you like? 9 When did the concer t begin? 10 Who did she go to the danc e with? 11 Why did he buy a car? 12 When is he coming? 13 Which (one) is longer? 14 Who tau g h t you to play poker? 15 What has she broke n ? 16 What are you looking for? 17 Whos e typ ew rit er has he borrow e d ? 18 What was she asking him for? 19 Who is he ringing up? 20 What does the word 'boss ' me a n ? 21 How did he esc a p e ? 22 Who were you talking abou t ? 23 Whos e idea did they like bes t? 24 Who did he compl ain to? 25 How big was it? 26 What do the stud e n t s inten d to do? 27 Where do you com e from? 28 How muc h does the bes t kind cost? 29 Why did he give it aw ay? 30 What is his sister like? 31 What' s this knife for? 32 What do you hav e to do in the mornin g s ? 33 Which one do you like bes t? 34 How often does he come to London? 35 Who told you abou t it? 36 What is he like?


49 Exerci s e 12 9 Part 1 1 hav e just hear d, would/s ho uld like 2 Do you think, could or would be able to 3 had, rem e m b e r , said, was or had bee n, (had) got 4 can/co uld, can/co uld, suits/wo uld suit 5 has, will/would bring 6 isn't, do not hesit a t e 7 are, will take him if I ask/wo uld take him if I aske d 8 has be e n/w a s , see m e d Part 2 9 am/w a s , am, are going 10 will be II will look 12 enjoye d , miss e d, left/h a d left, looked 13 will be 14 Will you/Would you/Could you bring, does n ' t suit 15 Don't both e r, hav e 16 you'll hav e, bring, you'll hav e/yo u 'll hav e had Part 3 17 Do you by any chanc e know 18 should/w ould like, hav e just hear d, would exac tly suit, does n ' t apply, won't get 19 saw, was just leaving/h a d just left 20 said, was going, pro mis e d , (had) found 21 hav e hear d, don't eve n know, went 22 know, should/w ould be, would phon e 23 hav e tried, does n ' t see m Part 4 24 am, adv er tis e d , are coming/s h all be coming, (shall) require 25 Would you plea s e /Co uld you pleas e tell me 26 should/w ould like 27 Would I be able/Could 1 28 hop e s /is hoping, don' t drive, won't be/would n' t be, ne e d/ s h all nee d/ s h o ul d ne e d 29 Do the local shops still deliver; know, did 30 should/wo uld be, would tell, calls 31 ask/ar e asking, soun d s ; would you like/do you like 32 hav e bee n, lived, want 33 is also writing, would like, paint e d 34 has known, lived, am, would/will reco m m e n d 35 should/wo uld of cours e be or am of cours e willing 36 should/wo uld be, enclos e Exerci s e 13 0 Part 1 1 wrote, asking or to ask or and aske d 2 replied, enclosing, filled up, retur n e d 3 hav e he ar d, am beginnin g/ b e gi n, has gon e 4 Would/Could you plea s e check, hav e receive d 5 hav e receiv e d / did receiv e/r e c eiv e d , hav e n ' t decide d , should/wo uld be, would tell 6 has alre a d y bee n, should/wo uld like, don' t get, shall/will hav e to, do, shall/will hav e or hav e Part 2 7 hav e suffere d / h a v e bee n suffering, leav e/ a r e leaving 8 sta n d, laughin g, calling 9 get, ban g/ b a n gi n g , rever s e 10 soun d s , finds, has had, is still learnin g, don't know, (do) know, take s , roaring, shoutin g 11 hav e gon e, hav e all bee n, find 12 should/w ould be, would ask, could Part 3 13 Are you/Would you be 14 is coming, is bringing or is coming and bringing, or will be coming and bringing 15 hav e n ' t met, think, would/will like 16 will be able 17 receive s , does n ' t get, has aske d 18 will prob a bly ring, would be 19 know, don' t usu ally eat, hop e, won't be; can 20 pas s e s , rem e m b e r / will prob a bly rem e m b e r , will give Exerci s e 13 1 Part 1 (Affirma tiv e auxiliary verbs would usu ally be contr a c t e d in spe e c h.)


50 1 Could 2 does 3 does, cam e , was, did, is, will/would do 4 do you want 5 should/w ould like 6 Would Thursd a y at 4.00 suit 7 wouldn' t; is coming 8 would be able to/could do 9 would/will be 10 will/shall exp e c t Part 2 II Could 12 Spe akin g 13 hav e you bee n; hav e be e n trying; Don't you leave 14 do, went, hav e only just got in; is; didn't know, were 15 arrived; would hav e rung, hav e bee n; has only just end e d ; Are you doing 16 am going 17 is; am 18 am; had told, would hav e kept 19 didn' t know, das h e d , told 20 did 21 does, was driving, had, was take n; am doing; are you really going; can't/co uld n' t you 22 can' t/co uld n ' t; supp o s e , will/would be 23 will stay; will get over; would you like 24 I'd love; are you, will be, should/w ould hat e 25 will be: will ring, am staying: staye d , didn' t see m 26 did you stay; will tell 15 Future forms Exerci s e 13 2 1 are you going; we'll prob a bly go 2 are having; is leaving/le a v e s 3 shall/will see; will prob a bly look 4 am seeing; will refus e 5 shall/will know; will tell 6 will be; shall/will miss; will walk, will prob a bly catch 7 shall/will prob a bly com e; will give, am coming 8 will get; are stayin g, will hav e to; will mov e 9 will he say; won't mind; will just buy 10 won't know; will leav e 11 will nev er get; will me e t , will I fall 12 am going; Are you coming; shall/will prob a bly hav e 13 Are you walking; will get; will bring 14 am having, are startin g; will mak e 15 Are you taking; am taking; will pas s; will/shall take 16 are you me e tin g; are me e tin g; is taking 17 are you doing; will go; will prob a bly stay 18 is Jack arriving; is he gettin g; will come 19 are they doing; are going; is hap p e ni n g; are taking; will enjoy 20 will wake, won't get 21 are spen din g; shall/will ma n a g e ; will turn: will be able 22 is catching, will be 23 is Georg e coming; are moving, shall/will hav e to 24 am ringing; Shall I ask; shall/will be; will write 25 are having, are lunching, is sta n din g; are giving 26 will let, shall/will find 27 are gettin g; Are you going; Are they having 28 Shall I wait, will take 29 will you hav e; will hav e; will hav e; are having, am having; will hav e 30 will give; am collecting 31 is getting; will hap p e n ; will ring, will slee p, will come 32 am being; is leaving, am taking; will soon be, will spe n d, will lose or will spen d . . . and lose 33 am flying; are you taking; will spe n d 34 are going; are having . . . and going; will com e; is coming; will ask 35 is coming; Shall we go: will get, shall/will be able; won't pay 36 are openin g, are having; will look; will come ; are you having; are missing; are going Exerci s e 13 3 1 are you going; am going; are you going to do; am going to fish 2 are you going; am not going; am stayin g/ g oin g to stay; am going to write 3 is going to rain 4 are you staying; am going; are


51 you going to do; am going to try Sam going to dye; Are you going to do, are you going to hav e it done; am going to hav e 6 am going to rea d 7 are you doing; are coming, am going to show/ a m showing; are you taking; am going to take/ a m taking 8 are starting; are going; Are you going to climb; is going to climb; am going to sit . . . and do 9 are going; Are you going to sail; are taking/ a r e going to take; are going to try 10 Aren't you going to ask; am leaving; are you going to do; Are you going to hav e; am starting II Are you going to use; am going to live; am going to start; are you going to do/ar e you doing, am selling/ a m going to sell; is getting 12 is going, is having; is going to look; is coming 13 am going to send; am seeing 14 is arriving; Is he spen din g; is he catching; is spen din g; is giving . . . and att e n din g 15 Is he bringing; is going to do, is giving 16 am startin g; are you going to do; am going to study 17 Are you going; am going to get; am going; am going to ask; is joining/is going to join, they are all going to pick 18 am going to buy; is going to be 19 are you going to do; Are you going to sell; am going to learn; am having 20 am moving in; Are you going to hav e; am going to paint 21 Are you having; am going to do/a m doing; am going to use; are going to help; am hiring/a m going to hire 22 am going to do; am going to plant . . . and mak e; Are you going to give/ ar e you giving 23 am gettin g; are startin g, is coming 24 are me e tin g; Are they just going to rep e a t ; are they going to climb; are going to offer Exerci s e 13 4 1 am going to hav e 2 are going to ass e m b l e ; will come 3 am going to sha m p o o 4 am going to mak e; will burn 5 am going to paint 6 am going to mak e 7 will look 8 will see 9 will wait 10 are going to ca mp . . . and cook II am going to put 12 Are you going to wear; am going to sit . . . and watch: am not going to get 13 will take 14 will hav e 15 will start; will get, will bake 16 is going to bake; will soon get 17 Are you going to try; am going to try; will confisca t e 18 shall/will hav e; will com e 19 am not going to take; am going to me n d : is going to help 20 Are you going to paint; am going to take 21 will add; won't be able to read; am going to typ e; shall/will hav e 22 will typ e 23 will ring 24 am going to ring 25 Aren't you going to climb; are going to climb; are going to try; will cook, will buy 26 am going to was h; will come 27 are going to pick; will prob a bly come , will start 28 will hav e to go, will be; will get; Will you let 29 will stay; will try 30 am going to start; Are you going to do; is going to help 31 is going to write; will buy; will buy 32 is going to dig 33 is the new owner going to mak e; is going to conc e n t r a t e 34 are going to bottle 35 will go 36 are going to buy; will stay Exerci s e 13 5 1 will/shall both be coming 2 will me e t , will forge t 3 will be watching; will ring 4 will/shall be doing; will still be working 5


52 will get, will do 6 will be coming 7 will/shall be working 8 will/shall be taking off 9 will com e 10 will be playing 11 will get; will still be; will be going, will ask 12 will be, will be wond e rin g/will wond er 13 will/shall nev er be able; will be helping; won't be helping; will/shall be helping 14 will write, will try; will typ e 15 will/shall be typing; will typ e 16 will tell 17 will just be coming 18 will be melting 19 will be talking . . . and showing, will/shall feel 20 will tell, won't believ e 21 will just be gettin g up 22 will be wearing; will wrap . . . and go 23 will be; will be spe a kin g, will be addr e s sin g 24 will be readin g, will be ringing 25 will still be stan din g 26 Will you pleas e forward; will/shall be stayin g 27 will be coming 28 will be leaving 29 won't start; will give 30 will be coming 31 will be looking 32 will you be arriving; will/shall be trav elling; Will ther e be; will sen d 33 Will you be using; will put 34 will/shall be having; will be hobbling 35 will enjoy; won't/s h a n ' t hav e; will/shall be ma p- readin g, will/shall be 36 will write Exerci s e 13 6 1 won't do 2 won't com e; won't be driving 3 won't/s h a n ' t be coming 4 won't hav e; won't com e 5 won't/s h a n ' t be teac hin g 6 will/shall be doing; won't/s h a n ' t be eating 7 won't eat 8 won't bite 9 won't be coming 10 will be fishing II won't clea n 12 won't/s h a n ' t be showing 13 won't/s h a n ' t be washing; will/shall be having 14 won't/s h a n ' t be wearing; won't recog niz e 15 won't be, won't believ e 16 won't/s h a n ' t be delivering 17 won't be wearing 18 won't tell 19 won't be using; won't do 20 will/shall hav e; won't/s h a n ' t be paying 21 won't pay; will hav e 22 won't work 23 will get on; won't be working 24 won't eve n show; won't come Exerci s e 13 7 1 will hav e rep air e d 2 will hav e don e 3 will/shall hav e ma d e 4 will hav e finish e d 5 will hav e plant e d 6 will/shall hav e pas s e d 7 will/shall hav e don e 8 will hav e walked 9 will hav e lost 10 will hav e spe n t 11 will/shall hav e worked 12 will hav e bee n driven 13 will/shall hav e sent 14 will/shall hav e given 15 will hav e died 16 will hav e driven 17 will/shall hav e picked 18 will hav e sunk Exerci s e 13 8 Part I 1 is looking; see s , rings; answ er s 2 am ringing 3 says; use 4 uses; eats ; don' t think, likes 5 would suit/s uits; like; would we arra n g e / d o we arra n g e , use 6 includ e s ; does n ' t includ e 7 see; does the room face 8 faces; looks, gets 9 soun d s 10 Would 7 p.m. suit or Will 7 p.m. suit; can't/co uld n' t/w o uld n ' t be able to, don' t get 11 will/would be; don't think, will hav e; pas s e s , stops 12 I'll find; I'll see 13 com e s , asks 14 is coming 15 She'll prob a bly com e , are sitting; get; don' t think, give


53 16 do; listen s; will be 17 rings; looks, smiles 18 says, goes Part 2 19 am spe a kin g; am spen din g; would you like 20 I'd love; do I get 21 I'll me e t 22 I'll do 23 come s 24 soun d s 25 see 26 are you doing 27 am spe n din g 28 you'll freez e, does n ' t kill; are you gettin g 29 am catching, is me e tin g 30 I'll lend; I'll tell 31 likes 32 I'll give, fall, goes; are having, is going, is catching 33 is always going; go 34 com e s , hear, will be 16 Conditionals Exerci s e 13 9 1 find, will give 2 smok e, will/may object 3 put, will crack 4 see 5 wins, will get, com e s , will get 6 feel 7 wants , will hav e 8 hav e finish e d 9 stan d s , will capsize 10 isn't working, will hav e 11 does n ' t go 12 he ar 13 will get 14 leav e s , will be 15 freez e s , will be 16 don't take, will hav e 17 take s , will hav e 18 don't feel/ar e n ' t feeling 19 brak e s , will/may skid 20 like, will get 21 would like 22 growls 23 isn't working 24 don' t know 25 refus e s 26 won't/do e s n ' t help 27 are going 28 do you employ 29 will be 30 hat e, don't you chan g e 31 don't want 32 he ar 33 will see 34 rings/s h o uld ring 35 reac h/ s h o uld reac h 36 would care, will send Exerci s e 14 0 Part I Drill ('What'll hap p e n if . . .' is nor m ally rep lace a bl e by 'What'll you do if and vice vers a. Thes e are possible answ e r s only.) 1 What'll you do if he does n ' t pay you tonigh t? 2 What'll you do if you don't get a per mit? 3 What'll you do if you don' t pas s? 4 What'll you do if he refus e s ? 5 What'll hap p e n if he choos e s Smith? 6 What'll you do if you can't find a che a p room? 7 What'll happ e n if it does n ' t ope n? 8 What'll happ e n if I forge t it? 9 What'll happ e n if they don' t believ e me? 10 What'll you call it if it's a boy? 11 What'll happ e n if we don' t get a lift? 12 What'll happ e n if it isn't clear of fog? 13 What'll hap p e n /H ow long will it take if he does n ' t help us? 14 What'll hap p e n if he isn't at h ome? /What'll we do if...? 15 What'll we do if the ice isn't thick enou g h ? 16 What'll happ e n /W h a t happ e n s if you walk on the m when the tide is coming in? 17 What'll we do if it's wet? 18 What'll we do if we (do) hav e anot h e r punct ur e ? Part 2 1 If you like I can get 2 If you like I'll ask 3 If you like I'll bring the photo gr a p h s 4 If you like I'll give 5 If you like you can watch 6 If you like I'll arra n g e a helicopt e r trip 7 If you like I'll knit you one 8 If you like you can borrow 9 If you like I'll come 10 If you like I'll ask Ann 11 If you like I'll get you an application form 12 If you like I'll go with you 13 If you like I'll paint 14 If you like you can leav e 15 If you like we'll post p o n e 16 If you like I'll ask him 17 If you like I'll arra n g e for you to me e t the Presid e n t 18 If you like we'll go sailing


54

Exerci s e 14 1 (First pers o n w o ul d is nor m ally replac e a bl e by sh o u l d exce p t in sent e n c e s 8, 9, 22.) 1 gav e, would sell 2 woke, would hav e 3 went, would pine 4 went, would lose 5 said, would you do 6 worked, would finish 7 would happ e n , blew 8 saw, would climb; would not be, would climb 9 cam e , would call 10 threw, would hav e 11 aske d, would he say 12 would be; would prob a bly start 13 rang, would be 14 saw, would ass u m e 15 would hav e, were/w a s 16 rush e d , would get 17 boug h t, would lose 18 had, would bring 19 did, would not be 20 were/w a s , would still be 21 were/w a s , wouldn' t be staying/w o uld n ' t stay 22 had, would drink 23 drank, would soon get 24 were/w a s , would not be playing 25 would you go, did 26 kept, would not be running/w o uld not run 27 was/w er e , would not be sitting 28 he ar d, didn' t you answ e r 29 typ e d , would be 30 had 31 had, would now be sitting 32 would be, would kindly sign 33 stopp e d , would all fly 34 would still be 35 was, didn't you chan g e 36 won, would be writing/wo uld write Exerci s e 14 2 (The following are possible answ e r s but not the on ly possible answ e r s .) 1 If she was n' t/w e r e n ' t so shy she would enjoy 2 If he took more exercis e he would be he althier 3 If I had the right chan g e we could 4 If they spoke English to her, her English would/ mig h t improv e 5 If he worked overti m e he would 6 If my nu mb e r was/w er e in the directory people would ring 7 If the police were arm e d we would/ mig h t hav e gun battle s 8 If the shops deliver e d , life would be easier/le s s difficult 9 If he was n' t/w e r e n ' t so thin he might n ' t feel/ If he was/w er e fatt er, etc. 10 If we had ma tc h e s we could light 11 If we had a ste ak we could cook it 12 If I was n' t/w e r e n ' t so fat I could/would be able to 13 If I aske d him he might help 14 If I could drive we could/would be able to take the car 15 If we had a ladd e r we could 16 If I were you I should/wo uld sell it 17 If I had more time I'd rea d mor e 18 If they clean e d the windows the room s would look bright e r 19 If he polishe d his shoe s he'd look sma r t e r 20 If he paid his staff prop e rly they might work bett e r 21 If we had centr al hea tin g the hous e would be war m e r 22 If I had a dog I wouldn' t mind being alon e 23 If he didn' t spe n d hours watchin g television he would hav e time 24 If I had a vacuu m clea n e r I'd be quicker 25 If I knew his addr e s s I could write 26 If he shav e d he' d look mor e attr a c tiv e 27 If you worked mor e slowly you wouldn' t mak e 28 If I could park near my office I'd come by car 29 If I lived ne ar e r the centr e I wouldn' t always be late 30 If I had a ma p I could direct 31 If people drove mor e slowly ther e wouldn' t be 32 If English peopl e spoke mor e slowly I might/ mig h t be able to und e r s t a n d 33 If my hous e


55 was n' t/w e r e n ' t guard e d by two Alsatia n dogs it would be broke n into 34 If the flats were clearly nu mb e r e d it would be easier to find peopl e 35 If you wiped your feet you wouldn' t mak e mud d y marks 36 If I didn' t live near my office I'd spen d a lot of time Exerci s e 14 3 (Som e ti m e s w ou l d below is replac e a bl e by mig h t or co ul d . ) 1 had not take n, wouldn' t hav e got 2 had paid, wouldn' t hav e bee n 3 had told, would hav e cooke d 4 had had, would hav e bee n 5 had known, would hav e lent 6 had n' t had, would hav e fallen 7 had realize d, wouldn' t hav e acce p t e d 8 had n' t take n 9 had be e n lit 10 hadn ' t rung 11 had waite d, would hav e see n 12 wouldn' t hav e bee n, hadn ' t knocke d 13 had pat e n t e d , would hav e ma d e 14 had had, would hav e bee n 15 had told, would hav e agre e d 16 had be e n, would hav e bee n able 17 had bee n, would hav e be e n launch e d 18 had known, wouldn' t hav e throw n 19 had known, would hav e broug h t; would hav e enjoye d 20 would hav e att e n d e d 21 would hav e refus e d , had offere d 22 wouldn' t hav e known, had n' t told 23 had read, would hav e refus e d 24 had be e n playing, would cert ainly hav e hear d 25 would you hav e don e 26 hadn ' t raine d, would hav e be e n 27 had bee n waiting 28 had used, would hav e lit 29 had n' t bee n wearing, should/w ould hav e recog nize d 30 had known, would hav e backe d 31 had bee n, would hav e phon e d 32 had tu rn ed 33 had playe d, would hav e had 34 had book e d, would hav e had 35 had bee n, would not hav e be e n 36 had held, would not hav e bee n Exerci s e 14 4 (Thes e are possible answ e r s but not the only possible answ e r s .) 1 If I had see n the sign al I would hav e stop p e d 2 If I'd known your nu mb e r I would hav e rung 3 If she had known you were in hos pit al she would hav e visited 4 If ther e had bee n taxis we would hav e take n one 5 If she hadn ' t bee n so shy she might hav e spoke n 6 If she hadn ' t thre a t e n e d to set fire to her flat I wouldn' t hav e aske d 7 If we'd had time we'd hav e visited 8 If the lift had be e n working I wouldn' t hav e come up the stairs 9 If we had listen e d carefully we might n ' t hav e ma d e 10 If we hadn ' t got a lift we shouldn' t/w o uld n ' t hav e reach e d 11 If you hadn ' t was h e d it in boiling wat er it wouldn' t hav e shrunk 12 If we hadn ' t bee n using an out- of-dat e time t a bl e we shouldn' t/w o uld n' t hav e miss e d 13 If his own me n had n' t des e r t e d him he wouldn' t hav e failed 14 If they had n' t be e n driving so quickly the accide n t wouldn' t hav e bee n 15 If it had n' t be e n raining I would hav e take n 16 If I'd known that in su m m e r etc. I wouldn' t hav e boug h t 17 If Tom's fath er had n' t be e n on the Board he wouldn' t hav e got 18 If he'd bee n looking wher e he was going he


56 wouldn' t hav e bee n run over 19 If I'd bee n brou g h t up in the country I might like countr y life 20 If I'd known he was so quarr els o m e I wouldn' t/s h o uld n ' t hav e invite d him 21 If it had n' t raine d all the time he might hav e enjoye d his visit 22 If I'd worke d hard at school I would/s h o uld/ mi g h t hav e got a good job 23 If they hadn ' t use d close dcircuit television they wouldn' t/ mig h t n ' t hav e spott e d 24 If he'd bee n wearing a shirt they wouldn' t hav e ask e d him to leav e 25 If the stre e t s had be e n clearly mark e d it wouldn' t hav e take n us so long 26 If we'd had enou g h mon e y we would/s ho uld hav e gon e by air 27 If you' d put your hand up the bus would hav e stop p e d 28 If he had n' t turn e d up looking so disrep u t a bl e they would hav e given him 29 If I'd known how thin the ice was I wouldn' t/s h o uld n ' t hav e be e n walking 30 If he had take n the fight seriously from the beginning he might hav e won 31 If they hadn ' t paid the rans o m at once they wouldn' t hav e got 32 If he had rea d the pas s a g e mor e slowly the candid a t e s would hav e und er s t o o d 33 If they' d bee n wearing life- jacket s they might n ' t hav e bee n drown e d 34 If his wife had enco ur a g e d him he might hav e got 35 If the exit doors had n' t bee n blocke d peopl e would hav e bee n able to esca p e / c o ul d hav e esc a p e d 36 They would hav e walked furth e r if they had n' t be e n ha m p e r e d by or But for the thick dus t they would hav e walked furth er Exerci s e 14 5 (First pers o n would is norm ally replac e a bl e by should.) 1 stays, will be/s h o uld be 2 didn't know, wouldn' t/co uld n ' t und er s t a n d 3 had n' t got, would/ mig h t hav e com e; wouldn' t hav e be e n 4 knew, did you take 5 were not 6 had not bee n, would not hav e che e r e d 7 had not che e r e d , would not hav e run 8 had not run, would not hav e cras h e d , would not hav e bee n 9 retur n s / s h o ul d return 10 why don't you sell/why not sell; had, would sell 11 didn' t know, did you offer; would refus e 12 leave s , will/ma y ste al 13 wore, would see 14 had n' t loved, would not hav e waite d 15 had looked, would hav e be e n 16 start, will the village people resist 17 would you like 18 won't be able; can' t, can't 19 would hav e bee n, had beco m e 20 had gone, would be 2 1 had, would mak e 22 had known, would hav e broug h t 23 bat h e d , would be 24 stood, would all see, would be 25 were, would get 26 do, plea s e remind/w o uld you pleas e remin d 27 would hav e realized 28 had ad mitt e d , would not hav e be e n 29 had, would grow; would be 30 had known, would hav e staye d 31 had, would mak e 32 had told, would/co uld hav e gon e 33 spe n d , won't hav e 34 had n' t bee n, might n ' t hav e bee n 35 had, would get 36 would hap p e n , had; would play, (would) miss, would fail, (would) hav e; would not feed, would get; would catch, (would) die, would hav e, would keep.


57 Exerci s e 14 6 Answers are not provid e d for thes e ope n- end e d sent e n c e s , as the respo n s e s by individu al stud e n t s are likely to be varied. Exerci s e 14 7 1 shall/will; will 2 will 3 Shall; will 4 will 5 Will 6 sha n' t/w o n ' t; sha n' t/w o n ' t; will; shall/will 7 will 8 shall 9 shall; won't 10 will 11 Shall; shall/will, won't 12 will 13 sha n' t 14 won't 15 shall, shall not 16 will; shall/will 17 Shall; will: will, won't 18 shall/will; will 19 shan ' t; will 20 shall; will 21 sha n' t/w o n ' t; will 22 Will; won't 23 shan ' t; will 24 shall Exerci s e 14 8 1 should 2 should 3 would 4 Would 5 should 6 would 7 would 8 should/wo uld 9 would 10 should 11 would 12 Would 13 should 14 should; would 15 Would; should 16 should 17 should 18 would 19 should 20 would 21 should 22 should 23 should 24 would 25 Would 26 should 27 should 28 should, should 29 should 30 would 31 would 32 would 33 should 34 would 35 should 36 should 17 Gerund, infinitive and present participle Exerci s e 14 9 1living, to like 2 to trav el; to take, to go 3 to buy; selling 4 to catch; gettin g, gettin g 5 to compl ain; losing 6 going, being, putting; telling, to take 7 to lock; go, do 8 to touch, being 9 hous ehunting, to ask; looking 10 go; swim mi n g; going 11 to be paid; taking, me a s u rin g; to exp e c t, to do, to be, to die 12 spen din g, arguin g, not to go 13 giving, going to live 14 to leav e; to call 15 kee p you waiting; apologizing 16 telling, to talk 17 earning, to show 18 to start; filling 19 to carry; to mov e, carry 20 to take; take; cutting; to get, taking; to saw, esca p e 21 to ask, to leav e; asking Tom to do; asking, to trav el 22 to cut; sharp e ni n g 23 to buy, to ask 24 che a tin g, buying, de aling/t o deal 25 dining, hav e; to go; having 26 cutting/to be cut; hav e, to hav e 27 to convinc e, ma n a gi n g , helping 28 trav elling, stan din g; que uin g, waiting; to go 29 following, criticizing, to hit 30 to stay; wait; to go 31 to reb el, not to adop t 32 arriving; to wait, waiting: to be 33 to com e , going; to climb, making 34 to work, getting 35 start; to risk getting 36 calling, letting, decide Exerci s e 15 0 1 slee pin g, to cam p 2 to com e; listening, listening, talking 3 to leav e, to put 4 to park 5 smoking, to risk setting, smok e 6 writing, to receiv e, go 7 buying; shop pin g 8 to see, to find, buy; trying to trav el 9 to turn; working 10


58 taking, droppin g, pret e n di n g 11 to grow, buying; to prev e n t , playing 12 keepin g; to fill; asking, to kee p; making 13 going; to come ; to go, go; trav elling 14 go fishing: coming; to cut, wasting, sitting, watchin g, fishing 15 being, to wait; to see 16 to prev e n t , rushing, das hin g 17 tossing, cras hin g 18 to eat, trying 19 walking, take; go; to get 20 to start; raining, walking 21 counting, thinking; moving, being robb e d ; to get, to mak e 22 letting, kee ping, to sell 23 to lean, watchin g, going, coming; shouting, talking 24 to know, to learn; to gre e t/ g r e e ti n g , to talk 25 untying, climbing, crawling 26 finding; gettin g; to know 27 to see/s e ei n g , sitting; relaxing, rea din g, produc e , to be; perfor min g, keepin g 28 spe n din g, living, to think, selling, returnin g 29 arguing; argu e; seeing 30 to he ar; seein g; to bring 3 1 receiving, selling; receiving, selling, to sell 32 hovering, being, climbing; run/run nin g; coming/co m e , leading 33 to be pas sing, to give, to pick, to drop 34 having; to hav e; sitting, swirling, taking 35 writing, showing 36 swim; swim mi n g; going 18 Unreal pasts and subjunctives Exerci s e 15 1 1 left 2 had 3 had 4 had 5 had don e 6 beg a n 7 knew Shad 9 had aske d 10 did 11 had nibbled/ h a d bee n nibbling 12 me n d e d 13 were addr e s sin g 14 were 15 staye d , looke d 16 had tied 17 had n' t given 18 had known 19 didn't know 20 were 21 drove 22 had bee n 23 had not take n 24 had nev er be e n 25 had kept 26 paid 27 stopp e d , start e d 28 had not said 29 had take n 30 had be e n stan din g 31 had nev er set 32 took 33 had/h a d had 34 had not tried 35 had not had 36 got Exerci s e 15 2 (The following are possible answ e r s , but not the only possible answ e r s . All the answ e r s will begin: I'd rath e r you . We are ther efor e only giving the oth er half of eac h sent e n c e .) 1 went by train 2 went with som e o n e / t o o k som e o n e with you 3 start e d toda y 4 rang on your own phon e / u s e d your own phon e 5 slept in the hous e 6 cooke d it und e r the grill 7 cut it with a knife/with your own scissors 8 staye d on a bit long er 9 ca m e in time 10 waite d till morning 11 clean e d it in the gar a g e 12 said nothing 13 wore shoe s 14 didn' t 15 paint e d it blue, and withou t any decor a tio n s 16 rang at 7 a.m. 17 didn' t thre a t e n him at all 18 bat h e d during the day/in daylight 19 park e d it in the playing field 20 put the m in the goldfish bowl 21 went by train 22 borrow e d the oth er one 23 typ e d it


59 24 did it tod a y Exerci s e 15 3 (All the answ e r s begin I wish; the words I wish will ther efor e not be given.) 1 I had a was hin g mac hin e 2 I lived ne ar e r my work 3 our gard e n got som e sun 4 I hadn ' t called him a liar 5 I knew Finnish 6 I had booke d a sea t 7 I had a car 81 could drive 9 Tom would drive mor e slowly/Tom drove 10 you would kee p quiet 11 we hadn ' t acce p t e d 12 the a t r e tickets didn' t cost 13 shops her e didn't shut 14 he had worked 15 you had see n it 16 you were n ' t going 17 I had a per mit 18 it would stop 19 you would wait 20 I had broug h t a ma p 21 I had nev er come 22 I hadn ' t left 23 I had staye d 24 he would cut 25 he would stop 26 he went to bed earlier/didn' t go so late 27 we knew wher e we were 28 we had 29 I had known 30 you hadn ' t told 31 I had ask e d 32 I could swim 33 you were coming 34 you were going to a job 35 you had aske d him 36 every countr y would stop

19 The passive Exerci s e 15 4 1 The milk is broug h t, the letter s are left 2 lett er s won't be broug h t , they'll hav e to be collect e d from 3 Things are stolen from, twent y bottle s were stolen 4 this stre e t is swep t, it wasn' t swep t 5 This box is clear e d, It was last clear e d 6 A light was turn e d on and the door (was) open e d 7 This office is clean e d , the upst airs offices are clea n e d 8 He was nev er see n, all his me als were take n up 9 This purs e was left . . . it was found by the clean e r 10 1,000 new hous e s are built, last year 1,500 were built 11 Hot me als are serv e d, coffee and sandwich e s can be order e d 12 All sorts of things are left in bus e s . They are collect e d by the conduc t o r s and (are) sent 13 He was take n to hos pit al by amb ul a n c e 14 Many peopl e are killed and injured . . - can' t som e t hi n g be don e 15 The ware h o u s e is guard e d by dogs. A thief who tried to get in was see n by a dog and chas e d 16 The police were called and the ma n (was) arre s t e d 17 Tom, who had only a slight injury, was help e d off, but Jack, who was seriously injure d, was carried off 18 This dres s can' t be was h e d , it mus t be dry- clean e d 19 The entire block is being de m olis h e d 20 He reco m m e n d s that new tyres should be fitted 21 He sugg e s t e d that council ten a n t s should be allow ed 22 Thes e calculation s use d to be don e by me n; now they are don e by a comp u t e r 23 The ma n was tried, found guilty and sent to prison 24 The knock ers of all the flats are polish e d . . . mine has n' t bee n polish e d 25 My piano is being rep air e d 26 Tickets shouldn' t be throw n away . . . they ma y be check e d 27 Jack was invited but Tom wasn' t (invited) 28 All the sandwich e s were eat e n . . .


60 and all the beer (was) drunk. Nothing was left 29 Has my parc el bee n post e d 30 Why wasn' t I inform e d of 31 The book was writte n by Tom Smith and publish e d by Brown and Co. 32 The car will hav e to be towe d 33 all our copies hav e bee n sold but mor e hav e bee n order e d 34 Tresp a s s e r s will be pros e c u t e d 35 My car was stolen and aba n d o n e d . . . The radio had be e n remo v e d but no other da m a g e had bee n done 36 Dogs mus t be kept on leads Exerci s e 15 5 1 The letter has n' t bee n sta m p e d 2 I was n' t paid for the work; I was exp e c t e d to do 3 he was being mov e d 4 I wasn' t introd uc e d 5 I was aw ak e n e d by a frightful cras h 6 When this stre e t has be e n widen e d the resid e n t s will be kept awak e all night by the roar 7 The rubbis h was throw n aw ay 8 Thes e TV sets are ma d e by a Japan e s e firm 9 The town was des tro ye d by an eart h q u a k e 10 This could be don e much mor e easily by (a) mac hin e 11 Umbr ellas and sticks mus t be left 12 Tena n t s are aske d not to play 13 Your clock can' t be rep air e d 14 Articles (which hav e bee n) boug h t during the sale cann o t be exch a n g e d 15 Fruit has to be picked very early otherwis e it can' t be got to the mark e t 16 People shouldn' t be allow ed to park 17 My hous e is being watch e d 18 The pas s a g e will be rea d thre e time s 19 Diction ari e s may not be us ed 20 This lett er ne e d not be type d 21 '13 ' has bee n cross e d out and ' 1 2A' has bee n writte n 22 This ma n mus t n ' t be mov e d; he is too ill/he is too ill to be mov e d . He will hav e to be left 23 His hous e was searc h e d and stolen articles were found 24 This roo m has n' t be e n use d 25 He was take n for 26 Thes e books should hav e be e n take n back 27 The children were broug h t up 28 The For Sale notice has be e n take n down . . . the hous e has bee n sold 29 His hous e was broke n into . .. a lot of his things (wer e) stole n 30 You hav e be e n warn e d 31 He was knock e d down by a lorry 32 My keys were retur n e d to me; they had be e n picked up 33 The books had to be given back; we were not allowed to take 34 Thes e docu m e n t s shouldn' t be left . . . They should be locked up 35 Coffee and biscuits were hand e d roun d 36 Other people' s sche m e s hav e bee n tried. Why has my sche m e nev er bee n tried? Exerci s e 15 6 1 troop s hav e bee n called out 2 trains were held up by fog 3 this is to be left her e. It will be called for 4 police were called in 5 children were not prop erly looke d after 6 reinforc e m e n t s are being flown in 7 me n of 28 were called up 8 he was looke d up to by everyo n e 9 he will be see n off at the airport by all the minist er s 10 bed has n' t bee n slept in 11 more room s can be built on 12 he was throw n out 13 differe n t attitu d e will


61 hav e to be adop t e d 14 he ough t to be locked up 15 they were n' t take n in by her story 16 hous e was broke n into 17 small plas tic toys are being given aw ay 18 notice was take n down 19 smoking is frowne d on 20 after a million poun d s had bee n spen t . . . the sche m e was given up 21 my car had bee n towe d away. I aske d why this had bee n done and was told that . . . it had be e n parke d 22 weap o n s mus t be han d e d in 23 he was shout e d down 24 he is often take n for his broth e r 25 the cork has n' t bee n take n out 26 pool was to hav e bee n use d . . . it is being filled in 27 stud e n t s are being turn e d aw ay 28 sky- scrap e r will hav e to be pu lled down as the town planning regula tio n s hav e not be e n complie d with Exerci s e 15 7 1 mon e y was add e d up and found to be correc t 2 I am having the bat hro o m tiled 3 a terrible mist ak e see m s to hav e be e n ma d e 4 you are suppo s e d to mak e tea 5 he is known to be arm e d 6 he was see n to pick up 7 you are known to hav e bee n 8 he is believ e d to hav e 9 this nee d n ' t hav e bee n don e 10 you had bett e r hav e it take n in 11 he likes to be called 'sir ' 12 this switch isn't to be/ m u s t n ' t be touch e d 13 you will hav e to hav e/ g e t it see n to or it will hav e to be see n to 14 this can' t be don e 15 we are being followe d 16 boys used to be ma d e to climb 17 it has to be see n to be believ e d 18 I am tired of being order e d abou t 19 he does n ' t like being laugh e d at 20 this watch ne e d n ' t be wound/d o e s n ' t nee d to be wound 21 he shouldn' t hav e be e n told 22 they decid e d that the mon e y should be divide d 23 he is believ e d to hav e bee n killed 24 letter s are to be sent 25 she is consid e r e d to hav e bee n 26 smoking is not allowe d 27 the exp e dition is known to hav e reach e d 28 before printing was invent e d everyt hin g had to be writte n 29 the gover n m e n t was urg e d to cre a t e / t h e y urge d that mor e jobs should be cre a t e d 30 they sugg e s t e d that the sale of alcohol should be bann e d 20 Indirect speech Exerci s e 15 8 (In the exercis e s on report e d spe e c h we often use nouns as subject s : e.g. the police m a n , the childre n, Paul etc. In the answ e r s , to save spac e , we hav e often used prono u n s .) 1 he said he was going out but he'd be in 2 she said she was working . . . and didn't much care 3 Peter said he couldn' t live on his basic salary and he'd hav e to 4 Mary said her youn g broth e r want e d to be . . . she couldn' t think why bec a u s e non e of her family had ever bee n 5 they said they were waiting . . . and it was late 6 he said he had ma d e . . . I said he was always making . . . and should be use d to it 7 he said they ma d e . . . and sent . . . to their wives 8 he said it was lonely being


62 aw ay from their . . . but they earn e d . . . in that/t h e factory as they would in their own 9 he said they had be e n ther e . . . and were going to stay 10 he said he'd got . . . I said that would be . . . he replied he knew it would be hard but he didn' t mind . . . and it would be 11 he said the ice would soon be . . . she said she would look for her skat e s when she got 12 she said she was living with her pare n t s at the mo m e n t but she hope d to hav e a flat of her own soon 13 she said she was leaving the following day . . . we said we'd com e and see her off 14 he said he' d just boug h t . . . but it was n' t insur e d yet so he couldn' t take me 15 she said she would like to spe a k . . . but she was bathing . . . and they would drown if she left . . . she went 16 Ann says she is coming . . . next week. She hop e s we will me e t her 17 She said nothing ever hap p e n e d . . . it was like . . . people had drifted 18 he said he had miss e d his train; he' d be late . . . and his boss would be 19 they said they would wait for me if I was late/for us if we were late 20 I said they were supp o s e d . . . but if the fog got . . . the plan e might be 21 she said if I lent her . . . she' d bring . . . in two days ' time 22 he gru m bl e d he hat e d gettin g up on dark morning s ; his wife agr e e d it was horrible but said the mornin g s would be light er soon and then it wouldn' t be 23 she said the sales were starting the following day and as soon as they finishe d work the whole . . . pool was going . . . I (said I) hop e d they would all get what they want e d 24 he (said he) wishe d he had som e t hin g . . . said he had only just had lunch and she didn't know how he could be 25 my aunt said if I was short . . . she could lend me . . . and I could take my time 26 he said he usu ally took his dog . . . when he ca m e 27 I said I had . . . for her broth e r. Ann said he was n' t at hom e ; he had left two days before 28 I said I had boug h t the bag . . . he said I shouldn' t hav e boug h t . . . it didn't go with my coat 29 she said she mus t hurry as her fath e r was always . . . if any of the m were 30 he said if I want e d to smok e I would hav e to 31 he said he was building hims elf . .. I he wouldn' t show it to me just yet but when the roof was on I could come 32 he said the lake would prob a bly free ze that night; it was much colder than the previou s night. Mary said she would go . . . and if it was frozen she would mak e . . . ducks could 33 He said - . . the strikers went back the following day it would be . . . things return e d 34 She said som e o n e was trying to murd e r her. She kept gettin g 35 she said she was taking her childre n . . . the following day 36 she said all she could he ar was . . . she wond e r e d if it was Exerci s e 15 9 (See the note to Exercis e 158.) 1 he said ther e had bee n . . . road was blocke d . . . it wouldn' t be clear


63 ... he advis e d us to go/h e said we'd bett e r go 2 they sugg e s t e d lighting ... cooking their saus a g e s 3 he said he was thinking . . . aunt advis e d him not to go... as it was a bad 4 he warn e d us to take . . . as we might hav e to 5 he said he had left som e books on my table. He thoug h t I'd find the m useful and said I could kee p the m as long as I nee d e d the m but that he'd like . . . when I had finish e d with the m. I tha nk e d him and said I'd take/pr o mi s e d to take 6 he said that if the children could . . . were . . . should be able . . . he was teac hin g 7 he said the pupp y could slee p on their bed . . . she said she' d rath e r he slept . . . would soon be . . . ther e wouldn' t be . . . all thre e of the m 8 she said she' d try by hers elf . . . and if she found that she couldn' t . . . she' d ask Tom to help her 9 Mary sugg e s t e d cam pin g by the stre a m as, or pointing out that if they went on, it might be dark befor e they found 10 they wishe d they' d broug h t their . . . as the n they could hav e offere d . . . and perh a p s they (the rest a u r a n t ) would hav e given the m 11 Jones said he' d book e d . . . The rece p tio nis t said she (was afraid that they) had n' t got his letter . . . all rooms had bee n take n . . . but they could give him . . . Jones said that wouldn' t do him 12 he said he' d had gypsie s on his land and they' d given . . . Council had aske d him . . . . He didn't see why . . . and was writing to his MP 13 he gru m bl e d that the letter was .... She ad mitt e d she had don e it ... and said she supp o s e d she' d bett e r 14 he said if they' d like to go on any of the tours the hotel would arra n g e it. They said they' d like 15 he said they' d try to find my pas s p or t but it would be . . . slept . . . might hav e robb e d me 16 she sugg e s t e d going . . . and said they might mak e their .... She' d be e n given . . . . He said he had had . . . from her . . . they had bee n 17 he said he didn' t know why she wast e d . . . the neigh b o u r s all I polish e d . . . she didn't want their Mini . . . . If he were any good . . . he'd help her 18 he apologize d for not having a tie on. He said he didn' t know it was going 19 he said he would hav e enjoye d . . . if the ma n next to him hadn ' t snor e d 20 I said I was thinking . . . he advis e d me to take som e o n e with me. It was safer as one could . . . slept 21 Paul says that the plans hav e be e n chan g e d ; we're going tomorrow now not the next day. He wants us to me e t him at Victoria tonigh t 22 He said that if he want e d . . . he had to . . . it was n' t hot. I said that was ridiculous and that it was high time he left 23 he said he knew the umbr ella belong e d to me but he I thou g h t it would be all right if he borrow e d it bec a u s e I was n' t going out the following day and he was 24 he sugg e s t e d putting my . . . and making . . . It would be . . . what they were plannin g. I said/obj ec t e d that my record e r ma d e . . . and they' d be sure . . . and the n they' d find . . . and ask 25 she said when e v e r her fath e r was unh a p p y he would go out and buy . . . their rooms were full . . . they couldn' t use.


64 Tom said that he was sorry for her fath e r; he mus t hav e bee n 26 he said I could leav e my . . . in his gar a g e if I liked . . . he would kee p . . . while I was aw ay 27 he told Ann that if she want e d a job she should rea d . . . it was no use . . . outsid e her door 28 he said it use d to be . . . but that now it was impos sible. When sum m e r ca m e I'd hav e to 29 he said I mus t leav e a not e for my . . . oth erwis e she' d be . . . when I was n' t in at my 30 she said . . . had just arrived . . . and he was . . . She wond e r e d if she should ring . . . wait till he ca m e Exerci s e 16 0 (See not e to Exercis e 158.) 1 she ask e d who had be e n using her 2 he ask e d if I want e d 3 he aske d if I mind e d 4 they aske d if I would like to come with the m/ t h e y invited me to com e with the m 5 she aske d who I had given 6 he ask e d how long it took 7 he aske d how much I thou g h t it would cost 8 she aske d him what he had miss e d mos t when he was/h a d be e n 9 he ask e d if the sea t was take n 10 He aske d how I got on with my 11 they aske d him how he had got 12 he ask e d what I was/h a d bee n doing with the skeleto n . . . and if I was/h a d be e n trying 13 she aske d me if I had slept 14 they ask e d him if he had be e n ther e 15 she aske d if I could tell her why Paul (had) left 16 he aske d how ma n y . . . knew 17 she ask e d if ther e were ...for her 18 he ask e d how long I had bee n 19 he ask e d why I was n' t 20 the custo m e r aske d if they were 21 I aske d wher e they were going for their 22 she aske d if it would be . . . if she ca m e . . . that night 23 he aske d if I had ever see n 24 she aske d him wher e she could park her 25 she aske d if I would like . . . I aske d which way she was going 26 she aske d who I want e d 27 he ask e d if anyo n e want e d 28 I aske d what he was going to do with his 29 I aske d if she grew her own 30 he ask e d what train I was going 31 she aske d him if he could chan g e . . . and said she was afraid she hadn ' t got/a n d apologize d for not having 32 she aske d how ma n y . . . he had take n. He said he had no idea 33 they aske d if they could see the ma n a g e r / t h e y aske d to see the ma n a g e r . The secr e t a r y ask e d if they had 34 he ask e d if I thou g h t I could live . . . on my own . . . or if I would get 35 he ask e d if any of us had actu ally see n 36 she aske d if she could see/s h e aske d to see/s h e ask e d for Comm a n d e r Smith. I said I was afraid he was in orbit and ask e d if she would like Exerci s e 16 1 1 he sugg e s t e d having . . . Ann agre e d and sugg e s t e d going . . . Jack was always 2 she said Jack's par e n t s had ask e d her . . . the following night and aske d what she should wear. Her mot h e r advis e d her to wear . . . as it was 3 he said he was broke. Peter offere d to lend him 4 the clerk said it would take . . . to look up her file. Ann aske d if it was worth waiting or if she should 5 he aske d if he would hav e to do... if he failed - . . The teac h e r said that he would 6 I aske d wher e he would be


65 the next day in cas e I had to ring him. He said that he would be in his . . . at his flat. He wouldn' t be going 7 Mary aske d what she should do with the crack e d cup and her moth e r advis e d her to throw 8 she wond e r e d if she would ever see 9 he ask e d me to get out . . . and he had to chan g e . . . I offere d to help 10 he said he'd run . . . and aske d me to give him/a s k e d for a lift 11 he sugg e s t e d going . . . She said she liked . . . but that her only . . . sho e s were being . . . She sugg e s t e d going 12 he said I had a lot . . . and offere d to carry som e of the m for me 13 he wond e r e d if they would be 14 he ask e d what he should do with all the mon e y. Mary advis e d him to take . . . and get/Mary sugg e s t e d taking . . . and getting 15 Peter offere d jack a cigar e t t e . Jack tha nk e d him and said he didn't smok e 16 They aske d if she' d like to go/invite d her to go with the m, saying that ther e was . . . Ann said she' d love to/Ann acce p t e d 17 she aske d Mr Jones if he could do withou t her that day as she had . . . and thoug h t it might . . . if she staye d . Mr Jones advis e d her to stay . . . and to take the next day off too if she wasn' t bett e r 18 Mary told Paul that she' d just come back to her flat . . . in her chair. He was still ther e . . . and she aske d/w a n t e d to know what she should do. Paul advis e d her to wake him and ask him who he was, adding that ther e was 19 he said he was n' t quite . . . and aske d Jack to wait/if he could wait . . . Jack said he couldn' t wait long bec a u s e the train went 20 I aske d her to take off her hat/if she would mind taking . . . She point e d out that the the a t r e was . . . and sugg e s t e d my/ m e moving 21 he said he often saw . . . and aske d if I thoug h t he should 22 I aske d what chan g e s he would mak e if the hous e was his. He said he'd pull . . . The site was all right 23 he aske d for my na m e 24 he offere d to send it round to his hot el/a s k e d if he should sen d . . . The tourist said he was n' t staying . . . and he'd take it with him 25 I aske d (him) how long they would go on looking . . . He said they' d stop when it got . . . and start . . . the following day 26 I said we couldn' t discus s it over the phon e . . . and sugg e s t e d me e ti n g in my flat the following day. He said he'd rath e r I ca m e to his . . . and ask e d if I could get ther e 27 he ask e d for 40p to buy an ice- crea m/ a s he want e d to buy an ice- cre a m 28 he ask e d (us) if we would like . . . of his flat, or if we would rath e r 29 she aske d me to help her with her lugg a g e , and said that if I took . . . she' d take . . . I said it was ridiculous . . . and aske d if she couldn' t ma n a g e . . . but she said she cou ldn't 30 Ann said she couldn' t com e . . . (so) Peter sugg e s t e d Tues d a y . . . Ann agr e e d (to this)

Exerci s e 16 2 (The verb of com m a n d given below is not nec e s s a rily the only possible one. See also the not e to Exercis e 158.)


66 1 she told him not to put . . . in his 2 she beg g e d him not to do 3 he urge d me to apply . . . as it would just suit me 4 he advis e d me to say nothing 5 she aske d the m to wait in the loung e till their flight nu mb e r was called 6 I advis e d her not to lend . . . as he nev er paid 7 she aske d him to ring 8 he ask e d me to mov e my cas e/ a s k e d if I'd mind moving my cas e as it was blocking 9 she remind e d him to book 10 he told/w ar n e d me to get 11 he warn e d me to avoid Marble Arch as ther e was going 12 he told me to hold the ladd e r as it was . . . I sugg e s t e d tying/ a d vis e d him to tie it ...as it was much safer 13 he told the m to rea d . . . and not to write 14 he warn e d me not to leave my mon e y 15 he advis e d me to ope n 16 he invited her to lunch that day. She said she was afraid she couldn' t as she couldn' t leav e/S h e refus e d, explaining that she couldn' t leav e 17 he warn e d me not to take mor e tha n two of the m 18 I aske d to spe a k to Albert/a s k e d if I could spe a k . . . She said he was . . . I aske d her to wake him as I had 19 he advis e d me to buy 20 they said I was being exploite d and that I ough t to leav e my job/an d advis e d me to lea v e 21 she told the m to fast e n their . . . as ther e might be 22 he warn e d me not to drive . . . or onco min g drivers might take me 23 he aske d to see my licenc e 24 I advis e d him to swe e p up 25 she said the bathro o m was emp t y and aske d me to put . . . when I had 26 he remind e d me to insur e my 27 she begg e d him not to , . . and remind e d him that they had to 28 I urge d Tom to go . . . before his tooth a c h e got 29 he advis e d me to cut my hair, saying that I would find . . . if I looked 30 he aske d for som e mor e Exerci s e 16 3 (See the note to Exercis e 158.) 1 the clerk ask e d me to fill up the form 2 he ask e d me to rea d 3 she ask e d for a new cheq u e book. He aske d her to show him her 4 Tom says that we are to be rea d y/ s h o ul d be rea d y 5 he begg e d me not to tell his mot h e r 6 he order e d /w a r n e d us not to fire 7 he advis e d me to take 8 she aske d me to help her 9 he warn e d me not to drive 10 he warn e d/ t old/ a d vis e d me not to smok e II she said that when I'd chos e n a book I was to bring it to her and she would 12 he told me to show 13 a notice warn e d / or d e r e d us to reduc e spe e d at once 14 he ask e d to see my ticket 15 he warn e d me to keep an eye on my lugg a g e as the plac e was 16 he said that when I'd rea d it I was to pas s it on or he told me to pas s it on . . . when I'd rea d it 17 he sugg e s t e d lighting . . . and cooking 18 he told me to pres s the butto n when e v e r I saw . . ./h e said that when e v e r I saw . . . I was to pres s 19 he told her to sit down and tell him what was worrying her 20 he told me to walk . . . and just to nod if I recog niz e d my att a ck e r but not to say/a n d said that if I recog niz e d my att a ck e r I was just to nod but not to say 21 he said that eve n if I felt hungry I was n' t to eat/s h o uld n ' t eat . . ./he advis e d me not to eat... eve n if I felt 22 he


67 ask e d Ann to ring and order a taxi for him. She sugg e s t e d (his) going/ a d vis e d him to go by tub e as it was 23 she sugg e s t e d buying som e yea s t and making their own bre a d as the bre a d they were gettin g was 24 he advis e d the m to boil the wat er (first) if they had to use it, and warn e d the m not to drink it unboiled 25 he sugg e s t e d not telling anyo n e / t h a t they shouldn' t tell anyo n e till they were . . . report was 26 Tom says he's got the tickets and (that) we'r e to me e t him 27 he urg e d the strikers to show that they were . . . 28 A notice advis e d custo m e r to count their . . . as mist ak e s could not 29 he warn e d me not to clap yet, as she hadn ' t finishe d. He add e d (tha t) singer s loath e d people who clapp e d 30 he remin d e d me to put my na m e Exerci s e 16 4 1 Paul want s me to get him 2 Mr White would like you to me e t him 3 Ann offere d to get . . . Mr Jones said he' d rath e r she got . . . Ann said ther e were n ' t any and (that) the shop s were 4 he told me not to worry . . . as he ma d e . . . I aske d if he learnt from his ...or if he kept 5 I said I was looking for . . . who drank in that bar. The bar m a n advis e d me to keep awa y from Albert as he didn't like stra n g e r s 6 He aske d to hav e a look at my pap e r/ a s k e d if he could hav e . . . I said I hadn ' t . . . and ask e d him to wait . . . He said he couldn' t wait long as he was getting 7 she said we had woken or woke . . . the previous night and that we mus t try . . . that night. I pro mis e d we would 8 he compl ain e d that the soup was cold . . . and aske d why he nev er had . . . She explain e d it was bec a u s e the kitch e n was . . . If he insiste d on . . . he mus t/w o uld hav e to put up . . . He sugg e s t e d getting . . . She said (that) she wouldn' t 9 he said my licenc e was . . . I ad mitt e d that it was but said I had applied . . . He warn e d me next time to apply . . . befor e my curre n t one had expire d 10 I said I'd hav e the mon e y for him the following . . . and ask e d if I should post it to him. Tom ask e d me to kee p it in my safe till he could com e ...a lot of his mail had be e n going astr a y lately and he would hat e to lose one of my 11 he ask e d to borrow my ma p/ a s k e d if he could borrow my ma p. I said he was always borrowing it and advis e d him to get/s u g g e s t e d his getting/ a s k e d why he didn' t get one of his own 12 he said that when we hear d . . . we were to shut . . . and go or he told us to shut the window s and go downs t airs when we hear d . . . I aske d what we were to do/sho uld do if the stairs were blazing 13 she aske d if I could he ar the nois e and what I thoug h t it was. I (said 1) thoug h t it was . . . but she (said she) thoug h t it was . . . and advis e d me to go/s aid I'd bett e r go 14 they told Ann it was her turn . . . that night. She prot e s t e d that it couldn' t be as she (had) babys a t the previou s night and the night before that, and she was only supp o s e d . . . They beg g e d her to do it just that once and pro mis e d not to ask her to do any the following week 15 he said it was


68 the bes t . . . proble m was that they exp e c t e d . . . The tourists aske d why he had brou g h t the m ther e. He told the m not to get excite d as he kept ties . . . in their predic a m e n t , and he ask e d what colour they would like, adding that the ties were 16 I sugg e s t e d starting/offer e d to start/ a s k e d if I should start the next day. Tom said he'd rath e r I start e d that day 17 I advis e d her to go and see the film as it might help her . . . Ann point e d out that the film was 18 he said he saw/h a d see n . . . and one of the m (had) sat up and wave d to him. I aske d which of the m (had) wave d. He said he didn' t know; he was n' t/ h a d n ' t bee n near enou g h 19 I aske d what (had) caus e d . . . He said she mus t . . . but he couldn' t und er s t a n d . . . the wreck was 20 she said her car wouldn' t start. The batt e r y was flat. She aske d the m to give her a push just to start her . . . Bill advis e d her to sell the car. Peter said nobod y would buy it and sugg e s t e d putting 21 he said he' d be e n given . . . that he'd hav e to . . .I sugg e s t e d (his) throwing . . . and saving hims elf . . . or I advis e d him to throw . . . and save hims elf 22 he told me to pres s . . . I said that last time he (had) told me to pres s . . . He said that that had bee n 23 Tom told me not to brak e if I found mys elf skidding as that only ma d e . . . He advis e d me to try ...I said I knew what I should do but that when I start e d . . . I got . . . that I did. Tom told me to stop and let him . . . as we; were just coming . . . and he didn't want 24 he said he' d run out . . . and aske d if I'd got any. I said I had n' t but offere d to go out and get som e/ b u t said I'd go out . . . if he liked. He told me not to both e r as he'd miss e d 25 he said that rep airs to cars rent e d from the m mus t be arra n g e d throu g h their office. So if anyt hin g went wrong with the car I'd hired I was to ring . . . on my card. The office was ope n . . . I aske d what I should do if som e t hi n g went 26 aske d why he had n' t . . . He said that they had signalled but that she had come or ca m e on in and had run or ran agrou n d. I ask e d what was going . . . He said they were going . . . but that if they didn't get . . . that night . . . she would be ther e till she broke up, and ther e ' d be 27 I aske d why he was spen din g . . . on the accou n t s . He said he couldn' t . . . he see m e d to be . . . and that me a n t he' d hav e to . . . of his own mon e y . . . I aske d if he' d like me to go throu g h the m and see if I could . . . He said he wouldn' t, but he'd like me to lend him 28 I aske d (Jack) why he was looking so . . . He said he' d just aske d Ann to marry him and she' d refus e d . I said I thoug h t she preferr e d . . . and advis e d him to cut his hair and shav e off his bear d 29 she aske d how he (had) got up the tre e. He said he (had) use d . . . but that som e o n e went/h a d gon e off . . . he was sawing. He told her to go . . . and not just stan d 30 he aske d if I was ill and I said that I wasn' t. He aske d if I'd slept well the previous night and I said that I had. Then he aske d/w a n t e d to


69 know why I was sitting . . . were working, and told me to go out . . . and give 31 he ask e d/ t old pas s e n g e r s ...to go... Peter advis e d Mary to go . . . but said that he' d hav e to . . . He said he'd take . . . than she would and aske d her to wait for him 32 Tom says that we aren ' t to worry abou t him. He was n' t badly . . . and is being . . . He says he's coming back next Wedn e s d a y . . . and want s us to me e t the plan e 33 he aske d what he was to do with his . . . She advis e d him to stuff . . . but warn e d him not to put . . . or they' d go hard 34 he sugg e s t e d driving on . . . and trying . . . I aske d what we would do if that was . . . He said we'd just . . . as it would be 35 she said they had . . . but that he was . . . wouldn' t he ar me . . . I ask e d what I was to do/sho uld do if he woke up. Ann told me to give him som e of the biscuits if he start e d growling. I aske d how she knew he liked thos e . . . She ass ur e d me that all dogs liked the m. It said so 36 he warn e d me that if I eve n touch e d . . . alar m bells would ring . . . and I would be . . . I aske d if he was . . . He told me to try it and see Exerci s e 16 5 1 sugg e s t e d going . . . and I agr e e d 2 urge d his collea g u e s to show the nation that they were worthy of their 3 beg g e d his mot h e r to let him stay . . . that night 4 sugg e s t e d eating . . . Tom object e d that it was/would be . . . and sugg e s t e d going to her flat . . . and having 5 sugg e s t e d leaving/t h a t they should leave the wreck e d car ther e . . . and said it might remind 6 She said the neighb o u r s would object and Tom said he didn' t care 7 sugg e s t e d going . . . Mary agr e e d reluct a n tly 8 said that Tom had ma d e the mes s and that he was to clear 9 said that the next day was . . . and sugg e s t e d buying their moth e r 10 sugg e s t e d taking . . . and ca mpin g out. Mary sugg e s t e d going . . . and being 11 sugg e s t e d giving a party but her hus b a n d was agains t the idea/o p p o s e d the idea 12 advis e d the m not to jump . . . and sugg e s t e d waiting until they hear d . . . of the rumo u r or sugg e s t e d that they shouldn' t jump . . , but wait 13 wa rn ed him that . . . would say it was . . . he said they could say what they liked/h e expr e s s e d comple t e indiffere n c e 14 urge d/ e x h o r t e d the nation s to forge t . . . and to work 15 begg e d him to let her explain and aske d him not to be 16 told the gard e n e r to let the childre n play - . . if they want e d to addin g that she was sure they wouldn' t do 17 sugg e s t e d staying ther e/ t h a t we should stay ther e till the stor m had pas s e d 18 gru m bl e d that it was . . . and said that they should do Exerci s e 16 6 1 said that if what she said was true he would hav e to go/mu s t go 2 said that he had to/would hav e to/mu s t be . . . the following day 3


70 ask e d if he had to mak e 4 told us that we mus t n ' t com e 5 told my neph e w that his ticket would cost . . . he said . . . he would hav e to go . . . the next day 6 The park notice said that dogs mus t be kept 7 said that Tom mus t/w o uld hav e to work 8 said that I nee d n ' t com e in the following day and told me to take 9 said he had to/mu s t go . . . the following day as he had 10 The notice said that pas s e n g e r s mus t not lean 11 said that ther e mus t be . . . bec a u s e ther e was smok e 12 told him that when he was . . . he would hav e to tie his 13 said that port wine mus t nev er be shak e n 14 said he had n' t had . . . and that he mus t be 15 said that the pas s p o r t photo wasn' t like her and that she mus t hav e/w o uld hav e to hav e 16 told the childre n that they mus t not 17 said that I ne e d n ' t/w o uld n ' t hav e to/didn' t hav e to get up till nine the ne xt day 18 The railway regula tion s said pas s e n g e r s mus t be 19 aske d (Tom) how he had got his dog . . . He/Tom said that he had carried him. I said that he mus t be 20 said that I mus t n ' t/w a s n ' t to tell anyo n e what she had just told me 21 aske d (his moth e r) if he had to/n e e d eat it all and she said that he mus t/ h a d to 22 said that she had had to drive his pigs out of her gard e n 23 The notice said that sticks . . . mus t be left 24 aske d her if she had to do it all that night or if she couldn' t leav e som e for the following day 25 told me that when I went throu g h Baye ux I mus t see 26 said that I mus t walk fast er, I was far too slow 27 told me that I mus t n ' t forget . . . or my friend would hav e to pay 28 said that he nee d n ' t tell me how grat ef ul he was Exerci s e 16 7 1 ' Would he like to go to the conc er t ?' she aske d, I'm sure he would ,' I said. 2 ' Look wher e you are going ,' she said to me; ' the road is full of holes and very badly lit .' 3 'While we were bathing ,' they said, ' we saw som e o n e exa mi nin g our cloth e s .' 4 ' Have you looked everyw h e r e ?' I aske d. ' Yes ,' she said. 5 ' Let's give her/wh a t abou t giving her a bottle of wine ?' he said. 6 ' The new carp e t has arrived. Wher e am I to put/s h all I put it ?' he aske d. 7 'An enor m o u s load of firewood was dum p e d at my front gat e two days ago. Since the n I hav e n ' t be e n able to get my car out ,' he said. 8 ' Have som e mor e wine ?' they said. ' Yes, plea s e ,' I replied. 9 If you find the front door locked, go round the back ,' he said to me. 10 ' Who are you ?' she aske d the burglars , 'And who let you in ?' ' Sit down and keep quiet ,' they replied, 'unles s you want to get hurt .' 11 ' What was the weat h e r like during your holiday ?' he aske d. It was awful ,' I answ er e d . 12 ' Let's go down to the harbo ur and see/Wh a t abou t going down . . . and seein g if we can hire a boat ?' he sugg e s t e d . 13 If you don' t like escala t o r s , you can go up the em e r g e n c y stairca s e ,' he told me. ' Thank you, I'll do that ,' I said. 14 ' What abou t Tom and you going ah e a d and getting the tickets ?' or ' Suppo s e you and Tom go ahe a d and get the tickets ?' he said to me. 15 1 think your


71 electric iron is uns af e. I advis e you to hav e it see n to ' or 1 should hav e it see n to ' or ' Why don't you hav e it see n to ?' he said to me. 16 If war bre ak s / br ok e out, I shall/sho uld hav e to leav e the countr y at once ,' he said. 17 'Did you enjoy hous e huntin g ?' I aske d him. ' No ,' he said. 18 1 am surpris e d to see that the gran df a t h e r clock has stop p e d . Has anyo n e bee n fiddling with it ?' she aske d. 19 1 tried to ring up my mot h e r sev er al time s yes t e r d a y, but I didn't succ e e d in gettin g throu g h ,' she said. 20 ' Would you like to borrow this book ?' I aske d her. 1 hav e rea d it alre a d y, thank you, and didn't like it very muc h .' 21 'Are you going to the danc e ? Let's mak e up a party and go toge t h e r ' or 'What abou t making up a party and going toge t h e r ?' he said. 22 ' Stop making a fuss abou t nothing! You are lucky to hav e got a sea t at all ,' I told her. 23 ' Do you want a single or a retur n ticket ?' aske d the clerk in the booking office , 1s a return any che a p e r ?' I aske d. It mak e s no differe n c e ,' he said. 24 1 hop e you won't be offend e d ,' my employe r said, ' if I tell you that in my opinion you would do bett e r in som e other kind of job .' 25 If your whe els had gon e a couple of inche s near e r the edg e, ma d a m ,' said the AA ma n, 'the car would hav e plung e d into the ravine .' 26 ' You mus t n ' t mind if the first one isn't any good ,' he said to me. 27 ' Do you think I am a liar ?' he ask e d the crowd. ' Yes !' they shout e d . 28 Stoppin g a ma n in the stre e t, I ask e d, 'Would/could you help me with my car ?' ' Would/will it take long ?' aske d the ma n. I'm on my way to catch a train .' 21 Time clauses Exercise 168 1 begins 2 gets 3 ope n 4 are 5 start 6 receiv e/ h a v e receiv e d 7 like 8 are 9 slows 10 stops 11 will explain, are 12 read/ h a v e read 13 hav e bee n 14 hav e clean e d . . . and paint e d or clean . . . and paint 15 hav e settle d/ s e t tl e 16 see 17 hav e see n 18 hav e finish e d/finis h 19 hav e reac h e d /r e a c h 20 hav e don e 21 lifts/ha s lifted 22 arrive s 23 know, will give 24 has cooled/co ols 25 hav e finishe d/finish 26 hav e given 27 will tell, are 28 hav e be e n, will let 29 hav e flown 30 has bee n 31 come 32 shall/will hav e finishe d, see, finish/h a v e finish e d, start 33 hav e see n 34 hav e driven 35 will give, wake s 36 arrive d Exercis e 16 9 1 gets 2 com e 3 stops 4 hav e don e 5 saw 6 come s 7 go/ar e going 8 get; see 9 come , cross 10 arrive; gets 11 am sitting; am walking 12 has finish e d/finis h e s 13 start s 14 hav e paid/p a y 15 arrives 16 hav e worked 17 do/ar e doing 18 hav e don e 19 hav e finishe d 20 hav e had 21 hav e be e n 22 hav e rea d 23 reac h e d 24 has sav e d 25


72 are que u ein g 26 shall/will be cruising 27 am 28 hav e see n 29 retires /h a s retire d 30 has sav e d 31 stop p e d 32 arrive d 33 had finish e d/finish e d 34 am waiting 35 was clea ning, or pret e n di n g 36 nee d e d Exerci s e 17 0 1 As 2 As 3 When 4 As 5 When 6 As 7 As 8 When 9 When/Wh e n e v e r 10 when 11 As 12 As 13 When 14 as 15 When 16 When/Wh e n e v e r 17 As 18 as 19 as 20 as 21 As 22 When/Wh e n e v e r 23 as 24 When 25 as 26 as 27 as 28 As 29 When 30 When 31 As 32 As 33 When 34 When 35 As 36 When 22 Phrasal verbs Exerci s e 17 1 l out, in/back 2 for 3 on with 4 out of 5 up to 6 away with 7 up 8 out/a b o u t 9 off/aw a y 10 up to 11 out 12 on with 13 over 14 over 15 up 16 aw ay 17 throu g h 18 off 19 up to 20 throu g h 21 away 22 over 23 off 24 up to 25 in 26 over 27 out 28 for 29 off/into/on 30 on 31 up to 32 back 33 on/alon g 34 aw ay with 35 back/in 36 out of Exerci s e 17 2 1 on 2 back 3 down 4 after 5 in 6 ahe a d 7 off/aw a y/ b a c k 8 at/for 9 out of/aw a y from 10 back II up 12 back 13 up with 14 round/ b a c k 15 out 16 for 17 out for 18 out 19 back 20 forwar d to 21 in 22 into/a t 23 on 24 out on/on to 25 throu g h/ o v e r 26 throu g h 27 up 28 up 29 up, down 30 forward to 31 up to 32 at 33 down on 34 up 35 on 36 throu g h Exerci s e 17 3 1 to/rou n d 2 ahe a d / o n 3 round 4 for Son 6 out 7 into/ov er 8 off 9 up 10 out II in for 12 out 13 down 14 round 15 up to/over to 16 throu g h 17 back on 18 throu g h with 19 up 20 into 21 down 22 back 23 over/t hro u g h 24 off 25 along/o n 26 off/aw a y 27 away/off 28 in for 29 acros s/ u p o n 30 up 31 withou t 32 down 33 round 34 on with 35 out 36 down Exerci s e 17 4


73 1 in 2 aw ay with 3 aback 4 throu g h Sup 6 up 7 down 8 after 9 after 10 over 11 up 12 back 13 up ag ain s t 14 to 15 aw ay with 16 up 17 down 18 off 19 over/t hro u g h 20 to 21 over 22 for 23 into 24 in 25 for 26 out of 27 out 28 on 29 away 30 in 31 down 32 down 33 on/ov er 34 into 35 in 36 over Exerci s e 17 5 1 down 2 aw ay 3 at 4 into 5 down 6 in 7 down 8 off 9 out 10 on II down 12 on 13 for 14 off 15 out 16 in 17 down 18 at 19 for 20 off 21 up 22 out 23 down 24 off 25 in 26 up 27 out 28 off 29 back 30 up 31 out 32 into 33 over 34 up 35 out of 36 out/up Exerci s e 17 6 1 aw ay 2 back 3 up 4 off 5 for 6 back 7 off 8 out 9 off/out 10 up II down 12 up 13 aw ay 14 out 15 up 16 aw ay 17 on 18 in 19 up 20 off 21 down to 22 up 23 out 24 out/off 25 up with 26 up 27 on 28 up for 29 up 30 out 31 up 32 down 33 up 34 forwar d/o n 35 out 36 down Exerci s e 17 7 1 aw ay 2 back 3 down 4 in 5 throu g h 6 off 7 off 8 out of 9 off 10 in 11 aw ay 12 up 13 down 14 out 15 out 16 on 17 in with 18 down/o n 19 down 20 up/aw a y 21 off 22 off 23 over 24 off 25 in 26 up 27 up 28 off 29 up 30 down 31 off 32 out 33 back on 34 out/on 35 round 36 out Exerci s e 17 8 1 abou t 2 for 3 away with 4 for 5 out/off 6 over/a b o u t 7 for 8 up 9 aw ay 10 off/out 11 throu g h 12 for 13 up 14 round/t o 15 out 16 up 17 up 18 over 19 up 20 up 21 round 22 in 23 abou t/ a r o u n d 24 out 25 out 26 away 27 down 28 out 29 up 30 on 31 up 32 down 33 up 34 up 35 on to 36 up Exerci s e 17 9 l out 2 out of 3 up 4 abou t 5 back 6 in 7 out 8 back 9 up 10 up to 11 for 12 out 13 up 14 out 15 up 16 up 17 up to 18 in 19 up 20 up 21 in 22 out 23 back 24 on 25 for 26 aw ay 27 into 28 out 29 out 30 on 31 by 32 up 33 off 34 up for 35 down 36 off


74 Exerci s e 18 0 1 over 2 out 3 for 4 off 5 up 6 out 7 to/a bo u t 8 out 9 up 10 in/out/rou n d 11 aw ay 12 throu g h 13 back 14 up 15 up 16 out 17 up 18 out 19 out of 20 out 21 aw ay 22 after 23 up with 24 up 25 to/ab o u t 26 up with 27 in/up 28 out 29 down 30 out 31 up/in 32 back 33 off 34 away 35 up 36 out Exerci s e 18 1 1 down 2 up 3 off 4 up 5 up 6 down 7 in 8 up 9 out 10 up II in 12 at 13 up 14 up 15 up 16 with 17 out 18 on 19 off 20 up 21 out 22 out 23 on 24 up 25 down 26 for 27 out for 28 up 29 off, off 30 on 31 withou t 32 out 33 down 34 up 35 out 36 up to Exerci s e 18 2 1 out of 2 out for 3 up to 4 up to 5 up with 6 up ag ain s t 7 up for 8 aw ay with 9 back on 10 out of II up for 12 aw ay with 13 in with 14 up with/in 15 on with 16 on to 17 aw ay with 18 up to 19 back on 20 out for 21 round to 22 over to 23 up to 24 out of 25 up with 26 up with 27 up to 28 down on 29 forward to 30 out to 31 on with 32 out of 33 out on/on to 34 up with 35 up, down 36 in for Exerci s e 18 3 1 accou n t for 2 blew it up 3 broke off 4 called off 5 carry out my order s/c a rr y my order s out 6 catch up with the m/ c a t c h the m up 7 clear up a mys t e r y/cle a r a mys t e r y up 8 cam e acros s 9 com e off 10 ca m e roun d/to 11 cutting road dea t h s down/cu t tin g down road dea t h s 12 ent e r for/go in for 13 get off/out of 14 get out of it 15 gav e out the na m e s / g a v e the na m e s out 16 give up smoking 17 go up, come down 18 went into/look e d into 19 set off/out 20 take up 21 bring up children/ brin g children up 22 held up 23 turn up 24 picked Spanis h up/picke d up Spanis h 25 up to you 26 jump at it 27 kee p off 28 kee p up with him 29 knock e d him out 30 let you off 31 getting over it 32 leav e/ mi s s out or leav e/ mis s . . . out 33 looking the m up 34 mak e up for 35 mix up 36 pay me back/ou t Exerci s e 18 4 1 Let me in 2 looked at her 3 rang him up 4 look after 5 ma d e it up 6 pull throu g h 7 look out 8 put off 9 look on him 10 put on unifor m 11 look into 12 looked throu g h me 13 look up my sister/look my sister up 14 put out 15 put up 16 put you all up 17 ring up 18 runs down his own gard e n 19 run down 20 running into 21 run up agains t 22 put in for 23 call in/se n d for 24 settle down 25 sat/s t a y e d up 26 sta n d for 27 stood by him 28 take s after him 29 took up golf 30 taking me in 31 throw/give up a good job 32 turn e d down her application/t ur n e d her application down 33 turn e d out 34 wound up 35 work out 36 took on, worn out, give it up


75 Exerci s e 18 5 1 went 2 broke n 3 set 4 turn 5 wore 6 called 7 wait 8 call/put 9 put 10 try 11 get 12 com e 13 knock 14 leave In take 16 sent 17 carrying 18 let 19 put 20 han d/ p a s s 21 looks 22 go/ke e p 23 turning 24 mov e 25 put/switch/t ur n 26 put 27 puts 28 Come 29 put 30 see 31 got/ju m p e d 32 get 33 take n 34 took 35 took 36 showing Exerci s e 18 6 1 up to 2 broug h t up 3 bre ak up 4 caug h t up with 5 bee n up to 6 do up 7 drew up 8 fill in 9 got up 10 gav e it up 11 gav e up 12 went up to 13 grow up 14 held up 15 kee p up with 16 picked up 17 mak e up for 18 pick up 19 lock up 20 pulled up/dr ew up 21 put up with 22 tied up 23 mixe d up 24 locked up 25 ring him up, look up 26 turn e d up 27 took up 28 put up 29 settle up 30 mak e up 31 mak e up 32 wash up 33 stood up for 34 wound up 35 stay up/sit up 36 sat up Exerci s e 18 7 1 dropp e d out 2 carry out 3 bre ak s out 4 cut it out 5 find out 6 gettin g out 7 died out 8 cut/le a v e out 9 mak e out 10 backe d out 11 throw out 12 pick out 13 keep out 14 looking out 15 Look/Watch out 16 sold out 17 ran out 18 rub it out 19 point e d out 20 see/s h o w you out 21 turn e d out 22 set out 23 put out 24 moving out 25 wipe out 26 work/find out 27 find out 28 put out 29 wear the m out 30 blew out 31 gon e out 32 let the m out 33 fall out 34 com e out 35 look out/w a t c h out 36 sta n d s out Exerci s e 18 8 1 turn e d it down 2 running down 3 took it down 4 Put it down 5 settle down 6 took over 7 talk it over 8 ran aw ay 9 let me down 10 went over/t hro u g h 11 back e d awa y 12 closing down 13 got over 14 look down 15 broke down 16 look it over 17 backe d aw ay 18 clear away 19 ran aw ay 20 shout e d down 21 was over 22 do aw ay 23 die down 24 burnt down 25 broke down 26 turn e d away 27 boiled over 28 give it aw ay 29 han d e d down 30 puts aw ay 31 got/r a n away 32 talk over 33 cut down 34 come / g o down 35 went down/w er e over 36 turn over Exerci s e 18 9 1 get on 2 take over 3 jump at 4 take n ab ack 5 mak e up 6 carry on 7 think it over 8 bre ak s up 9 look in 10 fix you up 11 turn it down 12 hangin g abou t 13 turn up 14 taking on 15 closing down 16 settle d down 17 picked up 18 hand e d over 19 take to 20 looking Bill up and down 21 care for 22 go on 23 put on 24 take


76 off 25 point e d out 26 answ er me back 27 fell out 28 stan d up for 29 keep out 30 look up 31 looking for 32 puts custo m e r s off 33 fall off 34 mak e out 35 order e d abou t 36 put up with 37 broke out 38 put in 39 mak e up for 40 take n in Exerci s e 19 0 1 got up 2 was h e d up 3 set out/off 4 pick up 5 get on 6 turn e d out 7 care for 8 took to 9 broug h t up 10 pointing out 11 showing off 12 turn/s witch off 13 burn down 14 ring up 15 switch/t ur n off 16 get in 17 locked up 18 bre ak in 19 go up 20 rang up 21 see to 22 held on 23 got in 24 turn e d / s witch e d off 25 went on 26 got out 27 handin g/ p a s si n g round 28 pulled/dr e w up 29 let you off 30 get away with 31 put out 32 put up with 33 looks up to 34 grows up 35 looking t oward to 36 looking for 37 fed up 38 caug h t up with 39 dying away 40 keep up with 41 get to 42 put us up 43 sold out 44 talking over



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