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Exercises Articles Articles: a/an PEG 1- 4 Insert a or an if nec e s s a r y. 1 My neighb o u r is . . . photo gr a p h e r ; let's ask him for . . . advice abou t colour films. 2 We had . . . fish and . . . chips for . . . lunch. ~ That does n ' t soun d . . . very inter e s ti n g lunch. 3 I had . . . very bad night; I didn't slee p . . . wink. 4 He is . . . veg e t a ri a n; you won't get . . . me a t at his hous e. He'll give you . . . nut cutlet. ~ Last time I had . . . nut cutlet I had . . . indige s tio n. 5 . . . trav el age n t would give you . . . inform a tio n abou t . . . hotels. 6 We'd bett e r go by . . . taxi—if we can get . . . taxi at such . . . hour as 2 a.m. 7 . . . pers o n who suffers from . . . claus tro p h o bi a has . . . dre a d of being confine d in . . . small spac e, and would always prefer . . . stairs to . . . lift. 8 Do you take . . . sug ar in . . . coffee? ~ I used to, but now I'm on . . . diet. I'm trying to lose . . . weight. 9 . . . ma n suffering from . . . shock should not be given anyt hin g to drink. 10 You'll get . . . shock if you touch . . . live wire with that screw driv er. Why don' t you get . . . screw driv er with . . . insulat e d han dl e? 11 It costs fifty- five and . . . half penc e and I've only got . . . fifty penc e piec e. ~ You can pay by . . . cheq u e her e. ~ But can I write . . . cheq u e for . . . fifty- five and . . . half penc e ? 12 . . . Mr Smith is . . . old custo m e r and . . . hon e s t ma n. ~ Why do you say that? Has he be e n accus e d of . . . dishon e s t y? 13 I'm not . . . wag e- earn e r; I'm . . . self- employe d ma n. I hav e . . . busin e s s of my own. ~ Then you'r e not . . . worker; you'r e . . . capitalist! 14 When he was charg e d with . . . murd e r he said he had . . . alibi. 15 . . . friend of mine is exp e c tin g . . . baby. If it's . . . girl she' s going to be called Etheldr e d a . ~ What . . . na m e to give . . . girl! 16 I hav e . . . hour and . . . half for lunch. ~ I only hav e . . . half . . . hour—bar ely . . . time for . . . smok e and ... cup of coffee. 17 I hop e you hav e . . . lovely time and . . . good wea t h e r. ~


2 But I'm not going for . . . holiday; I'm going on . . . busin e s s . 18 He looked at me with . . . horror when I explain e d that I was . . . double age n t. 19 I wouldn' t climb . . . mou n t ai n for Đˆ1,000! I hav e . . . horror of . . . height s . 20 I hav e . . . he a d a c h e and . . . sore thro a t. I think I've got . . . cold. ~ I think you'r e gettin g . . . flu. 21 . . . Mr Jones called while you were out (neith er of us know s this ma n). He want s to mak e . . . complain t abou t . . . article in the pap e r. He was in . . . very bad te m p e r . 22 If you go by . . . train you can hav e quite . . . comfort a bl e journe y, but mak e sure you get . . . expr e s s , not . . . train that stops at all the station s. 23 . . . few people know (hardly anyo n e know s ) that ther e is . . . secr e t pas s a g e from this hous e to . . . old smu g gl er s ' cave in the cliffs. 24 I'm having . . . few friend s in to . . . coffee tomorr ow eve nin g. Would you like to com e ? ~ I'd love to, but I'm afraid I'm going to . . . conc er t. 25 It's time you had . . . holiday. You hav e n ' t had . . . day off for . . . mont h. 26 He broke ...leg in... skiing accide n t. It's still in . . . plast e r. 27 I want . . . assist a n t with . . . knowled g e of French and . . . exp erie n c e of . . . office routin e. 28 I see that your hous e is built of . . . wood. Are you insure d agains t ... fire? 29 The esca pin g prison e r ca mp e d in . . . wood but he didn' t light . . . fire bec a u s e . . . smok e rising from the wood might attr a c t . . . att e n tio n. 30 I had . . . am a zin g exp e ri e n c e last night. I saw . . . dinos a u r eating . . . me a t pie in . . . London park. ~ You me a n you had . . . night m a r e . Anyway, dinos a u r s didn't eat . . . me a t . 31 I'll pay you . . . hundr e d . . . week. It's not . . . enor m o u s salary but after all you are . . . comple t el y unskilled ma n. 32 If you kept . . . grap h you could see at . . . glanc e whet h e r you were making . . . profit or . . . loss. 33 . . . little (hardly anyt hin g) is known abou t the effect of this drug; yet . . . che mis t will sell it to you without . . . prescription. 34 I hav e . . . little mon e y left; let's hav e dinner in . . . rest a u r a n t . 35 Would it be . . . trouble to you to buy me . . . news p a p e r on your way hom e ? 36 . . . ma n is . . . rea s o nin g anim al.

Articles: the PEG 6- 8


3 Insert th e if nec e s s a r y. 1 . . . young e s t boy has just start e d going to . . . school; . . . elde s t boy is at . . . colleg e. 2 She lives on . . . top floor of an old hous e. When . . . wind blows, all . . . window s rattle. 3 . . . darkn e s s does n ' t worry . . . cats; . . . cats can see in . . . dark. 4 My little boys say that they want to be . . . spac e m e n , but mos t of the m will prob a bly end up in . . . less dra m a tic jobs. 5 Do you know . . . time? ~ Yes, . . . clock in . . . hall has just struck nine. ~ Then it isn't . . . time to go yet. 6 He was sent to . . . prison for . . . six mon t h s for . . . shop- lifting. When . . . six mont h s are over he'll be rele a s e d ; . . . difficulty the n will be to find . . . work. ~ Do you go to . . . prison to visit him? 7 I went to . . . school to talk to . . . hea d mi s t r e s s . I pers u a d e d her to let Ann give up . . . gymn a s tic s and take . . . ballet lesso n s inste a d . 8 . . . ballet isn't muc h use for . . . girls; it is much bett e r to be able to play . . . piano. 9 I am on... night duty. When you go to . . . bed, I go to . . . work. 10 Peter' s at . . . office but you could get him on . . . phon e . There' s a telep h o n e box just roun d . . . corn er 11 He got... bronc hitis and was take n to . . . hos pit al. I ex p e c t they'll sen d him hom e at . . . end of . . . week. ~ Have you rung . . . hospit al to ask how he is? 12 Ann's habit of riding a motorcycl e up and down . . . road early in . . . morning annoye d . . . neighb o u r s and in . . . end they took her to . . . court. 13 He first went to . . . sea in a Swedis h ship, so as well as learnin g . . . navig a tion he had to learn . . . Swedis h. 14 . . . family hotels are . . . hotels which welco m e . . . pare n t s and . . . children. 15 On . . . Sund a ys my fath e r stays in . . . bed till ten o'clock, readin g . . . Sund a y pap e r s . 16 Then he gets up, puts on . . . old cloth e s , has . . . bre akf a s t and start s . . . work in . . . gard e n . 17 My moth e r goes to . . . church in . . . mornin g, and in . . . after n o o n goes to visit . . . friends . 18 Like ma n y wome n , she loves . . . tea partie s and . . . gossip. 19 My pare n t s hav e ... cold me a t and . . . salad for . . . supp e r, . . . winter and . . . sum m e r . 20 During . . . me al he talks abou t . . . gard e n and she tells him . . . village gossip. 21 We hav e a very good train service from her e to . . . city centr e and mos t people go to . . . work by train. You can go by . . . bus too, of


4 cours e, but you can' t get a sea s o n ticket on . . . bus. 22 . . . dea d no longer nee d . . . help. We mus t conc er n ours elv e s with . . . living. We mus t build . . . hous e s and . . . schools and . . . playgro u n d s . 23 I'd like to see . . . Mr Smith pleas e . ~ Do you me a n . . . Mr Smith who works in . . . box office or . . . other Mr Smith? 24 Did you come by . . . air? ~ No, I cam e by . . . sea. I had a lovely voya g e on . . . Quee n Elizabe t h II. 25 . . . mos t of . . . stories that . . . peopl e tell abou t . . . Irish aren ' t true. 26 . . . marrie d couples with . . . children often rent . . . cott a g e s by . . . sea sid e for . . . sum m e r holidays . . . . me n hire boat s and go for . . . trips along . . . coas t; . . . childre n spe n d . . . day on . . . be ac h and . . . poor mot h e r s spen d . . . mos t of . . . time doing . . . cooking and cleanin g. 27 It's usu ally safe to walk on . . . san d, but her e, when . . . tide is coming in, . . . sand beco m e s dan g e r o u sly soft. . . . peopl e hav e bee n swallow e d up by it. 28 When . . . Titanic was crossing . . . Atlantic she struck an iceb er g which tore a hug e hole in her bow. . . . capt ain order e d . . . crew to help . . . pas s e n g e r s into . . . boat s . 29 Everyw h e r e . . . ma n has cut down . . . fores t s in order to cultivat e . . . groun d, or to use . . . wood as . . . fuel or as . . . building ma t e ri al. 30 But . . . interfer e n c e with . . . nat ur e often brings . . . disas t e r . . . . tre e- felling som e ti m e s turns . . . fertile land into a dus tb o wl. 31 . . . people think that . . . lead is . . . he avi e s t met al, but . . . gold is heavier. 32 Our air host e s s said, '. . . rack is only for . . . light articles. . . . heav y things such as . . . bottle s mus t be put on . . . floor .' 33 . . . window s are suppo s e d to let in . . . light; but . . . window s of this hous e are so small that we hav e to hav e . . . electric light on all . . . time. 34 There' 1 1 always be a conflict betw e e n . . . old and . . . young. . . . youn g people want . . . chan g e but . . . old peopl e want . . . things to stay . . . sa m e . 35 . . . pow er tend s to corrupt and . . . absolut e pow er corrup t s absolut ely. 36 You can fool som e of . . . peopl e all . . . time, and all . . . peopl e som e of . . . time; but you canno t fool all . . . peopl e all . . . time.

Articles: a/an, the PEG 1- 8 Insert a, an or th e if nec e s s a r y.


5 1 There was . . . knock on . . . door. I open e d it and found . . . small dark ma n in . . . blue overco a t and . . . woollen cap. 2 He said he was . . . employe e of . . . gas comp a n y and had com e to rea d . . . me t e r. 3 But I had . . . suspicion that he was n' t spe a kin g . . . truth beca u s e . . . met e r rea d e r s usu ally wear . . . peak e d caps. 4 Howev er, I took him to . . . met e r , which is in . . . dark corner und e r . . . stairs (. . . met e r s are usu ally in . . . dark corn er s und e r . . . stairs). 5 I aske d if he had . . . torch; he said he disliked torch e s and always rea d . . . me t e r s by . . . light of . . . ma tc h. 6 I rem a rk e d that if ther e was . . . leak in . . . gas pip e ther e might be . . . explosion while he was rea din g . . . met e r . 7 He said, 'As . . . ma t t e r of . . . fact, ther e was . . . explosion in . . . last hous e I visited; and Mr Smith, . . . owner of . . . hous e , was burnt in . . . face .' 8 'Mr Smith was holding . . . light e d ma tc h at . . . time of . . . explosion .' 9 To prev e n t . . . possible rep e tition of this accid e n t , I lent him . . . torch. 10 He switch e d on . . . torch, rea d . . . me t e r and wrote . . . readin g down on . . . back of . . . env elop e . 11 I said in . . . surpris e that . . . met e r rea d e r s usu ally put . . . rea ding s down in . . . book. 12 He said that he had had . . . book but that it had bee n burnt in . . . fire in . . . Mr Smith' s hous e . 13 By this time I had come to . . . conclusion that he wasn' t . . . genuin e met e r rea d e r ; and . . . mo m e n t he left . . . hous e I rang . . . police. 14 Are John and Mary . . . cousins? ~ No, they aren ' t . . . cousins; they are . . . broth e r and . . . sister. 15 . . . fog was so thick that we couldn' t see . . . side of . . . road. We followe d . . . car in front of us and hop e d that we were going . . . right way. 16 I can't rem e m b e r . . . exac t dat e of . . . stor m, but I know it was . . . Sund a y bec a u s e everyb o d y was at . . . church. On . . . Monday . . . post didn' t come bec a u s e . . . roads were blocke d by . . . fallen tre e s . 17 Peter thinks that this is quite . . . che a p rest a u r a n t . 18 There' s be e n . . . murd e r her e. ~ Wher e' s . . . body? ~ There isn't . . . body. ~ Then how do you know ther e ' s bee n . . . murd e r ? 19 Numb e r . . . hundr e d and two, - . . hous e next door to us, is for sale.


6 It's quite . - . nice hous e with . . . big roo ms . . . . back window s look out on . . . park. 20 I don't know what . . . price . . . owner s are asking. But Dry and Rot are . . . ag e n t s . You could give the m . . . ring and mak e the m . . . offer. 21 . . . post m a n ' s little boy says that he'd rath e r be . . . dentis t than . . . doctor, bec a u s e . . . dentis t s don't get called out at . . . night. 22 Just as . . . air host e s s (ther e was only one on the plane) was handin g me . . . cup of . . . coffee . . . plan e gav e . . . lurch and . . . coffee went all over . . . pers o n on . . . oth er side of . . . gan gw a y. 23 There was . . . collision betw e e n . . . car and . . . cyclist at . . . crossro a d s near . . . my hous e early in . . . mornin g. . . . cyclist was take n to . . . hospit al with . . . concus sio n. . . . driver of . . . car was tre a t e d for . . . shock. . . . witnes s e s say that . . . car was going at . . . seve n t y miles . . . hour. 24 Profes s or Jones, . . . ma n who discov er e d . . . new drug that everyo n e is talking abou t, refus e d to give . . . pres s confer e n c e . 25 Peter Piper, . . . stud e n t in . . . profes s o r' s colleg e, aske d him why he refus e d to talk to . . . pres s . 26 We're going to . . . tea with . . . Smiths tod a y, aren ' t we? Shall we take . . . car? ~ We can go by . . . car if you was h . . . car first. We can' t go to . . . Mrs Smith' s in . . . car all cover e d with . . . mud. 27 He got . . . job in . . . sout h and spen t . . . next two years doing . . . work he really enjoye d. 28 It is . . . plea s u r e to do . . . busin e s s with such . . . efficient orga niza tion. 29 . . . day after . . . day pas s e d without . . . news, and we beg a n to lose ... hop e. 30 Would you like to he ar . . . story abou t . . . English m a n , . . . Irish m a n and . . . Scots m a n ? ~ No. I've hear d . . . stories abou t . . . English m e n , . . . Irishm e n and . . . Scots m e n befor e and they are all . . . sa m e . 31 But mine is not . . . typical story. In my story . . . Scots m a n is gen e r o u s , . . . Irishm a n is logical and . . . English m a n is rom a n tic. ~ Oh, if it's . . . fant a s tic story I'll listen with . . . pleas u r e . 32 My aunt lived on . . . groun d floor of . . . old hous e on . . . River Tha m e s . She was very muc h afraid of . . . burglar s and always locked up . . . hous e very carefully before she went to . . . bed. She also took . . . prec a u tio n of looking und e r . . . bed to see if . . . burglar was hiding ther e. 33 '. . . mod e r n burglar s don' t hide und e r . . . beds ,' said her dau g h t e r . I'll go on looking just . . . sa m e ,' said my aunt.


7 34 One morning she rang her dau g h t e r in . . . triu mp h . 1 found . . . burglar und e r . . . bed . . . last night ,' she said, ' and he was quite . . . youn g ma n .' 35 . . . apples are sold by . . . poun d. Thes e are forty penc e . . . poun d. 36 It was . . . windy mornin g but they hired . . . boat and went for . . . sail along . . . coas t. In . . - aftern o o n . . . wind incre a s e d and they soon found the m s e lv e s in . . . difficulties.

Articles and possessive adjectives PEG 1- 8,62- 3 Insert a, an , th e , or my, his , h er, our, your, th e ir if nec e s s a r y. 1 He took off . . . coat and set to work. 2 Why are you stan din g ther e with . . . han d s in . . . pocke t s ? 3 At mos t me e tin g s . . . people vote by raising . . . right han d s . 4 The bullet struck him in . . . foot. 5 They tied . . . hand s behind . . . back and locked him in a cellar. 6 He took . . . sho e s off and ent er e d on . . . tipto e. 7 Some o n e threw . . . egg which struck the spe ak e r on . . . should er. 8 I hav e . . . he a d a c h e . 9 I hav e . . . pain in . . . should e r. 10 The windscr e e n was sma s h e d and the driver was cut in . . . face by broke n glass. 11 He was . . . very tall ma n with . . . dark hair and . . . small bear d, but I couldn' t see . . . eye s bec a u s e he was wearing . . . dark glass e s . 12 He tore . . . trous e r s getting over a barb e d wire fenc e. 13 Broth e r and sister were quite unlike each oth er. He had . . . fair wavy hair; . . . hair was dark and straig h t. 14 She pulled . . . sleev e to attr a c t his att e n tio n. 15 She pulled him by . . . sleev e . 16 'Hands up !' said the ma s k e d ma n, and we all put . . . han d s up. 17 Ask . . . woma n in front of you to take off . . . hat. 18 He strok e d . . . chin thou g h tfully. 19 If you'r e too hot why don't you take off . . . coat? 20 I saw him rais e . . . right han d and take . . . oath. 21 The liones s bit him in . . . leg. 22 You should chan g e . . . wet shoe s , or you'll catch anot h e r cold. 23 There was a shot and a police m a n cam e out with . . . blood running down . . . face. 24 We shook . . . hand s with . . . host. 25 He fell off his hors e and injure d . . . back. 26 The bar m a n sei zed the drunk by . . . collar. 27 Leave . . . coat s in . . . cloakroo m ; don' t bring the m into . . . the a t r e . 28 He fell down a flight of stairs and broke . . . rib.


8 29 He point e d to a woma n in . . . gre e n dres s . 30 He is . . . thorou g hly selfish ma n; he wouldn' t lift . . . finger to help anyo n e . 31 You'll strain . . . eye s if you rea d in . . . bad light. 32 She was on . . . kne e s , scrub bin g . . . kitch e n floor. 33 He has . . . horrible job; I wouldn' t like to be in . . . shoe s . 34 You've got . . . shirt on inside out. 35 ' Pull up . . . socks ,' said his moth e r. 36 I hit . . . thu m b with a ha m m e r when I was hangin g the pictur e.

a/an and one PEG 4 Insert a/a n or on e if nec e s s a r y. 1 . . . of my friends advis e d me to take . . . taxi; anot h e r said that ther e was quite . . . good bus service. 2 . . . friend of mine lent me . . . book by Meredith. I've only . . . mor e chap t e r to read. Would you like . . . loan of it afterw a r d s ? ~ No, tha nks . I rea d . . . of his books . . . few years ago and didn't like it. Beside s I hav e . . . library book to finish. If I don' t take it back tomorrow I'll hav e to pay . . . fine. 3 . . . ma n I me t on the train told me . . . rath e r unus u al story. 4 Most people like . . . rest after . . . hard day' s work, but Tom see m e d to hav e . . . inexh a u s ti bl e supply of en er g y. 5 I've told you . . . hundr e d time s not to com e into . . . room with . . . hat on. 6 It's unlucky to light thre e cigar e t t e s with . . . matc h. ~ That' s only . . . sup er s tition. Only . . . idiot believ e s in sup e r s titions . 7 He says . . . carav a n is no good; he ne e d s . . . cott a g e . 8 . . . plat e is no good; we ne e d . . . doze n. 9 Last time ther e was . . . fog here . . . plan e cras h- land e d in . . . field near the airport. The crew had . . . lucky esc a p e . . . . ma n broke his leg; the rest were unhurt. 10 You've bee n . . . gre a t help to me; . . . day I will rep a y you. 11 My car broke down ne ar . . . bus stop. There was . . . ma n waiting for . . . bus so I aske d him for . . . advice. 12 He took . . . quick look at my car and said, 'Buy . . . new . . . .' 13 There was . . . woma n ther e. The rest were me n. ~ There shouldn' t hav e be e n eve n . . . woma n . It was me a n t to be . . . stag party. 14 Don't tell . . . soul! Not eve n your wife! ~ Of cours e not! I'd nev er tell . . . secr e t to . . . wom a n .


9 15 Most of the staff had bee n ther e for only . . . very short time, but . . . ma n had be e n ther e . . . year and . . . half, so he knew . . . little mor e tha n the rest. 16 Could you lend me . . . diction a r y, pleas e ? I'm trying to do . . . crossw or d puzzle. ~ I'm afraid I've only got . . . diction a r y, and Tom's borrow e d it. 17 . . . chop won't be enou g h for Tom; he'll want two; he's . . . small ma n but he' s got . . . big app e tit e . 18 1 want . . . volunt e e r s for . . . dan g e r o u s job ,' said the capt ain. There was . . . long silenc e. 'Isn't ther e eve n . . . ma n who will take . . . risk ?' he ask e d. . . . voice called out from the back, ' Will ther e be . . . rew ar d ?' 19 I hav e . . . flat on the top floor. You get . . . lovely view from ther e . 20 . . . day a new director arrived. He was . . . ambitious , badte m p e r e d ma n, and the staff took . . . insta n t dislike to him. 21 Sudd e nly . . . bullet struck . . . stre e t lamp . . . little to Bill's left. He looked up and saw . . . ma n with . . . gun sta n din g at . . . ope n window. 22 Bill fired back twice. . . . bullet hit the wall, the other broke . . . pan e of . . . glass. He he ar d . . . angry shout. 23 . . . day—it was . . . dry day with . . . good visibility—Tom was driving along . . . countr y road in . . . borrow e d car. 24 You're making . . . mist ak e after anot h e r . Have you . . . han g o v e r, or som e t hin g ? ~ No, but I had . . . very bad night last night. The peopl e next door were having . . . party. ~ . . . bad night shouldn' t hav e such . . . effect on your work. I often hav e thre e bad nights in succ e s sio n. I live in . . . very noisy stre e t.

Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary verbs PEG 106- 7 Auxiliaries her e are use d both alon e and as part of various tens e s of ordinar y verbs. Read the following (a) in the neg a tiv e (b) in the interro g a tiv e. Thes e sent e n c e s , exc e p t for nos. I and 13, could also be use d for que s tion tag exercis e s (se e Exercis e 13). Note: 1 m ay for possibility rarely begins a sent e n c e . Inste a d we us e do you think (that) + pres e n t /fu t u r e or is + subject + likely + infinitive: Tom may know. Do you think (that) Tom knows? Is Tom likely to know?


10 2 Use n e ed n' t as the neg a tiv e of m u s t . 1 It may cost Đˆ100. 2 Men should help with the hous e w ork. 3 Tom would pay her. 4 They could play the guitar. 5 We're seeing Mary tomorrow. 6 She ough t to keep it in the f ridge. 7 You can und er s t a n d it. 8 The police were watching the hous e . 9 You can go with him. 10 They'v e got a hous e . 11 Your boss will be angry. 12 Tom should pay the fine. 13 They may com e tonigh t. 14 They were cleanin g their shoe s . 15 He mus t write in French. 16 You hav e read the instruction s . 17 Thes e pe arls are ma d e by oyst e r s . 18 The ice was thick enou g h to walk on. 19 This will take a long time. 20 They may (per mis sio n) take the car. 21 You've ma d e a mist ak e . 22 Ann would like a skiing holiday. 23 We mus t do it at once. 24 Tom could come . 25 They were in a hurry. 26 There is enou g h salt in it. 27 You could see the sea from the hous e. 28 Ann will be able to drive you. 29 They had writte n to him. 30 We mus t cook it in butt e r. 31 It is freezing. 32 She ought to acce p t the offer. 33 There' 1 1 be time for tea. 34 I'm right. 35 He ma y be at hom e . 36 He used to live her e.

Auxiliaries conjugated with do/does/did PEG 106- 7, 123, 126 (see also Exercis e 17) Som e auxiliaries when use d in cert ain ways mak e their neg a tiv e and interro g a tiv e accordin g to the rule for ordin ary verbs, i.e. with do. Som e ti m e s eith er form is possible.


11 Make the sent e n c e s (a) neg a tiv e and (b) interro g a tiv e, using do/do e s / did. 1 They hav e eggs for bre akf a s t. 2 He nee d s a new coat. 3 He use d to sell fruit. 4 They hav e to work hard. 5 She does the hous e w ork. 6 He nee d s mor e mon e y. 7 He had a row with his boss. 8 She had a he art att a ck. 9 Her hair nee d e d cutting. 10 He does his hom e w o rk after supp e r. 11 She has a singing lesson every week. 12 She had to mak e a spe e c h. 13 He does his bes t. 14 He has to get up at six every day. 15 The childre n hav e dinn er at school. 16 She dare d him to climb it. 17 You did it on purpo s e . 18 He has his piano tun e d regularly , (see 119) 19 He dare s to say that! 20 They had a good time. 21 The drink did him good. 22 My watch nee d s cleanin g. 23 He had an accid e n t . 24 You had your hous e paint e d . 25 She use d to mak e her own cloth e s . 26 You do the exercis e s . 27 He had difficulty (in) gettin g a job. 28 He dare d to interru p t the presid e n t , did he? ( Omit final did he?)

Auxiliary verbs PEG 106- 7 Put the following verbs into the pas t tens e . (Auxiliaries are used both by the m s e lv e s and as part of cert ain forms and tens e s of ordinary verbs.) Use ha d to as the pas t tens e of m u s t and did n't n e e d as a pas t tens e of n e e d n ' t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

He isn't working hard. She does n ' t like cats. I can' t say anyt hin g. We mus t rea d it carefully. He won't help us. He can lift it easily. It isn't far from London.


12 8 Isn't it too hea v y to carry? 9 He nee d n ' t pay at once. 10 He hop e s that Tom will be ther e. (He hop e d . . .) 11 How much does this cost? 12 He says that Ann may be ther e. (He said . . :) 13 How old is he? 14 Do you see any differe n c e ? 15 I do what I can. 16 How far can you swim? 17 I mus t chan g e my sho e s . 18 Tom dar e s not compl ain. 19 I don't dare (to) touch it. 20 Have you time to do it? 21 Are you fright e n e d ? 22 Must you pay for it yours elf? 23 The lett er ne e d n ' t be typ e d. 24 We hop e that he'll com e. (We hop e d . . .) 25 He says that she ma y not be in time. (He said that she . . .) 26 Do you und e r s t a n d what he is saying? I don' t. 27 There are accid e n t s every day at thes e crossro a d s . 28 She thinks that it may cost Đˆ100. (She thoug h t that it . . .) 29 Does n' t Mr Pitt know your addr e s s ? 30 They are n' t exp e c tin g me, are they? 31 He thinks that the snak e s ma y be dan g e r o u s , (see 28) 32 She wants to know if she can borrow the car. (She want e d to know if...) 33 Can't you ma n a g e on Đˆ100 a week? 34 Tom is cert ain that he will win. 35 Can you read the notice? No, I can' t. 36 I don't think that the bull will att a ck us.

Auxiliary verbs PEG 108 Answer the following que s tion s (a) in the affirm a tiv e (b) in the neg a tiv e, in each cas e rep e a tin g the auxiliary and using a prono u n as subject. Do you nee d this? ~ Yes, I do/No, I don 't. Can Tom swim? - Yes, he can/No, he can 't. Note also: Is that Bill? ~ Yes, it is/No, it isn' t. Will ther e be time? ~ Yes, ther e will/No, ther e won 't. Use n e e d n ' t in 7 and 15. Use m u s t in 26 and 35. 1 Is the wat er dee p ? 2 Do you know the way?


13 3 Can you swim? 4 Does he com e every day? 5 Is that Tom over ther e ? 6 Are you Tom's broth e r? 7 Must you go? 8 Are you enjoying yours elv e s ? 9 Did he see you? 10 Would Đˆ10 be enou g h ? 11 May I borrow your car? 1 2 Is this the front of the que u e ? 13 Will she be ther e ? 14 Do you play cards ? 15 Should I tell the police? 16 Can you cook? 17 Are you read y? 18 Could wome n join the club? 19 Is your na m e Pitt? 20 Were they fright e n e d ? 21 Will his moth e r be ther e ? 22 Ought I to get a new one? 23 Should I tell him the truth? 24 Was the driver killed? 25 Have you any mon e y? 26 Need we finish the exercis e? 27 Used he to ride in race s ? 28 Would you like to see him? 29 Is this yours? 30 Do you want it? 31 Can I take it? 32 Will you bring it back tomorrow ? 33 Are you free this eve nin g ? 34 Am I in your way? 35 Need I wear a tie? 36 Was that Bill on the phon e ?

Additions to remarks, using auxiliary verbs PEG 112

Part I Add to the following rem a r k s using (an d ) so + the noun/pr o n o u n in brack e t s + the auxiliary. If ther e is an auxiliary in the first rem a r k rep e a t this; if not use do/ d o e s / d i d . He lives in London. (I) He lives in London and so do 1. He had to wait. (you) He had to wait and so had you. 1 I hav e read it. (John) 2 He is a writer , (she) 3 Tom can spe ak Welsh , (his wife)


14 4 She ough t to get up. (you) 5 I should be wearing a sea t belt. (you) 6 John will be ther e. (Tom) 7 The first bus was full. (the secon d) 8 I boug h t a ticket , (my broth e r) 9 You mus t com e . (your son) 10 This bus goes to Piccadilly. (that) 11 I'm getting out at the next stop. (my friend) 12 He use d to work in a rest a u r a n t . (1)

Part 2 Add to the following rem a rk s using (and) neith e r/ n o r + the auxiliary + the noun/ pro n o u n in brack e t s . He isn't back. (she) He isn't back and neith er is she. 13 I hav e n ' t see n it. (Tom) 14 You shouldn' t be watchin g TV. (Tom) 15 You mus t n ' t be late. (1) 16 He can' t come . (his sister) 17 I don't believ e it. (Ann) 18 Alice couldn' t und e r s t a n d . (Andrew) 19 I'm not going , (you) 20 This telep h o n e does n ' t work. (that) 21 Tom's car won't start . (mine) 22 I had n' t any chan g e . (the taxi driver) 23 He didn' t know the way. (anyo n e else) 24 My fath e r wouldn' t mind. (my moth e r )

Part 3 Contr ary additions. Add to the following rem a r k s using but + noun/pro n o u n + the auxiliary or do/ d o e s / d i d . Make a neg a tiv e addition to an affirm a tiv e rem a r k: She thank e d me. (he) She tha nk e d me but he didn' t. Make an affirm a tiv e addition to a neg a tiv e rem a r k: She can' t eat oyst er s . (I) She can't eat oyst e r s but I can. Use nee d n ' t as the neg a tiv e of mus t, and mus t as the affirm a tiv e of nee d n ' t . 25 John was sea sick. (Mary) 26 He was n' t ther e , (she) 27 You mus t go. (your broth e r) 28 My sister can spe ak Germ a n . (I) 29 Alexan d e r didn' t want to wait. (Jame s ) 30 Bill ne e d n ' t stay. (Stanle y) 31 A cat wouldn' t eat it. (a dog) 32 He will enjoy it. (his wife) 33 I hav e n ' t got a comp u t e r , (my neigh b o u r) 34 This be ac h is safe for bathing , (that be ac h)


15 35 I mus t leav e early , (you) 36 You don' t hav e to pay tax. (I)

Agreements and disagreements with remarks, using auxiliary verbs PEG 109

Part I Agree m e n t s with affirma tiv e rem a r k s. Agree with the following rem a r k s , using y e s / s o + prono u n + the auxiliary or do/ d o e s / d i d . To expr e s s surpris e, use Oh, so . . . He has a good influenc e on her. - Yes, he has. 1 We mus t hav e a large roo m. 2 I was very rud e. 3 She always wears dark glas s e s . 4 She may be a spy. 5 Tom could tell us wher e to go. 6 There' s a snak e in that bask e t . 7 He nee d s six bottle s. 8 This boat is leaking! 9 His revolver was load e d. 10 This rest a u r a n t might be exp e n siv e . 11 They used to hav e a parrot. 12 The fog is getting thicker.

Part 2 Agree m e n t s with neg a tiv e rem a r k s. Agree with the following rem a r k s , using no + prono u n + the auxiliary. Eleph a n t s nev er forget. ~ No, the y don't. 13 Cuckoos don' t build nes ts . 14 He didn't compl ain. 15 It isn't worth keepin g. 16 He can't help coug hin g. 17 The ice wasn' t thick enou g h . 18 The lift wouldn' t come down. 19 This flat has n' t got very thick walls. 20 They don't hav e eart h q u a k e s ther e. 21 The oran g e s didn't look very good. 22 It has n' t bee n a bad su m m e r . 23 I don't look my age. 24 He might n ' t like that colour.

Part 3 Disagr e e m e n t s with affirma tiv e or neg a tiv e rem a r k s. Disagr e e with


16 the following rem a r k s , using oh no/ b u t + prono u n + auxiliary. Use a neg a tiv e auxiliary if the first verb is affirm a tiv e and an affirm a tiv e auxiliary if the first verb is neg a tiv e . He won't be any us e. ~ (Oh) yes, he wi ll. She worke d her e for a year. - (Oh) no, she didn' t. 25 You're drunk. 26 I didn' t do it on purpo s e . 27 They were n ' t in your way. 28 I wasn' t born then. 29 She' d rath e r live alon e. 30 You gav e him my addr e s s . 31 I can use your bicycle. 32 That five poun d not e belong s to me. 33 He didn't me a n to be rude. 34 Children get too muc h pocke t mon e y. 35 Exa ms should be abolish e d . 36 She pro mis e d to obey him.

Question tags after negative statements PEG

110

Add ques tio n tags to the following stat e m e n t s . Bill does n ' t know Ann. Bill does n' t know Ann, does he? Ann has n' t got a phon e . Ann hasn 't got a phon e, has she? thi s / t h a t (subject) beco m e s it in the tag. ther e rem ai n s unch a n g e d : That isn't Tom, is it? There won 't be tim e, will ther e? All the tags, exce p t the tag for no. 30, should be spok e n in the usu al way with a stat e m e n t inton a tio n. But they could also be practis e d with a ques tio n inton a tio n. The import a n t word in the stat e m e n t mus t the n be stre s s e d . 1 You aren ' t afraid of snak e s . 2 Ann isn't at hom e . 3 You don' t know French. 4 Tom didn't see her. 5 This isn't yours. 6 Mary was n' t angry. 7 Bill has n' t had bre akf a s t . 8 You won't tell anyo n e . 9 I didn't wake you up. 10 Tom does n ' t like oyst e r s .


17 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

You don't want to sell the hous e . It does n ' t hurt. People should n' t drink and drive. You are n' t going alon e. They couldn' t pay the rent. You don't agre e with Bill. There was n' t a lot to do. I ne e d n ' t say anyt hin g. That wasn' t Ann on the phon e. You didn't do it on purpo s e . This won't take long. She does n ' t believ e you. It didn' t ma t t e r very much. He should n' t put so much salt in it. Mary couldn' t leav e the childre n alone. You are n' t doing anyt hin g tonigh t. You wouldn' t mind helping me with this. Georg e had n' t be e n ther e befor e. The childre n were n' t surpris e d. You wouldn' t like anot h e r drink. Tom does n ' t hav e to go to lectur e s . Bill has n' t got a car. Bill couldn' t hav e prev e n t e d it. I ne e d n ' t wait any longer. There were n' t any mos q uit o e s . The fire wasn' t start e d deliber a t el y.

Question tags after affirmative statements PEG110 Add ques tio n tags to the following stat e m e n t s : Tom goes to Bath quite often, does n 't he ? He told you abou t his last trip, didn 't he ? It was very cold last night, was n 't it ? Be careful of the contr a c tion s 's and 'd: He's rea d y, isn 't he ? He's finishe d, has n 't he? He'd see n it, hadn' t he? He'd like it, wouldn' t he? Thes e should be practis e d mainly with a stat e m e n t inton a tio n, but they could also be said with a que s tion inton a tio n. See note s to previous exercis e. 1 The children can read French.


18 2 He's ten year s old. 3 Bill cam e on a bicycle. 4 The Smiths hav e got two cars. 5 Your gran df a t h e r was a millionaire. 6 Tom should try ag ain. 7 It could be don e. 8 Your broth e r ' s her e. 9 That' s him over ther e . 10 Georg e can leav e his cas e her e. 11 This will fit in your pocke t. 12 His wife has hea d a c h e s quite often. 13 She' s got lovely blue eye s . 14 The twins arrived last night. 15 Mary paints portr aits . 16 Bill puts the mon e y in the bank. 17 Bill put the mon e y in the bank. 18 Prices kee p going up. 19 I've see n you befor e. 20 Bill's writte n a novel. 21 His mot h e r ' s very proud of him. 22 The twins use d to play rugby. 23 Tom might be at hom e now. 24 We mus t hurry. 25 You'd be e n ther e befor e. 26 You'd like a drink. 27 The boys prefer a cooke d bre akf a s t . 28 Mary ought to cook it for the m. 29 That was Ann on the phon e . 30 The Smiths ne e d two cars. 31 You'll help me. 32 He use d to eat raw fish. 33 There' 1 1 be plent y for everyo n e . 34 You'd bett e r wait for Bill. 35 You'd com e if I ne e d e d help. 36 You could com e at short notice.

Question tags: mixed PEG 110 See not e s to Exercis e s 12 and 13. Note that a stat e m e n t cont aining words such as no n e , no b o d y , hardl y / h a r d l y an y etc. is tre a t e d as a neg a tiv e stat e m e n t : He hardly ever mak e s a mist ak e , does he? When the subject is no b o d y / a n y b o d y / e v e r y b o d y etc., the prono u n they is use d in the tag: Nobody liked the play, did they?


19 Add que s tion tags to the following stat e m e n t s . 1 You take sug a r in tea. 2 But you don' t take it in coffee. 3 The lift isn't working tod a y. 4 It nev er works very well. 5 The are a was evac u a t e d at once. 6 There was no panic. 7 Though everyb o d y realized the dan g e r . 8 There was a lot of noise. 9 But nobod y complain e d . 10 Mary hardly ever cooks. 11 She buys conve ni e n c e foods. 12 She' d save mon e y if she boug h t fresh food. 13 Mr Smith usu ally rem e m b e r e d his wife's birthd a ys . 14 But he didn't rem e m b e r this one. 15 And his wife was very disap p oint e d . 16 He ough t to hav e ma d e a note of it. 17 Neither of the m offere d to help you. 18 They don' t allow pet dogs in this shop. 19 But guide dogs can com e in. 20 He hardly ever leav e s the hous e . 21 That isn't Bill driving. 22 Nothing went wrong. 23 Lions are loos e in this res erv e . 24 So we'd bett e r get back in the car. 25 It'd be unple a s a n t to be att a ck e d by a lion. 26 And it wouldn' t be any use running away. 27 It is a pity Ann didn't com e with us. 28 She' d hav e enjoye d it. 29 They should hav e plann e d the exp e dition more carefully. 30 Lives were lost unn e c e s s a rily. 31 She warn e d him not to ride the stallion. 32 But he nev er take s advice. 33 There use d to be tre e s here. 34 There isn't any point in waiting. 35 He'll hardly com e now. 36 Your centr al he a tin g does n ' t work very well.

Auxiliaries followed by full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Put to wher e nec e s s a r y befor e the infinitives in brack e t s . 1 You nee d n ' t (com e ) tomorrow. 2 People use d (trav el) on hors e b a c k. 3 I'll hav e (hurry).


20 4 You ough t (take) a holiday. 5 I'll (lend) him som e mon e y. 6 You are (go) at once. 7 We didn't hav e (pay) anyt hin g. 8 There won't (be) enou g h roo m for everyo n e . 9 You can (se e) the wind mill from her e. 10 He was able (explain). 11 We ma y hav e (sta y) here all night. 12 He used (spe n d) a lot of time in his library. 13 He didn't dare (say) anyt hin g. 14 Don't (mov e). 15 We'll (look) for a hot el. 16 You ne e d n ' t (look) for a hot el; I'll be able (put) you up. 17 The doctor said that I ough t (give up) smoking. 18 He used to drink quite a lot. 19 He should (be) rea d y by now. 20 May I (ask) you a ques tio n? 21 I sha n' t be able (do) it till after the holidays . 22 I didn' t ne e d (say) anyt hin g. 23 How dare you (ope n) my lett er s! 24 They ought (warn) people abou t the dang e r o u s curre n t s . 25 I should (say) nothing abou t it if I were you. 26 You are not (me n tio n) this to anyo n e . 27 Why do they (obey) him ?~ They don' t dar e (refus e ). 28 You mus t (look) both ways before crossing the road. 29 Your ma p may (hav e be e n) out of dat e. 30 You ought (hav e finishe d) it last night. 31 I mus t (say) I think you beh a v e d very badly. 32 I will hav e (carry) a tent. 33 We've got (get out). 34 It might (kill) som e b o d y. 35 Ought you (be) watchin g TV? 36 Shouldn' t you (be) doing your hom e w o rk?

Auxiliaries: mixed PEG chap t e r s 11- 16 Fill each of the following gap s with a suita bl e auxiliary or auxiliary form. 1 Schoolbo y to friend: I left my book at hom e . . . . I shar e yours? 2 I'm taking swim mi n g lesso n s . I hope to . . . to swim by the end of the mon t h. 3 You . . . bett e r take off your wet sho e s . 4 I'm sorry I'm late. I . . . to wait age s for a bus.


21 5 Teach e r: You . . . (obligation) rea d the play, but you . . . (n o obligation) read the prefac e . 6 I knew he was wrong but I . . . (hadn 't the courag e) to tell him so. 7 You're getting fat. You . . . to cut down on your be er drinking. 8 He . . . to smok e very he avily. Now he hardly smok e s at all. 9 The new motorw a y . . . open e d this after n o o n , (plan) 10 I've com e without any mon e y. . . . you possibly lend me Đˆ5? 11 Ann: . . . we me e t at Piccadilly Circus? 12 Tom: It . . . be bett e r to me e t at the the a t r e . We . . . miss one anot h e r at Piccadilly. 13 . . . you like to come cano ein g with me next week e n d ? 14 Mary: I . . . to pay 20p. for this little chap on the bus yes t e r d a y. 15 Ann: My little boy' s und e r thre e so I . . . (No obligation. Use pres e n t tens e .) to pay for him. 16 The plan e . . . land e d (unfulfilled plan) at Heat hro w, but it has bee n divert e d to Gatwick. 17 You've spelt it wrong. There . . . be anot h e r 's'. 1 8 You . . . told me! (I'm disap p oint e d that you didn't tell m e.) 1 9 We . . . to take a taxi. Otherwis e we'll be late. 20 At the holiday cam p we . . . to get up at six and bat h e in the river. Then we . . . come back and cook an enor m o u s bre akf a s t , (routin e actions) 21 Tom . . . know the addr e s s . (To m proba bly know s.) 22 Tom . . . know the addr e s s . (I'm sure tha t Tom know s.) 23 I've lost my umbr ella! I . . . left it on the bus! (ded uc tion) 24 Thea tr e regula tio n s : At the end of the perfor m a n c e the public . . . (are per mitt e d to) leav e by all exit doors. 25 If I . . . you I'd get a taxi. 26 Did you paint it yours elf or did you . . . it paint e d ? 27 You . . . (neg a tiv e ) to be driving so fast. There' s a spe e d limit here. 28 You . . . (requ e s t ) get me som e aspirin when you'r e at the che mis t' s .

have: possessive PEG 122 In British English, hav e me a ni n g poss e s s is not nor m ally conjug a t e c with do exce p t when ther e is an idea of habit. / hav e n 't (got) a watch , (pres e n t poss e s sio n) How ma n y corn er s has a (a char a c t e ris tic rath e r tha n a habit


22 cube? He does n 't usu ally hav e time (habit) to study. In the pas t, did is used for habit; oth erwis e eith er form is possible: Did you hav e/Ha d you an umbr ella when you left the hous e ? In oth er English- spe a kin g countrie s, how ev e r, the do forms are use d almos t exclusiv ely. It would ther efor e be possible to use do/ di d forms throu g h o u t the following exercis e s (exce p t in no. 27), but stud e n t s are ask e d to use ha v e not/ h a v e you forms wher e they could be used. Wher e both are equ ally usu al this will be not e d in the key. Fill the spac e s with the correc t forms of hav e, adding got wher e possible. Only one spac e will be left in eac h claus e, but note that go t may be sep a r a t e d from hav e by anot h e r word. When a neg a tiv e form is require d '(nega tiv e )' will be place d at the end of the exa m pl e . 1 He is stan din g ther e in the rain and . . . eve n the sens e to put up his umbr ella , (nega tiv e ) 2 He . . . a cold in the he a d. ~ That' s nothing new; he always . . . a cold. 3 I . . . brainw a v e s very often, but I . . . one now. (1st verb nega tiv e ) 4 It is no good arguin g with som e o n e who . . . a bee in his bonn e t . 5 Why don' t you say som e t hin g ? You . . . an excus e ? (nega tiv e ) 6 You . . . this tooth a c h e yest e r d a y? 7 How ma n y letter s . . . the alph a b e t ? 8 The hous e s in your countr y . . . flat roofs? 9 You . . . the time? ( = Do you know the time?) No, I . . . a watch , (nega t ive) 10 You ever . . . an impuls e to sma s h som e t hi n g ? 11 He . . . Đˆ1,000 a year when his fath e r dies. 12 Air pas s e n g e r s usu ally . . . much lugg a g e , (nega tiv e ) 13 You . . . any objection to sitting with your back to the engin e ? 14 Oyster s . . . always pearls in the m. (neg a tiv e ) 15 Your door . . . a little hole throu g h which you can pee p at callers? (neg a tiv e ) 16 You . . . a ma tc h on you? ~ No, I don't smok e so I nev er . . . ma tc h e s . 17 What is your opinion ? ~ I . . . an opinion ? (neg a tiv e ) 18 That cup . . . a crack in it. 19 You . . . any sus picion who did it? 20 This desk . . . a secre t draw er? ~ No, mod e r n desks ever . . . secr e t draw er s . (neg a tiv e ) 21 When you go to a place for the first time, you ever . . . a feeling that you'v e bee n ther e


23 befor e? 22 Babies . . . teet h when they' r e born? 23 How ma n y sides . . . a pent a g o n ? 24 Our cat . . . kitte n s every year. ~ How ma n y she . . . eac h time? 25 They say that if children . . . compl e t e free d o m when they are youn g, they . . . inhibitions when they grow up. (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 26 You . . . mos q uit o e s in your countr y in sum m e r ? 27 You . . . children ? ~ Yes, I . . . two, a boy and a girl. 28 You . . . a motor cycle? ~ No, I only . . . an ordinar y bicycle, but I . . . a motor cycle next year. 29 Why do you sudd e nly want to back out? You . . . cold feet? 30 Custo m e r : You . . . any mus hr o o m s tod a y? Shopk e e p e r : We usu ally . . . the m but I'm afraid we . . . any at the mo m e n t . (las t verb nega tiv e ) 31 I think I know the ma n you me a n . He . . . one blue eye and one brown one? (neg a tiv e ) 32 Childre n now a d a ys . . . far too much pocke t mon e y. I . . . any when I was at school . (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 33 We were always gettin g lost in the des e r t. ~ You . . . comp a s s e s ? (nega tiv e ) 34 Red- haired people always . . . bad te m p e r s ? 35 Do you think we should eat this me a t ? It . . . a very nice smell. (neg a tiv e ) 36 The stairs are on fire! You . . . a long rope?

have: various uses PEG 123 ha v e can me a n tak e (a me al/les s o n/ b a t h , etc.), en t e r t a i n (gue s t s ), en c o u n t e r (difficulty, etc.), enjo y (a time/journ e y, etc.). When us ed in thes e ways: (a) hav e usu ally forms its neg a tiv e and interrog a tiv e with do. (b) ha v e can be use d in the continu o u s tens e s . Put the correc t form of ha v e into the following sent e n c e s . Use am ha vi n g , is ha vi n g , etc., as a futur e form. 1 We . . . som e friend s in for dinner tomorrow night. 2 You . . . a good journ e y yest e r d a y? 3 Don't distur b him; he . . . a rest. 4 We . . . lunch early tomorrow. 5 How ma n y lesso n s he . . . a week? ~ He usu ally . . . four. 6 You . . . eart h q u a k e s in your countr y?


24 7 What time you . . . bre akf a s t ? ~ We usu ally . . . it at 8.00. 8 What you . . . for bre akf a s t ? ~ We . . . toas t and coffee. 9 Why you . . . a cooke d bre akf a s t ? (nega tiv e ) ~ It's too much trouble. 10 Why were they making such a nois e? They . . . an argu m e n t . 11 You . . . a thun d e r s t o r m yest e r d a y? 12 Come in, we . . . a deb a t e . 13 You . . . a cup of coffee? ~ Yes, plea s e . 14 We . . . a me e ti n g tomorr ow to discus s safet y prec a u tio n s . 15 The tre e just miss e d the roof, we . . . a very lucky esc a p e . 16 How did you da m a g e your car? You . . . an accid e n t ? 17 I . . . a look at that hous e tomorr ow. If I like it I'll buy it. 18 We . . . very bad weat h e r just now. 19 I . . . a very inter e s ti n g conv er s a tio n with the milkm a n when my neighb o u r interru p t e d me. 20 English people always . . . roas t be ef for lunch on Sund a ys ? 21 It is difficult to learn a foreign langu a g e when you . . . an opport u nit y of spe akin g it. (neg a tiv e ) 22 The farm e r s . . . a lot of trouble with foxes at pres e n t . 23 On the whole wome n drivers . . . so ma n y accid e n t s as me n drivers. (neg a tiv e ) 24 You . . . anyt hin g to eat befor e you left hom e ? ~ Oh yes, I . . . bacon and eggs. 25 You . . . any difficulty getting into your flat last night? 26 Are you enjoying yours elf? ~ Yes, I . . . a wond e rful time. 27 How often he . . . a singing lesso n? 28 You . . . a good night ? ~ No, I slept very badly. 29 Why were they late? ~ They . . . a punct u r e . 30 We . . . a party her e next week. Would you like to com e ? 31 Why didn' t you spe ak to her ? ~ I . . . a chanc e . (neg a tiv e ) 32 We . . . a lectur e next Monda y. 33 I . . . t e a with her tomorrow. 34 He . . . an oper a tio n next week. 35 He ever . . . night m a r e s ? 36 When he got tired of it I . . . a try. ~ You . . . any luck? ~ Yes, I caug h t a gre a t big fish.


25 The have + object + past participle construction PEG 119

Part I Fill in the spac e s by inserting the correct form of ha v e . Use am /i s / a r e havi n g as a futur e form. (get can be use d inste a d of hav e, but is more colloquial.) 1 2 3 4 5 6

I . . . my hous e paint e d . That is why ther e is all this me s s . My hair looks dre a df ul; I think I . . . it set tomorrow. The attic was dark so last year we . . . skylight put in. That de a d tre e is dang e r o u s . I . . . it cut down tomorr ow. We . . . just . . . centr al he a tin g installed. The hous e is war m! I can' t read Greek so I . . . the docu m e n t s tran sl a t e d . My neph e w is helping with the transla tion. 7 . . . you . . . the film dev elop e d or did you dev elo p it yours elf? 8 Why ...he... all his sho e s specially ma d e ? He says that he has to bec a u s e his feet are differe n t sizes. 9 . . . you . . . your milk deliver e d or do you go to the shop for it? 10 If you hat e cleanin g fish why . . . you . . . the m clea n e d at the fishmo n g e r ' s ? (nega tiv e ) 11 How often . . . you . . . your brak e s tes t e d ? 12 I'm afraid it's rath e r drau g h t y her e but 1... that broke n pan e replac e d tomorrow.

Part 2

Fill in the spac e s by inserting the correct form of ha v e , t he pas t participle of the verb in brack e t s and, wher e nec e s s a r y, a prono u n . 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Your ankle is very swollen. You'd bett e r . . . it . . . (x- ray) Your roof is leaking, you should . . . it . . . (rep air) The trous e r s are too long; I mus t . . . (short e n ) No one will be able to rea d your note s . ~ I know; I . . . the m . . . (typ e) That' s a good piano but you should . . . it . . . (tun e) Why don't you . . . the docu m e n t . . . ? (photoco p y) He didn' t like the colour of the curt ains so he . . . (dye) He went to a gara g e to . . . the punct ur e . . . (me n d) His arm was broke n so he had to go to hos pit al to . . . (set) The batt e r y is all right now. I . . . just . . . it . . . (rech a r g e ) It's a bea u tiful photo. I'm going to . . . (enlar g e ) Be careful of thos e knives. I . . . just . . . (shar p e n )

Part 3 Rewrite the sent e n c e s using a hav e + object + pas t participle cons tr uc tio n and omitting the words in bold type. I em p l o y e d a plu m b e r to exa mi n e my boiler.


26

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

I had m y boiler exa m i n e d . I pay a gar a g e to service my car. The tap kee p s dripping so I mus t s e n d for a plu m b e r to see to it. I paid a w at c h m a k e r to clea n my watch. An artist is painting her portr ait. She . . . They arra n g e d for th e polic e to arre s t the ma n. He paid a lorry driver to tow the car to a gar a g e . They are e m p l o y i n g build e r s to build a gar a g e . I pay a win d o w cle a n e r to clean my window s every mon t h. I went to an oculist and he tes t e d my eye s for me. The old gyps y is telling Tom's fortun e. Tom . . . I as k e d th e fis h m o n g e r to ope n the oyst er s for m e . I w e n t to a jew e ll e r an d h e pierc e d my ears for m e .

be PEG 113- 17, 290, 293, 300, 302 This is a gen e r al exercis e which includ e s infinitives, subjunctiv e s , condition als, and som e exa m pl e s of the be + infinitive cons tr uc tio n When this last cons tr uc tio n or a pas siv e cons tr uc tio n is requir e d the secon d verb is given in brack e t s at the end of the sent e n c e . Why are all thos e dogs wearing harn e s s ? ~ They . . . as guide dogs for the blind , (train) They are being traine d as guide dogs for the blind. Fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s by insertin g the correct form of be with, wher e nec e s s a r y, the pas t participle or pres e n t or perfec t infinitive of the verb in brack e t s . Rem e m b e r that, in the pas siv e, be can be use d in the continu o u s tens e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

They are cutting down all the tre e s . The countr ysid e . . . (ruin) The Prime Minister . . . a spe e c h tonight , (mak e) If I . . . you I'd go on to the next exercis e. . . . late once is excus a bl e but . . . late every day is not. He order e d that all lights . . . (exting uis h) How long you . . . here? My flat was full of dus t bec a u s e the old hous e just opposit e . . . (pull down) 8 He aske d wher e he . . . it. (put) I told him to put it on the ma n t el pi e c e . 9 It . . . difficult to read a news p a p e r upsid e down? { Use nega tiv e .) 10 You . . . her e till I return. That is an order . (stay) 11 He sugg e s t s that pro min e n t people . . . to contribu t e . (ask) 12 Even if you . . . to go on your kne e s to him I don't think it would


27 mak e him chan g e his mind. 13 I... on a cat erin g cours e when I leav e school. My par e n t s hav e arra n g e d it. (go) 14 What is hap p e ni n g now? ~ The injure d ma n . . . out of the are n a . (carry) 15 It's bett e r . . . too early tha n too late. 16 I wish you . . . here. I miss you very muc h. 17 Why did you leav e him behind? You . . . him with you. (Th o se wer e your instructions .) (take) 18 She is learning Italian. She . . . by a profes s o r from Milan , (tea c h) 19 I know I . . . half an hour late yest e r d a y but I . . . half an hour early tomorrow. ~ I'd rath e r you . . . punct u al every day. (see 297) 20 It is impos sible . . . right every time. 21 He . . . her e by seve n but now it's nine and ther e ' s no sign of him. (be) 22 They decid e d that voting pap e r s . . . to all me m b e r s . (sen d) 23 There . . . eggs for bre akf a s t tomorrow ? 24 If only 1... ther e! (But I was n' t.) 25 The Que e n . . . the new hos pit al next week. (ope n) 26 I couldn' t see the ma n who was guiding us and I didn't know wher e we . . . (tak e) 27 It . . . a trilogy but in the end the aut hor found that he had only enou g h ma t e ri al for two volum e s , (be) 28 You . . . very angry if I refus e d ? 29 The mat t e r . . . discus s e d in tomorrow ' s deb a t e . 30 His mar e . . . in tomorrow ' s race but he said this morning that she was sick and wouldn' t be running after all. (run) 31 The hous e was n' t rea d y; it still . . . and ther e were pots of paint an ladd e r s everyw h e r e , (paint) 32 They decid e d that an expur g a t e d edition . . . for use in schools . (print) 33 His works are imm e n s el y popular; they . . . into all the major Europ e a n langu a g e s . (tran sl a t e ) 34 It is high time you . . . in bed. 35 I had my instruction s and I knew exactly what I . . . (do) 36 If this report . . . believ e d , we are going to hav e a very sever e droug h t .

it is/there is PEG 67,11 6- 17 Insert it is/t h e r e is in the spac e s . In som e sent e n c e s , contr a c t e d plural, neg a tiv e and interro g a tiv e forms, or the pas t or futur e tens e are require d.


28 1 What' s the time ?- ... ... 3.30. ~ And what' s the dat e ? ~ . . . . . . the 24th. 2 How far... ...toYork? ~ . . . . . . 50 miles. 3 ... ... very stor m y last night. ~ Yes, ... ... stor m s all over the country. 4 ... ... freezing very hard. ... ... ...ice on the lake tomorrow. 5 As... ... sunn y she decid e d to take the children to the sea. 6 Why don' t you go for a walk? . . . . . . a pity to stay in when . . . . . . so nice outsid e. 7 ... ... not any sha d o w s bec a u s e ... ... not any sun. 8 ... ... going to be a bus strike tomorrow. ~ ... ... ...all right if ... ... a fine day; but if ... ... wet ... ... ... long que u e s on the Undergr o u n d . 9 ... ... not any glas s in the window s; that is why . . . . . . so cold in the roo m. 10 ... ... very wet yes t e r d a y; ... ... impos sible to go out. 11 ... ...a lot of rain last week. ... ... floods everyw h e r e . 12 ... ...a thick fog last night. ... ... sever al accide n t s on the motorw a y. 13 ... ... foolish to drive fast when ... ... foggy. 14 ... ... difficult to find your way roun d this town. . . . . . . so ma n y stre e t s all looking exac tly alike. 15 Come on, childre n! ... ... time to get up! ... ... nearly bre akf a s t time. 16 . .. . .. ... lunch time when we get to York, so let's hav e lunch ther e. ~ No, ... ... not be time for lunch bec a u s e our train to Edinburg h leav e s York at 13.15. 17 ... ...a funny smell here. ... ... turp e n ti n e ? 18 ... ...all sorts of stories abou t Robin Hood, but ... ... not known exac tly who he was or what he did. 19 ... ... said that if you bre ak a mirror you'll be unlucky for sev e n years . 20 As he had very bad sight ... ... difficult for him to recog niz e people. 21 ' Can I hav e a Telegrap h, pleas e ?' said the custo m e r . I'm afraid ... ... not any left ,' said the news a g e n t . ' But . . . . . . a Guardian on the rack besid e you. Why not take that? ... ... just as good .' 22 ... ... not nec e s s a r y to carry your pas s p o r t everyw h e r e with you but ... ... advis a bl e to carry som e docu m e n t of identity. 23 ... ...a guard outsid e the door and ... ... bars on the window s. ... ... impos sible to esca p e . 24 ... ...a gara g e behind the hot el? ~ Yes, but ... ... rath e r full. I don' t think ... ... room for your car. 25 One night . . . . . . a hea v y fall of snow which blocke d all the roads . Luckily ... ... plent y of food in the hous e . 26 ... ...a hotel in the villag e, so we decid e d to stay ther e.


29 . . . . . . a char mi n g village and I was very hap p y ther e , but my children were bore d beca u s e ... ... nothing to do in the eve nin g s . 27 ... ... five flats in the building—on e on each floor. Mine's on the top floor. . . . . . . no lift but ... ... supp o s e d to be good for the figure to run up and down stairs, . . . . . .? 28 ... ...a pity you hav e n ' t anot h e r bedroo m . ~ Yes, but ... ... quite a big loft, which I am thinking of turning into a bedroo m . . . . . . . a skylight so ... ... not . . . a ventilation proble m. 29 ... ...all sorts of lege n d s abou t thes e cave s . ... ... said that smu g g lers hid their goods her e and that . . . . . . an und er g r o u n d pas s a g e leading to the village inn. 30 Tell me som e t hi n g abou t King Lear. ~ . .. . .. the story of a king who divide d his kingdo m betw e e n his daug h t e r s . ... ... foolish to give aw ay your prop e r t y like that. . . . . . . nev er cert ain that your family will beh a v e gen e r o u sly to you in retur n. 31 Has Tom any mor e children ? ~ Yes. . . . . , . a dau g h t e r , Ann. ~ Oh yes, ... ... Ann who open e d the door to us yes t e r d a y, . . . . . .? 32 He thoug h t that ... ... bett e r to say nothing abou t his chan g e of plan. 33 . .. ...a long time befor e I got an answ e r. Then one day a letter arrived—w ell, ... ... not really a lett er, for ... ... only one sent e n c e on the pap e r. 34 ... ...a pond besid e your hous e ?— Yes, . . . . . . ~ How de e p . . . . . .? 35 We've don e all we can. ... ... nothing to do now but wait. 36 Just cross out that word and goon .... ... not nec e s s a r y to begin again . (or... ...no ne e d to begin again.)

can and be able PEG 136- 8

Part I ca n , use d to expr e s s ability with co ul d , sh all/ w ill b e abl e Fill the following spac e s , using can for pres e n t , coul d for pas t and sh all/ w ill b e abl e for future. There is no ne e d to use other able for m in this section. Put to wher e nec e s s a r y befor e the infinitives. 1 . . . you stan d on your he a d ? ~ I . . . when I was at school but I . . . now. (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 2 When I've pas s e d my driving test I . . . hire a car from our local gar a g e . 3 At the end of the mont h the Post Office will send him an enor m o u s


30 telep h o n e bill which he . . . pay. (nega tiv e ) 4 I . . . rem e m b e r the addr e s s , (nega tiv e ) ~ . . . you eve n rem e m b e r the stre e t ? (nega tiv e ) 5 When the fog lifts we . . . see wher e we are. . 6 You've put too much in your rucks a ck; you nev er . . . carry all that. 7 When I was a child I . . . und e r s t a n d adults, and now that I am an adult I . . . und e r s t a n d childre n , (nega tiv e , nega tiv e ) 8 When you hav e take n your degr e e you . . . put letter s after your na m e ? 9 Don't try to look at all the pictur e s in the gallery. Otherwis e when you get hom e you . . . re m e m b e r any of the m. (neg a tiv e ) 10 When I first went to Spain I . . . rea d Spanis h but I . . . spe ak it. (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 11 ...you type ? ~ Yes, I . . . type but I . . . do short h a n d , (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 12 I'm locked in. I . . . get out! (neg a tiv e ) ~ . . . you squ e e z e betw e e n the bars? (neg a tiv e ) ~ No! I . . .; I'm too fat. (nega tiv e )

Part 2 coul d and was abl e In som e of the following sent e n c e s eith er coul d or w a s abl e could be use d. In oth er s only w a s / w e r e abl e is possible. Fill the spac e s and put to wher e nec e s s a r y before the infinitives. 13 He was very stron g; he . . . ski all day and danc e all night. 14 The car plung e d into the river. The driver . . . get out but the pas s e n g e r s were drown e d . 15 I was a long way from the sta g e . I . . . see all right but I . . . hear very well. (2nd verb nega tiv e ) 16 We . . . borrow umbr ella s; so we didn't get wet. 17 . . . you walk or did they hav e to carry you? 18 I had no key so I . . . lock the door. (nega tiv e ) 19 I knew the town so I . . . advis e him wher e to go. 20 When the gara g e had rep air e d our car we . . . continu e our journ e y. 21 At five year s old he . . . rea d quite well. 22 When I arrive d everyo n e was asle e p . Fortun a t el y I . . . wake my sister and she let me in. 23 The swim m e r was very tired but he . . . reac h the shore befor e he collaps e d . 24 The police were suspicious at first but I . . . convinc e the m that we were innoce n t.

Part 3 PEG 222 C, 223 B, 283- 4 This section includ e s exa m pl e s of coul d use d for polite requ e s t s and as a condition al.


31 25 . . . I spe ak to Mr Pitt, pleas e ?~ I'm afraid he's out at the mo m e n t . . . . you ring back later? 26 If you stood on my should er s . . . you reach the top of the wall? ~ No, I'm afraid I . . . (nega t ive) 27 If I san g . . . you acco m p a n y me on the piano ?~ No, 1 ..., 1... play the piano! (neg a tiv e , nega tiv e ) 28 If a lett er com e s for me . . . you plea s e forward it to this addr e s s ? 29 She ma d e the wall very high so that boys . . . climb over it. (neg a tiv e ) 30 They took his pas s p o r t so that he . . . leave the countr y , (nega tiv e ) 31 . . . you tell me the time, plea s e ? ~ I'm afraid 1. . . . I hav e n ' t got a watch . (neg a tiv e ) 32 If you had to, . . . you go withou t food for a week ?~ I supp o s e I . . . if I had plenty of water. 33 . . . you lend me Đˆ5? ~ No, I . . . (nega tiv e ) 34 They use d to chain valua bl e books to library desks so that people . . . take the m aw ay. (neg a tiv e ) 35 He says that he saw Cleme n ti n e drowning but . . . help her as he . . . swim. (nega tiv e , nega tiv e ) 36 If you had had the right tools . . . you hav e rep air e d the engin e ?

may PEG 127- 33, 285, 288, 340 Insert the correc t form of m ay / m i g h t exce p t in 10 and 36, wher e a b e allo w e d form is nece s s a r y. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

It - . . rain, you' d bett e r take a coat. He said that it . . . rain. We . . . as well stay here till the weat h e r improv e s . . . . I borrow your umbr ella? You . . . tell me! (I think I hav e a right to know.) Candid a t e s . . . not bring textb o ok s into the exa mi n a tio n room. People convict e d of an offenc e . . . (hav e a right to) app e al. If he knew our addr e s s he . . . come and see us. . . . I com e in? ~ Pleas e do. 10 When he was a child he . . . (the y let him) do exactly as he liked. 11 I think I left my glass e s in your office. You . . . ask your secr e t a r y to look for the m for me. (requ e s t ) 12 He . . . be my broth e r (I ad mit that he is) but I don't trus t him. 13 I . . . nev er see you again.


32 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

He... be on the next train. We . . . as well wait. If we got ther e early we . . . get a good sea t. The police . . . (hav e a right to) ask a driver to take a bre a t h tes t. You ough t to buy now; prices . . . go up. I'll wait a week so that he . . . hav e time to think it over. He isn't going to eat it; 1... as well give it to the dog. You . . . at leas t read the lett er. (/ think you should.) You . . . hav e writte n , (I am anno y e d / dis a p p oin t e d that you didn 't.) We'd bett e r be early; ther e . . . be a crowd. Nobody knows how peopl e first cam e to thes e island s. They . . . hav e sailed from South America on rafts. 24 You . . . (hav e per mis sion to) use my office. 25 He said that we . . . use his office when e v e r we liked. 26 I don't think I'll succ e e d but I . . . as well try. 27 You ough t to go to his lectur e s , you . . . learn som e t hi n g. 28 If we can give him a blood transfu sio n we . . . be able to save his life. 29 Two parallel white lines in the middle of the road me a n that you . . . not overt a k e . 30 If I boug h t a lottery ticket I . . . win Đˆ1,000. 31 If you said that, he . . . be very offend e d . 32 I wond e r why they didn' t go. ~ The weat h e r . . . hav e be e n too bad. 33 Warning: No part of this book . . . be reprod u c e d withou t the publish er ' s per mis sion. 34 He has refus e d , but he . . . chan g e his mind if you aske d him again. 35 . . . I s ee your pas s p o r t, plea s e ? 36 He . . . (neg a tiv e ) drive since his accide n t. (The y hav e n' t let him drive.)

must and have to PEG 144- 5 Fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s by insertin g mu s t or the pres e n t , futur e, or pas t form of ha v e to. 1 She . . . leav e hom e at eight every morning at pres e n t . 2 Notice in a pictur e gallery: Cam e r a s , sticks and umbr ella s . . . be left at the desk. 3 He see s very badly; he . . . wear glass e s all the time. 4 1... do all the typing at my office. 5 You . . . rea d this book. It's really exc ellen t. 6 The childre n . . . play in the stre e t s till their moth e r s get hom e from work. 7 She felt ill and . . . leav e early. 8 Mr Pitt . . . cook his own me als. His wife is away. 9 I hadn ' t enou g h mon e y and I . . . pay by cheq u e .


33 10 I nev er rem e m b e r his addr e s s ; I always . . . look it up. 11 Employe r: You . . . come to work in time. 12 If you go to a dentis t with a privat e practice you . . . pay him quite a lot of mon e y. 13 Fath e r to small son: You . . . do what Mummy says. 14 My neigh b o u r ' s child . . . practis e the piano for thre e hours a day. 15 Doctor: I can' t com e now. Caller: You . . . com e; he's terribly ill. 16 English childre n . . . stay at school till the ag e of 16. 17 In my district ther e is no gas laid on. People . . . use electricity for everyt hin g. 18 Notice abov e petrol pu mp: All engin e s . . . be switch e d off. 19 Mother to dau g h t e r : You . . . come in earlier at night. 20 The shops her e don't deliver. We . . . carry everyt hin g hom e ours elv e s . 21 The bus e s were all full; I . . . get a taxi. 22 Notice besid e escala t o r s : Dogs and pus h chairs . . . be carrie d. 23 'Au pair ' girls usu ally . . . do quite a lot of hous e w ork. 24 Tell her that she . . . be here by six. I insist on it. 25 When a tyre is punct ur e d the driver . . . chan g e the whe el. 26 Park notice: All dogs . . . be kept on lead s. 27 She . . . learn how to drive when her local railway station is clos e d. 28 Railway notice: Pass e n g e r s . . . cross the line by the footbridg e . 2 9 I got lost and . . . ask a police m a n the way. 30 Farm e r s . . . get up early. 31 If you buy that television set you . . . buy a licenc e for it. 32 When I chan g e d my job I . . . mov e to anot h e r flat. 33 Waiters . . . pay tax on the tips that they receive. 34 Fath e r to son: I can' t suppor t you any long er; you . . . earn your own living from now on. 35 Railway notice: Pass e n g e r s . . . be in poss e s sio n of a ticket. 36 When e v e r the dog wants to go out 1... get up and open the door.

must not and need not PEG 146 Use mu s t not or n e e d not to fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6

You . . . ring the bell; I hav e a key. Notice in cine m a : Exit doors . . . be locked during perfor m a n c e s . You . . . drink this: it is poison. We . . . drive fast; we hav e plenty of time. You . . . drive fast; ther e is a spe e d limit her e. Candid a t e s . . . bring books into the exa mi n a tio n room.


34 7 You . . . write to him for he will be her e tomorrow. 8 We . . . mak e any noise or we'll wake the baby. 9 You . . . bring an umbr ella. It isn't going to rain. 10 You . . . do all the exercis e. Ten sent e n c e s will be enou g h . 11 We . . . reh e a t the pie. We can eat it cold. 12 Mother to child: You . . . tell lies. 13 You . . . turn on the light; I can see quite well. 14 You . . . strike a ma tc h; the roo m is full of gas. 15 You . . . talk to oth er candid a t e s during the exa m. 16 We . . . mak e any more sandwich e s ; we hav e plenty now. 17 You . . . put salt in any of his dish e s . Salt is very bad for him. 18 You . . . take anyt hin g out of a shop without paying for it. 19 You . . . carry that parc el hom e yours elf; the shop will send it. 20 You . . . clean the window s. The window- clean e r is coming tomorrow. 21 Mother to child: You . . . play with ma tc h e s . 22 Church notice: Visitors . . . walk abou t the church during a serv ice. 23 1... go to the shops tod a y. There is plent y of food in the hous e. 24 You . . . smok e in a non- smoking comp a r t m e n t . 25 Police notice: Cars . . . be park e d here. 26 We . . . ope n the lion's cag e. It is contr a r y to Zoo regula tio n s . 27 You . . . mak e your bed. The maid will do it. 28 I want this lett er type d but you . . . do it tod a y. Tomorrow will do. 29 I'll le nd you the mon e y and you . . . pay me back till next mon t h. 30 We . . . climb any high er; we can see very well from here. 31 You . . . look und e r the bed. There isn't anyb o d y ther e . 32 You . . . ask a wom a n her ag e. It's not polite. 33 You've given me too much. ~ You . . . eat it all. 34 We . . . forget to shut the lift gat e s . 35 Mother to child: You . . . interru p t when I am spe a kin g. 36 If you want the time, pick up the receiver and dial 8081; you . . . say anyt hin g.

need not and don't have to etc. PEG 148- 50 Replac e the words in bold typ e by n e e d not/ n e e d I? etc., or a neg a tiv e or interro g a tiv e hav e to form. I've bee n invite d to a weddin g; but I can' t go. Will it b e nec e s s a r y for me to sen d a pres e n t ? Shall I hav e to send a pres e n t? 1 It isn't n e c e s s a r y for him to go on working. He has alre a d y


35 reach e d retiring age. { He . . .) 2 Was it n e c e s s a r y for you to wait a long time for your bus? 3 It isn't n e c e s s a r y for m e to wat er my tom a t o plant s every day. 4 It will b e n e c e s s a r y for th e m to get up early when they go out to work every day. 5 We had to stop at the frontier but we w er e not req u ir e d to ope n our cas e s . 6 It was n' t nece s s a r y to walk. He took us in his car. (We . . .) 7 My employe r said, 1 sh a n ' t req u ir e you tomorrow .' (You . . . com e .) 8 It is n e v e r n e c e s s a r y for m e to work on Saturd a ys . 9 When I am eight e e n I'll be of ag e. Then it w o n't b e n e c e s s a r y to live at hom e if I don't want to. 10 New teac h e r to his class: It isn't n e c e s s a r y for you to call me ' Sir '; call me 'Bill'. 11 Will it b e n e c e s s a r y for us to report this accid e n t to the police? 12 When you buy som e t hi n g on the installm e n t syst e m you ar e not req u ir e d to pay the whole price at once. 13 Did you know enou g h English to ask for your ticket? It w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y to say anyt hin g. I boug h t my ticket at a mac hin e. 14 It isn't n e c e s s a r y to buy a licenc e for a bicycle in Englan d. (We . . .) 15 Is it e s s e n t i a l for you to finish tonight? 16 Is it n e c e s s a r y for p e o p l e to go everyw h e r e by boat in Venice? 17 Will it b e n e c e s s a r y for m e to slee p und er a mos q uito net? 18 Most peop le think that civil serv a n t s are not req u ir e d to work v e ry hard. 19 It w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y to sw i m . We were able to wad e acros s . 20 It isn't n e c e s s a r y for you to drive me to the station. I ca n get a taxi. 21 Our plan e was delaye d so we had lunch at the airport. But it w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y to pay for the lunch. The airline gav e it to us. 22 Is it obli g a t o r y for us to vote? 23 When you were a child w er e you req u ir e d to practis e the piano? 24 I saw the accid e n t but fortun a t el y it w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y for m e to g ive evide n c e as ther e were plenty of oth er witnes s e s . 25 Small boy to friend: It w o n't b e n e c e s s a r y for you to work hard when you com e to my school. The teac h e r s are n' t very strict. 26 They had plent y of time. It w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y for th e m to hurry. 27 Is it n e c e s s a r y for you to take your dog with you everyw h e r e ? 28 What time w a s it n e c e s s a r y for you to leave hom e ? 29 I broug h t my pas s p o r t but I w a s n ' t req u ir e d to show it to anyo n e . 30 I miss e d one day of the exa m. Will it b e n e c e s s a r y for m e to take the whole exa m again?


36 31 Is it really nec e s s a r y for you to practis e the violin at 3 a.m.? 32 Everyt hin g was don e for me. It was n' t nec e s s a r y for me to do anyt hin g. 33 Are French children obli g e d to go to school on Saturd a ys ? 34 I was late for the oper a. ~ Wa s it n e c e s s a r y for you to wait till the end of the first act before finding your sea t ? 35 He rep air e d my old watch so it wasn' t nec e s s a r y for me to buy a ne w one after all. 36 Wer e you req u ir e d to mak e a spe e c h ?

must, can't and needn't with the perfect infinitive PEG 152, 156, 159 m u s t + perfec t infinitive is use d for affirma tiv e dedu c tion s . ca n't/ c o u l d n ' t + infinitive is use d for neg a tiv e dedu c tion s . n e e d n ' t + perfec t infinitive is use d for a pas t action which was unn e c e s s a r y but was perfor m e d . Fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s by using one of the s e forms + the perfec t infinitive of the verbs in brack e t s . 1 Did you he ar me com e in last night? ~ No, I . . . (be) asle e p . 2 I wond er who broke the winegla s s ; it . . . (be) the cat for she was out all day. 3 You . . . (help) him. ( You help e d him but he didn 't ne e d help.) 4 I had my umbr ella when I cam e out but I hav e n ' t got it now. ~ You . . . (leav e) it on the bus. 5 He . . . (esc a p e ) by this window bec a u s e it is barr e d . 6 I . . . (g ive) Đˆ10. Đˆ5 would hav e bee n enou g h . 7 I saw a rattles n a k e near the river yest e r d a y. ~ You . . . (se e) a rattles n a k e . There are n' t any rattle s n a k e s in this countr y. 8 He is back alre a d y. ~ He . . . (start) very early. 9 He retur n e d hom e with a tiger cub. ~ His wife (be) very pleas e d abou t that. 10 I boug h t two bottles of milk. ~ You . . . (buy) milk; we hav e he a p s in the hous e . 11 I phon e d you at nine this morning but got no answ er. ~ I'm sorry. I . . . (be) in the gard e n . 12 I left my bicycle here and now it's gon e. ~ Som e o n e . . . (borrow) it. 13 When she woke up her watch had vanish e d . ~ Some o n e . . . (ste al) it while she slept.


37 14 I've ope n e d anot h e r bottle. ~ You . . . (do) that. We've only just start e d this one. 15 The mac hin e said, 'You weigh 65 kilos ,' and I said, Thank you .' ~ You . . . (say) anyt hin g. 16 I told him to turn left and he imm e di a t el y turn e d right! ~ He . . . (und e r s t a n d ) you. 17 Perha p s he swa m acros s . ~ No, he . . . (do) that; he can' t swim. 18 Do you rem e m b e r rea din g abou t it in the news p a p e r s ? ~ No, I . . . (be) abro a d at the time. 19 He . . . (walk) from here to London in two hours. It isn't possible. 20 He was very sick last night. ~ The me a t we had for supp e r . . . (be) good. 21 There was a dock strike and the liner couldn' t leav e port. ~ The pas s e n g e r s . . . (be) furious. 22 We went to a rest a u r a n t and had a very good dinn er for Đˆ3. ~ You . . . (hav e) a very good dinner if you only paid Đˆ3. 23 I hav e just water e d the ros es . ~ You . . . (wat e r) the m. Look, it's raining now! 24 That carp e t was ma d e entirely by hand. ~ It . . . (tak e) a long time. 25 The door was open. ~ It . . . (be) open. I had locked it mys elf and the key was in my pocke t. 26 He said that he water e d the plant s every day. ~ He . . . (wat e r) the m. If he had they wouldn' t hav e died. 27 He ca m e out of the water with little red spots all over his back. ~ He . . . (be) stun g by a jelly- fish. 28 We've sent for a doctor. ~ You . . . (sen d) for him. I am perfectly well. 29 I've ma d e two copies. ~ You . . . (mak e ) two. One would hav e be e n enou g h . 30 There was a terrible cras h at 3 a.m. ~ That . . . (be) Tom coming in from his party. 31 I had to get down the mou n t ai n in a thick fog. ~ That . . . (be) very difficult. 32 I saw Ann in the library yes t e r d a y. ~ You . . . (se e) her; she is still abro a d . 33 How did he get out of the hous e ? He . . . (com e ) down the sta irs for they were blazing. 34 You . . . (lend) him your ma p. He has one of his own. 35 I spoke in English, very slowly. ~ You . . . (spe a k) slowly. He spe a k s English very fluently. 36 He was found uncon s ciou s at the foot of the cliff. He . . . (fall) 200 metr e s .


38

Present and past tenses The simple present tense PEG 172 Read the following in the third pers o n singular. Do not chan g e the object if it is plural. Note that after cert ain conso n a n t s a final es is prono u n c e d as a sep ar a t e syllable. See PEG 12 B: kiss, kiss e s /kis, kisiz/. 1 They wish to spe a k to you. (He) 2 Buses pas s my hous e every hour. 3 They help their fath er. (He) 4 We chan g e plan e s at Heathr ow . 5 You watch too much TV. (He) 6 They worry too much. (He) 7 I cas h a cheq u e every mon t h. (He) 8 I always carry an umbr ella. (She) 9 They wash the floor every week. (She) 10 His sons go to the local school. 11 Thes e hen s lay brown eggs . 12 Rubb e r balls bounc e. 13 Thes e figure s asto nis h me. 14 Do you like boiled egg s ? (he) 15 Thes e sea t s cost Đˆ10. 16 They fish in the lake. (He) 17 Eleph a n t s nev er forge t. 18 They usu ally catch the 8.10 bus. 19 They som e ti m e s miss the bus. 20 I mix the ingre di e n t s toge t h e r . 21 The rivers freez e in winter. 22 They fly from London to Edinburg h. 23 The carp e t s ma tc h the curtain s. 24 They realize the dang e r. 25 I use a comp u t e r . 26 What do they do on their days off? ~ They do nothin g. They lie in bed all day. 27 The boys hurry hom e after school. 28 They pus h the door open. 29 They kiss their mot h e r. 30 They box in the gym n a si u m . 31 They dres s well. 3 2 Your children rely on you. 33 They snatc h ladies ' han d b a g s . 34 You fry everyt hin g. 35 The taxe s rise every year.


39 36 They do exercis e s every mo rn ing.

The simple present tense PEG 172 Read the following (a) in the neg a tiv e (b) in the interro g a tiv e. In Nos. 2 and 14, ha v e is used as an ordinary verb and should be tre a t e d as one. 1 You know the answ e r. 2 He has bre akf a s t at 8.00. 3 He loves her. 4 Som e schoolgirls wear unifor ms . 5 He trus ts you. 6 He tries hard. 7 The park clos es at dusk. 8 He miss e s his mot h e r. 9 The childre n like swe e t s . 10 He finishe s work at 6.00. 11 He lives besid e the sea. 12 He bullies his sisters . 13 This stov e hea t s the wat er. 14 She has a cooke d bre akf a s t. 15 She carries a slee pin g bag. 16 He usu ally believ e s you. 17 She danc e s in comp e tition s . 18 You rem e m b e r the addr e s s . 19 She plays ches s very well. 20 He worries abou t her. 21 Thes e thiev e s work at night. 22 He leav e s hom e at 8.00 every day. 23 Ann arra n g e s everyt hin g. 24 She agre e s with you. 25 Their dogs bark all night. 26 Their neighb o u r s often compl ain. 27 Tom enjoys driving at night. 28 He eng a g e s new staff every Spring. 29 Tom looks very well. 30 They sell fres h grap e juice here. 31 He charg e s more than other photo gr a p h e r s . 32 She cuts her hus b a n d ' s hair. 33 They pick the apples in Octob er. 34 The last train leav e s at midnigh t. 35 He relax e s at week e n d s . 36 She refus e s to discus s it.

The present continuous tense


40 PEG 164- 7 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t continuo u s tens e. In No. 25, ha v e is use d as an ordin ary verb and can ther efor e be use d in the continu o u s tens e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

She (not work), she (swim) in the river. He (tea c h) his boy to ride. Why Ann (not wear) her new dres s ? The airplan e (fly) at 2,00 0 me tr e s . What Tom (do) now? He (clea n) his sho e s . This fire (go) out. Some b o d y (bring) mor e coal? It (rain )? ~ Yes, it (rain) very hard. You can' t go out yet. 8 Why you (me n d) that old shirt? 9 You (not tell) the truth. ~ How do you know that I (not tell) the truth? 10 Who (mov e) the furnitur e abou t ups t airs ? ~ It's Tom. He (paint) the front bedro o m . 11 Mrs Jones (swe e p) the step s outsid e her hous e . 12 What you (rea d) now? I (rea d) Crim e and Punish m e n t . 13 It is a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing). 14 Some o n e (knock) at the door. Shall I answ e r it? ~ I (com e ) in a minut e. I just (was h) my han d s . 15 She always (ring) up and (ask) ques tio n s . 1 6 Why you (mak e ) a cake? Som e o n e (com e) to tea? 17 Where is Tom ? ~ He (lie) und er the car. 18 Can I borrow your pen or you (us e) it at the mo m e n t ? 19 You (do) anyt hin g this eve nin g ? ~ No, I'm not. Well, I (go) to the cine m a . Would you like to com e with me? 20 We (hav e) bre akf a s t at 8.00 tomorrow as Tom (catch) an early train. 21 Ann usu ally does the shoppin g, but I (do) it tod a y as she isn't well. 22 Why you (typ e) so fast? You (mak e) a lot of mist ak e s . 23 Mother (res t) now. She always rests after lunch. 24 They (dig) an enor m o u s hole just outsid e my gat e. ~ What they (do) that for? ~ I don't know. Perh a p s they (look) for oil. 25 What (mak e ) that terrible nois e? ~ It's the pne u m a t ic drill. They (rep air) the road. 26 The children are very quiet. Go and see what they (do). They (cut) up som e Đˆ5 not e s . 27 What you (wait) for ?I (wait) for my chan g e ; the boy just (get) it.


41 28 29 30 31

I can't he ar what you (say); the traffic (mak e ) too much noise. She always (lose) her glas s e s and (ask) me to look for the m. Mother: What you (look) at? Som e t hi n g (hap p e n ) in the stre e t ? Child: Yes. The hous e opposit e is on fire! Come and look. Mother: I can' t. I (bath) the babies . Is the Fire Brigad e her e? 32 Child: Yes. Fire engin e s (rush) up and the firem e n (jump) out and (unroll) their hos e s . 33 Smok e (pour) from the window s! People (stop) to watch. A police m a n (try) to mov e the m on. 34 An old ma n (climb) out of a first floor window! A firem a n (help) him! Two boys (slide) down a rope! 35 A wom a n (wav e) from the attic and a firem a n (go) up a ladd er to he lp her! 36 Now he (com e) down again! He (carry) a baby! The crowd (che e r!

The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164- 74 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the simple pres e n t or the pres e n t continu o u s tens e . 1 Cuckoos (not build) nes ts . They (us e) the nes ts of oth er birds. 2 You can't see Tom now: he (hav e) a bat h. 3 He usu ally (drink) coffee but toda y he (drink) tea. 4 What she (do) in the eve nin g s ? ~ She usu ally (play) cards or (watch) TV. 5 I won't go out now as it (rain) and I -(not hav e) an umbr ella. 6 The last train (leav e) the station at 11.30. 7 He usu ally (spe a k) so quickly that I (not und er s t a n d ) him. 8 Ann (mak e ) a dres s for hers elf at the mo m e n t . She (mak e) all her own cloth e s . 9 Hardly anyo n e (wear) a hat now a d a ys . 10 I'm afraid I've broke n one of your coffee cups. — Don't worry. I (not like) that set anyw a y. 11 I (wear) my sungla s s e s tod a y bec a u s e the sun is very stron g. 12 Tom can' t hav e the news p a p e r now bec a u s e his aunt (rea d) it. 13 I'm busy at the mo m e n t . I (red e c o r a t e ) the sitting room. 14 The kettle (boil) now. Shall I mak e the tea? 15 You (enjoy) yours elf or would you like to leav e now? I (enjoy) mys elf very muc h. I (want) to stay to the end. 16 How you (get) to work as a rule? ~ I usu ally (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Tom's car. 17 Why you (put) on your coat? ~


42 I (go) for a walk. You (com e ) with me ?Yes, I'd love to com e. You (mind) if I bring my dog? 18 How much you (owe) him ?I (owe) him Đˆ5. ~ You (inte n d) to pay him? 19 You (belong) to your local library? Yes, I do. You (rea d) a lot ?Yes, quite a lot. How often you (cha n g e ) your books? — I (cha n g e ) one every day. 20 Mary usu ally (learn) langu a g e s very quickly but she (not see m ) able to learn mod e r n Greek. 21 I always (buy) lottery ticket s but I nev er (win) anyt hin g. 22 You (like) this necklac e ? I (give) it to my daug h t e r for her birthd a y tomorrow. 23 I won't tell you my secr e t unles s you (pro mis e ) not to tell anyo n e . I (pro mis e ). 24 You always (write) with your left han d? 25 You (love) him ?No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him. 26 You (dre a m ) at night ?Yes, I always (dre a m ) and if I (eat) too much supp e r I (hav e) night m a r e s . 27 The milk (smell) sour. You (kee p) milk a long time? 28 Thes e workm e n are nev er satisfied; they always (compl ain). 29 We (us e) this room tod a y bec a u s e the window in the other room is broke n. 30 He always (say) that he will me n d the window but he nev er (do) it. 31 You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up? 32 You (write) to him tonight? Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthd a y. You (want) to send any mes s a g e ? 33 Tom and Mr Pitt (hav e) a long conver s a tio n. I (wond e r) what they (talk) abou t. 34 You (believ e) all that the news p a p e r s say ?No, I (not believ e) any of it. ~ Then why you (rea d) news p a p e r s ? 35 This car (mak e) a very stra n g e nois e. You (think) it is all right ?Oh, that noise (not ma t t e r). It always (mak e ) a nois e like that. 36 The fire (smok e) horribly. I can' t see acros s the room. I (exp e c t) that birds (build) a nes t in the chimn e y. Why you (not put) wire acros s the tops of your chimn e ys ? Tom (do) that som e ti m e s but it (not see m) to mak e any differe n c e .


43 The simple present and the present continuous PEG 164- 74 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the simple pres e n t or pres e n t continu o u s tens e . 1 What Tom (think) of the Budg e t ? He (think) it mos t unfair. ~ I (agr e e ) with him. 2 What this one (cost )?It (cost) forty penc e . 3 You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very stron gly tonight. 4 You (see) my car keys anyw h e r e ? No, I (look) for the m but I (not see) the m. 5 He nev er (liste n) to what you say. He always (think) abou t som e t hin g else. 6 This book is abou t a ma n who (des e r t) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island. 7 You (und er s t a n d ) what the lectur er is saying? ~ No, I (not und er s t a n d ) him at all. 8 What you (hav e) for bre akf a s t usu ally? ~ I usu ally (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold wat er. 9 When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) factory gat e. 10 Why you (walk) so fast tod a y? You usu ally (walk) quite slowly. ~ I (hurry) bec a u s e I (me e t ) my mot h e r at 4 o'clock and she (not like) to be kept waiting. 11 I (wish) that dog would lie down. He (kee p) jumping up on my lap. ~ I (think) he (want) to go for a walk. 12 You (recog ni ze) that ma n? ~ I (think) that I hav e see n him befor e but I (not re m e m b e r ) his na m e 13 Look at that crowd. I (wond e r) what they (wait) for. 14 This me s s a g e has just arrived and the ma n (wait) in cas e you (want) to sen d a reply. 15 Stop! You (not see) the notice? ~ I (see) it but I can't rea d it beca u s e I (not wear) my glas s e s . What it (say )? ~ It (say) 'Thes e pre mis e s are patrolled by guar d dogs'. 16 She always (borrow) from me and she nev er (re m e m b e r ) to pay me back. 17 You (ne e d) anot h e r blank e t or you (feel) war m enou g h ? 18 It (sav e) time if you (tak e) the path throu g h the wood? ~ No, it (not ma t t e r) which path you take. 19 I (sav e) up bec a u s e I (go) abro a d in July. 20 I (think) it is a pity you don' t take mor e exercis e. You (get) fat.


44 21 The plan e that you (look) at now just (take) off for Paris , 22 Tom nev er (do) any work in the gard e n ; he always (work) on his car. 23 What he (do) to his car now? ~ I (think) he (polish) it. 24 That film (com e ) to the local cine m a next week. You (want) to see it? 25 How Peter (get) on at school? ~ Very well. He (see m ) to like the life. 26 Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry? ~ Mr Pitt (smok e) a cigar e t t e and (drop) the ash on the carp e t. 27 This is our itiner a r y. We (leav e) hom e on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spe n d ) the day in Paris, and (set) out that night for Venice. ~ That (soun d) mos t inter e s ti n g. You mus t tell me all abou t it when you (get) back. 28 This story is abou t a boy who (mak e) friend s with a snak e which he (find) in his gard e n . Then he (go) aw ay but he (not forge t) the snak e and som e year s later he (retur n) and (look) for it. 29 He (find) the snak e who (recog niz e) its old friend and (coil) round him affection a t el y. But, unfort u n a t el y, the snak e is by now a fullgrown boa- cons trictor and its embr a c e (kill) the poor boy. 30 The snak e (feel) sorry abou t this ?I (not know). The story (end) ther e. 31 How you (end) a letter that (begin), ' Dear Sir '? ~ I always (put), 'Yours truly ', but Tom (prefer) 'Yours faithfully '. 32 What the word ' cata s t r o p h e ' (me a n )? ~ It (me a n ) ' disas t e r '. 33 What you (wait) for ?I (wait) for the shop to ope n. But it (not open) till 9.00. I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) tod a y. 34 Why you (smok e) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smok e) cigars as a rule. ~ I (smok e ) it bec a u s e I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixe d with oil (re m o v e ) he a t stains from wood. 35 Who (own) this umbr ella? ~ I (not know). Everyb o d y (use) it but nobod y (know) who (own) it. 36 You (mind) if I (ask) you a ques tio n? ~ That (dep e n d ) on the que s tion. ~ It (conc er n) your broth e r. ~ I (refus e ) to answ e r any ques tio n abou t my broth e r.

The simple past tense PEG 175- 6


45 Put the verbs in the following sent e n c e s into the simple pas t tens e . 1 I go to work by bus. 2 I me e t her on Tues d a ys . 3 He always wears black. 4 I mak e cake s every week. 5 She gets up at 6.30. 6 He und er s t a n d s me. 7 He shuts the shop at 6.00. 8 She spe a k s slowly. 9 He leav e s the hous e at 9.00. 10 I read a chap t e r every night. 11 You eat too much. 12 I see him every day. 13 Tom sings in the choir. 14 He cries when he is hurt. 15 Who knows the answ e r? 16 I think I know it. 17 The curt ain rises at 8.00. 18 He take s the dog out twice a day. 19 We buy the m her e. 20 I dre a m every night. 21 Bluetits often lay eggs in that nes ting box. 22 He often feels ill. 23 I know what he wants . 24 I usu ally pay him Đˆ5. 25 His dog always bites me. 26 It smells odd. 27 It costs 30p. 28 My back hurts. 29 I lie down after lunch. 30 We drink wat er. 31 His rose s grow well. 32 He rides every day. 33 He often falls off. 34 Thes e dogs fight when e v e r they me e t . 35 He puts up his prices every year. 36 He slee p s badly.

The simple past tense PEG 175- 6 Put the verbs in the following sent e n c e s into (a) the neg a tiv e (b) the interro g a tiv e . 1 She saw your broth e r. 2 We hear d a terrible nois e.


46 3 He slept till 10.00. 4 He looke d at the pictur e. 5 They drank all the wine. 6 They set out early enou g h . 7 She thoug h t abou t it. 8 The police caug h t the thief. 9 He hid the lett er. 10 She found her watch. 11 His nos e bled. 12 My moth e r chos e this hot el. 13 She lent you enou g h mon e y. 14 Keiko taug h t Japan e s e . 15 Tom hurt his foot. 16 He broke his arm. 17 His wife cam e at 8.00. 18 He lost his wallet. 19 His son wrot e a novel. 20 They flew to New York. 21 Ann drew you a ma p. 22 Tom laid the table. 23 Mr Pitt fell downs t airs. 24 She lost her way. 25 He forba d e her to leav e. 26 I sent it to the laundr y. 27 Jack kept the mon e y. 28 He rode slowly. 29 They spe n t it all. 30 She sold the car. 31 Jean rang the bell. 32 The sun ros e at 6.00. 33 The boys ran hom e . 34 He shook the bottle. 35 He forgav e her. 36 They broa d c a s t an app e al for mon e y.

The past continuous tense PEG 178 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pas t continu o u s tens e . 1 Detectiv e: I'm afraid I mus t ask you both what you (do) yest e r d a y at 10.20 p.m. Mr X: I (play) ches s with my wife. Mr Y: I (liste n) to a play on the radio. 2 The childre n were fright e n e d bec a u s e it (get) dark. 3 It was a fine day and the roads were crowd e d bec a u s e a lot of


47 people (rush) to the sea sid e. 4 The airplan e in which the footb all tea m (trav el) cras h e d soon after taking off. 5 He usu ally wears san d als but when I last saw him he (wear) boots. 6 The hous e was in gre a t disord e r bec a u s e he (red e c or a t e ) it. 7 The director didn't allow the actors to trav el by air while they (work) on the film. 8 The car had nobod y in it but the engin e (run). 9 Two children (play) on the san d and two fisher m e n (lean) agains t an uptur n e d boat. 10 I was alon e in the hous e at that time bec a u s e Mr Jones (work) in the gara g e and Mrs Jones (shop). 11 He said that he was the capt ain of a ship which (sail) that night for Mars eilles. 12 Are you going to Rome? I thoug h t that you (go) to Milan. 13 My wife and I (talk) abou t you the oth er day. 14 When I first me t him he (study) painting. 15 There was a stron g smell and the soun d of frying. Obviously Mrs Jones (cook) fish. 16 Tom ate nothing for lunch bec a u s e he (diet). He said that he (try) to lose 10 kilos. 17 Who you (talk) to on the telep h o n e as I cam e in? I (talk) to Mr Pitt. 18 As she (climb) the ladd er it slippe d sidew a ys and she fell off it. 19 When I first me t him he (work) in a rest a u r a n t . 20 He watch e d the childre n for a mo m e n t . Some of the m (bath e ) in the sea, oth er s (look) for shells, other s (play) in the sand. 21 Where he (live) when you saw him last? 22 She (stan d) at the bus stop. I aske d her what bus she (wait) for. 23 From the soun d s it was clear that Mary (practis e) the piano. 24 There had bee n an accid e n t and me n (carry) the injure d people to an amb ul a n c e . 25 Two me n (fight) at a stre e t com e r and a police m a n (try) to stop the m. ~ What they (fight) abou t? ~ Nobody see m e d to know. 26 Tom (sit) in a corn er with a book. I told him that he (rea d) in very bad light. 27 I went into the gard e n to see what the boys (do). Jame s (we e d) and Alexan d e r (cut) the gras s. 28 They had take n off the whe el of the car and (me n d) the punct ur e . I ask e d when it would be read y. 29 When I arrive d at the me e ti n g the first spe a k e r had just finish ed spe a kin g and the audie n c e (clap) , 30 The traffic (mak e ) so much noise that I couldn' t hear what h e (say). 31 While he (learn) to drive he had twen t y- five accid e n t s .


48 32 He had a bad fall while he (rep air) his roof. 33 He was a little ma d. He always (try) to prov e that the eart h was flat. 34 While we (fish) som e o n e cam e to the hous e and left this not e. 35 The exa m had just beg u n and the candid a t e s (write) their na m e s at the top of their pap e r s . 36 Just as I (wond e r) what to do next, the phon e rang.

The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175- 81 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the simple pas t or the pas t continuo u s tens e . 1 I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (bu m) brightly when Tom ca m e in at 7.00. 2 When I arrived the lectur e had alre a d y start e d and the profes s o r (write) on the overh e a d project or. 3 I (mak e ) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark. 4 I didn' t want to me e t Paul so when he ent e r e d the room I (leav e). 5 Unfortu n a t e l y when I arrived Ann just (leav e), so we only had time for a few words. 6 He (watc h) TV when the phon e rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the soun d and (go) to answ e r it. 7 He was very polite. When e v e r his wife ent e r e d the room he (sta n d) up. 8 The ad mir al (play) bowls when he receiv e d news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the ga m e . 9 My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitt's Pekines e att a ck e d him. 10 When I arrive d she (hav e) lunch. She apologize d for starting withou t me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30. 11 He always (wear) a rainco a t and (carry) an umbr ella when he walked to the office. 12 What you (think) of his last book? ~ I (like) it very much. 13 I (shar e) a flat with him when we were stud e n t s . He always (compl ain) abou t my untidine s s . 14 He sudd e nly (realize) that he (trav el) in the wrong direction. 15 He (play) the guitar outsid e her hous e when som e o n e ope n e d the window and (throw) out a bucke t of water. 16 I just (ope n) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my han d. 17 The burglar (ope n) the safe when he (he ar) foots t e p s . He imme di a t el y (put) out his torch and (crawl) und e r the bed. 18 When I (look) for my pas s p o r t I (find) this old photo gr a p h . 19 You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do )? 20 The boys (play) cards when they (he ar) their fath er' s ste p. They imme di a t el y (hide)


49 the cards and (take) out their lesso n books. 21 He (clea n) his gun when it accide n t ally (go) off and (kill) him. 22 He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yes t e r d a y as a stron g wind (blow). 23 As I (cros s) the road I (ste p) on a ban a n a skin and (fall) he avily. 24 I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry appro a c hi n g. 25 Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time. 26 How you (da m a g e ) your car so badly? ~ I (run) into a lamp- post yes t e r d a y. ~ I supp o s e you (drive) too quickly or were not looking wher e you (go). 27 As he (get) into the bus it (start) sudd e nly and he (fall) backw a r d s on to the road. 28 I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it was n' t nec e s s a r y bec a u s e he alre a d y (get) up. 29 When he (me n d ) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock. 30 When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (ope n) it, but I (not recog nize) him at first bec a u s e I (not wear) my glass e s . 31 When I cam e in they (sit) roun d the fire. Mr Pitt (do) a crossw or d puzzle, Mrs Pitt (knit), the other s (rea d). Mrs Pitt (smile) at me and (say), 'Come and sit down .' 32 While the gues t s (danc e ) thiev e s (bre a k) into the hous e and (ste al) a lot of fur coat s. 33 The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for the m, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in differe n t direction s. 34 She was very extr a v a g a n t . She always (buy) hers elf new cloth e s . 35 Her moth e r often (tell) her that she (spe n d) too muc h mon e y but she nev er (listen). 36 When e v e r the dru m m e r (begin) practising, the people in the next flat (ban g) on the wall.

The simple past and the past continuous PEG 175- 81 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the simple pas t or pas t continu o u s tens e . 1 Mr Smith nev er (wake) up in time in the mornin g s and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alar m clock. 2 To get hom e he (hav e to) go throu g h a field wher e a bad- te m p e r e d bull usu ally (graz e). 3 This bull nor m ally (not chas e) people unles s som e t hi n g (mak e ) him angry. Unfortu n a t e l y, as Mr Smith (cros s) the field, his alar m clock (go) off. 4 This (anno y) the bull, who imme di a t el y (begin) to chas e Mr Smith.


50 5 Mr Smith (carry) an ope n umbr ella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbr ella to the groun d and (run) awa y as fast as he could. 6 The bull (stop) and (begin) to att a ck the umbr ella. While he (do) this Mr Smith esc a p e d . 7 When he (awak e) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at som e t hi n g in the stre e t , but when he (call) her she (turn) and (smile) at him. 8 Why you (interr u p t ) me just now? I (hav e) a very inter e s tin g conv er s a tio n with Mr Pitt. 9 The murd e r e r (carry) the corps e down the stairs when he (he ar) a knock on the door. 10 When I (look) throu g h your books I (notice) that you hav e a copy of Murder in the Cath e dr al. 11 As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind the m. Tom (turn) roun d and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop). 12 When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dres s and (look) very prett y. As soon as she (se e) me she (wav e) and (shou t) som e t hin g , but I couldn' t he ar what she (say) bec a u s e everyb o d y (mak e) such a noise. 13 The prison e r (esc a p e ) by climbing the wall of the gard e n wher e he (work). He (wear) blue over alls and black shoe s . 14 She said that the car (trav el) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid. 15 She said that she (not like) her pres e n t flat and (try) to find anot h e r. 16 While he (mak e ) his spe e c h the minist e r sudd e nly (feel) faint. But som e o n e (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minut e s he (be able) to continu e . 17 When I (see) him he (paint) a portr ait of his wife. ~ You (like) it? ~ He only just (start) when I (se e) it, so I couldn' t judge. 18 I (tak e) my friend to a murd e r trial the other day. ~ Who (be) tried ?A ma n called Bill Sykes. ~ Was he acquitt e d ? — I don't know. They still (liste n) to the evide n c e when we (leav e). 19 I (be) sorry that I (hav e to) leav e the party early, bec a u s e I (enjoy) mys elf. 20 As we (com e) her e a police m a n (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for som e stolen prop er t y and (ask) if he could searc h the car. 21 I (see) you yes t e r d a y from the bus. Why you (us e) a stick ? ~ I (us e) a stick bec a u s e I had hurt my leg that mornin g falling off a hors e. ~ Whos e hors e you (ride )? 22 The floor was cover e d with balls of wool. Obviously Mrs Pitt (knit) som e t hin g . 23 Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hop e) that she (enjoy) hers elf.


51 24 While he (wat e r) the flowers it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbr ella and (go) on watering. 2 5 I just (write) a cheq u e when I (re m e m b e r ) that I (hav e) nothing in the bank. 2 6 I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the gard e n . It looks very old. I wond e r who it (belong) to? 27 When I last (se e) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her wher e she (go) and she (say), 'London ', but I don't think she (spe a k) the truth bec a u s e ther e (not be) any train for London at that time. 28 The tailor said, 'Your suit will be read y on Monda y .' But when I (call) on Monda y he still (work) on it. 29 The teac h e r (com e) into the classroo m unus u ally early and on e of the boys, who (smok e) a cigar e t t e , (hav e) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and (hop e) for the bes t. 30 A little later the teac h e r (notice) that smok e (rise) from this desk. ' You (smok e ) when I (com e) in ?' he (ask). 31 While I (swim) som e o n e (ste al) my cloth e s and I (hav e to) walk hom e in my swims uit. 32 The me n (say) that they (work) on the road outsid e my hous e and that they (want) som e wat er to mak e tea. 33 He (say) that he (build) hims elf a hous e and that he (think) it would be read y in two years . 34 At 3 a.m. Mrs Pitt (wake) her hus b a n d and (say) that she (think) that som e o n e (try) to get into the hous e . 35 Why you (lend) him that book? I still (rea d) it. ~ I'm sorry. I (not know) that you still (rea d) it. 36 I (com e ) in very late last night and unfortu n a t el y the dog (wake) up and (start) to bark. This (wake) my moth e r who (com e) to the top of the stairs and (say), ' Who is ther e ?' I (say) . It is me ,' but she (not hear) me beca u s e the dog (bark) so loudly, so she (go) back to her roo m and (telep h o n e ) the police.

The present perfect tense PEG 182- 9 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfect tens e , and fill the spac e s by rep e a ti n g the auxiliary. You (was h) the plat e s ? ~ Yes, I... Have you washed the plates? ~ Yes, I have. You (se e) him lately? ~ No, I...


52 Have you seen him lately ?~ No, I haven 't. 1 Wher e you (be )? ~ I (be) to the dentis t. 2 You (hav e) bre akf a s t ? ~ Yes, 1... 3 The post (com e )? ~ Yes, it . . . 4 You (see) my watch anyw h e r e ? ~ No, I'm afraid I . . . 5 Som e o n e (wind) the clock? ~ Yes, Tom . . . 6 I (not finish) my letter yet. 7 He just (go) out. 8 Som e o n e (tak e) my bicycle. 9 The phon e (stop) ringing. 10 You (he ar) from her lately? No, 1... 11 I just (was h) that floor. 12 The cat (ste al) the fish. 13 You (explain) the exercis e? ~ Yes, 1... 14 There aren ' t any bus e s bec a u s e the drivers (go) on strike. 15 You (hav e) enou g h to eat? ~ Yes, I (hav e) plenty, tha nk you. 16 Charles (pas s) his exa m ? ~ Yes, he ... 17 How ma n y bottles the milkma n (leav e )? ~ He (leav e) six. 18 I (live) here for ten year s. 19 How long you (know) Mr Pitt? ~ I (know) him for ten years . 20 Would you like som e coffee? I just (mak e ) som e . 21 Mary (wat er) the tom a t o e s ? ~ Yes, I think she . . . 22 You (not mak e) a mist ak e ? ~ No, I'm sure I . . . 23 Why you (not me n d) the fuse? ~ I (not hav e) time. 24 You (dive) from the ten- metr e boar d yet? ~ No, I... 25 You ever (leav e) a rest a u r a n t withou t paying the bill? ~ No, I... 26 I (ask) him to dinner sever al time s . 27 He always (refus e ).


53 28 29 30 31 32 33

You ever (ride) a ca m el? I (buy) a new carp e t . Come and look at it. He (post) the lett er? Why he (not finish )? He (hav e) plenty of time. I often (see) him but I nev er (spe a k) to him. You ever (eat) caviar? ~ No, 1... 34 We just (hear) the mos t extr a or din a r y news. 35 The police (reca p t u r e ) the prison e r s who esc a p e d yes t e r d a y. 36 I (not pay) the telep h o n e bill yet.

The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175- 7, 182- 9 (a) Fill the spac e s by rep e a tin g the auxiliary use d in the ques tio n, puttin g it into the neg a tiv e wher e nec e s s a r y. (b) Put the verb in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfec t or the simple pas t tens e . Have you see n that play?

(a) Yes, I . . . Yes, I hav e. (b) Yes, I (be) ther e last night. Yes, I was ther e last night.

1 Have you wound the clock? 2 Have you ever eat e n snails? party last week. 3 Has she fed the dog? lunch. 4 Have they rep air e d the road?

(a) Yes, I . . . (b) Yes, I (wind) it on Monda (a) No, I . . . (b) Yes, I (eat) som e at Tom's (a) Yes, I think she . . . (b) Yes, she (feed) him before (a) No, they . . . (b) They only (rep air) part of it so

far. 5 Have they don e their hom e w o rk? left school. 6 Have you found the ma tc h e s ? 7 Have you ma d e the coffee? can use that. 8 Have you be e n her e befor e? time s .

(a) Yes, they (do) it all. (b) Yes, they (do) it before they (a) No, I . . . (b) No, I (not find) the m yet. (a) Yes, I ... (b) I (mak e) som e yest e r d a y: we (a) No, I ... (b) Yes, I (be) her e sever al


54 9 Have you see n him lately? Christ m a s . 10 Have you bee n to the oper a this week?

(a) No, I . . . (b) No, I (not see) him since (a) Yes, I . . . (b) Yes, I (go) to Faust on

Friday. 11 Have you ever driven this car? twice.

(a) Yes, I (drive) it once or (b) Yes, I (drive) it when you

were aw ay. 12 Has he miss e d his train? minut e s ago. 13 Have they bee n throu g h Custo m s ? exa mi n e d at Dover. 14 Has he spoke n to her? Friday. 15 Have you spe n t all your mon e y? it. 16 How much hav e you sav e d since Christ m a s ? 17 Has his te m p e r a t u r e gon e down? 18 Have you see n his gard e n ?

(a) No, he .... (b) Yes, he . . . It (go) five (a) Yes, they . . . (b) Yes, their lugga g e (be) (a) Yes, he . . . (b) Yes, he (spe a k) to her on (a) No, I only (spe n d ) half of (b) Yes, 1... (a) I (not save) anyt hin g. (b) I (sav e) Đˆ3. (a) No, it . . . (b) Yes, it (go) down last night. (a) No, I (not see) it yet. (b) I (se e) the hous e on Monda y

but I (not see) 19 Have you paid the bill? were aw ay. 20 Have you ever flown a plan e? university. 21 Has your dog ever bitte n anyo n e ? last week. 22 Have you plant e d your pea s ? Tues d a y. 23 Has he writte n to the pap e r?

the gard e n . (a) Yes, I... (b) Yes, I (pay) it while you (a) No, I . . . (b) Yes, I (fly) when I was at (a) Yes, he (bite) a police m a n (b) Yes, he (bite) me twice. (a) Yes, I (plant) the m on (b) No, 1... yet. (a) Yes, he . . . (b) Yes, he (write) at once.


55

24 Have you ever drunk vodka?

(a) No, 1... (b) I (drink) it once in Russia

but I (not drink) it since.

The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175- 7,182- 9 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfect or the simple pas t tens e . In som e sent e n c e s the pres e n t perfec t continuo u s (PEG 190) is also possible. 1 This is my hous e . ~ How long you (live) her e? ~ I (live) here since 1970. 2 He (live) in London for two year s and the n (go) to Edinbur g h . 3 You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~ Yes, my mot h e r (insist) on it. 4 But when I (leav e) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since. 5 Shak e s p e a r e (write) a lot of plays. 6 My broth e r (write) sever al plays. He just (finish) his secon d trag e d y. 7 I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. ~ You (se e) the Loch Ness mons t e r ? 8 I (not see) him for thre e years . I wond e r wher e he is. 9 He (not smok e) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 10 Chopin (comp o s e ) som e of his music in Majorca. 11 When he (arrive )? ~ He (arrive) at 2.00. 12 You (lock) the door befor e you left the hous e ? 13 I (rea d) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) the m very much. 14 I can't go out bec a u s e I (not finish) my work. 15 I nev er (drink) whisky. ~ Well, hav e som e now. 16 I (write) the letter but I can' t find a sta m p . 17 The clock is slow. ~ It isn't slow, it (stop). 18 Here are your sho e s ; I just (clea n) the m. 19 I (leav e) hom e at 8.00 and (get) her e at twelve. 20 I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an appr e n tic e. 21 He just (go) out. 22 He (go) out ten minut e s ago. 23 You (hav e) bre akf a s t yet? ~ Yes, I (hav e) it at 8.00. 24 I (me e t ) him last June.


56 25 You (se e) the moo n last night? 26 The conc er t (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyon e (enjoy) it very muc h. 27 The play just (begin). You are a little late. 28 The news p a p e r (com e )? ~ Yes, Ann is rea ding it. 29 The actors (arrive) yes t e r d a y and (start) reh e a r s al s early this morning. 30 It (be) very cold this year. I wond er when it is going to get war m e r . 31 Cerva n t e s (write) Don Quixot e. 32 We (miss) the bus. Now we'll hav e to walk. 33 He (bre a k) his leg in a skiing accid e n t last year. 34 Mr Pound is the bank ma n a g e r . He (be) here for five year s. 35 Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twent y- five year s. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the countr y. 36 You (be) here before? ~ Yes, I (spe n d ) my holidays here last year. ~ You (hav e) a good time? ~ No, it nev er (stop) raining.

The present perfect and the simple past PEG 175- 7,182- 9 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfect or simple pas t tens e . Fill the spac e s by rep e a tin g the auxiliary use d in the prec e din g verb. You (se e) Mary on Monday? ~ Yes, I... Did you see Mary on Monda y ?' Yes, I did. 1 Wher e is Tom ?I (not see) him toda y, but he (tell) Mary that he'd be in for dinn er. 2 I (buy) this in Bond Stre e t . ~ How much you (pay) for it ? ~ I (pay) Đˆ100. 3 Wher e you (find) this knife? ~ I (find) it in the gard e n . ~ Why you (not leav e) it ther e ? 4 I (lose) my black glove s. You (se e) the m anyw h e r e ? ~ No, I'm afraid 1 .... When you last (wear) the m ? ~ I (wear) the m at the the a t r e last night. ~ Perha p s you (leav e) the m at the the a t r e . 5 Do you know that lady who just (leav e) the shop ? ~ Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a custo m e r of yours ? ~ Not exactly. She (be) in here sever al time s but she nev er (buy) anyt hin g.


57 6 He (leav e) the hous e at 8.00. ~ Wher e he (go )? ~ I (not see) wher e he (go). 7 He (serv e) in the First World War. ~ When that war (begin )? ~ It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years . 8 Who you (vot e) for at the last election? ~ I (vote) for Mr Pitt. ~ He (not be) elect e d , (be) he? ~ No, he (lose) his depo sit. 9 You (like) your last job? ~ I (like) it at first but then I (quarr el) with my employe r and he (dis mis s) me. ~ How long you (be) ther e ? ~ I (be) ther e for two weeks. 10 I (not know) that you (know) Mrs Pitt. How long you (know) her ? ~ I (know) her for ten years . 11 That is Mr Minus, who teac h e s me mat h e m a t i c s , but he (not hav e) time to teac h me muc h. I only (be) in his class for a week. 12 You (he ar) his spe e c h on the radio last night? ~ Yes, I . . . ~ What you (think) of it? 13 I (not know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long ? ~ Yes, I (be) her e two mon t h s . ~ You (be) to the Cath e d r al ? ~ Yes, I (go) ther e last Sund a y. 14 You ever (try) to give up smoking? ~ Yes, I (try) last year, but the n I (find) that I was getting fat so I (start) ag ain. 15 You (se e) tod a y' s pap e r ? ~ No, anyt hin g inter e s ti n g (hap p e n )? Yes, two convict e d murd e r e r s (esca p e ) from the prison down the road. 16 Mary (feed) the cat? ~ Yes, she (fee d) him befor e lunch. ~ What she (give) him? ~ She (give) him som e fish. 17 How long you (know) your new assist a n t ? ~ I (know) him for two years . ~ What he (do) before he (com e) her e? ~ I think he (be) in prison. 18 I (not see) your aunt rece n tly. ~ No. She (not be) out of her hous e since she (buy) her colour TV. 19 The plumb e r( b e ) h e r e yet? ~ Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. ~ What he (do) in that time? ~


58 He (turn) off the wat er and (emp t y) the tank. 20 Where you (be )? I (be) out in a yach t. ~ You (enjoy) it? ~ Yes, very muc h. We (take) part in a race. ~ You (win )? ~ No, we (com e) in last. 21 How long that horrible mon u m e n t (be) ther e ? ~ It (be) ther e six mont h s . Lots of people (write) to the Town Council asking the m to take it aw ay but so far nothing (be) don e. 22 I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (se e) it? ~ No, 1 .... Is it like the book? ~ I (not read) the book. ~ I (rea d) it when I (be) at school. ~ When Tolstoy (write) it? ~ He (write) it in 1868. ~ He (write) anyt hin g else? 23 Hannib al (bring) eleph a n t s acros s the Alps. ~ Why he (do) that? ~ He (want) to use the m in battle. 24 Where you (be )? ~ I (be) to the dentis t. ~ He (take) out your bad tooth? ~ Yes, he . . . ~ It (hurt )?Yes, horribly. 25 Sh e (say) that she' d phon e me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not phon e) yet. 26 I just (rec eiv e) a lett er saying that we (not pay) this quart e r ' s electricity bill. I (not give) you the mon e y for that last week ? ~ Yes, you . . . but I'm afraid I (spe n d ) it on som e t hi n g else. 27 How long you (be) out of work? ~ I'm not out of work now. I just (start) a new job. ~ How you (find) the job? ~ I (answ e r) an adv er tis e m e n t in the pap e r. 28 You (finish) checking the accou n t s ? ~ No, not quite. I (do) abou t half so far. 29 I (cut) my han d rath e r badly. Have you a ban d a g e ? ~ I'll get you one. How it (hap p e n )? ~ I was choppin g som e wood and the axe (slip). 30 How you (get) that scar? ~ I (get) it in a car accide n t a year ago. 3 1 You (me e t) my broth e r at the lectur e yest e r d a y ? ~ Yes, I .. .. We (hav e) coffee toge t h e r afterw a r d s . 32 He (lose) his job last mon t h and since the n he (be) out of work. ~


59 Why he (lose) his job ? ~ He (be) very rude to Mr Pitt. 33 What are all thos e people look ing at? ~ There (be) an accide n t. ~ You (se e) what (hap p e n )? ~ Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry. 34 I (phon e ) you twice yest e r d a y and (get) no answ e r. 35 Originally hors e s use d in bull fights (not wear) any prot e c tion, but for som e time now they (wear) special pad din g , 36 That hous e (be) emp t y for a year. But they just (tak e) down t he 'For Sale ' sign, so I supp o s e som e o n e (buy) it.

The present perfect continuous tense PEG 190- 1 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfect continu o u s tens e 1 I (mak e ) cakes . That is why my han d s are all cover e d with flour. 2 Her phon e (ring) for ten minut e s . I wond e r why she does n ' t answ e r it. 3 He (overw ork). That is why he looks so tired. 4 There is saw d u s t in your hair. ~ I'm not surpris e d . I (cut) down a tre e. 5 Have you see n my bag anyw h e r e ? I (look) for it for ag e s . 6 What you (do )? ~ I (work) in the labor a t o r y. 7 He (stud y) Russian for two years and does n ' t eve n know the alph a b e t yet. 8 How long you (wait) for me? ~ I (wait) abou t half an hour. 9 It (rain) for two days now. There' 1 1 be a flood soon. 1 0 We (argu e ) abou t this for two hours now. Perh a p s we should stop 11 I (bath e ). That' s why my h a ir is all wet. 12 You (drive) all day. Le t me drive now. 13 How long you (wear) glass e s ? 14 The petrol gaug e (say) 'Empty ' for quite a long time now. Don't think we should get som e petrol? 15 I'm sorry for keepin g you waiting. I (try) to mak e a telep h o n e call Rome. 16 You (not eat) enou g h lately. That' s why you feel irritable , 17 He (sp e ak) for an hour now. I exp e c t he'll soon be finish e d. 18 That helicopt e r (fly) roun d the hous e for the last hour; do you think it's taking photo gr a p h s ? 19 The radio (play) since 7 a.m. I wish som e o n e would tur n it off. 20 I (shop) all day and I hav e n ' t a pen n y left. 21 We (live) here since 1977. 22 I'm on a diet. I (eat) nothing but ban a n a s for the last mont h.


60 23 24 25 26

The children (look) forwar d to this holiday for mon t h s . That pipe (leak) for age s . We mus t get it me n d e d . Tom (dig) in the gard e n all after n o o n and I (help) him. I (ask) you to me n d that window for six weeks. When are you going to do it? 27 Som e o n e (us e) my bicycle. The chain' s fallen off. 28 How long you (drive )? ~ I (drive) for ten years . 29 The trial (go) on for a long time. I wond er what the verdict will be. 30 It (snow) for thre e days now. The road s will be blocke d if it does n ' t stop soon. 31 Mary (cry )? ~ No, she (not cry), she (pe el) onions. 32 The car (mak e) a very curious nois e ever since it ran out of oil. 33 He walked very uns t e a dily up the stairs and his wife said, ' You (drink )!' 34 Your fingers are very brown. You (smok e) too much. 35 You usu ally know when som e o n e (eat) garlic. 36 Ever since he cam e to us that ma n (try) to mak e trouble.

The present perfect and the present perfect continuous PEG 191- 2 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t perfec t or the pres e n t perfec t continuo u s tens e . (In som e cas e s eith er could be use d.) 1 We (walk) ten kilome t r e s . 2 We (walk) for thre e hours. 3 You (walk) too fast. That' s why you are tired. 4 I (mak e) saus a g e rolls for the party all the morning. 5 How ma n y you (mak e )? ~ I (mak e ) 200. 6 That boy (eat) seve n ice- cre a m s . 7 He (not stop) eating since he arrived. 8 The driver (drink). I think som e o n e else ought to drive. 9 I (pull) up 100 dan d elion s. 1 0 I (pull) up dan d elion s all day. 11 What you (do )? ~ We (pick) apples . 12 How ma n y you (pick )? ~ We (pick) ten bask e tfuls. 13 I (s leep) on every bed in this hous e and I don' t like any of the m. 1 4 He (slee p) since ten o'clock. It's time he woke up. 1 5 He (ride); that' s why he is wearing bre e c h e s . 1 6 I (ride) all the hors e s in this sta bl e. 1 7 What a lovely smell ! ~


61 Mary (mak e) jam. 18 The stud e n t s (work) very well this ter m. 19 I only (hear) from him twice since he went aw ay. 20 I (hear) from her regularly. She is a very good corre s p o n d e n t . 21 I (gre a s e ) my car. That' s why my han d s are so dirty. 22 I (polish) this table all the mornin g and she isn't satisfied with it yet. 23 I (work) for him for ten year s and he nev er once (say) 'Good morning ' to me. 24 He (te ac h) in this school for five year s. 25 I (tea c h) hundr e d s of stud e n t s but I nev er (me e t) such a hop ele s s class as this. 26 Why you (be) so long in the gara g e ? ~ The tyre s were flat; I (pu m p ) the m up. 27 I (pu m p ) up thre e tyre s. Would you like to do the fourth? 28 I (look) for mus h r o o m s but I (not find) any. 29 He (coug h) a lot lately. He ough t to give up smoking. 30 You (he ar) the news? Tom and Ann are eng a g e d ! ~ That' s not new; I (know) it for age s ! 31 I (try) to finish this letter for the last half- hour. I wish you' d go aw ay or stop talking. ~ I hardly (say) anyt hin g. 32 The driver of that car (soun d) his horn for the last ten minut e s . 33 It (rain) for two hours and the grou n d is too wet to play on, so the mat c h (be) postp o n e d . 34 He (hop e) for a rise in salary for six mon t h s but he (not dar e) to ask for it yet. 35 Mr Smith, you (whisp er) to the stud e n t on your right for the last five minut e s . You (help) him with his exa m pap e r or he (help) you? 36 Why you (mak e) such a horrible nois e? ~ I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing ston e s at he window. ~ You (throw) ston e s at the wrong window. You live next door.

for and since PEG 187 Fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s by using for or sin c e . 1 We've bee n fishing . . . two hours. 2 I've bee n working in this office . . . a mon t h. 3 They'v e be e n living in Franc e . . . 1970. 4 He has be e n in prison . . . a year. 5 I've known that . . . a long time. 6 That ma n has be e n sta n din g ther e . . . six o'clock. 7 She has driven the sa m e car . . . 1975. 8 Things hav e chan g e d . . . I was a girl.


62 9 The kettle has bee n boiling . . . a quart e r of an hour. 10 The centr al hea tin g has bee n on . . . Octob er. 11 That trunk has bee n in the hall . . . a year. 12 He has bee n very ill . . . the last mon t h. 13 I've be e n using this mac hin e . . . twelve years . 14 We've be e n waiting . . . half an hour. 15 Mr Pitt has bee n in hospit al . . . his accide n t. 16 He has n' t spoke n to me . . . the last com mit t e e me e ti n g. 17 I hav e be e n very patie n t with you . . . sev er al year s. 18 They hav e bee n on strike . . . Nove m b e r . 19 The strike has laste d . . . six mon t h s . 20 It has be e n very foggy . . . early morning. 21 They hav e bee n quarr elling ever . . . they got marrie d. 22 I've be e n aw ak e . . . four o'clock. 23 I've be e n aw ak e . . . a long time. 24 We've had no gas . . . the strike beg a n . 25 I've earn e d my own living . . . I left school. 26 Nobody has see n him . . . last week. 27 The police hav e bee n looking for me . . . four days. 28 I hav e n ' t worn low- he el e d sho e s . . . I was at school. 29 He had a bad fall last week and . . . then he has n' t left the hous e. 30 He has bee n und er wat er . . . half an hour. 31 That tre e has be e n ther e . . . 2,000 years . 32 He has bee n Minister of Education . . . 1983. 33 I've be e n trying to open this door . . . forty- five minut e s . 34 He has n' t eat e n anyt hin g . . . twen t y- four hours. 35 We've had terrible wea t h e r . . . the last mon t h. 36 Nobody has com e to see us . . . we boug h t thes e bloodh o u n d s .

Future forms The present continuous tense as a future form PEG 202 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t continuo u s tens e. 1 They are going to drill for oil here. They (start) on Monday. 2 My uncle (mak e ) a spe e c h on Friday. 3 I (take) my sister to the ballet tomorrow. 4 She (call) for me at six. 5 He (play) at Wimbled o n next su m m e r . 6 I (me e t) her at the station at ten. 7 The sales (not start) till Monday. 8 How you (get) to the party tomorrow? ~ I (go) by car. ~ Who (drive )? 9 The piano tun er (com e) this aftern o o n .


63 10 You (give) him anyt hin g for his birthd a y? ~ Yes, I (give) him a diction a r y. 11 The window s (be) clea n e d tod a y. Then we'll be able to see out. 12 She (com e ) out of hospit al next week. 13 We (hav e) dinner early tonigh t as we (go) to the the a t r e . 14 Where you (go) for your holidays this year? ~ I (go) to Holland. 15 He (not give) a lectur e tonight. 16 I (hav e) my photo gr a p h take n tomorrow. 17 I (buy) her a burglar alar m for a weddin g pres e n t . 18 The election s (be) held next week. 19 I (hav e) lunch with my aunt on Thurs d a y. 20 The com mit t e e (me e t ) next Wedn e s d a y. 21 My gran d p a r e n t s (celebr a t e ) their golde n weddin g next week. 22 I (lend) him my car for his holidays . 23 The strikers (retur n) to work next week. 24 Smith' s (ope n) a new branc h in this stre e t in July. 25 We've boug h t a new hous e and (mov e) in very soon. 26 I (not take) up judo next winter. 27 They (get) marrie d next week. 28 You (do) anyt hin g tonigh t? ~ Yes, I (go) to my carp e n t r y class. 29 The Prime Minister (fly) to America tomorrow. 30 He (start) a new job on Friday. 31 The Que e n (give) a gard e n party next week. You (go )? 32 My broth e r (be) relea s e d on Tues d a y. I (me e t ) him outsid e the prison. 33 I (catch) the 6.30 plan e tomorrow. ~ Wher e you (leav e) your car? ~ I (not take) the car. 34 Her moth e r (sen d) her to Franc e next year. 35 I (go) to the dentis t tomorrow. Miss Pitt (tak e) my class. 36 I (lend) my flat to my America n cousins next year.

The be going to form PEG 203,2 0 6 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the b e goi n g to form. 1 You (miss) your train. 2 The pres s u r e cooker (explod e ). 3 When you (pay) the bill? 4 She (dye) the old curtain s blue. 5 We (mak e ) this whisky bottle into a lamp. 6 What you (do) with this roo m? ~ I (paint) the walls in black and white stripe s . 7 The umpire (blow) his whistle.


64 8 You (eat) all that? 9 That ma n with the tom a t o in his han d (throw) it at the spe ak e r . 10 That door (sla m). 11 Th e bull (att a ck)u s . 12 It (rain). Look at thos e clouds. 13 The cat (hav e) kitten s . 14 The me n in the helicopt e r (try) to rescu e the ma n in the water. 15 That rider (fall) off. 16 Thes e two me n (cycle) acros s Africa. 17 The Lord Mayor is sta n din g up. He (mak e) a spe e c h . 18 He (grow) a bear d when he leav e s school. 19 This aero pla n e (cras h). 20 I (stop) here for a mo m e n t to get som e petrol. 21 You (ask) him to help you? 22 I've lent you my car once. I (not do) it again. 23 I hav e see n the play. Now I (rea d) the book. 24 Small boy: I (be) a frog m a n when I grow up. 25 I (not slee p) in this roo m. It is hau n t e d . 26 We (buy) a met al det e c t o r and look for buried tre a s u r e . 27 You (res er v e ) a sea t? 2 8 I (plant) an oak tre e her e. 29 The dog (bury) the bon e. 3 0 I (hav e) a bath. 31 I (smu g gl e) this out of the country , 32 There was very little blosso m this spring. Apples (be) scarc e. 33 I don't like this mac a r o ni. I (not finish) it. 34 I (not stay) her e anot h e r minut e . 35 They (try) him for ma n sl a u g h t e r when he com e s out of hosp ital. 36 We (mak e) a lot of mon e y out of this.

The present continuous and the be going to form PEG 202- 6 Plann e d futur e actions can be expr e s s e d by the pres e n t continu o u s tens e with a time expr e s sio n or by the b e goi n g to form with o r withou t a time expr e s sio n. The pres e n t continu o u s is mainly us ed for very definite arra n g e m e n t s in the near future. The be going to form can be use d mor e widely. Use the pres e n t continu o u s wher e possible in the following sent e n c e s and put the rem ainin g verbs into the b e goi n g to form. 1 2 3 4 5

I (play) bridg e tonight with Tom and Ann. He (hav e) an oper a tio n next week. It's very cold. I (light) a fire. We (hav e) som e friend s to lunch tomorrow. I've boug h t a piano; it (be) deliver e d this aftern o o n . ~


65 Wher e you (put) it? ~ I (put) it in the dining room. 6 You (go) to the auction tomorrow ? ~ Yes, I (go) but I (not buy) anyt hin g. 7 I've remin d e d you once; I (not do) it again. 8 I (hav e) my hair cut this aftern o o n . 9 My neph e w (com e ) to stay with me next week e n d . ~ Wher e you (put) him? ~ I (put) him in the room in the tower. 10 Our class (start) Germ a n next ter m. 11 I (spe n d ) a few days in London next week. 12 The Town Council (build) a new school here. 13 What you (tell) the police? ~ I (tell) the m the truth. 14 He (start) tomorrow. 15 The Que e n (ope n) Parlia m e n t next mon t h. 16 The Prime Minister (spe a k) on TV tonigh t. 17 This shop (clos e) down next week. 18 When you (hav e) your next lesso n? ~ I (hav e) it on Monda y. 19 I (collect) my new dres s this after n o o n . 20 We (tak e) the childre n to the sea sid e this sum m e r . 21 I (give) him a footb all for his next birthd a y. 22 She (sing) in her first big concer t next mon t h. He (go) to Spain for his holidays. ~ He (fly )? ~ No, he (go) by boat. 24 She (see) a specialist next week. 25 He (was h) the car? 26 He (ring) me up tonight. 27 The inspec t or (ask) you a few que s tion s . 28 Her pare n t s (give) a party for her next mont h. They (invite) sixty gues t s . 29 Have you got a ticket for the big ma tc h on Satur d a y? ~ No, I don't eve n know who (play). ~ Franc e (play) Englan d. 30 They (launch) a ship this aftern o o n . You (com e ) to see it? 31 What you (do) with the mon e y? 32 I (pick) you up at 6.30; don' t forge t. 33 Where you (go) tonigh t? ~ I (go) out with Peter. He (call) for me at eight. 34 I (comp e t e ) in the bicycle race tomorrow. 35 Mr Pitt has just phon e d to say that he (not com e) back till Wedn e s d a y night. 36 I (rea d) you his answ e r to my lett er of compl aint.


66 The future simple PEG 207- 9 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the futur e simple. 1 I (know) the result in a week. 2 You (be) in Rome tonight. 3 You (hav e) time to help me tomorrow ? 4 It (mat t e r ) if I don't com e hom e till morning? 5 You (be) able to drive after anot h e r five lesso n s . 6 Do you think that he (recog niz e) me? 7 Unless he runs he (not catch) the train. 8 He (lend) it to you if you ask him. 9 I hope I (find) it. 10 If petrol pum p att e n d a n t s go on strike we (not hav e) any petrol. 11 He (believ e) what e v e r you tell him. 12 I (re m e m b e r ) this day all my life. 13 Perha p s he (arrive) in time for lunch. 14 If he works well I (pay) him Đˆ10. 15 I wond e r how ma n y of us still (be) her e next year. 1 6 If you think it over you (se e) that I am right. 17 If you learn anot h e r langu a g e you (get) a bett e r job. 18 I am sure that you (like) our new hous e. 19 Newsp a p e r anno u n c e m e n t : The Presid e n t (drive) along the High Stre e t in an open carria g e . 20 He (mind) if I bring my dog? 21 You (nee d) a visa if you are going to Spain. 22 If you ope n that trap d o o r you (see) som e ste p s . 23 You (feel) bett e r when you'v e had a me al. 24 He (be) offend e d if you don' t invite him. 25 She (hav e) Đˆ1000 a year when she is twen t y- one. 26 If you put any mor e polish on that floor som e o n e (slip) on it. 27 I wond er if he (succ e e d ) . 28 Papers (not be) deliver e d on the Bank Holiday. 29 I hop e he (re m e m b e r ) to buy wine. 30 If you leav e your roller skat e s on the path som e o n e (fall) over t h e m. 31 If they fall over the m and hurt the m s el v e s they (sue) you. 32 Announc e m e n t : Mrs Pitt (pres e n t ) the prizes. 33 If you want twen t y cigar e t t e s you (hav e) to give me mor e mon e y. 34 Notice: The ma n a g e m e n t (not be) respo n sible for articles left on the sea t s . 35 If I drop this it (explod e). 36 What your fath e r (say) when he he ars abou t this accid e n t ? ~ He (not say) muc h but he not (lend) me the car ag ain .

The present continuous and the future simple


67 PEG 202, 207- 9 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the pres e n t continu o u s or the futur e simple using the pres e n t continu o u s wher e possible. (The b e goi n g to form could be use d here inste a d of the pres e nt continu o u s , but for the sak e of simplicity stud e n t s are advis e d to us e only the two tens e s first me n tion e d .) 1 I am sure that I (reco g niz e) him. 2 I (se e) her tomorrow. I 3 He (play) in a tennis mat c h on Friday . 4 She (com e ) back on Monday. 5 I (go) again next year. 6 We (know) tonigh t. 7 You pay and I (owe) you the mon e y. 8 I (believ e) it when I see it. 9 I (hav e) my car rep aint e d next week. 10 I hop e that you (hav e) a good time tomorrow. 11 His spe e c h (be) broa dc a s t tonight. 12 The window- clean e r (com e ) at eight tomorrow. 13 Tom (catc h) the 7.40 train . 14 Wher e you (me e t ) the m ?~ I (me e t) the m at midnigh t in the middle of the wood. 15 What hors e you (ride) tomorrow ? 16 Look! I've broke n the tea p o t. What Mrs Pitt (say )? ~ She (not mind); she nev er liked that one. 1 7 I've left the light on. It (ma t t e r )? 18 He (not forget) to come . 19 He (leav e) in a few days. 20 I (re m e m b e r ) it. 21 If you d rop that bottle it (bre ak). 22 I nev er (forgive) him. 23 I'm sure that you (like) him. 24 They (lay) the found a tio n s next week. 25 You (se e) a signpo s t at the end of the road. 26 He has cut my hair too short. ~ Don't worry; it (grow) again very quickly. 27 You (und e r s t a n d ) when you are older. 28 The cat (scratc h) you if you pull its tail. 29 I (be) back at 8.30. 30 If he does n ' t work hard he (not pas s) his exa m . 31 She (go) on a cruis e next sum m e r . 32 I (mov e) to a new flat next week. 33 I am sorry that the child saw the accide n t. ~


68 I don' t think it mat t e r s . He soon (forge t) all abou t it. 34 I (wait) her e till he com e s back. 35 He (not write) to you unles s you write to him. 36 There (be) a big me e tin g here tomorrow.

will + infinitive and the be going to form PEG 201,2 0 3- 6 Future with inten tio n can usu ally be expr e s s e d by will + infinitive or the b e going to form. Very often eith er of the s e can be us ed, but wh e n the int e ntion is clearly pre m e d i t a t e d the b e going to form mus t be used, and when the inten tio n is clearly unpr e m e d i t a t e d we mus t list ' will + infinitive. Put the verbs in brack e t s into one of the s e two forms. (In som e of the exa m pl e s the pres e n t continuo u s could be us ed inste a d of the be going to form.) 1 The fire has gon e out! ~ So it has. I (go) and get som e sticks. 2 Did you re m e m b e r to book sea t s ? ~ Oh no, I forgot. I (tele p h o n e ) for the m now. 3 He has just be e n take n to hos pit al with a broke n leg. ~ I'm sorry to he ar that. I (sen d) him som e grap e s . 4 I've hired a typ ew rit er and I (learn) to type. 5 I see that you hav e got a loom. You (do) som e weavin g ? 6 I can' t und er s t a n d this letter. ~ I (call) my son. He (tran sla t e ) it for you. 7 You (buy) me a t ? ~ No, I (not eat) me a t any mor e. I (eat) veg e t a bl e s . 8 You've boug h t a lot of paint. You (red e c or a t e ) your kitche n ? 9 Why are you getting out the jack? ~ We hav e a punct ur e and I (cha n g e ) the whe el. ~ I (help) you. 10 Look what I've just boug h t at an auction! ~ What an extr a o r din a r y thing! Where you (put) it? 11 Why are you peeling that bit of garlic? ~ I (put) it in the stew. 12 What you (do) when you grow up ? ~ I (be) an acrob a t in a circus. 13 What are you going to do with that dres s ?~ I (short e n ) the skirt. 14 Will you lend me your sea s o n ticket ? ~ No, I (not lend) it to you. It is ag ain s t the law. 15 That tre e mak e s the hous e very dark. ~ Very well, I (cut) it down. 16 I've just enrolled at the local tech nic al colleg e. I (att e n d ) pott e r y class e s next winter.


69 17 How do I get from her e to London Bridge? ~ I don't know, but I (ask) that police m a n . 18 Why are you carrying a corkscr ew ? ~ I (ope n) a bottle of wine. 19 Why's he putting the ca m e r a on a tripod ? ~ He (take) a grou p photo. 20 My broth e r has just retur n e d from America. ~ Oh good, we (ask) him to our next party. 21 Why hav e you set your alar m to go off at five- thirty? ~ Beca u s e I (get) up the n. I've got a lot to do. 22 I'm turning this cupbo a r d into a darkroo m. I (dev elo p) my own films. 23 You look frozen. Sit down by the fire and I (mak e ) you a cup of tea. 24 They'v e broug h t a rope and they (tow) the car to a gar a g e . 25 I hav e n ' t boug h t any cigar e t t e s bec a u s e I (give) up smoking. 26 I hav e tried to explain but she does n ' t und e r s t a n d English. ~ I (say) it to her in Finnish: perh a p s she'll und e r s t a n d that. 27 I've com e out without any mon e y. ~ Never mind, I (lend) you som e. How muc h do you want? 28 Do you see that car? They (raffle) it for charity. 29 They'v e hired a bulldozer. They (clear) aw ay this rubble. 30 Child: I've torn my dres s. Mother: I (me n d) it for you. 31 I'm catchin g the 6.30 train. ~ So am 1. I (give) you a lift to the station. 32 I've boug h t som e blue velvet and I (mak e) curt ains for this roo m. 33 Why are you carrying that saw? ~ I (short e n ) the legs of the dining room table. 34 Why are you taking that big bask e t ? ~ I (buy) a lot of veg e t a bl e s . 35 I've plann e d my future for the next ten year s. ~ That is very clever of you. What you (do) when you leave the university? 36 Why are you putting that old loaf into a pap e r bag? ~ I (give) it to Mrs Pitt for her hens .

will -i- infinitive and the be going to form PEG 205 Both will you and ar e you goi n g to can introd uc e ques tio n s abou t futur e inten tio n s . But will you very often introd uc e s a requ e s t or invitation. For this reas o n ar e you goi n g to is more usu al than will you in que s tion s abou t inten tio n s , are you goi n g to mus t of cours e be used when the inten tio n is obviously pre m e di t a t e d . (See also Exercis e 55.) Put the verbs in brack e t s into one of the s e two forms. Where both are


70 possible it will be not e d in the key. (In som e exa m pl e s the pres e n t continu o u s tens e could be use d inste a d of the b e goi n g to form.) The exercis e cont ains requ e s t s , invitation s, and que s tion s abou t inten tio n s . 1 You (ope n) the door for me, pleas e ? ~ Yes, cert ainly. 2 You (do) the washin g- up tonigh t? ~ No, I think it can wait till tomorrow. 3 I'm looking for my eas el. ~ You (paint) som e o n e ' s portr ait? 4 'You (rea d) this pas s a g e aloud, pleas e ,' said the exa mi n e r. 5 You (eat) any mor e of this, or shall I tell the waiter to take it awa y? 6 You are n' t wearing your climbing boots. You (not climb) the mou n t ai n with the oth er s ? 7 'You (liste n) to me !' said his moth e r angrily. 8 You (put) my car away from me, plea s e ? ~ Yes, cert ainly. 9 You (hav e) anot h e r cup of coffee? ~ No, tha nk you. 10 Why did you buy all thes e eggs ? You (mak e ) an enor m o u s omel e t t e ? 11 There' s the phon e again. Take no notice. ~ You (not answ e r) it? 12 You (com e) and see me after the class? I want to discus s your work with you. 13 I see that you hav e order e d the Guardian. You really (rea d) it? 14 You (buy) sta m p s ? ~ Yes, I am. ~ Then you (buy) som e for me, plea s e ? 15 You (lend) me your fishing rod? ~ Yes, of cours e. Wher e you (fish )? 16 You (finish) this book or shall I take it back to the library? 17 You (give) me lOp, pleas e ? ~ Yes, her e you are. You (mak e ) a telep h o n e call? 18 You (leav e) that coil of barb e d wire in the hal l? Some o n e will fall over it if you do. 19 You (bat h) your dog ? ~ Yes, you (help) me? 20 You (drive), plea s e ? I don't like driving at night. 21 You (ride) that hors e ? He looks very bad- te m p e r e d to me. 22 You (eat) it raw? You will be ill if you do. 23 You (hav e) som e of this cake? I ma d e it mys elf. 24 You really (call) the fire briga d e ? I don' t think it is at all nec e s s a r y. 25 You (paint) the whole room by yours elf? It will take you ag e s . 26 You (be) read y in five minut e s ?


71 27 Hoste s s : John, you (sit) her e at the end of the table? 28 You (do) som e t hi n g for me? ~ Yes, of cours e; what is it? 29 You (be) angry if he refus e s to help you? 30 Why hav e you broug h t your type w rit e r? You (work) this we e kend? 31 You (call) me at six? I hav e to catch an early train. 32 You (walk) ther e in this rain? You'll get awfully wet. 33 You (sign) her e, plea s e ? 34 What are all thos e not e s for? You (give) a lectur e ? 35 Why do you want a cand le? You (explor e) the cave s ? 36 If I catch som e fish, you (cook) the m for me?

The future continuous tense PEG 211- 13 This tens e can be use d 1 with a point in time to indicat e that the action will begin befor e this time and continu e after it. 2 with or withou t a time to expr e s s a futur e withou t inten tion. In this way it is very like the pres e n t continuo u s , but it is not, like the pres e n t continu o u s , restrict e d in tim e and is a mor e det a c h e d and cas u al way of expr e s sin g the futur e. It often imp lies that the action will occur in the ordin ary cours e of eve n t s or as a mat t e r of routin e. (Excep t when use d as in I, abov e , this tens e can usu ally be rep lace d by one of the other futur e forms, thoug h the exact shad e of me a n in g may the n be lost.) Put the verbs in brack e t s into the futur e continu o u s tens e . 1 This time next mon t h I (sit) on a beac h. 2 When you arrive I prob a bly (pick) fruit. 3 When we reac h Englan d it very likely (rain). 4 In a few days time we (fly) over the Pyren e e s . 5 I'll call for her at eight. ~ No, don' t; she still (hav e) bre akf a s t then. 6 I (wait) for you when you come out. 7 When you next see me I (wear) my new dres s . 8 My son will be in the sixth form next year. ~ That me a n s that old Dr Adder (te ac h) him mat h e m a t i c s . 9 I'll give Jack your mes s a g e . I can do it easily bec a u s e I (se e) him tomorrow. We go to work on the sa m e train. 10 You (do) geo m e t r y next ter m. 11 I'll look out for you at the para d e . ~ Do, but I (wear) uniform so you may find it hard to recog nize me.


72 12 13 14 15 16 17

We hav e to do night duty her e. I (do) mine next week. In a hundr e d years ' time peopl e (go) to Mars for their holidays . He (use) the car this aftern o o n . I (see) you ag ain. It's a serious injury but he (walk) ag ain in six weeks. I'll com e at thre e o'clock. ~ Good, I (exp e c t) you. 18 They are pulling down all the old hous e s in this stre e t . I exp e c t they (pu ll) down mine in a few years ' time. 19 I'd like to see your new flat. ~ Well, come tomorrow, but it (not look) its bes t, for the paint e r s still (work) on it. 20 Stan d ther e, they (cha n g e ) the guard in a minut e and you'll get a good view. 21 You'd bett e r go back now; your mot h e r (wond e r) wher e you are. 22 In fifty year s ' time we (live) entirely on pills. 23 What do you think the childre n (do) when we get hom e ? ~ I exp e c t they (hav e) their supp e r. 24 The gard e n (look) its bes t next mon t h. 25 It won't be eas y to get out of the country. The police (watc h) all the ports. 26 What the tide (do) at six tomorrow morning? ~ It (com e ) in. 2 7 I've just rem e m b e r e d that I left the bat hr o o m taps on. I exp e c t the wat er (flow) down the stairs by now. 28 You (ne e d) your cam e r a tomorrow or can I borrow it? 29 We've just got to the top in time. The sun (rise) in a minut e . 30 Air host e s s : We (tak e off) in a few minut e s . Pleas e fast e n your safet y belts. 31 We'd bett e r go out tomorrow bec a u s e Mary (practis e) the piano all day. 32 Don't ring her up at 6.00; she (put) the children to bed. Ring later. 3 3 We are making a hous e- to- hous e collection of things for the jumble sale. We (com e ) to your hous e next week. 34 That footb all club has lost som e of its playe r s . They (look out) for new me n. 35 When I get hom e my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 3 6 Let's go down to the harbo u r; the fishing boat s all (com e) in bec a u s e of the gale.

will + infinitive and the future continuous PEG 201, 211- 14


73 See not e for previous exercis e. Put the verbs in brack e t s into the appro pria t e futur e form, using will + infinitive or the futur e continu o u s . (Wher e alter n a tiv e forms are possible they will be given in the key.) 1 There is going to be a bus strike. Everyon e (walk) to work next 2 You've just miss e d the last train! ~ Never mind, I (walk). 3 I'll ring you tomorr ow at six. ~ No, don' t ring at six; I (bath) the baby the n. Ring later. 4 Mother: Your face is dirty. Child: All right, I (was h) it. 5 Will you hav e lunch with me on the 24th? ~ I'd love to, but I'm afraid I (d o ) my exa m then. 6 I (work) for Mr Pitt next week as his own secr e t a r y will be away. 7 You (hav e) som e t hi n g to drink, won't you? 8 Why did you take his razor? He (look) for it everyw h e r e tomorrow. 9 I hope you'll do well in the race tomorrow. I (think) of you. 1 0 Notice on boar d ship: In the eve n t of an em e r g e n c y all pas s e n g e r s (ass e m bl e ) on the boat deck. 11 I don't feel well enou g h to go to the station to me e t him. ~ I (me e t ) him for you. But how I (reco g niz e) him ? ~ He's small and fair, and he (wear) a black and white school cap. 12 I (leav e) thes e flowers at the hospit al for you. I (go) ther e anyw a y visit my cousin. 13 You ough t to try to get a ticket for the Spect a t o r s ' Gallery next week; they (deb a t e ) intern a tio n al fishing rights. 14 You've left the light on . ~ Oh, so I hav e. I (go) and turn it off. 15 I've just be e n appoint e d assis t a n t at the local library. ~ Then you (work) und er my sister. She is he a d librarian ther e . 16 I want to post this lett er but I don' t want to go out in the rain. ~ I (post) it for you. I (go) out anyw a y as I hav e to take the dog for a walk. 17 The prima ballerin a is ill so I exp e c t her und er s t u d y (danc e) inste a d . 18 Today is Guy Fawkes ' Day; this eve nin g people (let) off fireworks and (mak e) bonfires in the stre e t s . 19 Military order: Sentrie s (re m ain) on duty till they are relieve d. 20 This time next Monday I (sit) in a Paris cafe readin g Le Figaro. ~ You (not rea d). You'll be looking at all the prett y girls. 21 Wage s hav e gon e up, so I suppo s e prices (go up) too. 22 It is ne arly autu m n ; soon the leav e s (chan g e ) colour.


74 23 Mother (on phon e): My son has just burnt his han d very badly. Doctor: I (com e) at once. 24 Custo m e r in rest a u r a n t : Waiter, this plat e is dirty. Waiter: I'm sorry, sir, I (bring) you anot h e r . 25 In a few year s ' time we all (live) in hous e s he a t e d by solar en er g y. 26 It's beginning to get dark; the stre e t lights (go on) in a few minut e s . 27 We (not play) poker at the party tonight; our host e s s does n ' t approv e of cards. 28 Let's wait here; the swing bridg e (ope n) in a minut e to let that ship throu g h . 29 Gues t: May I use your phon e to ring for a taxi? Host e s s : Oh, ther e ' s no nee d for that; my son (drive) you hom e . 30 Come on deck; we (ent e r) harbo ur in a few minut e s . 31 Before you leav e the office you (han d) the keys of the safe to Mr Pitt. Do you und er s t a n d ?~ Yes, sir. 32 Are you ne arly rea d y? Our gues t s (arrive) any minut e . 33 Louds p e a k e r anno u n c e m e n t : The ship (leav e) in a few minut e s and all pers o n s not trav elling are ask e d to go ashor e . 34 Now that the parking regula tio n s hav e beco m e stricter, mor e people (use) public tran s p o r t and (leav e) their cars at hom e . 35 I've got rats in my bas e m e n t and I don't know how to get rid of the m. ~ I (bring) my dog round when e v e r you like. He (catch) the m for you. 36 I'm afraid I've just broke n your goldfish bowl. ~ Never mind, I (put) the goldfish in the bath.

won't + infinitive and the future continuous negative PEG 214 w o n't + infinitive (exce p t when used as part of the ordinar y future simple, sh all/ w ill ) usu ally implies that the subject refus e s to perfor m a cert ain action. The neg a tiv e futur e continu o u s tens e mer ely stat e s that a cert ain action will not take place. Put the verbs in brack e t s into the appro pria t e futur e form, using w o n't + infinitive or the futur e continu o u s neg a tiv e . (Wher e oth er futur e forms are also possible this will be note d in the key.) 1 I don' t like that ma n and I (not help) him. 2 He (not me e t ) her, bec a u s e they will be in differe n t place s . 3 My hus b a n d (not cut) down the tre e. He says that it is perfec tly all right as it is. 4 My hus b a n d (not cut) the hed g e for som e time, bec a u s e he's got a lot of oth er jobs to do first.


75 5 Tom (not come ) to our party, bec a u s e he will be aw ay on that d ate. 6 Peter says that he (not com e) to our party. He does n ' t approv e of partie s. 7 She says that she (not lend) me the book, bec a u s e I nev er give books back. 8 Mr Pitt (not spe a k) at the me e tin g tonight, bec a u s e he has unex p e c t e dl y had to go to hos pit al. 9 I'll work und er anyo n e exce p t my broth e r. I (not work) und e r him. 10 We'll be in the sa m e firm, but we (not work) toge t h e r , bec a u s e we'll be in differe n t dep a r t m e n t s . 11 I (not hav e) that boy in my class. He is far too noisy. 12 I (not teac h) you next week, as I hav e to go to Paris. 13 He is so angry with his sister that he (not spe a k) to her. 14 I'll give your me s s a g e to my sister when I write; but I (not write) som e time, as I only write once a mont h and I post e d a letter to him yest e r d a y. 15 I (not feed) your dog ag ain. He always tries to bite me when I com e near him. 16 They were very rude to me. I (not go) ther e ag ain. 17 He said, 1 (not paint) you in that dres s. It does not suit you . 18 I (not take) any photo gr a p h s for som e time bec a u s e my cam e r a is being re paired. 19 I (not borrow) his van again. The brak e s don' t work prop erly. 20 That boy (not was h) his face. He likes being dirty. 21 You can hav e the car tomorrow if you like. I (not use) it as I'll be far too busy to go out. 22 She says that she (not sen d) the child to school, no mat t e r what we say. She thinks it is far bett e r to educ a t e childre n at hom e . 23 He says he (not play) for the m ag ain, bec a u s e they are n' t giving him enou g h mon e y. 24 She (not sing) at the next conc er t, bec a u s e she has had to go hom e sudd e nly. 25 I (not play) cards with you again. You always che a t . 26 She (not take) part in the bridg e tourn a m e n t , bec a u s e she'll be aw ay then. 27 I (not eat) any mor e of this; I feel que e r alre a d y. 28 I (not eat) curry again for a long time, bec a u s e I am going to stay in a hous e wher e no one knows how to cook it. 29 He says that he (not ride) that mar e ag ain, bec a u s e she' s dang e r o u s . 30 Tom (not ride) in tomorrow ' s race, bec a u s e he is too youn g. They don' t allow riders und e r sixte e n . 31 Whisky is abs olut ely nec e s s a r y to me and I (not give) it up. 32 Jack (not drink) whisky this time next week, bec a u s e he'll be in hos pit al and they won't give it to him ther e. 33 I (not open) the window. I dislike fres h air.


76 34 There is som e t hin g on his mind, but he (not tell) me what it is. 35 The cat (not eat) fish so I hav e to buy me a t for him. 36 He (not wear) unifor m when you see him, bec a u s e he'll be on leav e the n, and they don' t wear unifor m when they are on leav e.

Second person interrogative: will you and other forms PEG 215 B will you? often introdu c e s a requ e s t or invitation, and som e ti m e s a com m a n d . It is often us ed also to introdu c e que s tion s abou t inten tion s when the situa tio n require s an unpr e m e d i t a t e d decision. You can hav e eith e r. Which will you hav e? You've miss e d the last train. What will you do now? For other typ e s of inten tion, how ev e r, it is usu ally safer to use one of the oth er futur e forms: b e goi n g to, the pres e n t continuo u s or the futur e continu o u s (which is consid er e d the mos t polite form). Put the verbs in brack e t s into one of the four forms. When mor e tha n one answ e r is possible, this will be not e d in the key. 1 2 3 4

Why are you taking all that bre a d with you? You (feed) the swan s ? You (let) your flat ag ain next sum m e r ? You (light) the fire for me, pleas e ? Here are the ma tc h e s . You (wear) a tie tomorrow ? ~ Oh no. Tom said, ' Come as you are .' 5 I know you don' t like wearing ties, but (wear) one tomorrow, just to plea s e me? ~ Yes, of cours e. 6 Shop assis t a n t : You (com e ) this way, plea s e ? 7 You (hav e) som e t hi n g mor e to eat ?~ Yes, plea s e , I'd like anot h e r san dwich. 8 You (hav e) anyt hin g mor e to eat? ~ No, bec a u s e I hav e n ' t any mor e mon e y. 9 You (stud y) comp u t e r progr a m m i n g at colleg e ? 1 0 You (spe a k) to Tom at the me e tin g tomorrow, do you think? 11 You (turn) off the TV, plea s e ? No one is watchin g it. 1 2 You (tak e) your exa m now or in Dece m b e r ? 13 You (liste n) in to the concer t this eve nin g ? 14 You (help) me with this, pleas e ? I can' t lift it. 15 Hotel rece p tio n ist: You (stay) for mor e tha n one n ight, Mrs Jones? 16 You (lend) me your type w rit e r for an hour? I want to typ e a lett er . 17 You (me e t ) him at the station? ~ No, we nev er me e t him. He does n ' t like being me t. 18 You (com e) sailing with me this after n o o n ? ~ No, tha nk you, I don't like sailing.


77 19 You (hav e) som e mor e wine ?~ Yes, plea s e . 20 I can't und e r s t a n d this lett er. You (tran sla t e ) it for me, Miss Pitt? 21 You (use) your ca m e r a this aftern o o n ?No, you can borrow it if you like. 22 You (go) to the toba cc o nis t ' s ? ~ Yes. ~ Then you (get) me twen t y cigar e t t e s ? 23 You (com e) to the Motor Show with me next Wedn e s d a y? ~ Thank you very much. I'd love to. 24 I'll be going abro a d next week. Is ther e anyt hin g I can get you? You (pas s) throu g h Paris? ~ Yes, I (spe n d ) a few days ther e. Then you (get) me som e scent ? 25 I see that you are rep airing your old hen h o u s e . You (kee p) hen s ? 26 I've just boug h t my tickets . ~ You (trav el) by sea or air? 27 What are all thes e slat e s for? You (rep air) your roof? 28 You (hold) my parc els, pleas e , while I put up my umbr ella? 29 You (go) to Madeira as usu al this sum m e r ? 30 You kindly (explain) why you didn' t do what I told you? 31 You (recog niz e) him, do you think? 32 I've chos e n a school for my son. ~ You (sen d) him to a public school or to a Stat e school? 33 Pass e n g e r to bus cond uc t o r: You (tell) me wher e to get off, plea s e 34 You (go) by car? If so, would you give my broth e r a lift? 35 You (typ e) all night again? Becau s e if so I think I'll go to a hotel. 36 You (stop) interru p tin g! I'll nev er get finishe d if you don't kee p quiet.

shall and will PEG 201, 207- 8, 233- 4 sh all is correct for the first pers o n of the futur e simple (exce p t when this form is used to expr e s s inten tion), but in the affirma tiv e and neg a tiv e will is very often us ed inste a d , i.e. we can say, I/we will' and I/we won't ' inste a d of I/we shall ' and I/we sha n' t '. In the I interro g a tiv e will should not be used to replac e sh all. There are som e rath e r old- fashion e d or formal cons tr uc tio n s wher e sh all is used with the secon d or third pers o n s . Here sh all cann o t be replac e d by will . Such constru c tion s are usu ally avoid e d but a few exa m pl e s hav e bee n given below. Use will or sh all to fill the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s . Som e ti m e s eith er could be use d.


78

1 When you are in bed I . . . be at work. 2 Who'll help me? ~ I ... 3 We will unite to resist oppr e s sio n, and tyran t s . . . not triump h over us. ( We won 't let the m triu m p h .) 4 What . . . we do now? ~ Wait. 5 You've be e n a good child, and when we get hom e you . . . hav e a swe e t . { I'll give you a swe e t .) 6 Your fath er . . . he ar of this. { I'll certainly tell him.) 7 ...we go to the cine m a ? ~ Yes, let's. 8 She . . . tell the sa m e story over and over again. { obstina t e insist e n c e ) 9 Club rule: Memb e r s . . . write the na m e s of their gue s t s in the book provid e d . 10 Thea tr e regula tio n: Person s . . . not be per mitt e d to sit in the gang w a ys . 11 Where . . . I be in six years ' time, I wond er? 12 He . . . not com e her e ag ain. { He refus e s .) 13 He . . . not com e her e ag ain. (/ won 't let him com e .) 14 Claus e in leas e: The ten a n t . . . be res po n sible for all rep airs. 15 This kind of snak e . . . not bite unles s it is startle d. 16 . . . you hav e a cigar e t t e ? ~ No, tha nks , I don' t smok e. 17 He . . . play his radio very loudly, which anno ys me very much. { obstinat e insist e n c e ) 18 By this time next year I . . . be earning my own living. 19 Who . . . take this letter to the post for me? ~ I ... 20 What . . . we do with all the food that' s left over? 21 Do you know the way? No? Then I . . . show you. 22 Where . . . I put it ? ~ Put it behind the piano. 23 Police notice: . . . anyo n e who witne s s e d the accide n t pleas e ring 24 Yachts . . . go round the cours e, pas sin g the marks in the correc t order . { extract from Yacht Racing Rules) 25 When . . . you he ar the res ult? ~ I . . . not hear for anot h e r week. 26 1 . . . not apologize ', she said, sta m pi n g her foot. 27 Who . . . I say called? ~ You nee d n ' t me n tion my na m e . He . . . know who I am.


79 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

She . . . nev er do anyt hin g you tell her. I . . . not be her e next week. I . . . not hav e to do any cooking for a mon t h. I'm going to an hotel. . . . I put it on your desk ? ~ Pleas e do. I . . . fill up this form! The que s tion s are imper tin e n t . ~ If you don't, ma d a m , you . . . (nega tiv e ) get your visa. . . . you stan d quite still for a mo m e n t , pleas e ? . . . I put mor e salt in the stew? A dog . . . obey his owner but a cat . . . not. I . . . know whet h e r you are telling the truth or not.

Time clauses PEG 342 The futur e simple is not used in time claus e s , the simple pres e n t tens e being us ed inste a d . Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correc t tens e (pres e n t or futur e). 1 When he (retur n) I'll give him the key. 2 He'll be rea d y as soon as you (be). 3 I'll stay in bed till the clock (strike) seve n. 4 She will be delight e d when she (he ar) this. 5 When the laundr y com e s I (hav e) som e clean han dk e r c hi efs. 6 I shan ' t buy tom a t o e s till the price (com e) down. 7 Stay here till the lights (turn) gre e n. 8 When it (get) cold I'll light the fire. 9 The lift (not start) until you pres s that butto n. 10 She'll hav e to beh a v e bett e r when she (go) to school. 11 When you look at yours elf in the glas s you (see) what I me a n . 12 He (be) her e before you go. 13 I (lend) you my cass e t t e record e r when e v e r you want it. 14 He (wake) up when we turn the lights on. , 15 He (ring) us up when he arrive s in Englan d? 16 He will was h up before he (go) to bed. 17 I won't com e to London till the bus strike (be) over. 18 I (give) the childre n their dinner befor e he (com e ) hom e . 19 They will be asto nis h e d when they (see) how slowly he works. 20 I'll pay you when I (get) my cheq u e . 21 I (go) on doing it until he tells me to stop. 22 I'll buy that hous e when I (hav e) enou g h mon e y. 23 You (fall) rapidly throu g h the air till your para c h u t e ope n s . 24 We'll hav e to stay here till the tide (go) out. 25 When the Que e n (arrive) the audie nc e will sta n d up. 26 When the fog (lift) we'll be able to see wher e we are. 27 The refriger a t o r (go on) making that nois e till we hav e it rep air e d.


80 28 As soon as the holidays begin this beac h (beco m e ) very crowd e d . 29 The car (not mov e) till you take the brak e off. 30 The alar m bell (go on) ringing till you pres s this butto n. 31 As soon as she (learn) to type I'll get her a job. 32 Look before you (leap). (prov er b) 33 We (hav e) to stay on this des e r t island till we can rep air our boat. 34 Don't count on a salary incre a s e befor e you actu ally (get) it. 35 When winter (begin) the swallows will fly aw ay to a war m e r countr y. 36 We can't mak e any decision till he (arrive) her e.

The future perfect tense PEG 216 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the futur e perfec t tens e . 1 In a fortnight ' s time we (take) our exa m. 2 I (finish) this book by tomorrow eve nin g. 3 By this time tomorrow we (hav e) our injections . 4 By the end of next year I (be) here twent y- five year s. 5 I'll still be her e next sum m e r but Tom (leav e). 6 I (finish) this job in twent y minut e s . 7 By next winter they (build) four hous e s in that field. 8 When we reac h Valpar ais o we (sail) all roun d the world. 9 At the rate he is going he (spe n d) all his mon e y by the time he is twent y- one. 10 By this time next year I (sav e) Ј250. 11 By the time we get to the party everyt hin g (be) eat e n . 12 The train (leav e) befor e we reac h the station. 13 If I continu e with my diet I (lose) 10 kilos by the end of the mon t h. 14 By the end of my university cours e I (att e n d ) 1,200 lectur e s . 15 By the end of this week my illnes s (cost) me Ј100. 16 By the time that he leav e s school his pare n t s (spe n d) Ј25,000 on his educ a tio n. 17 By the end of the ter m I (rea d) all twelve volum e s . 18 When you com e back I (finish) all the hous e w o rk. 19 The police (he ar) of the theft by this time. 20 We (drink) all that wine by the end of the year. 21 On the fourth of next mont h he (be) in prison for ten year s. 22 When we reach Crew e we (do) half of the journ e y. 23 At this rate you (bre ak) all the wine glas s e s by the end of the mont h. 24 If we don't hurry the sun (rise) befor e we reac h the top. 25 I'm going to Hyde Park to he ar the peopl e making spe e c h e s . ~ You'll be too late. By the time you get ther e they (finish) their spe e c h e s and everyb o d y (go) hom e . 26 By midnight he (be) uncon s cio u s for forty- eight hours.


81 27 By the end of the mon t h 5,00 0 peopl e (se e) this exhibition. 28 By next April I (pay) Đˆ3,000 in inco m e tax. 29 I supp o s e that when I com e back in ten year s ' time all thes e old hous e s (be) pulled down. 30 On 21 Octob e r they (be) marrie d for twen t y- five year s. 31 After this perfor m a n c e I (see) Hamlet twen t y- two time s . 32 The strike lead e r said, ' By midnigh t 500 me n (com e ) out on str ike .' 33 At your pres e n t rat e you (burn) all that coal by the end of th e mont h, 34 The tre a s u r e r said, ' By the end of the year all our debt s (be pai d ) off .' 35 Tourist: We've only got five hours in Rome; we are leaving but I'm sure that we (se e) everyt hin g of import a n c e by the n. 36 Hous e h old e r to Zoo: One of your eleph a n t s is in my gard e n e ating my tom a t o e s . Zoo official: The eleph a n t kee p e r will be with you in half an hour. Hous e h old e r: Your elep h a n t (eat) all my tom a t o e s by the n.

Time clauses PEG 342 The futur e perfec t tens e is not use d in time claus e s , the pres e n t perfec t being us ed inste a d . Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correc t tens e , using the futur e, pres e n t , or pres e n t perfec t. Comp a r e I to 5 with I to 5 in Exercis e 58. 1 2 3 4 5 6

When we (tak e) our exa m we'll hav e a holiday. When I (finish) the book I'll lend it to you. When we (hav e) our injection s I exp ec t we'll feel awful. When I (be) here for a year I'll ask for a rise. When Tom (go) I'll tell you a secr e t. By the time he (get) back from his holiday the milkma n will hav e left twent y- one bottles of milk outsid e his door. 7 Don't drive at mor e than 50 k.p.h. till your car (do) 4,00 0 kilome tr e s . 8 When you (do) 4,00 0 kilome tr e s you can drive it at 70 k.p.h. 9 When you open the safe you (se e) a small black box. 10 When we (hav e) lunch we'll go for a walk. 11 When the bell rings I (take) the me a t out of the oven. 12 I'll bolt all the doors befor e I (go) to bed. 13 When we (se e) the cath e d r al we'll go to the mus e u m . 14 We'll hav e to stay up this tre e till the bull (go) away. 15 He (not let) you out till you hav e finishe d your hom e w o rk. 16 As soon as I he ar from him I (let) you know. 17 My fath e r will be furious when he (see) what you hav e don e. 18 You (not he ar) the soun d of the explosion till after you hav e see n the flash.


82 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Thes e gat e s will rem ai n shut until the train (pas s). When he (sell) all his news p a p e r s he'll go hom e . We can't hav e a fire her e until we (swe e p ) the chimn e y. You (get) a shock when you open that box. When you are eight e e n your fath er (give) you a latchk e y. Don't jump out of the aero pl a n e until the pilot (say) ' Go !' I can't leav e the countr y till the police (retur n) my pas s p o r t. When a bottle of cha m p a g n e (be) open e d for twen t y- four hours the wine is not fit to drink. 27 Hotel rece p tio nis t: When you (sign) the hot el regist e r the port er will show you your roo m. 28 You (not know) how good oyst e r s are till you hav e tas t e d one. 29 That road will not be safe till the floods (subsid e). 30 When everyb o d y (leav e) the park the park- keep e r will lock the gat e s . 31 When we hav e see n the Cha m b e r of Horrors we (hav e) a cup of tea. 32 When you (hav e) som e t hi n g to eat you'll feel bett e r. 33 I (stay) in court till the jury retur n s . 34 You canno t beco m e a me m b e r of this club until you (mak e ) a par ac h u t e desc e n t . 35 When the boa constrictor (eat) the goat he will beco m e very leth ar gic. 36 As soon as everyb o d y has gon e to bed the mice (com e) out of their ho les.

would and should PEG 140- 1, 230- 2, 235- 7 Put s ho ul d or w ou l d in the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s . 1 . . . you mind openin g the door? 2 . . . you like anot h e r cup of coffee? 3 He insiste d that the news p a p e r . . . print an apolog y. 4 The old ad mir al . . . sit for hours watchin g the ships. 5 . . . you be so good as to keep an eye on my hous e while I am away? 6 I . . . say nothing abou t it if I were you. 7 That dres s does n ' t suit you; you . . . buy anot h e r . 8 If you pulled the com m u nic a tio n cord the train . . . stop and you . . . be fined. 9 They went to the cine m a at 2.30, so they . . . be back here by 6.00. 1 0 . . . you pleas e help me with this? 11 It is very stra n g e that he . . . think that. 1 2 I wish he . . . not play his radio so loudly. 1 3 . . . you be very kind and lend me your type w rit e r?


83 14 I . . . like to know wher e you hav e bee n. 15 It was decid e d that the mat t e r . . . be referr e d to a special com mit t e e . 16 Perha p s you . . . be kind enou g h to let us know abou t this. 17 If the telep h o n e . . . ring plea s e say that I'll be back at six. 18 . . . you like to come or . . . you rath e r stay here? 19 There are too ma n y accid e n t s . Everyo n e . . . be much mor e careful. 20 Their met h o d was always the sa m e ; they . . . wait till their victim had left the bank and the n go up to him and ask for a light. 21 What are you doing her e? You . . . be in bed. 22 It is ess e n ti al that this mat t e r . . . be kept out of the news p a pe rs. 23 He sugg e s t e d that the mon e y . . . be rais e d by public subscr ip tion. 24 If you . . . chan g e your mind, this addr e s s will always find m e . 25 If this mac hin e . . . at any time fail to give comple t e satisfac tion plea s e post us the enclos e d card. 26 He chan g e d his na m e so that nobo d y . . . know what he had bee n before. 27 If he offere d me mon e y I . . . refus e. 28 I wish you . . . not ask so ma n y que s tion s . 29 He order e d that Tom . . . leave the hous e at once. 30 I . . . be mos t grat eful if you . . . do this for me. 31 He is anxious that everyo n e . . . und er s t a n d why he act e d as he did. 32 You . . . not argu e with your fath er; you . . . obey him. 33 He was a very patie n t cat; he . . . sit for hours besid e a mou s e h ol e . 34 . . . the pain return take one of thes e pills. 35 It is mos t import a n t that I . . . see him at once. 36 He didn' t dar e (to) sell the ring in cas e som e o n e . . . ask wher e he got it.

would and should PEG 140- 1, 230- 2, 235- 7 Put sh o u l d or w o u l d in the spac e s in the following sent e n c e s : 1 It is only fair that you . . . know the truth abou t your own fath er and it is bett e r that you . . . hear it from me than from som e stra n g e r . 2 If you . . . kindly wait her e a mo m e n t I'll ring the director' s office. 3 . . . thes e me a s u r e s fail to restor e order hars h e r restrictions will hav e to be impos e d . 4 The rocks were icy and he was terrified lest he . . . slip. 5 If Pierre liked any dish he . . . send for the chef and congr a t ul a t e him, and if anyt hin g was wrong he . . . send for the ma n a g e r and complain. ~ An English m a n . . . nev er dare to do that; he . . . be too shy. 6 I was just burying the bone s in the gard e n when who . . . look over


84 the hed g e but the village police m a n . 7 When he found out that the ma n had smallpox he urg e d that every effort . . . be ma d e to cont a c t his fellow pas s e n g e r s . 8 I wish you . . . go out or sit down. How . . . you like it if I kept tra m pin g round when you were trying to work? 9 I've just receive d an anon y m o u s thre a t e ni n g lett er. What . . . I do abou t it? ~ I . . . take it to the police if I were you. 10 The com mit t e e thinks that you hav e bee n guilty of disloyalty. ~ I don't know why the com mit t e e . . . think that. 11 I can't rep air it now but if you . . . like to leav e it with me I'll see what can b 6 don e. 12 You complain e d to the ma n a g e r , of cours e ? ~ No, I aske d to spe a k to him but he . . . not come to the phon e. ~ You . . . hav e insiste d. 13 Where will he be now? ~ Oh, he . . . be ther e by now; the flight only take s an hour. 14 If your main para c h u t e . . . fail to ope n, your seco n d one will open auto m a t ic ally. 15 I sugg e s t e d that Tom . . . walk on and try to get help while I staye d with the injure d ma n but he . . . not he ar of this. 16 I am am a z e d that you . . . eve n sugg e s t offering bribes . 17 This pas s a g e does n ' t lead anyw h e r e . It is odd that no one . . . hav e notice d this befor e. 18 . . . you mind not smoking; this is the petrol stor e. ~ Then ther e . . . be a ' No Smoking ' notice. 19 Can't I trus t you not to read my letter s ? It is ridiculous that I . . . hav e to lock things up in my own hous e. 20 He said he wishe d I . . . not come so often. 21 This train is entirely auto m a t ic; ther e is no driver; but a mec h a nic is always availabl e in cas e anyt hin g . . . go wrong. 22 She had one rath e r boring habit; she . . . insist on telling peopl e abou t her dre a m s . 23 He reco m m e nde d that the trouble mak e r s in the factory . . . be dis mis s e d . 24 It is abs ur d that wome n . . . be paid less tha n me n for doing the sa m e work. 25 1... rath e r you aske d him. Last time I tried to spe a k to him he . . . not listen. 26 When he went out he left the radio on so that his pare n t s . . . think


85 that he was still in his roo m. 27 He was det e r mi n e d that his children . . . go to the bes t schools available. 28 Tom says you arc foolish to take such a risk. ~ He ...! { That is typical o f him.) 29 When four hours had pas s e d and ther e was sti ll no sign of him she beg a n to be worried lest he . . . hav e me t with som e accide n t. 30 People are very fond of saying, This . . . be stop p e d ', or, ' Some t hi n g . . . be don e abou t this ', but if they were the gover n m e n t they . . . not know how to stop it or what to do abou t it. 31 It is am a zin g that the Leaning Tower of Pisa . . . hav e stood for so long. 32 He resign e d from the gover n m e n t in order that everyo n e . . . know that he disap p r o v e d of the new policy. 33 If I had had his educ a tio n and he had had mine perh a p s I . . . be sitting at his desk and he . . . be out here swe e pi n g the stre e t s , 34 He was a terrib ly obstin a t e child, who . . . nev er obey the simple s t order, but . . . argu e every point till she nearly went ma d. 35 Robinso n said, 'Why . . . Smith get all the credit when som e o n e else has don e all the work ?' 36 All day he... sit in his office imma c ul a t el y dres s e d , but at night he . . . put on dirty ragg e d clothing and roa m abou t the stre e t s with disre p u t a b l e comp a ni o n s .

Conditionals Conditional sentences: type I PEG 221 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correc t tens e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

If I see him I (give) him a lift. The table will col laps e if you (sta n d) on it. If he (eat) all that he will be ill. If I find your pas s p o r t I (tele p h o n e ) you at once. The police (arre s t) him if they catch him. If he (rea d) in bad light he will ruin his eye s . Som e o n e (ste al) your car if you leav e it unlocke d. What will happ e n if my par ac h u t e (not ope n )?


86 9 If he (was h) my car I'll give him Đˆ10. 10 If she (nee d ) a radio she can borrow mine. 11 If you (not go) away I'll sen d for the police. 12 I'll be very angry if he (mak e) any mor e mist ak e s . 13 If he (be) late we'll go withou t him. 14 She will be abs olut ely furious if she (hear) abou t this. 15 If you put on the kettle I (mak e ) the tea. 16 If you give my dog a bon e he (bury) it at once. 17 If we leav e the car here it (not be) in anyb o d y' s way. 18 He'll be late for the train if he (not start) at once. 19 If you com e late they (not let) you in. 20 If he (go) on telling lies nobod y will believ e a word he says. 21 Unless he (sell) mor e he won't get much com mis sio n. 22 If I lend you Đˆ10 when you (rep a y) me? 23 We'll hav e to mov e upst airs if the river (rise) any higher. 24 If he (work) hard toda y can he hav e a holiday tomorrow ? 25 Ice (turn) to water if you he a t it. 26 If the hous e (burn) down we can claim comp e n s a ti o n. 27 If you (not like) this one I'll bring you anot h e r. 28 Unless you are mor e careful you (hav e) an accid e n t . 29 Tell him to ring me up if you (see) him. 30 If I tell you a secr e t, you (pro mis e) not to tell it to anyo n e else? 31 If you (not believ e) what I say, ask your mot h e r . 32 If he (like) the hous e will he buy it? 33 If you will kindly sit down I (mak e ) enq uiries for you. 34 Unless I hav e a quiet roo m I (not be able) to do any work . 35 She won't open the door unles s she (know) who it is. 36 Should you requir e anyt hin g else pleas e (ring) the bell for the att e n d a n t .

Conditional sentences: type 2 PEG 222 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correct tens e s . 1 If I had a typ ew rit er I (typ e) it mys elf. 2 If I (know) his addr e s s I'd give it to you. 3 He (look) a lot bett e r if he shav e d mor e often. 4 If you (play) for lower stak e s you wouldn' t lose so much. 5 If he worked more slowly he (not mak e) so ma n y mist ak e s . 6 I should n' t drink that wine if I (be) you. 7 More tourists would com e to this countr y if it (hav e) a bett e r clima t e . 8 If I were sent to prison you (visit) me? 9 If som e o n e (give) you a helicopt e r what would you do with it? 10 I (buy) shar e s in that comp a n y if I had som e mon e y. 11 If he (clea n) his windscr e e n he' d be able to see wher e he was


87 going. 12 If you drov e your car into the river you (be able) to get out? 13 If you (not belong) to a union you couldn' t get a job. 14 If I (win) a big prize in a lottery I'd give up my job. 15 What you (do) if you found a burglar in your hous e ? 16 I could tell you what this me a n s if I (know) Greek. 17 If everyb o d y (give) Đˆ1 we would hav e enou g h . 18 He might get fat if he (stop) smoking. 19 If he knew that it was dan g e r o u s he (not com e). 20 If you (see) som e o n e drowning what would you do? 21 I (be) ruined if I boug h t her everyt hin g she aske d for. - 22 If you slept und e r a mos q uit o net you (not be) bitte n so often. 23 I could get a job easily if I (hav e) a degr e e . 24 If she (do) her hair differe n tly she might look quite nice. 25 If we had mor e rain our crops (grow) fast er. 26 The whole mac hin e would fall to piece s if you (re m o v e ) that screw 27 I (kee p) a hors e if I could afford it. ' 28 I'd go and see him mor e often if he (live) on a bus rout e. 29 If they (ban) the sale of alcohol at footb all ma tc h e s ther e might be less violenc e. 30 I (offer) to help if I thoug h t I'd be any use. ' 31 What would you do if the lift (get) stuck betw e e n two floors? 32 If you (paint) the walls white the roo m would be much bright e r. 33 If you (cha n g e ) your job would it affect your pension? 34 If you knew you had only six weeks to live how you (spe n d) thos e six weeks ? 35 You wouldn' t hav e so much trouble with your car if you (hav e) it service d regularly. 36 I'd climb over the wall if ther e (not be) so much broke n glass on t of it.

Conditional sentences: type 3 PEG 223 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correct tens e s . 1 If I had known that you were in hos pit al I (visit) you. 2 The groun d was very soft. But for that, my hors e (win). 3 If you (arrive) ten minut e s earlier you would hav e got a sea t. 4 You would hav e see n my gard e n at its bes t if you (be) here last week. 5 But for his quickn e s s I (be) killed. 6 I shouldn' t hav e believ e d it if I (not see) it with my own eye s . 7 If he had slippe d he (fall) 500 me tr e s . 8 If he had aske d you, you (acc e p t )? 9 If I (had) a ma p I would hav e be e n all right. 10 If I (know) that you were coming I'd hav e bake d a cake.


88 11 I (offer) to help him if I had realize d that he was ill. 12 If you had left that was p alone it (not sting) you. 1 3 If I (realize) what a bad driver you were I wouldn' t hav e com e with you. 14 If I had rea lized that the traffic lights were red I (stop). 15 But for the fog we (reac h) our des tin a tio n age s ago. 16 If you had told me that he nev er paid his debt s I (not lend) him the mon e y. 17 If you (not sne e z e ) he wouldn' t hav e known that we were ther e . 18 If you (put) som e mus t a r d in the san dwich e s they would hav e tast e d bett e r. 19 The hens (not get) into the hous e if you had shut the door. 20 If he had known that the river was dan g e r o u s he (not try) to swim acros s it. 21 If you (spe a k) mor e slowly he might hav e und e r s t o o d you. 22 If he had known the whole story he (not be) so angry. 23 I shouldn' t hav e eat e n it if I (know) that ther e was ginger in it. 24 If I (try) again I think that I would hav e succ e e d e d . 25 You (not get) into trouble if you had obeye d my instruction s . 26 If you had n' t be e n in such a hurry you (not put) sug ar into the sauc e inste a d of salt. 27 If I (be) read y when he called he would hav e take n me with him. 28 She had a hea d a c h e ; otherwis e she (com e ) with us. 29 If she had listen e d to my direction s she (not turn) down the wrong stre e t . 3 0 If you (look) at the engin e for a mo m e n t you would hav e see n what was missing. 31 Rome (be capt ur e d ) by her en e mi e s if the ge e s e had n' t cackled. 32 He would hav e be e n arres t e d if he (try) to leav e the countr y. 33 I (tak e) a taxi if I had realized that it was such a long way. 34 You (sav e) me a lot of trouble if you had told me wher e you were going. 35 They would hav e forced their way into the hous e if I (not call) for help. 36 If he had put out his pipe befor e putting it in his pocke t he (not burn ) a hole in his coat.

Conditional sentences: mixed types PEG 221– 6 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correc t tens e s . 1 2 3 4 5

If you (find) a skeleto n in the cellar don' t me n tion it to anyo n e . If you pas s your exa mi n a tio n we (hav e) a celebr a tio n. What (hap p e n ) if I pres s this butto n ? I should hav e vote d for her if I (hav e) a vote then. If you go to Paris wher e you (stay )?


89 6 If som e o n e offere d to buy you one of thos e rings, which you (choos e )? 7 The flight ma y be canc elle d if the fog (get) thick. 8 If the milkm a n (com e ) tell him to leav e two pints. 9 Som e o n e (sit) on your glas s e s if you leav e the m ther e . 10 You would play bett e r bridg e if you (not talk) so much. 11 What I (do) if I hear the burglar alar m? 12 If you (rea d) the instruction s carefully you wouldn' t hav e answ e r e d the wrong ques tio n. 13 I could rep air the roof mys elf if I (hav e) a long ladd er. 14 Unless they turn that radio off I (go) ma d. 15 If you were ma d e redu n d a n t what you (do )? 16 We'll hav e a long way to walk if we (run) out of petrol her e. 17 If you shak e that bottle of port it (not be) fit to drink. 18 I'll prob a bly get lost unles s he (com e) with me. 19 You (not hav e) so ma n y accid e n t s if you drov e mor e slowly. 20 If you (wear) a false be ar d nobod y would hav e recog nize d you. 21 If she (leav e) the fish ther e the car will get it. 22 Unless they leav e a lamp besid e that hole in the road som e b o d y into it. 23 You'll get pne u m o ni a if you (not chan g e ) your wet cloth e s . 24 If I had known that you couldn' t eat octop u s I (not buy) it. 25 If they (han g) that pictur e lower people would be able to see it. 26 She (be able) to walk fast er if her sho e s had n' t such high he els. 27 I (bring) you som e be er if I had known that you were thirsty. 28 If you had touch e d that electric cable you (be) electroc u t e d . 29 If the story hadn ' t bee n true the news p a p e r (not print) it. 30 I (not buy) things on the installm e n t syst e m if I were you. 31 Dial 999 if you (want) Police, Ambula nc e , or Fire Brigad e . 32 You (not be) any use to me unles s you learn to type. 33 If anyo n e att a ck e d me, my dog (jump) at his thro a t. 34 If he were in he (answ e r) the phon e. 35 The ship would hav e run agrou n d if the pilot (mak e ) one mist ak e . 36 I should n' t hav e take n your umbr ella if I (know) that it was the only one you had.

Conditional sentences: mixed types PEG 221- 6 Finish the s e sent e n c e s , taking care to use the correc t tens e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6

If he had take n my advice . . . If you ate less . . . We'll sen d for the doctor if . . . If she practis e d mor e . . . If ther e isn't enou g h wine in that bottle . . . If you had check e d the petrol before we start e d . . .


90 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

This clock wouldn' t hav e run down if . . . Try on the blue one if . . . If thes e gat e s are locked . . . If we leav e before bre akf a s t . . . If the river rises any higher . . . Her life might hav e be e n save d if . . . If the volcano start s eruptin g ... The gras s would look bett e r if . . . Unless it is a nice day . . . If you don' t put enou g h sta m p s on a letter, the pers o n who gets it . .. 17 He would lend it to you if . . . 18 Unless this hot el gets anot h e r cook . . . 19 If the stor m beco m e s wors e . . . 20 If your uncle see s you . . . 21 If you tried to climb it without a guide . . . 22 If you didn' t shak e the cam e r a so much, your photo g r a p h s . . . 23 I'd hav e brou g h t my coat . . . 24 If (=as) you don' t like the pictur e . . . 25 He would hav e given her dia mo n d s if . . . 26 If you had aske d his per mis sio n . . . 27 If the fire had be e n notice d earlier . . . 28 If you had any sens e . . . 29 You would hav e be e n angry if . . . 30 If he had put the flowers into water at once . . . 3 1 I should hav e order e d mor e coal if . . . 3 2 If you leav e the gat e ope n . . . 33 You will hav e to go to the dentis t if . . . 34 He would hav e be e n drown e d if . . . 35 If I'd had a car . . . 36 If Tom rings while I'm out . . .

Mixed tenses and verb forms PEG 221- 6, 283- 4 Condition al forms are use d in requ e s t s . Fill the gap s in the following dialogu e with a suita ble verb form. Teleph o n e conver s a tio n . 1 Ann: .. .I... to Mr Wash, plea s e ? 2 Wash: Wash . . . 3 Ann: Good morning, Mr Wash. This is Ann Jones of 10 Cyprus Road.


91 . . . you com e and . . . my windows one Satur d a y this mont h? 4 Wash: I'm afraid 1... (nega tiv e ). The next six Saturd a ys are ahe a d booke d. 5 But I... ...on Wedn e s d a y morning. 6 Ann: . . . you . . . very early on Wedn e s d a y? I leav e at 8.15 on weekd a ys . 7 Wash: I... ...to you by 8.30. . . . that be early enou g h ? 8 Ann: No, it ...! There . . . be nobo d y to let you in. I... the flat at 8.15. 9 Wash: Oh 8.15! 1... you... 8.30! 10 Well, I supp o s e 1... ...to you by 8.00 as you'r e an old custo m er . But I . . . (nega tiv e ) . . . a habit of it. 11 It me a n s . . . bre akf a s t at 6 and my wife . . . (neg a tiv e ) that. 12 She . . . always . . . to pers u a d e me to give up window— . . . as it . She . . . it's dan g e r o u s . 13 Ann: What . . . she . . . you . . . inste a d ? 14 Wash: Her fath er has a shop and she... ...me... ...in it. 15 She ...it... be a nice ste a d y job with regular hours , 16 And if 1... in a shop she ... ... wher e I was. 17 Ann: And . . . you really . , . of giving it up? 18 Wash: No, I . . . the life. At leas t, I . . . it in sum m e r . 19 Beside s, I ... ... bore d working in a shop. 20 Well, . . . Wedn e s d a y at 8.00 . . . you then, Miss Jones? 21 Ann: Yes, it . . . be splen did. It's very good of you . . . . . . so early. 22 I . . . let you in and you can . . . yours elf out. 23 You . . . shut the door carefully after you, . . . (neg a tiv e interrogativ e ) you? 24 Wash: Yes, of cours e 1. ...I always .... Goodb ye , Miss Jones.

Infinitive Full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Insert to wher e nece s s a r y before the infinitives in brack e t s . 1 He ma d e me (do) it all over ag ain. 2 She can (sing) quite well. 3 He will be able (swim) very soon. 4 I use d (live) in a carav a n . 5 You ough t (go) tod a y. It ma y (rain) tomorrow. 6 You nee d n ' t (say) anyt hin g. Just nod your he a d and he will (und e r s t a n d ) . 7 I want (see) the hous e wher e our presid e n t was born. 8 He ma d e her (rep e a t ) the mes s a g e . 9 May I (us e) your phon e ? 10 You nee d n ' t (ask) for per mis sion; you can (use) it when e v e r you


92 like. 11 If you want (get) ther e before dark you should (start) at once. 12 I couldn' t (re m e m b e r ) his addr e s s . 13 You'll be able (do) it yours elf when you are older. 14 Wou ld you like (go) now or shal l we (wait) till the end? 15 They won't let us (leav e) the Custo m s she d till our lugga g e has bee n exa mi n e d . 16 How dare you (ope n) my lett er s! 17 He didn' t dar e (argu e) with his boss. 18 I use d (smok e ) forty cigar e t t e s a day. 19 Will you help me (mov e) the bookc a s e ? 20 He wouldn' t let my baby (play) with his gold watch. 21 They refus e d (acce p t) the bribe. 22 He is exp e c t e d (arrive) in a few days. 23 Pleas e let me (know) your decision as soon as possible. 24 He ma d e us (wait) for hours. 25 Could you (tell) me the time, pleas e ? 26 We mus t (sen d) him a telegr a m . 27 I let him (go) early as he want e d (me e t ) his wife. 28 Wher e wou ld you like (hav e) lunch? 29 You can (leav e) your dog with us if you don't (want) (tak e) him with you. 30 I'd like him (go) to a university but I can' t (mak e ) him (go). 31 We could (go) to a concer t, unles s you' d prefer (visit) a mus e u m . 32 You see m (know) this are a very well. ~ Yes, I used (live) her e. 33 The kidna p p e r s told the par e n t s (not inform) the police, and the par e n t s didn't dare (disob e y). 34 Need I (com e )? I'd much rath e r (stay) at hom e . 35 You can (tak e) a hors e to water but you can' t (mak e ) him (drink). (proverb) 36 I'm sorry (disap p oint) you but I can't (let) you (hav e) any mor e mon e y till the end of the mon t h.

Full or bare infinitive PEG 246 Insert to wher e nec e s s a r y befor e the infinitives in brack e t s . (In of the sent e n c e s a pres e n t participle could be used inste a d of an infinitive. Thes e alter n a tiv e s will be not e d in the key.) 1 2 3 4

It is eas y (be) wise after the eve n t. Do you (wish) (mak e) a compl aint? We don't (want) anyb o d y (know) that we are her e. If you can' t (re m e m b e r ) his nu mb e r you' d bett e r (look) it up.


93 5 6 7 8

I want her (learn) Esper a n t o ; I think everyb o d y ough t to (know) it? He is said (be) the bes t surg e o n in the countr y. Visitors are aske d (not feed) the anim als. Could I (see) Mr Pitt, pleas e ? I'm afraid Mr Pitt isn't in. Would you like (spe a k) to his secr e t a r y ' 9 It's bett e r (trav el) hop efully than (arrive) , (prov er b) 10 He should (know) how (us e) the film project or, but if he does n ' t had bett e r (show) him. 11 He was ma d e (sign) a pap e r ad mitting his guilt. 12 I he ar d the door (ope n) and saw a sha d o w (mov e) acros s the floor. 13 He tried (mak e) me (believ e) that he was my ste p b r o t h e r . 14 As we see m (hav e miss e d ) the train we ma y as well (go) back to the hous e. 15 I felt the hous e (shak e) with the explosion , 16 He told me (try) (com e ) early. 17 Before he let us (go) he ma d e us (pro mis e ) (not tell) anyo n e what had see n. 18 Would you (like) (com e) in my car? ~ No, tha nks . I'd rath e r (walk). 19 I advis e d him (ask) the bus cond uc t or (tell) him wher e (get) off. 20 It is bett e r (put) your mon e y in a bank tha n (kee p) it und e r your bed in an old stocking. 21 He does n ' t eve n both e r (rea d) lett er s, let alon e (answ e r) the m. 22 The bank robb e r s ma d e the cas hier (show) the m how (ope n) the safe . 23 If you knew he was wrong, why didn' t you (say) som e t hi n g ? ~ I didn't like (say) anyt hin g beca u s e he always gets angry if you contr a dict him. 24 It's bett e r (be) sure than sorry. 25 What do you (want) me (tell) him? ~ Tell him that any time he care s (call) I shall be delight e d (discus s) the ma t t e r with him. 26 Did you rem e m b e r (give) him the mon e y? ~ No, I didn' t, I still hav e it in my pocke t; but I'll (see) him tonight and I pro mis e (not forge t) this time. 27 I saw the driver (ope n) his window and (throw) a box into the bus h e s . 28 That is far too heav y for one pers o n (carry); let me (help) you. 29 I was afraid (pick) up the revolver as I don't know how (han dle) firear m s . 30 I saw the plan e (cras h) into the hill and (burs t) into flam e s . 31 There is nothing (do) but (wait) till som e b o d y com e s (let) us out. 32 He hear d a cock (crow) in a neighb o u rin g village. 33 You may as well (tell) us the truth. It will (be) eas y (check) your story.


94 34 The America n said he had see n nine presid e n t s (com e ) and (go). ~ He mus t (be) a very old ma n. 35 It is up to you (learn) the laws of your own countr y. 36 Would you rath e r (be) mor e stupid than you look or (look) mor e stupid than you are?

Infinitive represented by to PEG 247 In each of the following pairs of sent e n c e s an infinitive us ed in the first sent e n c e is rep e a t e d in the seco n d. Read the sent e n c e s , expr e s sin g this seco n d infinitive by to only. Note that wher e the secon d infinitive has an object, this word/p hr a s e mus t be omitt e d . Why didn't you tell me the truth the first time ?I me a n t to tell you the truth but I was too fright e n e d . I m e a n t to but I was too fright e n e d . 1 Did you visit the Pyra mid s ? ~ No, I want e d to visit the m but ther e was n' t time. 2 Why do you wear dark glass e s ? ~ I hav e to wear the m; I hav e weak eye s. 3 Do you smok e ? ~ No, I use d to smok e but I don't now. 4 Would you like to go to the the a t r e tonigh t? ~ Yes, I'd love to go to the the a t r e . 5 Why didn't you pay the bill for him ? ~ I offere d to pay it but he refus e d . 6 Have you put the car in the gara g e ? ~ No, but I'm just going to put it ther e . 7 I want you two to apolo g ize to eac h oth er. ~ Well. lam willin g to apologize it he apologize s first. 8 Did you res erv e sea t s on the train? ~ No. I tried to res erv e the m but they had all be e n booke d alre a d y. 9 Did you answ e r the lett er? ~ No, I inten d e d to answ e r it but I'm afraid I forgot 10 Why didn' t you hit him ? ~ I was afraid to hit him. 11 I'd love to spen d a night in a hau n t e d roo m. ~ I'd hat e to spen d a night in a haun t e d room. 12 Why didn' t you ask your fath er for the mon e y? ~ I didn't like to ask him. 13 Did you get a chanc e to fly the aero pla n e yours elf ? ~ No, I want e d to fly it but the pilot wouldn' t let me. 14 Why does n ' t he punish his boys when they disob e y him ? ~ He often thre a t e n s to punish the m but he nev er actu ally does so. 15 Why didn' t he rep air the car hims elf ? ~ He was n' t ab le to rep air it.


95 16 I used to drink whisky with my me als. ~ I used to drink whisky with my me als also but I don't now. 17 Did you buy saus a g e s ? ~ No, I me a n t to buy the m but I forgot. 18 Why does n ' t he try again ? ~ He does n ' t want to try ag ain. 19 You should visit the Prado when you are in Madrid. ~ Yes. I inten d to visit it. 20 Why does n ' t he play ga m e s ? ~ His moth e r does n ' t want him to play ga m e s . 21 You ough t to stop work now. ~ Yes, I am just going to stop. 22 Why do som e jockeys carry extr a weight s ? ~ They are oblige d to carry the m by the regula tion s . 23 Did he help you? ~ No, I aske d him to help me but he said he hadn ' t time. 24 You should hav e tha nk e d her before you left. ~ I me a n t to tha nk her but when I was going I couldn' t find her anyw h e r e . 25 Why did she put parsley in the soup ?~ I told her to put it in. 26 Why didn' t he report it to the police ? ~ He was afraid to report it. He didn' t think they' d believ e him. 27 Why did he drive so fast ? ~ He had to drive fast; otherwis e he'd hav e miss e d his train. 28 You use d to like rice pudding. ~ Yes, I know I used to like it but I don' t now. 29 Why didn' t you buy the car ? ~ I was advis e d not to buy it. 30 I hop e the childre n won't go ne ar the water. ~ I warn e d the m not to go ne ar it. 31 Why are we trying to get planning per mis sion ? ~ We hav e to get planning per mis sion. It is the law. 32 I me a n t to work hard. ~ I know you me a n t to work hard but you didn't. 33 Do the boys tidy their own rooms ? ~ They are suppo s e d to tidy the m but they don' t always . 34 Why didn' t he call the police. ~ He was n' t able to call the m. His telep h o n e line had be e n cut. 35 Why did you mov e your car? ~ The police m a n told me to mov e it. 36 Why did you bring your moth e r- in-law? I particularly aske d you not to bring her.

too/enough/so . . . as with infinitive PEG 252


96 Combin e each of the following pairs of sent e n c e s into one sent e n c e using to o/ e n o u g h with infinitive. It is very cold. We can't go out. It is too cold for us to go out. He is stron g. He can carry it. He is strong enou g h to carry it. Rewrite num b e r s 3, 20, and 35 using so . . . as with infinitive. (en o u g h with infinitive could also be us ed her e, while s o . . . as could replac e en o u g h in nu mb e r s 9, 24, and 29. Thes e alter n a tiv e s are given in the key.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

You are very youn g. You can't hav e a front- door key. It is very cold. We can' t bath e . Would you be very kind and answ e r this letter by retur n? I am rath e r old. I can't wear that kind of hat. The ladd e r wasn' t very long. It didn' t reac h the window. He hadn ' t much mon e y. He couldn' t live on it. (Omit it.) He was furious. He couldn' t spe a k. The fire isn't very hot. It won't boil a kettle. Tom was very foolish. He told lies to the police. You are quite thin. You could slip betw e e n the bars. He is very ill. He can' t eat anyt hin g. Our new car is very wide. It won't get throu g h thos e gat e s . The floor wasn' t stron g. We couldn' t danc e on it. (Omit it.) I was terrified. I couldn' t mov e. The bull isn't big. He couldn' t har m you. The coffee isn't stron g. It won't keep us awak e. The river is dee p. We can't wad e it. (Omit it.) He is lazy. He won't get up early. He won't get up early so he nev er catch e s the fast train. Would you be very good and forward my letter s while I am away? The ice is quite thick. We can walk on it. (Omit it.) He was very drunk. He couldn' t answ e r my ques tio n. It is very cold. We can' t hav e bre akf a s t in the gard e n . He was extr e m e l y rash. He set off up the mou n t ai n in a thick fog. We aren ' t very high. We can' t see the sum mi t. You are n' t very old. You can' t und er s t a n d thes e things. He was very snob bis h. He wouldn' t talk to any of us. The pack a g e is very thick. I can't pus h it throu g h the lett er b o x. (Omit it.) 29 She was very me a n . She nev er gav e to charity. 30 He is very impa ti e n t . He nev er listen s to anyo n e . 31 I was very tired. I couldn' t walk any furth e r. 32 It's not very dark. We can' t see the stars clearly. 33 It was very hot. You could fry an egg on the pav e m e n t .


97 34 The oran g e s were very bitter. We couldn' t eat the m. (Omit the m.) 35 Would you be very kind and turn down the radio a little? 36 He is very selfish. He wouldn' t put hims elf out for anyo n e .

Various infinitive constructions PEG 26- 7, 114, 239, 249- 50 Replac e the grou p of words in italics by an infinitive or an infinitive cons tr uc tio n. It is import a n t that he should und er s t a n d this. It is importa n t /or him to und er s t a n d this. He was the first ma n who arrive d. He was the first ma n to arrive. 1 The capt ain was the last ma n who left the ship. 2 He got to the top and was very disap p oint e d whe n he foun d that som e o n e else had reach e d it first. 3 The co m m i t t e e hav e decid e d to send you to Paris. (You (go) to Par omit The com mit t e e hav e decid e d to send.) 4 Would you be very kind and lend me your umbr ella? 5 There are a lot of she e t s that nee d m e n di n g . 6 I was asto nis h e d whe n I heard that he had left the country. 7 It is bett e r that he should hear it from you. 8 I was rude to him, which was stupid. (It was stupid ...) 9 If he had anot h e r child with who m he could play, he would be happier 10 It is nec e s s a r y that ev er y o n e should know the truth . 11 There was no place wher e we could sit. 12 He put his han d into his pocke t and was astonis h e d whe n he found that his wallet wasn' t ther e. 13 He rushe d into the burning hous e , which was very brav e of him. (It was very brav e . . .) 14 I can't go to the party; I hav e nothing that I can wear. 15 It is exp e c t e d that he will broadca s t a stat e m e n t tonight. (He is exp e c t e d ...) 16 I want a kitche n wher e ( = in which) I can cook. 17 He reac h e d the station exh a u s t e d and was very disapp oin t e d whe n he learnt that the train had just left. 18 Haven ' t you anyt hin g with which you could ope n it? 19 It see m s that the crim e was com m i t t e d by a left- han d e d ma n. (The crime see m s . . . Use perfec t infinitive passiv e.) 20 Is it likely that he will arrive before six? (Is he . . .) 21 I was on the point of leaving the hous e when the phon e rang. 22 This is the plan: so m e o n e will m e e t you at the station . . . (You . . . (be me t) at the station)


98 23 24 25 26 27 28

She is anxiou s that the y should hav e every possible adv a n t a g e . It is said that he was a brilliant scientis t. (He is said . . .) The strikers decid e d that the strike should continu e . Would you be very kind and translat e this for me? It is advis a bl e that we shou ld leav e the hous e sep a r a t e l y. You signe d the docu m e n t withou t rea din g it, which was very stupid. (It was stupid ...) 29 It is said t hat she has a frightful te m p e r . (She . . .) 30 He was the first ma n who swa m the Chann el. 31 They believ e that he is hon e s t . (He . . .) 32 It app e ar s that he was killed with a blunt instru m e n t . (He app e a r s . . . Use passiv e infinitive.) 33 He was the only one who realized the dan g e r . 34 It is said that the earth was originally part of the sun. (The eart h . . .) 35 He took out his spar e whe el and was very disapp oint e d whe n he discov er e d that that tyre was also punct u r e d . 36 It is said that the murd er er is hiding in the woods ne ar your hous e .

Perfect infinitive used with auxiliary verbs PEG 255 Use the perfect infinitive of the verb in italics with the appro pria t e auxiliary verb. Phras e s in bold type should not be rep e a t e d , but their me a nin g should be expr e s s e d by the auxiliary + perfect infinitive. It is po s s i b l e th a t he telep h o n e d while we were out. He ma y hav e telep h o n e d while we were out. You (than k) him for his pres e n t but you did n't . You should hav e thank e d him for his pres e n t . 1 I realized that my hous e was on fire. ~ That (be) a terrible mo m e n t . 2 I saw a ghos t last n ight. ~ You (not see) a g host: ther e are n' t any ghos t s . You (drea m ) it. 3 It is po s s i b l e th a t a child b ro ke the window. 4 You carr ied it yours elf , which was not nec e s s a r y. 5 I've had a tooth a c h e for two days. ~ You (go ) to the dentis t when it start e d . 6 There (he) motor- cycle race s on the san d s but as it is so wet they hav e bee n canc elle d , 7 As I was sta n din g in the hall your dog bit me. ~ It (not he) my dog; he was with me all day. It (be) my broth e r ' s 8 I feel terribly ill toda y. ~ You (not eat) thos e mus hr o o m s yes t e r d a y. Mushroo m s don' t agr e e with you. 9 I wond e r why he didn' t answ e r ? ~


99 Po s s i b l y he didn 't und er s t a n d the que s tion. 10 I gav e him a tip, w hic h w a s not n e c e s s a r y . 11 The prison e r (escap e ) this way, for her e are his footprints . 12 You lied to him, w hic h w a s wro n g . 1 3 I didn' t recog nize the voice at the other end of the line . ~ It (be) my elder sister; she is often at hom e at that time. It (not be) my youn g e s t sister as she is abro a d. 14 Some o n e (cook) a me al here lately; the stov e is still hot. 15 I've broug h t my own sandwich e s . ~ You (not bring) the m. I hav e enou g h for two. 16 The burglar went straig h t to the safe althou g h it was hidd e n be pictur e. ~ Som e o n e (tell) him wher e it was. 17 The presid e n t (unv eil) the stat u e , but he is ill so his wife is doing instead. 18 The plan e is late; I wond er what has hap p e n e d ? ~ Po s s i b l y it was delaye d by fog. 19 I hav e nev er me t him. ~ You (m e e t) him; he lives next door to you. 20 I (d o ) it. (It was my duty to do it, but I didn' t.) 21 He (not catch) the 9.20 train bec a u s e he didn' t leav e hom e till 9. 22 I ope n e d it, w hic h w a s un n e c e s s a r y . 23 The police were her e while we were out. ~ Som e o n e (b etray) us. 24 I drov e at 80 miles an hour, w hic h w a s wro n g . 25 When I was your age I (climb) that mou n t ai n, (but I didn't). 26 If a police m a n had see n me climbing throu g h your window he me what I was doing , 27 He said that cens ors hip of news was ridiculous and it (a b olish) ago. (pas siv e verb) 28 You boil e d so ma n y eggs; but ther e are only four of us. 29 She (play) the chief part in the film, but she quarr elle d with the director, so he eng a g e d som e o n e else. 30 This poe m (be) writte n by Keats, bu t I am not cert a i n . 31 He (tak e) off his hat in the the a t r e , (but he didn' t). 32 People use d to walk twent y miles to do their shop pin g. ~ They (hav e ) a lot of ener g y in thos e days. 33 One day he went for a walk up a mou n t ai n and nev er cam e back. ~ He (fal l) over a precipice. 34 I just pres s e d lightly on the pan e and my han d went throu g h. ~ The glass (be) very thin. 35 You translat e d it into French, w hic h w a s n ' t n e c e s s a r y . 36 You looke d at the new moo n throu g h glass. It is mos t unlucky.


100 Perfect infinitive used with auxiliaries and some other verbs PEG 255 Instruction s : as for Exercis e 73, but wher e two verbs in italics are plac e d side by side, put the seco n d verb into the perfect infinitive and the first into an appro p ri a t e tens e . This palac e (say) (bu ild) in thre e year s. This palace is said to hav e bee n built in thre e years. 1 She (marry) my broth e r but she was killed in a plan e cras h a mont h befor e the weddin g dat e. 2 You repea t e d it, w hic h w a s un n e c e s s a r y . 3 There (see m ) (be) a fight her e. Everythin g is sma s h e d to bits. 4 We (set) out tod a y, but the weat h e r is so bad that we decid e d to post p o n e our start till tomorrow. 5 I thou g h t they were mus h r o o m s . ~ You (not eat) the m unles s you were sure. They (be) poisono u s . 6 He learnt the langu a g e in six mont h s . ~ He (work) very hard. 7 I broug h t my umbr ella, w hic h was un n e c e s s a r y . 8 I (like) (bath e ) but ther e wasn' t time. 9 I've forgott e n the addr e s s . I (write) it down (bu t I did n't) . 10 If I'd known your hous e was so cold I (not co m e ). 11 You (tel l) me you were going cam pin g! If I'd known I (go) with you .But it raine d all the time. You (not like) that, would you? 12 Who gav e you my addr e s s ? ~ I don' t rem e m b e r . It (be) Tom. ~ It (not be) Tom; he does n ' t know it. 13 You boug h t flowers bu t we hav e plenty in the gard e n . 14 After two years of his teac hin g she knew absolut ely nothin g. ~ He (not be) a good teac h e r . 15 My sister has just com e back from abro a d . She (see m ) (enjoy) her trip very much. 16 Life (be) very unco mfort a bl e in the Ston e Age. 17 You (s tand) still when you were being photo gr a p h e d , (but you didn' t). 18 I (go) to a foreign university but the war prev e n t e d it. 19 I (like) (photo gra p h ) it but I had no more film. 20 There (he) a bad accide n t her e. Look at all the broke n glas s. 21 It is po s s i b l e th a t prehis toric cave drawing s wer e conn e c t e d with religion. 22 I hav e be e n driving for 20 years . ~ You (not driv e ) for 20 years . You are only 30 now. 23 It (tak e ) year s to dig the Suez Canal. 24 He wa lked pas t me without spe a kin g. ~


101 He (not recog niz e) you. He is very short- sight e d . 25 I (like) (go) to the ma tc h but the ticket s were all sold. 26 He says he saw you at the the a t r e yes t e r d a y. ~ He (not see) me. I wasn' t ther e . 27 This pictur e ma y be a fake: on the oth er hand it (be) paint e d by one of the Dutch mas t e r s . 28 It is po s s i b l e th a t the fire in the ship was start e d by a bomb. 29 She walked 300 miles, carrying her child. ~ She (hav e) gre a t coura g e . 30 It is po s s i b l e th a t he (read) it in the pap e r s . ~ He (not read) it. He can't rea d. Som e o n e (tell) him. 31 I told the m to me e t me und er the clock but they didn' t turn up. Per h a p s they wer e waiting und er the wrong clock. There are two in the station. 32 He told me his na m e was Johnson. ~ You (mish e ar) him. His na m e is Jones. 33 I said that I couldn' t find my pen and he said that p erh a p s som e b o d y had borrow e d it. 34 I (like) (ask) a ques tio n but I was sitting so far back that I didn't think I'd be he ar d. 35 There (be) a fort her e at one time. You can see wher e the found a tio n s were. 36 The dinos a u r (be said) (be) rath e r a stupid anim al.

Gerund, infinitive and participles The gerund PEG 257 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the gerun d . 1 He gav e up (ga m bl e ). 2 Try to avoid (mak e ) him angry. 3 Stop (argu e ) and start (work). 4 The childre n prefer (watch) TV to (rea d). 5 I am agains t (mak e ) any complain t s . 6 It's no use (cry) over spilt milk. { prov er b) 7 I sugg e s t (hold) anot h e r me e tin g next week. 8 He finishe d (spe a k) and sat down. 9 He was fined for (drive) withou t lights. 10 It is difficult to get use d to (eat) with chops ticks. 11 if you can't turn the key try (put) som e oil in the lock. 12 He lost no time in (get) down to work. 13 You can' t mak e an omel e t t e withou t (bre ak) egg s. (prov er b) 14 We are looking forward to (rea d) your new book. 15 They esca p e d by (slide) down rope s ma d e of blank e t s . 16 They don' t allow (smok e ) in here. 17 He is thinking of (leav e) his job and (go) to America.


102 18 After (rea d) this article you will give up (smok e ). 19 If you put your mon e y into that busin e s s you risk (lose) every penn y. 20 Imagin e (live) with som e o n e who nev er stops (talk). 21 Is ther e anyt hin g here worth (buy )? 22 He was accus e d of (leak) classified inform a tio n to the pres s. 23 You'd bett e r cons ult your lawyer befor e (decid e) to buy the prop e r t y. 24 I don't enjoy (go) to the dentis t. 25 Would you mind (put) your pet snak e som e w h e r e else? 26 The host a g e s were rescu e d without a shot (be) fired. 27 By (work) day and night he succe e d e d in (finish) the job in time. 28 He has a sch e m e for (mak e ) gras s grow in winter. 29 I don't feel like (work); what abou t (go) to a disco inste a d ? 30 Would you mind (write) your na m e and addr e s s on the back of the cheq u e ? 31 If a thing is worth (do) at all it is worth (do) well. (prov er b) 32 I hat e (borrow) mon e y. 33 He was furious at (be) mist ak e n for an esc a p e d convict. 34 After (talk) for ten minut e s I succ e e d e d in (convinc e) him that ther e was no dang e r. 35 I rem e m b e r (rea d) a review of that book and (think) I'd like to get. 36 As a res ult of (listen) at keyhole s he learnt ma n y facts which he no hesita tion in (use) to his own adv a n t a g e .

Gerund and infinitive PEG 266- 71 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the correc t form (geru n d or infinitive) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

I am looking forward to (se e) you. He dre a d s (hav e) to retire. I arra n g e d (me e t) the m here. He urge d us (work) fast er. I wish (see) the ma n a g e r . It's no use (wait). He warn e d her (not touch) the wire. Don't forget (lock) the door befor e (go) to bed. My mot h e r told me (not spe a k) to anyo n e abou t it. I can' t und er s t a n d her (beh a v e ) like that. He tried (explain) but she refus e d (listen). At dinner she anno ye d me by (smok e) betw e e n the cours e s . You are exp e c t e d (know) the safet y regula tio n s of the colleg e. He decide d (disguis e) hims elf by (dres s ) as a wom a n . lam prep a r e d (wait) her e all night if nec e s s a r y.


103 16 Would you mind (show) me how (work) the lift? 17 After (walk) for thre e hours we stopp e d to let the oth er s (catch with us. 18 I am beginning (und e r s t a n d ) what you me a n . 19 He was fined for (exc e e d ) the spe e d limit. 20 The boys like (play) ga m e s but hat e (do) lesson s . 21 I regr e t (inform) you that your application has be e n refus e d . 22 I couldn' t help (overh e a r ) what you said. 23 Mrs Jones: I don't allow (smok e) in my drawing- roo m. Mrs Smith: I don' t allow my family (smok e ) at all. 24 He surpris e d us all by (go) aw ay without (say) 'Good- bye '. 25 Pleas e go on (write); I don't mind (wait). 26 He wore dark glass e s (avoid) (be) recog nize d. 27 Before (give) evide n c e you mus t swe ar (spe a k) the truth. 28 I tried (pers u a d e ) him (agr e e ) with your propos al. 29 Your window s nee d (clea n); would you like me (do) the m for you? 30 Would you mind (shut) the window? I hat e (sit) in a drau g h t . 31 I can' t help (sne e z e ); I caug h t a cold yest e r d a y from (sit) in a drau g h t . 32 Do stop (talk): I am trying (finish) a lett er. 33 His doctor advis e d him (give up) (jog). 34 My watch kee p s (stop). ~ That' s bec a u s e you keep (forg e t) (wind) it. 35 Without (realize) it. he hind er e d us inste a d of (help) us. 36 People use d (mak e) fire by (rub) two sticks toge t h e r .

Gerund and infinitive PEG 266- 71 Put the verbs in brack e t s into the corr e ct form (geru n d or infinitive). 1 He hat e s (answ e r) the phon e, and very often just lets it (ring). 2 If you go on (let) your dog (chas e ) cars he'll end by (be) run over. 3 I prefer (drive) to (be driven). 4 I advis e you (start) (look) for a flat at once. 5 Would you mind (lend) me Đˆ5? I forgot (cas h) a cheq u e . 6 (Lie) on this be ac h is much mor e plea s a n t tha n (sit) in the office. 7 She likes her childre n (go) to the dentis t every six mon t h s . 8 By (neglect) (take) ordinary pr e cautions he end a n g e r e d the life of his crew. 9 An instruct or is coming (show) us how (us e) the aqu alu n g . 10 I hav e no inten tio n of (go) to that film; I couldn' t be ar (se e) my favourit e actr e s s in such a dre a df ul part. 11 I sugg e s t (telep h o n e ) the hos pit als befor e (ask) the police (look) for him. 12 After (he ar) the conditions I decide d (not ent er) for the comp e tition.


104 13 Some peopl e see m (hav e) a pas sion for (write) to the news p a p e r s . 14 He exp e c t s me (answ e r) by return but I hav e no inten tion of (reply) at all. 15 I tried (exp lain) to him but he refus e d (listen) and went on (gru m bl e). 16 By (offer) enor m o u s wag e s he is pers u a di n g me n (leav e) their pres e n t jobs and (work) for him. 17 He post p o n e d (mak e ) a decision till it was too late (do) anyt hin g. 18 Imagin e (hav e) (get up) at five a.m. every day! 1 9 Try (forg e t) it: it isn't worth (worry) abou t. 20 There is no point in (re m ai n) in a dan g e r o u s place if you can't do anyt hin g (he lp) the people who hav e (sta y) ther e. 21 The hors e won't be well enou g h (run) in tomorrow ' s race. He does n ' t see m (hav e recov er e d ) from his long journ e y. 22 At first I enjoye d (liste n) to him but after a while I got tired of (he ar) the sa m e story ag ain and again. 23 It is usu ally easier (learn) a subject by (rea d) books tha n by (liste n) to lectur e s . 24 It wouldn' t be safe (start) down now; we'll hav e (wait) till the mist clears. 25 After (discus s ) the mat t e r for an hour the com mit t e e adjourn e d withou t (hav e reach e d ) any decision. 26 It's not muc h use (hav e) a bicycle if you don't know how (ride) it. 27 He didn' t dar e (leav e) the hous e bec a u s e he was afraid of (me e t ) som e o n e who might (reco g niz e) him. 28 I distinctly rem e m b e r (pay) him. I gav e him Đˆ2. 29 Did you rem e m b e r (give) him the key of the safe? ~ No, I didn't. I'll go and do it now. 30 Pleas e forgive me for (interru p t) you but would you mind (rep e a t ) that last sent e n c e ? 31 I know my hair want s (cut) but I nev er hav e time (go) to the hairdr e s s e r ' s . 32 He ma d e a lot of mon e y by (buy) tickets in adv a n c e and (sell) the m for twice the price on the day of the ma tc h. 33 She rush e d out of the room without (give) me a chanc e (explain). 34 He keep s (ask) me the time and I kee p (tell) him (buy) hims elf a watch. 35 He has a theor y that it is possible (tell) the time in daylight by (look) into a cat's eye s . 36 I'd hat e (be) besid e a volcano when it start e d (erupt).

Gerund and infinitive PEG 266- 71 After lik e it is som e ti m e s possible to use eith er geru n d or infinitive, but ther e tend s to be a slight differe n c e in implication.


105 like + geru n d usu ally me a n s ' enjoy '; it also usu ally implies that the action is/was perfor m e d : I like skating = I enjoy skating (and do skat e ). like + infinitive has more the me a nin g of ' approv e of, like th e idea or habit '. In the affirm a tiv e it gives no indication as to whet h e r the action is perfor m e d or not, and in the neg a tiv e implies that it is not perfor m e d . I didn' t like saying it usu ally me a n s 1 said it, unwillingly ', but I didn' t like to say it usu ally me a n s 1 didn't say it ' (bec a u s e it didn' t see m right or sensible). The distinction, how ev e r, is not rigid. The abov e not e s are, ther efor e , only guide s which ma y safely be followed. Put the verbs in brack e t s into geru n d or infinitive. 1 I used (ride) a lot but I hav e n ' t had a chanc e (do) any since (com e) her e. ~ I ride som e ti m e s . Would you like (com e ) with me next time? 2 Most people prefer (spe n d) mon e y to (earn) it. 3 I res e n t e d (be) unjustly accus e d and aske d him (ap o l o g i z e ) . 4 It isn't good for childre n (eat) too ma n y swe e t s . 5 I didn't feel like (work) so I sugg e s t e d (spe n d) the day in the gar d e n . 6 Why do you keep (look) back? Are you afraid of (be) followed? 7 Do you rem e m b e r (post) the letter? ~ Yes, I do; I post e d it in the letter- box near my gat e. 8 Did you rem e m b e r (lock) the door? ~ No, I didn' t. I'd bett e r (go ) back and (do) it now. 9 You still hav e a lot (learn) if you'll forgive my (say) so. 10 It's no use (try) (interru p t) him. You'll hav e (wait) till he stops (talk). 11 I'm for (do) nothing till the police arrive. They don' t like you (mov e) anyt hin g when a crime has be e n com mit t e d . 12 He didn' t like (leav e) the childre n alon e in the hous e but he had no alter n a tiv e as he had (go) out to work. 13 Why didn' t you drink it ?I didn't like (drink) it as I didn't know what it was. 14 I'm very sorry for (be) late. It was good of you (wait) for me. 15 I kee p (try) (mak e) mayo n n a i s e but I nev er succe e d . ~ Try (add) the yolk of a hard- boiled egg. 16 Do you feel like (go) to a film or would you rath e r (sta y) at hom e ? 17 She told me (look) throu g h her corre s p o n d e n c e and (tak e) out any letter s that you had writte n her. I didn' t like (look) throu g h som e o n e else' s lett er s but I had (do) as she said. 18 He took to (get up) early and (walk) noisily abou t the hous e . 19 I liked (listen) to folk music much bett e r tha n (listen) to pop.


106 20 The car beg a n (mak e) an extr a or din a r y noise so I stop p e d (see) what it was. 21 You'll nev er regr e t (do) a kind action. 22 He decid e d (put) broke n glass on top of his wall (prev e n t ) boys (climb) over it. 23 He anno ye d me very much by (take) the piece of cake that I was keepin g (eat) after my supp e r. 24 He kept (ring) up and (ask) for an expla n a tio n and she didn't know what (do) abou t him. 25 We got tired of (wait) for the weat h e r (clear) and finally decid e d (set) out in the rain. 26 He ma d e me (rep e a t ) his instruction s (mak e) sure that I und er s t o o d what I was (do) after he had gon e. 27 I sugg e s t (leav e) the car her e and (sen d) a bre ak d o w n van (tow) it to the gara g e . 28 She apologize d for (borrow) my sewing- mac hin e without (ask) per mis sion and pro mis e d nev er (do) it again. 29 I didn't me a n (offend) anyo n e but som e h o w I succ e e d e d in (anno y) the m all. 30 She claime d (be able) (tell) the futur e by (gaze) into her cryst al ball. 31 He nev er thinks of (get) out of your way; he exp e c t s you (walk) round him. 32 You don' t nee d (ask) his per mis sio n every time you want (leav e) the room. 33 The police accus e d him of (set) fire to the building but he denie d (hav e bee n) in the are a on the night of the fire. 34 I left my door ope n. Why didn't you walk in ? ~ I didn't like (go) in when you were n' t ther e. 35 It's much bett e r (go) to a hairdr e s s e r tha n (try) (sav e) time by (cut) your own hair. 36 I'd rath e r (earn) my living by (scrub) floors tha n (mak e) mon e y by (black m ail) people.

Infinitive, gerund, present participle PEG 266- 75, 295 C, 295 D This exercis e includ e s exa m pl e s of both ing forms, the geru n d and the pres e n t participle. Either pres e n t participle or infinitive withou t to can be used after verbs of the sens e s . Put the verbs in brack e t s into a correc t form. When mor e tha n one form is possible it will be note d in the key. 1 When the paint e r felt the ladd er (begin) (slip) he grab b e d the gl itter (sav e) hims elf from


107 (fall). 2 The snow kept (fall) and the workm e n grew tired of (try) (kee p) the roads clear. 3 He offere d (lend) me the mon e y. I didn't like (take) it but I had no alter n a tiv e. 4 What was in the letter? ~ I don' t know. I didn't like (ope n) it as it was n' t addr e s s e d to me. 5 Do you rem e m b e r (rea d) abou t it? ~ No, at that time I was too youn g (rea d) news p a p e r s . 6 Did you rem e m b e r (book) sea t s for the the a t r e tomorrow ? ~ Yes, I hav e the ticket s her e. Would you like (kee p) the m ? I am inclined (lose) the a t r e tickets . 7 Try (avoid) (be) late. He hat e s (be) kept (wait). 8 I didn't know how (get) to your hous e so I stopp e d (ask) the way. 9 I wish my refriger a t o r would stop (mak e) that horrible nois e. You can' t hear anyo n e (spe a k). 10 This book tells you how (win) at ga m e s withou t actu ally (che a t ). 11 The gun m a n beg a n (fire). He felt a bullet (gra ze) his che ek. 12 He hear d the clock (strike) six and knew that it was time for him (get) up. 13 I can he ar the bell (ring) but nobo d y see m s (be coming) (ope n) the door. 14 Did you advis e him (go) to the police? ~ No, I didn't like (give) any advice on such a difficult mat t e r . 15 He want e d (put) my cha m el e o n on a tart a n rug and (watch) it (chan g e ) colour. 16 It is eas y (see) anim als on the road in d ayli g ht but som e ti m e s at n ight it is very difficult (avo id) (hit) the m. 17 The tire see m s (be) out. ~ It can't be quite out. I can hear the wood (crackle). 18 I caug h t him (climb) over my wall. I aske d him (explain) but he refus e d (say) anyt hin g, so in the end I had (let) him (go). 19 When at last I succe e d e d in (convinc e ) him that I want e d (get) hom e quickly he put his foot on the accel er a t o r and I felt the car (leap) forward. 20 I'm not use d to (drive) on the left. When you see everyo n e else (do) it you'll find it quite eas y (do) yours elf. 21 It is plea s a n t (sit) by the fire at night and (he ar) the wind (howl) outsid e. 22 There was no way of (get) out of the building exce p t by (climb) down a rope and Ann was too terrified (do) this. 23 We he ar d the engin e s (roar) as the plan e beg a n (mov e) and we


108 saw the people on the groun d (wave) good- bye. 24 It's no good (write) to him; he nev er answ e r s lett er s. The only thing (do) is (go) and (se e) him. 25 Why did you go all round the field inste a d of (walk) acros s it? ~ I didn't like (cros s) it beca u s e of the bull. I nev er see a bull withou t (think) that it wants (chas e ) me. 26 The people in the flat below see m (be having) a party. You can hear the cha m p a g n e corks (thud) agains t their ceiling. 27 I don't like (get) bills but when I do get the m I like (pay) the m pro m p t ly. 28 Ask him (com e ) in. Don't keep him (sta n d) at the door. 29 The boys next door use d (like) (m ake) and (fly) mod el aero pla n e s , but they see m to hav e stop p e d (do) that now. 30 I knew I wasn' t the first (arrive), for I saw smok e (rise) from the chimn e y. 31 We watch e d the me n (saw) the tre e and as we were walking away hear d it (fall) with a tre m e n d o u s cras h. 32 I hat e (see) a child (cry). 33 We watch e d the children (jump) from a window and (fall) into a blank e t held by the people below. 34 It is very unple a s a n t (wake) up and (hear) the rain (be a t) on the window s. 35 He saw the lorry (begin) (roll) forward s but he was too far aw ay (do) anyt hin g (stop) it. 36 There are people who can' t help (laugh) when they see som e o n e (slip) on a ban a n a skin.

Using participles to join sentences PEG 276- 9 Join each of the following pairs of sent e n c e s , using eith er a pres e n t participle e.g. knowin g, a pas t participle e.g. know n, or a perfect participle e.g. having know n. Numb e r s 17, 28, 33, and 36 cont ain thre e sent e n c e s each. Combin e the s e in the sa m e way. He got off his hors e. He beg a n searc hin g for som e t hi n g on the groun d. Getting off his hors e, he bega n searching . . : I had see n photo g r a p h s of the plac e. I had no desire to go ther e. Having see n photo gra p h s of the place, I had no desire . . . The spe ak e r refus e d to continu e . He was infuriat e d by the interru p tio n s . Infuriat e d b y the interruption s , the spea k er refus e d . . . Thes e participle constru c tion s are mor e com m o n in writte n English. 1 I knew that he was poor. I offere d to pay his fare. 2 We barrica d e d the window s. We ass e m bl e d in the hall. 3 She bec a m e tired of my compl aint s abou t the progr a m m e . She


109 turn e d it off. 4 He found no one at hom e . He left the hous e in a bad te m p e r . 5 She hop e d to find the will. She searc h e d everyw h e r e . 6 The crimin al remo v e d all trac e s of his crime. He left the building. 7 He realize d that he had miss e d the last train. He beg a n to walk. 8 He was exh a u s t e d by his work. He threw hims elf on his bed. 9 He had spen t all his mon e y. He decide d to go hom e and ask his fath er for a job. 10 He esca p e d from prison. He looked for a place wher e he could get food. 11 She didn't want to hear the story ag ain. She had he ar d it all befor e 12 They found the mon e y. They beg a n quarr elling abou t how to divide it. 13 She ent e r e d the room sudd e nly. She found the m smoking. 14 I turn e d on the light. I was asto nis h e d at what I saw. 15 We visited the mus e u m . We decid e d to hav e lunch in the park. 16 He offere d to show us the way hom e . He thou g h t we were lost. 17 He found his revolver. He load e d it. He sat down facing the door. 18 She aske d me to help her. She realized that she couldn' t mov e it alon e. 19 He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinn er. 20 He addr e s s e d the congr e g a tio n. He said he was sorry to see how few of the m had bee n able to com e. 21 He thoug h t he mus t hav e ma d e a mist ak e som e w h e r e . He went throu g h his calculation s ag ain. 22 I hav e looked throu g h the fashion ma g a zin e s . I realize that my cloth e s are hop ele s sly out of dat e. 23 The tre e had fallen acros s the road. It had be e n uproot e d by the gale. 24 People were slee pin g in the next roo m. They were wake n e d by the sound of bre akin g glass. 25 I knew that the murd e r e r was still at large. I was extr e m e l y reluct a n t to ope n the door. 26 He stole the silver. He looked for a place to hide it. 27 We were soak e d to the skin. We eve n t u ally reach e d the station. 28 I sat in the front row. I used oper a glas s e s . I saw everyt hin g bea u tifully. 29 One eve nin g you will be sitting by the fire. You will rem e m b e r this day. 30 I didn't like to sit down. I knew that ther e were ants in the gras s. 31 She believ e d that she could trust him abs olut ely. She gav e him a blank cheq u e . 32 Slate s were rippe d off by the gale. They fell on people pas sin g below. 33 The lion found his cag e door ope n. He saw no sign of his keep e r . He left the cag e and walked slowly tow ar d s the zoo entr a n c e .


110 34 The gover n m e n t once tried to tax people according to the size of their hous e s . They put a tax on window s. 35 I had he ar d that the cave s were dan g e r o u s . I didn' t like to go any furth e r without a light. 36 She wore extr e m e l y fashion a bl e cloth e s . She was surrou n d e d by photo g r a p h e r s and pres s m e n . She swept up to the microp h o n e .

Misrelated participles PEG 280 A participle is consid er e d to belong to the noun or prono u n that imme di a t el y prec e d e s it (which usu ally, but not nec e s s a rily, is the subject of the main verb). The boy, climbing the tre e to get birds' eggs , had a bad fall. If ther e is no noun/pr o n o u n in this position the participle is consid e r e d to belong to the subject of the following main verb: Climbing the tre e to get birds' egg s, the boy had a bad fall. Som e ti m e s this principle is disreg a r d e d and confusion results: Climbing down the tre e, one of the eggs brok e . This word order mak e s it app e a r that the egg was climbing, which is nons e n s e . A participle linked in this way to the wrong noun/pro n o u n is said to be ' misrel a t e d '. The sent e n c e should be rewritt e n: Climbing down the tree he broke one of the egg s or As he was climbing down the tree one of the eggs broke. Other exa m pl e s of this typ e of error are given below. Correct the sent e n c e s . Som e ti m e s only a chan g e of order is require d. 1 When leaving a car in this car park the brak e s mus t be left off. 2 Wadin g acros s the river , the curre n t swept me off my fe e t. 3 When filling a tank with petrol nak e d lights should be exting u ishe d. 4 Running into the roo m, a rug caug h t her foot and she fell. 5 Readin g the letter a secon d time, the me a nin g beco m e s clear e r. 6 When carrying a gun it should nev er be point e d at anyo n e . 7 When plantin g thes e flowers care mus t be take n not to da m a g e the roots. 8 Riding in his first race, his hors e fell at the last jump. 9 When paying by cheq u e , a bank card should be show n. 10 Knowing me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won a scholars hip asto nis h e d him. 11 Believing that his last hour had com e, his han d s beg a n to tre m bl e. 12 Passing und er a ladd er, a pot of paint fell on my hea d. 13 Readin g in bed, my hand s often get very cold. 14 Leaving the cine m a , it see m e d to him that the film had be e n exce p tion a lly bad.


111 15 Barking furiously, I led the dog out of the room. 16 Having paid my tax e s , the amo u n t left in the bank is hardly worth me n tionin g. 17 Writing my na m e in the hotel regist e r, a fami liar voice attr a c t e d my att e n tio n. 18 Tied to a post, the sea was tossing the boat up and down. 19 Misund e r s t a n di n g the que s tion, the wrong answ e r was sent in. 20 Shining in the sky, we saw the first star. 21 When driving carele s sly it is eas y to hav e an accide n t. 22 Pinne d to the door by a knife, the ma n saw a notice. 23 Written in large lett er s they read the words 'No Entry '. 24 While clea ning his gun it went off unex p e c t e d l y. 25 Wond erin g wher e to go. an adv er tis e me n t caug h t my eye. 26 Rushing out of (he hous e , a lorry knocke d me over. 27 Sitting by the fire, it all com e s back to me. 28 Fla iling from such a heigh t, we thoug h t he would nev er survive. 29 When chan gin g a fuse the electricity should first be switch e d off. 30 Towed behind the car, I saw a trailer with a boat on it. 31 While sitting at the foot of a cliff a ston e fell on him. 32 Driving to work, the traffic jams infuriat e d him. 33 Dropp e d by par ac h u t e , the country see m e d entirely unfa miliar. 34 Sitting in the dentis t' s chair, an idea sudd e nly occurr e d to me. 35 Weak e n e d by his last illnes s, I felt sure that anot h e r winter in this countr y would kill him. 36 Getting out of bed, a scorpion bit him.

Passive Active to passive PEG 302- 6 Put the following into the pas sive voice. The age n t should not be me n tion e d exc e p t in nu mb e r s II and 28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

You should open the wine abou t thre e hours befor e you use it. Previous climb e r s had cut ste p s in the ice. Some b o d y had clean e d my sho e s and brus h e d my suit. We use this room only on special occasion s . You mus t not ha m m e r nails into the walls withou t per mis sio n. In som e districts farm e r s use pigs to find truffles. Some o n e switch e d on a light and ope n e d the door. Some b o d y had slas h e d the pictur e with a knife. They are pulling down the old the a t r e . Why didn' t they me n d the roof befor e it fell in? The mob broke all the shop window s in rece n t riots. The librarian said that they were starting a new syst e m bec a u s e people were not retur nin g books. 13 The police aske d each of us abou t his mov e m e n t s on the night of


112 the crime. 14 Some o n e will serv e refres h m e n t s . 15 People mus t not leav e bicycles in the hall. 16 Memb e r s ma y keep books for thre e weeks. After that they mus t retur n the m. 17 The burglars had cut an enor m o u s hole in the ste el door. 18 I've boug h t a harp. They are delivering it this after n o o n . (Do not chang e the first sent e n c e . ) 19 Some o n e has alre a d y told him to report for duty at six. 20 They rang the church bells as a flood warning. 21 No one can do anyt hin g unles s som e o n e gives us mor e inform a tio n. 22 People are spen din g far mor e mon e y on food now tha n they spen t ten year s ago. 23 The orga nizer s will exhibit the painting s till the end of the mon t h. 24 They will say nothin g more abou t the mat t e r if som e o n e retur n s the stolen gun. 25 It is high time som e o n e told him to stop beh a vin g like a child. 26 A thief stole my dog and broug h t him back only when I offere d Đˆ20 rew ar d for him. 27 The judge gav e him two weeks in which to pay the fine. 28 They mak e the s e artificial flowers of silk.

Active to passive PEG 302- 6 Put the following into the pas sive, me n tio nin g the ag e n t wher e nec e s s a r y. Wher e ther e is an indirect and a direct object, mak e the indirect object the subject of the pas siv e verb. They gav e her a clock. Sh e was given a clock. The gerun d after cert ain verbs is replac e d in the pas sive by sh o u l d b e + pas t participle: They advis e d employing part- time workers. They advis e d that part- tim e worker s should be e m plo y e d . 1 They feed the seals at the zoo twice a day. 2 Who wrote it? 3 Comp a r e cloth e s which we hav e was h e d with cloth e s which any other laundr y has was h e d . 4 He exp e c t e d us to offer him the job. 5 They show e d her the easie s t way to do it. 6 Lightning struck the old oak. 7 Titian couldn' t hav e paint e d it as people didn' t wear that style of dres s till after his


113 dea t h . 8 A jellyfish stun g her. 9 The aut h or has writte n a special edition for childre n. 10 Judges used to carry swe e t herb s as a prot e c tio n ag ain s t jail-fever. 11 What did he write it with ? ~ He wrote it with a mat c h s tick dippe d in blood. 12 An une a s y silenc e succ e e d e d the shot. 13 Did the idea inter e s t you? 14 The lawyer gav e him the det ails of his uncle' s will. 15 Beav e r s mak e the s e da m s . 16 They use d to start thes e engin e s by han d. Now they start the m by electricity. 17 Most people oppos e d this. 18 Stud e n t s are doing a lot of the work. 19 The Prime Minister was to hav e ope n e d the dry dock. 20 They reco m m e n d e d ope nin g new factorie s in the depr e s s e d are a . (Use should.) 21 The closur e of the works ho p s will mak e a lot of me n redu n d a n t . 22 Anyon e with the smalles t intelligen c e could und er s t a n d thes e instruc tion s . 2 3 We will not ad mit childre n und e r sixte e n . 24 Boys of sixte e n to eight e e n are to ma n this training ship. 2 5 A rains tor m floode d the gypsie s ' cam p. 2 6 The howling of wolves kept him aw ak e all night. 27 They sugg e s t e d making the test s easier. (Use should.) 28 Childre n couldn' t hav e don e all this da m a g e .

Passive to active PEG 302- 6 Turn the following sent e n c e s into the active voice. Where no ag e n t is me n tion e d one mus t be supp lied. School notice: This door mus t be kept shut. Stud e n t s m us t kee p this door shut. 1 Why don' t you hav e your eye s tes t e d ? (... get an optician to . . . Se e 119.) 2 This spe e d limit is to be introdu c e d grad u ally. 3 The runw a ys are being lengt h e n e d at all the main airports . 4 It is now 6 a.m. and at mos t of the hospit als in the country patie n t s are being wake n e d with cups of tea. 5 Byron is said to hav e lived on vineg a r and pota t o e s . 6 By tradition, any sturg e o n that are caug h t by British ships mus t be offere d to the Quee n. 7 This notice has be e n alter e d . 8 The owner s went awa y last March and since then their hous e b o a t has bee n use d continuo u sly by squ a t t e r s . (Use a continu o u s tens e


114 and omit continuo u sly.) 9 The da m a g e d ship was being tow e d into harbo u r when the towline broke. 10 Have a lift put in and the n you won't hav e to climb up all the s e st a irs. 11 Last year a profit of two million poun d s was ma d e in the first six mont h s but this was canc elled by a loss of sev e n t e e n million poun d s which was ma d e in the seco n d six mont h s . 12 Evening dres s will be worn. 13 The ship was put into quar a n tin e and pas s e n g e r s and crew were forbidd e n to land. 14 Some o n e will hav e to be found to take her plac e. 15 He was ma d e to surre n d e r his pas s p or t. 16 This rumo u r mus t hav e be e n start e d by our oppo n e n t s . 17 My painting s are to be exhibit e d for the first time by New Arts Gallery. 18 This scientific theory has now be e n prov e d to be false. 19 The car which was blown over the cliff yes t e r d a y is to be salva g e d toda y. 20 The hous e wher e the de a d ma n was found is being guard e d by the police to prev e n t it from being ent er e d and the evide n c e interfer e d with. 21 Why wasn' t the car eith er locked or put into the gara g e ? 22 It is being said that too little mon e y is being spen t by the gover n m e n t on road s. 23 Your mon e y could be put to good use inste a d of being left idle in the bank. 24 For a long time the eart h was believ e d to be flat. 25 This copy has n' t be e n rea d. The pa g es hav e n ' t be e n cut. 26 The ston e s were throw n by a stud e n t , who was afterw a r d s led aw ay by the police. 27 Carrier pigeo n s are said to hav e be e n used by early Egyptia n and Greek sailors. 28 The refer e e was being escort e d from the footb all field by a stron g police guar d.

Indirect speech Indirect speech: statements PEG 307- 8,313 1 Stud e n t s are aske d to ass u m e that the s e sent e n c e s are spok e n and report e d on differe n t days. This will me a n that a sent e n c e such as: He said, 1 am coming to m orrow ,' will beco m e : He said that he was coming the next day, and so on. This applies to all the exercis e s on indirect spe e c h in this book.


115 2 With indirect spe e c h , when the pers o n addr e s s e d is me n tio n e d , tell is more usu al tha n sa y to as an introd uc t or y verb. For exa m pl e: He told m e that he was going aw ay the next day is mor e usu al tha n He said to m e that he was going away the next day. Put the following into indirect spe e c h. 1 2 3 4

1 hav e som e t hi n g to show you ,' I said to her. ' Nothing grows in my gard e n . It nev er gets any sun ,' she said. I'm going away tomorrow, mot h e r ,' he said. I've be e n in London for a mont h but so far I hav e n ' t had time to visit the Tower ,' said Rupert. 5 It isn't so foggy toda y as it was yest e r d a y ,' I rem a r k e d . 6 ' The new und e r p a s s is being officially open e d the day after tomorrow, ' said the BBC anno u n c e r . 7 ' We hav e mov e d into our new flat. We don' t like it ne arly so muc h as our last one ,' said my aunt. 8 ' We hav e a lift but very often it does n ' t work ,' they said. 9 'From one of the window s of my flat I can see the Eiffel Tower ,' he said. 10 I've no idea what the time is but I'll dial 8081 and find out ,' said his daug h t e r . 11 He said, ' My wife has just be e n ma d e a judg e .' 12 I'll com e with you as soon as I am rea d y ,' she replied. 13 I hav e a Germ a n lesson this aftern o o n and I hav e n ' t done my hom e w o rk yet ,' said the small boy. 14 If you let the iron get too hot you will scorch your cloth e s ,' I warn e d her. 15 ' You hav e n ' t given me quite enou g h . The bill is for Đˆ14 and you'v e paid me only Đˆ13,' he point e d out. 16 Ann said, 'English m e n mak e good husb a n d s beca u s e they are nearly always willing to help in the hous e .' 17 Mary answ er e d , I like me n to be useful but I don't like the m to be too dom e s tic a t e d . I prefer the m to keep out of the kitche n altog e t h e r . Men look silly in apro n s anyw a y .' 18 Motoring report: The new Rolls Royce runs so quietly that all you can he ar is the ticking of the clock. Managing director of the Rolls Royce comp a n y: In that cas e we'll hav e to do som e t hin g abou t the clock.


116 19 1 don't know what to do with all my plums. I suppo s e I'll hav e to mak e jam. The trouble is that none of us eat s jam ,' she said. 20 ' We like working on Sund a ys bec a u s e we get double pay ,' explain e d the builders. 21 He said, I am quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and me n din g too .' 22 ' You can keep that one if you like, Joan ,' he said. I've got plent y of other s .' 23 I'm going fishing with mot h e r this aftern o o n ,' said the small boy, ' and we are going into the gard e n now to dig for worms .' (Omi t now). 24 ' You've got my umbr ella ,' I said crossly. 'Yours is in your bedroo m .' 25 I know exac tly what they said ,' the privat e det e c tiv e explain e d to his client, ' bec a u s e I bugg e d their phon e .' 26 I'll sit up till she come s in, but I hop e she won't be late ,' he said. 27 If you give me som e wire, I'll hang that pictur e for you ,' said my cousin. 28 I hav e a Turkish bath occa sion ally, but it does n ' t see m to mak e any differe n c e to my weight .,' she said. 29 This is quite a good mod el, ma d a m . I use one of thes e mys elf ,' said the sales m a n . 30 ' My new hous e is suppo s e d to be hau n t e d , but so far I hav e n ' t see n any ghos t s ,' she said. 31 The adv er tis e m e n t said, If you answ e r the que s tion s correctly you may win Đˆ100.' 32 If I pres s my ear ag ain s t the wall, I can he ar what the peopl e in the next flat are saying ,' he said.

Indirect speech: statements PEG 309- 10 Som e tens e s /for m s do not chan g e when direct spe e c h beco m e s indirect: 'I wish my childre n would eat veg e t a bl e s ,' she said. She (said she) wished her children would eat vegetabl es. Put the following into indirect spe e c h, being careful to avoid ambig uity: 1 I couldn' t get into the hous e bec a u s e I had lost my key, so I had to bre ak a window ,' he said. 2 ' The mirror is ther e so that you can see yours elf when you are


117 dancin g ,' the instruc tr e s s told him. 3 I wrote to him the day befor e yest e r d a y. I wond er why he has n' t rung up ,' she said. 4 If the groun d is dry on the day of the race, my hors e might win ,' said the owner. 5 ' You'd bett e r slow down. There' s a spe e d limit here ,' she said to me. (Use advis e.) 6 If Tom want s sea t s , he'd bett e r apply early ,' she said. 7 ' We walked 50 miles last night to see the Minister and prot e s t abou t our rent s being raise d. He was very polite and pro mis e d to do what he could for us ,' said one of the ten a n t s . 8 ' They should put traffic lights here, otherwis e ther e ' 11 be mor e accide n t s ,' she said. 9 It's time we beg a n training for our next mat c h ,' the coach said to the m. 10 If you leav e hom e at six, you should be her e by nine ,' he said to me. 11 If it rains this aftern o o n it will be too wet to play the mat c h tomorrow ,' the capt ain said. 12 I me a n t to plug in the electric blank e t but I plugg e d in the electric kettle by mist ak e . I'm always doing silly things like that ,' she told her gues t. 13 I was inten din g to do it tomorrow ,' he said, 'but now I don't think I'll be able to .' 14 ' Bill should do very well at the university, Mrs Smith ,' said the hea d m a s t e r . 'He's don e very well here .' 15 I don't think your fath e r likes me ,' said the youn g wife. ' You mus t n ' t think that ,' said her hus b a n d ; 'it is just that he is old and finds it hard to get use d to new peopl e .' (Leav e mus t n ' t uncha n g e d . ) 16 ' The ste ak is overd o n e again. I'm not complaining; I'm just pointing it out ,' said her hus b a n d . 'I wish you' d stop pointing things out ,' said his wife. 17 ' They couldn' t ope n the safe on the spot so they carried it aw ay with the m ,' the night watch m a n report e d . 18 If you saw my fath er, you' d recog nize him at once. He is the mos t extr a o r din a r y- looking ma n ,' she said to me. 19 I found an old Roma n coin in the gard e n yes t e r d a y ,' he said, 'and I'm going to take it to the mus e u m this aftern o o n .' 20 He said, I got out of my boat, leaving the engin e running, but while I was stan din g on the qua y the gear s sudd e nly eng a g e d the m s e lv e s


118 and the boat went straigh t out of the harbo u r with no one on board .' 21 Then Macbet h ent e r s and says, I hav e don e the de e d .' 22 ' Would you like me to go with you ?' I said. I'd rath e r go alon e ,' he answ e r e d . 23 My broth e r said, ' You ma y take my car if you like. I sha n' t be nee din g it tomorrow or the day after. ' 24 ' Yesterd a y Tom and I went to look at a hous e that he was thinking of buying. It was rath e r a nice hous e and had a lovely gard e n but Tom decid e d agains t it bec a u s e it was opposit e a cem e t e r y ,' said Celia. 25 He said, ' My wife wants to take a job but I'd rath e r she conc e n t r a t e d on our hom e .' 26 I don't know what your fath er will say when he see s what a me s s your puppie s hav e ma d e of this five- poun d not e ,' said my mot h e r. 27 It's high time you pas s e d your test; I'm tired of driving roun d with an L-plat e on the front of the car ,' my sister said. 28 I wish you' d see n it ,' I said to her.

Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 Put the following into indirect spe e c h. The first ten ques tio n s requir e no chan g e of order: He said, 'What is hap p e ni n g ?' He ask e d what was happ e ni n g . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

' What hap p e n e d to Mr Budd?' said one of the me n. ' Which of his sons inherit e d his est a t e ?' aske d anot h e r. ' Who is going to live in the big hous e ?' enq uir e d a third. ' What will hap p e n to his race h o r s e s ?' aske d som e o n e else. ' Which tea m has won ?' aske d Ann. ' Which tea m won the previou s mat c h ?' said Bill. ' Who is playing next week ?' he aske d. ' Who will be umpiring that ma tc h ?' aske d Tom. ' Who wants a lift hom e ?' said Ann. ' Who has just dropp e d a Đˆ10 note ?' I aske d. ' Where is the ticket office ?' aske d Mrs Jones. ' What shall I do with my heav y lugg a g e ?' she said. (Use should.) ' What platfor m does the train leav e from ?' aske d Bill. ' When does it arrive in York ?' he aske d. ' When was the time t a bl e chan g e d ?' I aske d. ' Why has the 2.30 train be e n canc elled ?' said Ann. ' How muc h does a day retur n to Bath cost ?' Mrs Jones aske d. ' Why does the price go up so often ?' she wond e r e d . ' How can I get from the station to the airport ?' said Bill.


119 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

' When are you com ing back ?' I aske d the m. Is a return ticket che a p e r than two singles ?' said my aunt. ' Do puppie s trav el free ?' aske d a dog owner. ' Can I bring my dog into the comp a r t m e n t with me ?' she aske d. ' Does this train stop at York ?' aske d Bill. ' Can you telep h o n e from inter- city trains ?' said the busin e s s m a n . ' Does the 2.40 hav e a rest a u r a n t car ?' he enq uir e d. ' Can you get coffee on the train ?' aske d my aunt. ' Do they bring it round on a trolley ?' she said. ' Are ther e smoking comp a r t m e n t s ?' said the ma n with the pipe. ' Have you res erv e d a sea t ?' I aske d him.

Extra exercis e: read the last twen t y que s tion s , using one of the following prefac e s : I w o n d e r /I'd like to kno w / D o you kno w ?/H a v e you an y id e a ?/C a n you tell m e? 11 'Do you know where the ticket office is?' 12 ' I wonder what I should do with my heavy luggage. '

Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 A new stud e n t , Paul, has com e to the colleg e and the other stud e n t s are asking him ques tio n s . Imagin e that he report s thes e que s tion s later to an English friend: I Bill aske d what countr y I cam e from. 1 'What countr y do you come from ?' said Bill. 2 'How long hav e you bee n her e ?' said Ann. 3 'Are you working as well as studying ?' aske d Peter. 4 'Have you got a work per mit ?' Bill want e d to know. 5 'What are you going to study ?' aske d Ann. 6 'Have you enrolled for mor e tha n one class ?' said Peter. 7 'Do you want to buy any seco n d- hand books ?' said Bill. 8 'Have you see n the library ?' aske d Ann. 9 'Do you play rugby?' said Peter. 10 ' Will you hav e time to play regularly ?' he went on. 11 ' Did you play for your school tea m ?' said Bill. 12 ' Are you inter e s t e d in acting ?' aske d Ann. 13 ' Would you like to join our Dram a Group ?' she said. 14 ' What do you think of the cant e e n coffee ?' aske d Peter. Mary and Tom, with their son, John, age d II, hav e rece n tly com e to this are a. Mary wants to find a school for John and asks her neighb o u r Mrs Smith abou t the local school. (a) Later, Mrs Smith report s thes e que s tion s to her hus b a n d : 'Is it a mixed school ?'


120 She ask e d if it was a mix e d school. (b) Altern a tiv ely, supply suita ble answ e r s to Mary's ques tio n s and the n imagin e that Mary report s the conver s a tio n (her que s tion s and Mrs Smith' s answ e r s ) to her hus b a n d Tom: 36 ' Were your boys hap p y ther e ?' ~ ' Yes, they were .' I asked if her boys had been happy there and she said that they had. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

' How long has it bee n a mixed school ?' ' Do you like the he a d m a s t e r ?' Is he a scientis t or an arts grad u a t e ?' ' How ma n y childre n are ther e in the school ?' ' How big are the class e s ?' ' Are the class e s stre a m e d ?' ' What is the aca d e mi c stan d a r d like ?' ' Can par e n t s visit the school at any time ?' Is ther e a good art dep a r t m e n t ?' ' Do they teac h music ?' ' What instru m e n t s can the childre n learn ?' Is ther e a school orch e s t r a ?' ' Do they act plays ?' ' What sort of plays hav e they don e ?' ' What ga m e s do they play ?' ' Are the playing fields ne ar the school ?' ' Are they tau g h t to swim ?' ' Can the childre n get dinn er at school ?' Is the food good ?' Is ther e a Pare n t- Teach e r Association ?' ' How often does it me e t ?' ' Were your own boys hap p y at the school ?'

Indirect speech: questions PEG 317 Put the following into indirect spe e c h. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

'Why are you looking throu g h the keyhol e ?' I said. 'Who put salt in my coffee ?' he aske d. 'Which of you knows how to mak e Irish stew ?' said the chief cook. 'Why did you trav el first class ?' I aske d him. 'How can I run in high- he el e d sho e s ?' she enquire d . 'What is your new hous e like ?' I aske d the m. He said, 'Wher e am I suppo s e d to go now ?' (Omit now.)


121 8 'Whos e car did you borrow last night ?' I said to him. 9 'What was she wearing when you saw her last ?' the police m a n aske d me. 10 ' Who owns this revolver ?' said the det e c tiv e. 11 ' Where were you last night, Mr Jones ?' he said. 12 ' What else did you see ?' I aske d the boy. 13 ' Have you don e this sort of work before ?' said his new employe r. 14 ' Can you read the last line on the chart ?' the oculist aske d her. 15 ' Did they und e r s t a n d what you said to the m ?' he ask e d me. 16 ' Are you being att e n d e d to, sir ?' said the shop assist a n t . 17 ' Will you go on strike when the oth er s do ?' the shop stew a r d ask e d him. 18 ' Do you see what I see, Mary ?' said the youn g ma n. 19 ' Who left the ban a n a skin on the front doors t e p ?' said my mot h e r. 20 ' Have you gon e compl e t ely ma d ?' I aske d. 'Do you want to blow us all up ?' 21 ' Why is your hous e so full of antiqu e s ?' she aske d. 'Was your fath er a collector ?' 22 ' Are you leaving toda y or tomorrow mornin g ?' said his secre t a r y. 23 ' How far is it ?' I said, ' and how long will it take me to get ther e ?' 24 ' Could I spe a k to Mrs Pitt?' said the caller. I'm afraid she' s out ,' said the au pair girl. 'Could I take a mes s a g e ?' 25 ' Are you sorry for what you did ?' the moth e r aske d the little boy. 26 ' Are you going to see him off at the station ?' I aske d her. 27 ' Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, Mada m ?' said the police m a n . 28 If som e o n e fell at your feet foa min g at the mou t h would you know what to do ?' said the instruc t or in First Aid. 29 ' Why do you think it ma y be dan g e r o u s ?' he aske d her. 30 ' Do you know that the sho e s you are wearing aren ' t a pair ?' I aske d him.

Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice expressed by object + infinitive PEG 320 Indirect com m a n d s , requ e s t s , etc. are nor m ally expr e s s e d by tell , ord e r , as k , b e g , ad vi s e , re m i n d , w arn , etc., with the pers o n addr e s s e d and the infinitive. Chang e the following direct com m a n d s into indirect com m a n d s using this cons tr u c tion. Rem e m b e r that the pers o n addr e s s e d is often not me n tion e d in a direct com m a n d : He said, ' Go aw ay ', but mus t be me n tio n e d in an indirect com m a n d : He told m e ( Tom/u s/ t h e m , etc. ) to go away. 1 'Switch off the TV,' he said to her. 2 'Shut the door, Tom ,' she said.


122 3 'Lend me your pen for a mo m e n t ,' I said to Mary. 4 'Don't watch late- night horror movies ,' I warn e d the m. 5 'Don't believ e everyt hin g you he ar ,' he warn e d me. 6 'Pleas e fill up this form ,' the secr e t a r y said. 7 'Don't hurry ,' I said. 8 'Don't touch that switch, Mary ,' I said. 9 'Open the safe !' the raiders order e d the bank clerk. 10 ' Pleas e do as I say ,' he begg e d me. 11 ' Help your mot h e r, Peter ,' Mr Pitt said. 12 ' Don't mak e too muc h nois e, childre n ,' he said. 13 ' Do what e v e r you like ,' she said to us. 14 ' Don't miss your train ,' she warn e d the m. 15 ' Read it befor e you sign it ,' he said to his client. 16 ' Do sing it again, ' he said. 17 ' Don't put your han d s near the bars ,' the zoo kee p e r warn e d us. 18 ' Buy a new car ,' I advis e d him. 19 ' Don't drive too fast ,' she beg g e d him. 20 ' Don't lean your bicycles ag ain s t my window s, boys ,' said the shopk e e p e r . 21 ' Come to the cine m a with me ,' he ask e d her. 22 ' Cook it in butt e r ,' I advis e d her. 23 ' Don't touch the gat e s , ma d a m ,' said the lift oper a t o r. 24 ' Don't argu e with me ,' the teac h e r said to the boy. 25 ' Pull as hard as you can ,' he said to him. 26 ' Send for the Fire Brigad e ,' the ma n a g e r said to the port er. 27 ' Don't lend her anyt hin g ,' he advis e d us. 28 ' Make a list of what you want ,' she told us. 29 ' Look at the pap e r ,' he said to her. 30 ' Stan d clear of the doors ,' a voice warn e d the peopl e on the platfor m. 31 ' See if you can find any mus h r o o m s , childre n, ' she said. 32 ' Don't go alon e ,' I warn e d her. 33 ' Pay at the cash desk, 'the shop assist a n t said to the custo m e r . 34 The notice said, 'Leave this spac e clear .' 35 ' Reme m b e r to write to your moth e r , 'I said to the m. 36 ' Think well befor e you answ e r ,' the det e c tiv e warn e d her.

Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice PEG 320 See note to 90. Put the following into indirect spe e c h. In mos t cas e s the pers o n


123 addr e s s e d mus t be supplied. 1 He said, ' Get out of my way .' 2 ' Climb in throu g h the window ,' he order e d . 3 ' Pleas e pay at the desk ,' said the assist a n t . 4 ' Open your bag, pleas e ,' said the stor e det e c tiv e. 5 ' Don't worry abou t anyt hin g, Mrs Pitt ,' said her solicitor. ' Leav e it all to me .' 6 ' Don't use bent coins in a slot mac hin e ,' I warn e d him. 7 ' Follow that car ,' the det e c tiv e said to the taxi- driver. 8 'Wash it in lukew ar m wat er ,' reco m m e n d e d the assist a n t . 9 'Have confide nc e in me ,' urge d the doctor. 10 'Take me up to the 33rd floor ,' he said to the liftma n . 11 'Read the notice abou t life- saving equip m e n t ,' advis e d the airhost e s s . 12 'Always cook with butt e r ,' said her mot h e r, 'nev er use marg a rin e .' 13 'Don't argu e with your fath e r ,' I said. 14 'Rem e m b e r to prun e the rose s ,' said my aunt. 15 'Wait for me at the bridg e ,' said the youn g ma n. 16 'Don't eat too much starc h ,' I advis e d her, 'and avoid fried food .' 17 'Don't say anyt hin g to mak e her angry ,' said my fath er. 18 Notice: Pleas e do not ask at the desk for chan g e for telep h o n e calls. 19 'Don't forge t to feed the goldfish ,' Mary said to her broth e r. 20 'Cross the line by the footbridg e ,' said the port er. 21 'Write to me as often as you can ,' said his wife. 22 'Put your pistol on the table ,' said the crook. 23 'Pleas e book me a sea t in a non- smok er ,' said the trav eller. 24 'Don't forge t your sandwich e s ,' said his mot h e r . 25 'Don't go ne ar the wat er, children ,' she said. 26 'Search the hous e ,' said the police serg e a n t . 27 'Don't mak e mou n t ai n s out of molehills ,' he said. 28 'Put down that gun. It's load e d ,' she warn e d .

Indirect speech: commands, requests, advice PEG 320 See not e to 90. Put the following into indirect spe e c h, joining the sent e n c e s toge t h e r with as, an d , but or for. 1 'Make good use of your time. You won't get such an opport u nit y again ,' he said to us. 2 'Don't wait till tomorrow ,' said the adv er tis e m e n t , 'post the coupo n at once .' 3 ' Be very careful crossing roads ,' she said, ' and rem e m b e r to drive on the right .'


124 4 5 6 7

1 can't ope n it. You hav e a try, Peter ,' he said. 'Go and get me a pap e r, and com e straigh t back ,' he said to me. 'Som e o n e ' s coming. Get into the cupbo a r d ,' she said. 'Give way to traffic appro a c hin g from your right ,' the road sign warn e d us. 8 'Pleas e , plea s e send what e v e r you can spar e ,' said the secr e t a r y of the disas t e r fund. 9 'Wear a wig if you don' t want to be recog niz e d ,' I advis e d him. 10 'Don't bat h e when the red flag is flying ,' said the lifegu ar d. 11 ' Don't forget to thank Mrs Jones when you are saying good b ye to her ,' said his moth e r. 12 ' Watch the milk and don't let it boil over ,' he said. 13 ' Don't shelt e r und er a tre e in a thun d e r s t o r m ,' he said. The tre e might be struck by lightning .' 14 ' Put the me s s a g e into a bottle and throw it into the sea ,' he said. 15 ' Read it for yours elf if you don't believ e what I say ,' he told me. 16 ' Don't forget to use your indicator s ,' said the driving instruc tor. 17 ' Don't drive too fast or the baby 11 be sick ,' she said to her hus b a n d . 18 ' Do mak e the coffee a bit stron g e r ,' I begg e d . It was terribly weak last night .' 19 ' Bewar e of pickpock e t s ,' said a hug e notice. 20 ' Smell this. Do you think it has gon e bad ?' she said. 21 ' Don't take your coat off. We are going out again in a mo m e n t , she told him. 22 ' Stan d by the window and tell me if anyo n e goes into the hous e opposit e ,' he said. 23 ' Don't mov e till the police m a n wave s you on ,' said the driving instruc tor. 24 ' Don't touch it. You will only mak e it wors e, ' he told me. 25 ' Be careful; the ste p s are very slippery ,' I warn e d him. 26 ' Ask your boss to ring me back ,' I said. 'My num b e r is 1234 5 6 7 . ' ' Could you rep e a t that, plea s e ?' said the girl. 27 ' Don't work too fast ,' said the fore m a n . If we finish befor e six we sha n' t get any overti m e .' 28 ' Prep ar e to me e t your doo m. The end of the world is at han d ,' said the placar d. 29 ' Reme m b e r to put the brak e on ,' the instruc tor said. 30 ' Would you plea s e take off your shoe s ?' Keiko said to him.

Indirect speech: commands, requests, invitations, offers, advice PEG 284- 7, 318- 20 Put the following into indirect spe e c h using as k , ad vi s e , invit e , off e r , rem i n d , tell, w arn . 1 'Would you like to hav e lunch with me on Sund a y ?' he said to me.


125 2 'Would you like a cigar e t t e ?' said one of the gue s t s . 3 'Would you mind not smoking betw e e n cours e s ?' said their host e s s . 4 Take thes e letter s to the post, will you? And shut the door as you out ,' said the boss. 5 'Will you help me, pleas e ?' she said. 1 can' t reac h the top shelf .' 6 'This is a horribl e roo m. Why don't you ask for som e t hin g bett e r ?' he said. 7 If I were you I'd try to get a roo m on the top floor ,' he said. 8 I'll wait for you if you like ,' she said. 9 'Rem e m b e r to switch off when you'v e finishe d ,' he said. 10 ' You might check thes e figures for me ,' he said. 11 ' You'd bett e r apologize for being late ,' said my mot h e r. 12 ' Could you check the oil, plea s e ?' I aske d the mec h a nic. 13 1 wish you' d sit still !' said the artist. ' How do you exp e c t me to paint you when you keep jerking your hea d ?' 14 ' Why don't you go by train? It's much less tiring than driving ,' I said. 15 Hotel notice: -Will gue s t s pleas e not play radios loudly after midnight ? 16 ' Would you like to wait her e ?' said the rece p tio nis t, showing me into the waiting roo m. 17 ' You mus t see this exhibition !' said all my friend s. 18 1 should plant daffodils, if I were you ,' I said to the m. 19 If you' d just sign the back of the cheq u e ,' said the bank clerk. 20 I'd be very grat eful if you' d forwar d my letter s while I am aw ay ,' he said. 21 Police anno u n c e m e n t : Will anyo n e who saw this accide n t pleas e get in touch with their ne ar e s t police station? 22 ' Don't leav e your room at night ,' he said. 'Our host' s dogs might mist ak e you for a burglar .' 23 ' Answer this letter for me, will you ?' he said. ' And rem e m b e r to keep a copy .' 24 ' Would you mind moving your car ?' he said. It's blocking my gat e .' 25 (in a lett er) 'Perha p s you' d let me know when your new stock come s in .' (Mrs Jones ...) 26 Notice on board: The first tea m will report to the gymn a s i u m for weight- training. (The coach ...) 27 ' Could you sew on this butto n for me ?' Tom aske d Ann. ' You'd bett e r sew it on yours elf ,' said Mary. 'Button s sew n on by Ann usu ally come off the next day .' 28 If you will kindly sit down the fortun e- teller will be with you in a mo m e n t ,' the girl said.

Indirect speech: questions, requests, invitations, offers, advice PEG 284- 7, 318- 20, 323


126 Rem e m b e r that Why do n't you? can be an ordin ary ques tio n or advice/s u g g e s ti o n . Treat it her e as advice. Put the following into indirect spe e c h. 1 .) 2 3 4 5 6

'Could you get ther e and back in one day ?' I aske d. (I aske d if he . .

1 can't ope n this tin ,' said Ann. ' Shall I do it for you ?' said Tom. 'Could you tran sl a t e this for me, plea s e ?' I aske d the official. 'Shall we ever me e t again ?' he wond er e d . 'Will you be her e tomorrow ?' she aske d. ' Yes ,' I answ er e d . 'Could I lose five kilos in a week ?' said the fat wom a n . ' No ,' said the doctor. 7 'Will you hav e a drink ?' he said. 8 'Why don' t you install gas centr al hea tin g ?' said the adv er tis e m e n t . (urge) 9 'Will you rea d this very carefully, pleas e ?' he said to me. 10 ' Shall I tell him what happ e n e d ?' she aske d me. 11 ' Wouldn' t you like to look ten year s youn g e r ?' said the hairdr e s s e r . 12 I'm going to Brighton tomorrow, ' said Ann. 'So am I,' said Tom. 'Would you like a lift ?' (Tom said he was too and ...) 13 ' Can I hav e a swe e t ?' said the small boy. 14 ' Can we stay up till the end of the progr a m m e ?' said the childre n. 15 ' Could I hav e the week e n d off ?' he ask e d his boss. 16 ' Could I leav e early on Friday ?' he said. 17 ' Why don't you like pop music ?' the tee n a g e r s aske d him. 18 ' Why don't you take up the oboe ag ain ?' said my friend s , (advis e) 19 ' Where shall I hang my new pictur e ?' he said. 'Would it look well over the ma n t el pi e c e ?' 20 ' What shall I do if the car won't start ?' I said. 21 ' Have you got enou g h mon e y? Shall I lend you som e ?' said my friend. 22 ' Will you be able to guide me or shall I bring a ma p ?' I aske d. 23 ' You won't forget to shut the door, will you ?' she said. (re min d) 24 ' Would you like to see over the hous e ?' I aske d her. 25 ' Would you like to peel the pota t o e s ?' said Ann, han din g me a knife. 26 I've got two ticket s. Would you like to com e with me ?' he said. 27 ' Can you use a word proce s s o r ?' he ask e d. 'No ,' I said. 28 ' Would you mind living by yours elf for six mon t h s ?' they ask e d. 29 ' Would you mind paying cash ?' said my landlad y when I took out my cheq u e- book. 30 ' Why don't you trust him ?' I aske d Ann. 1 nev er trust left- hand e d me n ,' she answ e r e d .


127 Indirect speech: commands and questions with if- clauses and time clauses PEG 229, 320- 1 Ques tion s with if- claus e s and time claus e s should be report e d with the if- claus e or time claus e last. ' When/If I see him, what shall I say ?' she aske d. She ask e d what she should say whe n/if she saw him. Com m a n d s can be report e d by tell + infinitive + if- claus e/ ti m e cla u s e . But som e ti m e s (as in nos. 5 and 10 below) this would produc e a rath e r clums y sent e n c e . It is the n advis a bl e to us e s a y / s a i d th a t + if claus e/ ti m e claus e + b e/ s h o u l d + infinitive: ' If When you see him, ask him to ring me ,' she said. She said that if/whe n I saw him I was to ask him to ring her. w a s to expr e s s e s a definite com m a n d ; should implies advice. Put the following into indirect spe e c h. 1 He said, 'When you are at the butch e r ' s rem e m b e r to get a bon e for the dog .' 2 She said, If you feel faint sit down and put your hea d betw e e n your kne e s .' 3 If I find your purs e what shall I do with it ?' he said. ' Keep it till you see me ag ain ,' I replied. 4 She said, If he arrive s before I get back give him som e t hi n g to drink .' 5 If anyo n e rings up ,' she said, ' say that I'll be back shortly .' 6 'When you are dr iving always look in your driving mirror before turning right ,' said my instruc tor. 7 'Leave the key und er the mat if you go out ,' she said. 8 If you think the room is cold shut the window s ,' said my aunt. 9 If you feel lonely any time ring me up ,' he said. 10 If she does n ' t eat me a t , offer her an omele t t e ,' he said. 11 ' Get the car off the road on to the verg e if you hav e a punct u r e . Don't leav e it on the road ,' said my fath e r. 12 If I am not back by this time tomorrow, take this letter to the police ,' he said. 13 ' When you see Mrs Pitt don' t forge t to tha nk her ,' she said to her hus b a n d . 14 ' When the bell rings take the me a t out of the oven ,' my sister said. 15 If you are take n prison e r ,' said the officer, ' give your na m e , rank and num b e r but refus e to answ er any other que s tion s .' 16 ' When you hear the fire alar m, shut all window s and go downs t airs as quickly as possible ,' said the school m a s t e r . 17 If the lift should stop betw e e n two floors pres s the em e r g e n c y butto n ,' he said. 18 ' Before you allow anyo n e to use the Turkish bath rem e m b e r to ask


128 him if he has a weak hear t ,' said the senior att e n d a n t . 19 If the police stop me, what shall I say ?' she aske d. 20 ' What shall I do if he refus e s to let me in ?' she said. ' Write a note and pus h it und e r the door ,' I said. 21 ' What will hap p e n if the strike continu e s ?' he said. 22 If it goes on snowing, how'll we get food ?' wond er e d the hous e wiv e s . 23 ' When the rain stops , can we go out ?' said the childre n. 24 ' When you'v e comple t e d one section, go on to the next ,' the teac h e r said. 25 If you don' t like the progr a m m e , switch to anot h e r chan n el ,' I said I to her. 26 If I lose my trav eller' s cheq u e s , will the bank rep a y me ?' I aske d. 27 If the nois e gets wors e, you' d bett e r compl ain to the police ,' he said to me. 28 ' As soon as you find a hotel, ring me and give me the addr e s s ,' he said.

Indirect speech: suggestions PEG 289 D, 322 Part I Write the following in indirect spe e c h , in ordin ary narr a tiv e form. Ann sugg e s t e d having a party on the next Saturd a y. Mary agr e e d and ask e d who they should invite. Report 'Why don' t we ... ?' as a sugg e s tio n and 'Why don' t you . . .?' as sugg e s tio n or advice. Report 'Why not ?' in no. 9 as agre e d. 1 Ann: What abou t having a party on Satur d a y? 2 Mary: Yes, let's. Who shall we invite? 3 Ann: Let's not mak e a list. Let's just invite everyb o d y. 4 Mary: We don't want to do too much cooking, so what abou t making it a wine and che e s e party? 5 Ann: Suppo s e we ask everyb o d y to bring a bottle? 6 Mary: Shall we hire glas s e s from our local wine shop? We hav e n ' t ma n y left. 7 Ann: If it 's war m, how abou t having the party in the gard e n ? 8 Mary: Why not hav e a barb e c u e ? 9 Ann: Why not? We could ask Paul to do the cooking. 10 Mary: Last time we had a barb e c u e the neigh b o u r s compl ain e d abou t the nois e. Shall we ask everyo n e to spe a k in whisp er s ? 11 Ann: Suppo s e we go round to the neighb o u r s and apologize in adv a n c e this time? 12 Mary: Why not invite the neighb o u r s ? Then the noise won't ma t t e r. 13 Ann: What a clever idea! Shall we start ringing everyo n e up


129 tonigh t? 14 Mary: What abou t working out how much it will cost first? Part 2 Put the following into indirect spe e c h . 15 ' What abou t a round- the- world cruis e ?' sugg e s t e d Mrs Smith. 'What abou t rentin g a carav a n ? It's all we can afford ,' said her hus b a n d . 16 ' Suppo s e you complain, Ann ?' I said. 'The boss is mor e likely to listen to you than to any of us .' 17 ' You used to be a good tennis playe r ,' she remind e d him. ' Why don' t you take it up ag ain ?' 18 ' Shall we talk ther e ? It's not far ,' he said. 'Yes, let's ,' I said. 19 ' What abou t joining a weaving class ?' Ann said to me. ' There' s one startin g soon .' 20 ' Let's orga niz e a spons or e d cycle race ,' said the childre n. ' What abou t a spon s or e d silenc e ?' said the teac h e r with a grin. 21 ' Where shall we me e t ?' I said. ' What abou t the hot el ?' said Bill. 22 ' Suppo s e you ring him, Ann, and ask him what he thinks of the idea ?' I said. 23 I'm doing mos t of the work ,' I point e d out. 'What abou t giving me a hand ?' 24 ' Let's leav e the washing- up till tomorrow ,' he sugg e s t e d . I hat e was hing up last thing at night .' 25 ' Suppo s e the children go on an adv e n t u r e holiday this sum m e r ?' sugg e s t e d the fath er. 26 ' Why don't you ask the m what they' d like to do ?' I said. 27 ' Shall we begin training for the next London Marat h o n ?' said Bill. ' I've no inten tion of running in mar a t h o n s , ' I said. 'Why don' t you ask Paul ?' 28 ' Why don't you put an adv er tis e m e n t in the local pap e r ?' they sugg e s t e d to me.

Indirect speech: mixed types PEG chap t e r 31 (not e esp e ci ally 324) Put the following into indirect spe e c h, avoiding as far as possible the verbs say, as k and tell and choosin g inste a d from the following: acc e p t , acc u s e , ad m i t , ad vi s e , agr e e , ap ol o g i z e , as s u r e , b e g , call (= su m m o n ), call (+ noun/ pro n o u n + noun), co m p l a i n , co n g r a t u l a t e , d e n y , excl ai m , exp l ai n , giv e , ho p e , insi s t , intro d u c e , invit e , off e r , poin t ou t , pro m i s e , prot e s t , ref u s e , rem ar k , re m i n d , su g g e s t , th a n k , thr e a t e n , w arn , wis h . 1 He said, ' Don't walk on the ice; it isn't safe .' 2 ' Miss Brown, this is Miss White. Miss White, Miss Brown ,' he said. 3 ' Here are the car keys. You'd bett e r wait in the car ,' he said to her.


130 4 ' Pleas e, pleas e , don't tell anyo n e ,' she said. I won't, I pro mis e ,' I said. 5 ' Would you like my torch ?' I said, holding it out. ' No, thank s ,' he said. I hav e one of my own .' { Omit tha nk s) 6 Tom: I'll pay. Ann: Oh no, you mus t n ' t! Tom: I insist on paying! 7 ' Come in and look round. There' s no obligation to buy ,' said the shopk e e p e r . 8 If you don' t pay the rans o m , we'll kill the boy ,' said the kidna p p e r s . 9 I won't answ e r any ques tio n s ,' said the arre s t e d ma n. 10 ' He exp e c t s a lot of work for very little mon e y ,' complain e d one of the typists. ' Yes, he does ,' agre e d the oth er. 11 I wish it would rain ,' she said. 12 ' You pres s e d the wrong butto n ,' said the mec h a nic. 'Don't do it again. You might hav e a nas ty accide n t .' 13 ' Your weight' s gon e up a lot !' I exclai m e d . ' I'm afraid it has ,' she said sadly. 14 1 hop e you'll hav e a good journ e y ,' he said. 'Don't forge t to sen d a card when you arrive .' 15 'Hurra h! I've pas s e d the first exa m !' he exclai m e d . ' Congr a t ul a tio n s !' I said, ' and good luck with the secon d .' 16 ' All right, I'll wait a week ,' she said. (Omit all right) 17 ' Many hap p y return s of your birthd a y !' we said. ' Thanks ,' said the boy. 18 ' Your door is the shab bi e s t in the stre e t , ' said the neigh b o u r. It is ,' I said. 19 ' Cigar e t t e ?'' Thanks ,' I said. 20 I'll sell the TV set if you kee p quarr elling abou t the progr a m m e ,' said their mot h e r . ' No, don't do that! We won't quarr el any mor e ,' said the childre n. 21 I'll give you Đˆ500 to kee p your mou t h shut ,' he said to me. 22 I'll wait for you, I pro mis e ,' he said to me. 23 I'm sorry I'm late ,' she said. ' The bus broke down .' 24 ' You've be e n leaking inform a tio n to the Press !' said his collea g u e s . ' No, I hav e n ' t ,' he said. ' Liar !' said Tom. 25 I'll drop you from the tea m if you don' t train hard e r ,' said the capt ain. 26 If the boys do anyt hin g clever, you call the m your sons ,' complain e d his wife. ' But if they do anyt hin g stupid, you call the m mine .' 27 ' Let's hav e a rest ,' said Tom. ' Yes, let 's ,' said Ann. 28 ' Ugh! There' s a slug in my lettuc e . Waiter !' he cried.


131

Indirect to direct speech PEG 307- 22 Put the following into direct spe e c h , using dialogu e form: Tom: Would you like to com e for a drive to m orrow, Ann? Ann: I'd love to etc. Trip to Stratfor d 1 Tom invite d Ann to com e for a drive the following day. 2 Ann acce p t e d with pleas u r e and aske d wher e he was thinking of going. 3 He said he' d leav e it to her. 4 She sugg e s t e d Stratfor d . . . 5 adding that she hadn ' t bee n ther e for ag e s . 6 Tom agre e d and said that they might go on the river if it was a fine day. 7 Ann wond er e d what was on at the Royal Shak e s p e a r e Thea tr e . 8 Tom said they' d find out when they got ther e ... 9 adding that it was usu ally possible to get sea t s on the day of the play. 1 0 He aske d Ann if she could be read y by ten. 11 Ann said with regr e t that she couldn' t as she had to type a report first. 12 Tom expr e s s e d horror at the idea of working on Satur d a y . . . 13 and advis e d her to chan g e her job. 14 She told him not to be ridiculous and explain e d that . . . 15 she had volunt e e r e d to type the report in retur n for a free after n o o n the following week. 16 She point e d out that she had n' t known that he was going to ask her out. 17 Tom said he suppo s e d it was all right but . . . 18 warn e d her not to mak e a habit of volunt e e ri n g for week e n d work. 19 Ann pro mis e d not to. 20 Tom said gloo mily that he suppo s e d she' d be bus y all mornin g. 21 Ann ass ur e d him that she' d be finishe d by 11.00 and . . . 22 offere d to me e t him at the bus stop at Hyde Park Corner. 23 Tom said that it was n' t a very good me e tin g place and that he'd call for her. 24 Ann said that that was very kind of him and that she' d be waiting in the hall. Hill clim b 25 Tom sugg e s t e d climbing to the top, adding that the view from ther e was marv ellous ... 26 but Ann said that they' d be e n climbing for thre e hours and that she


132 was too tired to go any furth er. 27 She sugg e s t e d that Tom should go on up while she went down and waite d ther e. 28 Tom agre e d and han d e d her the car keys, advising her to wait in the car. 29 He pro mis e d to be as quick as he could. 30 Ann said that if he was too long ther e ' d be no lunch left, for she' d hav e eat e n it all.

Purpose Infinitive used to express purpose PEG 334 Combin e each of the following pairs of sent e n c e s into one sent e n c e using so as/in ord e r wher e nec e s s a r y. He sent me to Spain. He want e d me to learn Spanis h. He sent m e to Spain to learn Spanis h. He turn e d out the light. He didn' t want to wast e electricity. He turne d out the light so as not to wast e electricity. 1 I am buying paint. I want to paint my hall door. 2 He tied a knot in. his han dk e r c hi ef. He hop e d that this would remind him to me e t the train. 3 He open e d the lions' cag e. He inten d e d to feed the lions. 4 He left his rifle outsi d e. He didn' t want to fright e n his wife. 5 He has a box. He plans to put his saving s in it. (Omit it.) 6 We had no cups but he gav e us coconu t shells. He said we could drink out of the m. (Omit the m.) 7 He rush e d into the burning hous e . He want e d to save the child. 8 He read only for short periods eac h day. He didn't want to strain his eye s . 9 They got up very early. They want e d to get to the top of the hill before sunris e. 10 He rang the be ll. He want e d to tell us that dinner was rea d y. 11 We mus t kee p our gloves on. We don't want to get frost- bitte n. 12 The farm e r put a scar e cr ow up in the field. He want e d to fright e n I the birds. 1 3 I took off my shoe s . I didn't want to mak e any nois e. 14 Before the carp e n t e r ca m e she cover e d the floor with polyth e n e she e tin g. She want e d to prot ec t the carp e t . 15 The boys are collecting sticks. They inten d to put the m on the fire. (Omit the m.) 16 He was playing very softly. He didn't want to disturb anyo n e . 17 I am sendin g him to the USA. I want him to stud y electro nics ther e .


133 18 I sent him out of the roo m. I want e d to discus s his progr e s s with his hea d m a s t e r . 19 He fixed a met al ladd er to the wall below his window. He want e d to be ab le to esca p e if ther e was a fire. 20 He c ha nge d his addr e s s cons t a n tly. He want e d to elud e the police. 21 Th e po lice hav e barrica d e d the main stre e t s . They want to prev e n t the de mo n s t r a t o r s from marc hin g throu g h the town. 22 They evac u a t e d everyb o d y from the dan g e r zone. They want e d to reduc e the risk. 23 I am learning Greek. I wish to read Homer. 24 He sent his childre n to his sister' s hous e . He want e d the m to watch the television progr a m m e . 25 He sent his childre n to their aunt' s hous e. He want e d to hav e som e peac e . 26 The town council has forbidd e n coal fires. They are trying to kee p the air clea n. 27 They employe d a det e c tiv e. They want e d to learn what I did in the eve nin g s . 28 I am saving up. I want to buy a helicopt e r. 29 He cough e d . He want e d to warn the m that he was coming. 30 You should take your holidays in June. In this way you would avoid the rush. 31 I kee p my hens in a field surrou n d e d by wire netting. I want to prot e c t the m ag ain s t the foxes. 32 I am learning skiing at an indoor school. I want to be able to ski when I get to Switzerla n d . 33 The workm e n left red lights near the hole. They want e d to warn motoris ts . 34 He invent e d a wife and six childre n. By this trick he hop e d to avoid paying inco m e tax. 35 Some wom e n tint their hair when it goes grey. They want to look youn g e r. 36 He didn' t tell her he was going up in the spac e cr aft. He didn' t want to alar m her.

Clauses and phrases of purpose PEG 336- 7 A purpos e claus e introdu c e d by s o th a t can som e ti m e s be replac e d by pre v e n t / a v o i d + geru n d or allo w / e n a b l e / l e t / m a k e etc. + infinitive. The two sent e n c e s : He rumple d the bedcloth e s . He want e d to mak e me think he had slept in the bed. could be combin e d :


134 He rumpled the bedclothes so that I should/would think he had slept etc. or to make me think he had slept etc. An in cas e claus e is us eful when we me n tio n the possible futur e action we are taking prec a u tio n s ag ain s t: Don't let him play with scissors. He may cut hims elf. could be expr e s s e d : Don 't let him play with scissors in cas e he cuts him s elf. Som e ti m e s an in cas e claus e can be replac e d by a neg a tiv e purpos e claus e. 1 He killed the me n who helpe d him to bury the tre a s u r e . He want e d nobod y but hims elf to know wher e it was. 2 Put the cork back. Som e o n e ma y knock the bottle over. 3 The airfield aut horitie s hav e put arc lights over the da m a g e d runw a y. They want rep air work to continu e day and night. 4 The girl packe d the vas e in polyes t e r foa m. She didn' t want it to get broke n in the post. 5 He wore a false be ar d. He didn't want anyo n e to recog niz e him. 6 She built a high w a ll roun d her gard e n . She didn' t want her fruit to be stolen. 7 They talke d in whisp er s . They didn't want me to overh e a r the m. 8 You ought to take som e seru m with you. You ma y get bitte n by a snak e. 9 Aeropla n e s carry para c h u t e s . The crew can esc a p e in cas e of fire. 101 am insuring my life. I want my children to hav e som e t hi n g to live on if I am killed. 11 Pleas e shut the gat e. I don't want the cows to get out of the field. 12 He telep h o n e d from a public call- box. He didn' t want the call to be trac e d to his own addr e s s . 13 I am putting nets over my straw b e r r y plant s. I don't want the birds to eat all the straw b e r ri e s . 14 We kee p a spa d e in the hous e . There ma y be a he av y fall of snow in the night. 15 We put bars on the lower window s. We didn't want anyo n e to climb in. 16 You should carry a jack in your car. You ma y hav e a punct ur e . 17 We built the roof with a ste e p slope. We want e d the snow to slide off easily. 18 The notice s are writte n in sev er al langu a g e s . The gover n m e n t want s everyo n e to und e r s t a n d the m. 19 I put my addr e s s on my dog' s collar. I want anyo n e who finds him to know wher e he come s from. 20 She tied a bell round her cat' s neck. She want e d the birds to know


135 when he was appro a c hin g. 21 Bring your gun with you. We may be att a ck e d . 22 I hav e put wire over my chimn e y- pots. I don' t want birds to build nes ts in the m. 23 Write your na m e in the book. He ma y forge t who lent it to him. 24 He chain e d up the liones s at night. He didn' t want her to fright e n anyo n e . 25 Don't put on any mor e coal. The chimn e y ma y catch fire. 26 The burglar cut the telep h o n e wires. He didn' t want me to call the police. 27 Take a torch with you. It ma y be dark before you get back. 28 The ma n uf a c t u r e r s hav e ma d e the taps of their new gas cooker very stiff. They don't want young childre n to be able to turn the m on. 29 Don't let the baby play with my glas s e s . He ma y bre ak the m. 30 The deb a t e on educ a tio n has bee n post p o n e d . The gover n m e n t want to discus s the late s t crisis. 31 If som e o n e knocks at the door at night don't ope n it. It may be the esca p e d convict. 32 The police m a n stop p e d the traffic every few minut e s . He want e d the ped e s t ri a n s to be able to cross the road. 33 He had a telep h o n e installed in his car. He want e d his secr e t a r y to be able to cont a c t him when e v e r nec e s s a r y. 34 Never let childre n play with ma tc h e s . They may set the m s e lv e s on fire. 35 As he went throu g h the fores t Bill mark e d the tre e s . He want e d the rest of the party to know which way he had gon e. 36 Turn down the oven. We don' t want the me a t to burn while we are out.


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