NEWSLETTER Edited by Aline Remael (Antwerpen) and Łucja Biel (Gdańsk) European Society for Translation Studies
November 2012 No. 41
Of Special Interest EST symposium in Vienna 7th EST Congress in Germersheim Anthony Pym and Andrew Chesterman on language policy
Editorial Dear EST members,
Contents Word from the President 2 Initiatives by the Board
Hot Topics in TS
Recent TS Events: Personal Reports
We are happy to present: the November 2012 EST Newsletter with mostly good news. We appear to be at the centre of a thriving and diversifying scientific community. For those who were unable to attend the Vienna Symposium in September, this Newsletter will offer a glimpse of the festivities and learned academic events we engaged in; for those who did attend, it will be a pleasant reminder of these selfsame activities. In addition, we are including the provisional minutes of the EST Board meeting, held in the afternoon before the symposium kick off. The finalversion will be posted online shortly. The success of the symposium and its stimulating debates are a reflection of the state of translation studies: alive and kicking - even if we are not altogether sure what language we should speak when, we do know these languages should be translated. The success of the symposium is also an indication of what is in store for us at the EST congress in Germersheim in 2013. The organising committee has received over 400 proposals and the congress will be extended by a day. Besides the usual factual news and announcements, including the reports on EST committee activities, summer schools and the publication of an great number of new books, we are also happy to report on EST involvement in a new European research project and to announce the launch of a new EST prize: The EST Translation Prize. In addition, the “Hot Topics in Translation Studies” rubric continues to do very well with two articles by well-known scholars in the field and two newcomers. We are very happy with these contributions and would like to
encourage you to continue sending us your thoughts on issues in TS that matter to you. However, there is sad news too. In this autumn edition we are also bidding three colleagues farewell: Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Wolfram Wilss, Professor Michael Henry Heim and Professor Miriam Shlesinger, who was a member of the EST Executive Board from 2001 to 2004. Their passing away is a great loss for those who were close to them and it is a great loss for our academic community.
Aline Remael & Lucja Biel
Aline Remael, Department of Translators and Interpreters, Artesis University College Schildersstraat 41, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium; e-mail: email@example.com
Łucja Biel, Department of Translation Studies, Institute of English, University of Gdańsk, ul. Wita Stwosza 55, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Word from the President Welcoming remarks to the EST 20th Anniversary Symposium, University of Vienna, 27-28 September 2012 Liebe Frau Professor Snell-Hornby, sehr geehrte Frau Professor Schippel, liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen und Mitglieder der Europäischen Gesellschaft für Translationswissenschaft,
the less visible work of those who have put in countless unpaid hours, mostly without great recognition. Not all can be named here, and there should be no suggestion of hierarchy, but here is a short-list of office-holders who deserve our explicit gratitude on this occasion: -
Daniel Gile was not just our President for six years, he also co-edited our Newsletter for some 12 years, as far as I can tell, from 1992 to 2004. Christina Schäffner was our General Secretary from 1998 to 2004. Reine Meylaerts was General Secretary from 2004 to 2007, when she also edited the Newsletter. Sieglinde Pommer was also General Secretary and Newsletter editor, from 2007 to 2010. Gyde Hansen worked as VicePresident from 2004 to 2010. Sonia Vandepitte has been Treasurer from 2007, and is still serving us that capacity.
and members is long. The current office holders are keenly aware of having received an invaluable inheritance: we are striving to pass it on. Why do we do this? Why should anyone give their time and skills freely to a community that is not always as grateful as it should be? Here is an idea:
Twenty years ago, in this place, the tree was planted, and we are now reaping those fruits, with gratitude to those who proposed the European Society for Translation Studies: Professor Mary Snell-Hornby, our foundation president, and Dr. Franz Pöchhacker, our Secretary from 1992 to 1998, and we still keep annoying him when we need help in Vienna – as in his correction of the snippet of German above.
Very particular thanks should go to the person who served as our Treasurer from 1992 right through to 2007, some 15 years: Radegundis Stolze has been a model of disinterested service to the intellectual community, and her contribution is very specially appreciated.
Our personal lives inevitably mix joy with tribulations – our marriages go off the rails, our children become unruly, our parents become unruly, our prize dogs give birth to mongrels, our inner stories are full of ups and downs. For many of us, our professional lives are similar mixes of pleasure and struggle, as we learn to fight and sometimes survive in a very competitive world – let no one suggest that the founding and development of Translation Studies has been an easy task! But then, when the private and professional worlds become difficult or unkind, the scholarly society works as a place of implicit solace. We come here to discuss the things we care about, alongside others who share the same passion, in a relatively disinterested way – this is not a competitive place; there is little to win or lose. And after twenty years or so, we come here as if to a second family, as if to a home.
The cultivation of that fig tree, however, has been the work of many others. Our presidents will receive due recognition at this celebratory symposium. Here I want to insist on
As we celebrate 20 years of being together, I am very pleased to recall and thank all those who have helped keep us together – the complete list of committee chairs
For that, especially, I thank all of those who have planted and cultivated this most splendid tree. May its fruits be tasted by generations to come.
Vor 20 Jahren waren wir hier – und auch ich war dabei – um gemeinsam etwas aufzubauen. Jetzt sind wir wieder beisammen, ensemble dans le présent, um das damals Geschaffene noch weiter auszubauen. “Plant fig trees,” says the admonition – the fruits will take time, but they are for generations to come.
Initiatives by the Board EST Board Meeting in Vienna
EST Executive Board in Vienna: Alexandra Assis Rosa, Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk, Michael Schreiber, Anthony Pym, Carol O’Sullivan, Michael Boyden, Aline Remael, Sonia Vandepitte, and Cecilia Alvstad.
Minutes of the 3rd EST Executive Board Meeting Venue: Seminar room 6, the Center for Translation Studies, Vienna, Austria Date: 27 September 2012 Time: 15:00 Agenda : 1. Report from the Secretary General (AAR) 2. Report from the Treasurer (SV) 3. Policy discussion enrolments and fees last months of the year (AAR, SV) 4. Committee-related topics. a) Translation committee b) Research committee c) Other committees 5. How do we proceed with regard to the institutions that have expressed an interest in organizing the next ESTconference? (AAR) 6. Quoting AP “Yves Gambier has sent a rough draft of incomplete notes from the doctoral committee (attached [also to this message]). The basic idea would be to set up something like the EMT but for doctoral programs. Yves asks if we should get the DGT involved.” (AP) 7. Vienna Conference: last minute information (MB)
8. Germersheim Conference: update (MS) 9. Germersheim: Publication of proceedings (AP/MS) 10. A worldwide (con-)federation of translation studies associations (AP) 11. The Benjamins Translation Library (MB) 12. Towards a language policy for EST conferences and symposia: "The EST supports all means to promote and maintain linguistic diversity, especially the use of translation and interpreting, within the constraints of available resources." (AP) 13. Any Other Business 1. Report from the Secretary-General a) Membership Profile The EST currently has over 300 paid-up members. This number includes the following 6 honorary members: Daniel Gile, Gideon Toury, Gyde Hansen, Zuzana Jettmarová, Mary Snell-Hornby and Yves Gambier. Only 7 members wish to be excluded from the EST Directory.
In 2012, renewing members amount to more than two thirds of the total of members. The database based on old files and new enrolments now holds the contacts for a total of 434 researchers in T&I studies. During 2012, 128 people in the database have not paid their fee (this number has gone up from 61 in 2011, so it has more than doubled). A round of email reminders regarding the payment of the annual fee has been sent (weeks 11 and 20) but this situation probably needs further attention. Among people who do not pay their fees, 31 are new 2012 enrollments; 97 are former members. In terms of nationality/affiliation, the current profile of EST members is as follows: (please go to page 4. For the “Membership profile”, 24 September 2012)
No. of Members
No. of Members
b) Other matters Feedback received from members tends to be very positive and encouraging: with reference to the email digests (and the whole teamwork producing Twitter and Facebook feeds), and the resources currently available. Complaints none. Requests are not many. Again are mainly requests for a list of selected/recommended bibliography for a given topic, a list of M.A. or Ph.D. programs. Spam received through the EST website forms continues to be residual and is therefore not a problem. Announcements are regularly received from members and disseminated through Twitter, Facebook and by email. Announcements not directly related to the EST's goals are not disseminated and once informed of this decision by the Executive Board, members have accepted it gracefully. Perhaps in return of posting announcements the Board could send our flyer requesting that it is included in conference documentation. This suggestion met with approval.
Our Twitter feed has 612 tweets and 446 followers (more than the current 306 EST members). Our Facebook page so far has counted a total of 2 597 Likes. Some posts are read by nearly 1 500 people (mostly free book, online video or job); those that have fewer readers are never read by less than 395 people. As a suggestion, we might want to consider posting the EST flyer on Facebook, and announcing special EST member privileges. 2. Report from the Treasurer (SV)
website. EST asset development (data included also come from R. Stolze) looks as follows:
2000 – € 8,549.01
2005 – € 19,006.83
2001 – € 8,833.71
2006 – € 14,347.31
2002 – € 13,819.07
2007 – € 13,544.97
2003 – € 19,306.56
2008 – € 14,142.36
2004 – € 19,010.28
2009 - € 11,210.81
2010 - € 13,663.08 2011 – € 16,690.21 2012 – € 24,845.67
As EST Treasurer since January 2008, she stated that EST’s financial status is still healthy.
Our assets are more than € 20,000 (cp. € 13,663.08 in September 2010) Belgian Dexia current account: € 10,079.79 (dd 11/10/2012) Belgian Dexia savings account: € 13,234.7 (dd 11/10/2012) Austrian PSK account: € 1,352.18 (dd 11/10/2012) Paypal € 179 Total € 24,845.67
a) Asset development Precise total figures will be given as soon as Sonia V. gains access to Belfius
To be debited: reimbursements about € 2,000 for this Board meeting; reimbursements for speakers at this Germersheim conference.
Sonia V. began by apologizing for an unnoticed error in her previous report. Its headline said August 2009-September 2010 and that should have been October 2010-December 2011.
b) OUT since the last report Since September 2011, we have paid about € 1,000 for reimbursements of some members’ travel and accommodation costs at the Germersheim board meeting. Work as a board member is voluntary, there is no payment for the time invested. We have also financed -One book purchase grant: Dokuz Eylul Universitesi, Buca/Izmir TURKEY -One TS summer school grant (€ 1,000): David Orrego Carmona of the University Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain -One TS event: “Those Who Can, Teach”: Translation, Interpreting and Training, University of Portsmouth (€ 1,000) -One translation for Tracks and Treks (Caitriona Tracey; €426.30) -EST Vienna Symposium: Hotel Arkadenhof for 4 guest speakers (€790) But we have not spent money on images or a professional website designer, or anything on the research or translation committee. There are no costs for our Newsletter Other costs since 1 Sept 2010 Bank Dexia (1 December 2011-11 October 2012) - 29.69 Bank PSK (1 April 2011-11 October 2012) - 257.14 Webhost – 45,00 c) IN since the last report We have received: 4000 € from TST project d) Membership To date paying membership amounts to more than 300 (277 members last year) with more members still paying fees. This means more members than last year and considerably more members than at the beginning of Anthony Pym’s presidency in 2010 when membership had stagnated around 180 members who paid their fee since 2004. And there are 6 honorary members: Y. Gambier, D. Gile, G. Hansen, Z. Jettmarová, M. Snell-Hornby and G. Toury. Our membership has remained individual and the number of supporting members stands at 4. Thirty-two members have already paid for 2013 and twenty-two for 2014. Our membership has continued to change as was previously reported. Many members also need various payment reminders.
The number of members asking for payment receipts and invoices is still on the increase. Paypal has been introduced as a new payment method. There are 7 payment methods now: VISA, Mastercard, Paypal, bank transfer to Belgium or Vienna (for Austrians), and Western Union (or cash). 3. Policy discussion enrolments and fees last months of the year (AAR, SV) In 2011, new members joining after September 2011 had a special offer: their fee covered the last months of 2011 as well as the whole year of 2012. The Board agreed to make a similar offer for the last 3 months of 2012 and to advertise it in Facebook. As for the possibility of offering a 3-year discount, the Board agreed to make the suggestion of 70Euros/3 years membership in the next General Meeting, in Germersheim. 4. Committee-related topics 29.69 a) Translation committee: The committee currently includes the 257.14 following members: Riitta 45.00 Aline Remael, Birgitta Jääskeläinen, Englund Dimitrova, Defeng Li (external advisor), Jeremy Munday (external advisor). The Board members agreed to also invite Isabelle Robert, Douglas Robinson and Andrew Chesterman to join this committee. The committee needs a chair and it has not come to any decision yet on the work to be translated. Carol O’S. suggested that this committee might receive and select applications for a Translation Grant of € 2 000. This suggestion met with the approval of the Board. Aline R. was asked to present this suggestion to committee members. b) Research committee: The Board was glad to be informed that Arnt L. Jakobson is now recovering from illness. Committee activity is therefore expected to resume soon. c) Other committees: i) Event Grant Committee: Magdalena B. suggested that this grant should be announced on Facebook and Twitter. Alexandra AR asked Magdalena B. for a short paragraph for this announcement. ii) Young Scholar Award: The Board was
informed that Heidi G. has added evaluation criteria for the vetting of applications. iii) Summer School Scholarship Committee: Magdalena B. offered to ask Iwona Mazur whether she would like to assume the chair again after maternity leave. The Board is grateful to Gyde Hansen for assuming the chair in 2012. 5. How do we proceed with regard to the institutions that have expressed an interest in organizing the next ESTconference? (AAR) Alexandra AR informed that three initial expressions of interest were received from Aarhus University (Helle Dam, 9.5.2012), the University of Granada (Elena Peñalver, 20.5.2012) and the University of Leicester (Kirsten Malmkjaer, 28.5.2012). The University of Granada withdrew the proposal on 13 September 2012 and an almost full proposal had already been received from Aarhus University. As announced online, Alexandra AR will write to applicants asking them to submit full candidacies by 31 May 2013. Such candidacies are to follow the requirements of the “Call for proposals to host the 8th EST congress in 2016” (http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/news/2012_future _congress.html). 6. Proposal by the Doctoral Committee Anthony Pym informed that Yves Gambier sent a rough draft of incomplete notes from the doctoral committee. The basic idea would be to set up something like the EMT but for doctoral programs. He also reported that Yves G. asked if the EST should get the DGT involved. The Board considered that setting up a project similar to the EMT would be difficult to conciliate with national accreditation of doctoral programs, which is already in place. The Board agreed to suggest that the committee could draw guidelines or recommendations for Doctoral Programs in Translation and Interpretation Studies, taking Yves G.’s report as a starting point and making it more concrete. Any comments should be sent to Reine M., who is the Chair of the committee.
7. Vienna Conference: last minute information (MB) Michael B. informed that the local organizing committee had done a very good job at organizing the 20th anniversary and that 90 people had enrolled to participate. The Board agreed on the suggested profit division of 50% for the local institution hosting the conference and celebration and 50% for EST, once all symposium costs are covered. 8. Germersheim Conference: update (MS) Michael Sch. informed that the panel format for the Germersheim congress has worked well and that a total of 24 panels were accepted. Surprisingly, however, only one proposal for a panel in German was received: all others were for panels in English. a)
Key note speakers: The three key-note speakers proposed by the scientific committee have been invited: Brian Baer (Kent State University, research interests: translation history, translation in Russia); Brigitta Busch (Universität Wien, research interests: multilingualism, German as a foreign language); Moira Inghilleri (University College London, translation studies); Brian Bear and Brigitta Busch have already accepted the invitation. Moira Inghilleri has not answered yet. Representative of the European Commission (DGT): The Germersheim committee will invite a representative of the DGT, Pinuccia Contino (Head of the Unit "Multilingualism and translation studies), for a message in the concluding panel of the Congress. Publication of the Germersheim Proceedings: According to the organizing committee, the editors of the Proceedings should include the two chairpersons of the Scientific committee, Dilek Dizdar und Silvia Hansen-Schirra, and the Chair of the Organizing committee, Michael Schreiber. The English language editing could be assured by native speakers of the English department at the Germersheim faculty. The Selected Proceedings (one volume) should be published in the Benjamins Translation Library. The contributions should be connected to the overall theme "TS: Centres and Peripheries". This does, of course, not exclude the publication of
panel contributions or individual papers in other collections or journals. 9. Germersheim: Publication of proceedings (AP/MS) Sonia V. mentioned (1) that the Leuven proceedings are taking longer than expected but also due to the number of proposals received (43) and the need to bring the number of accepted papers down to only 17; and (2) that it is important to have a native speaker of English and other publication languages in the editorial board. 10. A worldwide federation of translation studies associations (AP) Anthony P. reported on the creation of a Facebook page for a federation of translation studies associations and on his efforts to make such information available worldwide. Chinese researchers cannot access the current Facebook page and Anthony P. is looking for alternatives. If this federation is successful as a resource to disseminate information on T&I research then the possibility of creating an actual federation of translation studies associations might be pondered. 11. The Benjamins Translation Library (MB) Michael B. reported on the Benjamins Translation Library meeting where he represented EST. Anthony P. is considering an English translation of Justa Holz-Mänttäri's 1984 textbook Translatorisches Handeln for publication in the Benjamins Translation Library. Since no translator was found willing to embark on this project, Anthony P. reported he had started translating the work himself. Michael B. expressed his concern that the project be realized, upon which Anthony P. suggested that they might work together on the translation. 12. Towards a language policy for EST conferences and symposia Anthony P. informed the BMs that contrary to what had been planned, the Vienna Symposium would not count on simultaneous interpreting due to the unexpectedly large number of participants. Powerpoint subtitling had been prepared
for all presentations in German included in the program. This last minute setback was very much regretted by some members, who interpreted this as a change of EST’s language policy. Anthony P. suggested the following formulation to be included online: "The EST supports all means to promote and maintain linguistic diversity, especially the use of translation and interpreting, within the constraints of available resources." Anthony P. also added that English is the official language of the EST (Art. 1, item 3. of the English version of the German Constitution of EST), and that the actual number and choice of congress languages is always left for the local organizers to decide. Anthony P. further informed that after the Granada Congress, Mary Snell-Hornby issued a statement in the EST Newsletter stressing that the EST promotes research in T&I not languages, and that the society has limited means to be able to offer the desirable (but unaffordable) interpreting services at all its events. BMs agreed on this and commented that problems only seemed to arise when the language policy of EST regarding congress participation or the subsequent publication of proceedings is announced without necessary anticipation. Once the language policy and the budget constraints that severely affect it are announced and not changed without prior notice, members are from the start fully informed of the profile of congresses and publications. They consequently give their tacit consent to this policy when submitting a proposal. 13. Any Other Business In the absence of any other business, Anthony P. thanked everybody for their presence, and the meeting was closed at 17:15, in time for the celebrations of EST’s 20th Anniversary at the University of Vienna.
27 September 2012 Alexandra Assis Rosa
Germersheim 2013: more than 400 paper proposals â€“ one more day We, the chairs of the Scientific and Organizing committees of the EST congress in Germersheim, are overwhelmed by the number of abstracts we had received by November 1st, the deadline for paper proposals: more than 400. Of course, on the one hand, this is great (and, probably, an EST record), but on the other it confronts us with a situation we did not expect. Initially, we had planned to have no more than three parallel sessions, with a total of some 100 papers. After the deadline, the Local Organizing Committee has had to revise this plan. The conference will be extended by one day in order to be able to cover more papers. We should be able to accommodate around 200 paper presentations, and we intend to add a poster session with around 50 posters. In this way we can cover a little more than 50% of the incoming abstracts. However, we will need 6 to 7 parallel sessions and 4 days. In other words, the conference will take place from 29 August to 1 September 2013. On August 28th, there will be a dinner for those who arrive on that day. The conference will open in the morning of 29 August and will end in the afternoon of 1 September. Review process The abstracts will be reviewed by the Scientific Committee, with the support of the heads of the 24 thematic panels. The main criteria for the selection will be: intrinsic quality of the proposal, relevance for the general theme of the congress (Translation Studies: Centers and Peripheries), and â€“ for papers within a specific panel
â€“ relevance for the subject panel. Papers that do not fit in a panel but are relevant for the congress theme can be delivered as individual talks or poster presentations. Fees We have decided on the following fees (EUR): Early bird: Students and participants from low(er-middle-)incomeeconomy countries: 70, EST members 130, non-members 160; Regular: Students and participants from low(er-middle-)incomeeconomy countries 100, EST members 170, non-members 200; Early bird registration will begin in February 2013 and end on 30 April. The fee will include the conference map, lunch, coffee breaks and the reception. We plan to organize a conference dinner with wine tasting (as this is a region of vineyards and wineries), the cost of which is not included in the conference fees. Hotels Given the limited number of hotel rooms in Germersheim, the Local Organizing committee will recommend some hotels in Speyer (16 kilometers from Germersheim) as conference hotels. A bus shuttle between these hotels and the Germersheim campus will be organized. Keynote speakers Naoki Sakai of Cornell University, Brigitta Busch of the University of Vienna and Brian James Baer of Kent State University have accepted to be keynote
speakers at the EST Congress in Germersheim. Naoki Sakai is professor in the Departments of Comparative Literature and Asian Studies at Cornell University. His research interests lie in the fields of comparative literature, intellectual history, translation studies, racism and nationalism studies, the histories of semiotics and literary multitudes. Brigitta Busch lectures on Applied Linguistics at the University of Vienna. Her language-biographical approach and her creative visual method for the representation and analysis of linguistic repertoires have received international recognition. She is currently doing research on the relationships between migration, multilingualism and traumatic experience. Brian James Baer is Professor of Russian and Translation Studies at the Institute of Applied Linguistics, Kent State University, where he serves as Coordinator of Graduate Studies. His research interests include Russian translation history, translation and censorship, discourse analysis in translation studies, and the pedagogy of translation. More information on the congress can be found on the following website: http://www.fb06.unimainz.de/est/index.php.
Dilek Dizdar and Silvia Hansen-Schirra (Chairs of the Scientific Committee) Michael Schreiber (Chair of the Local Organizing Committee)
Call for proposals to host the 8th EST Congress in 2016 The EST Executive Board has received expressions of interest from two European Universities to host the 8th EST Congress in 2016. Full applications are expected by the 31st May 2013.
The purpose of the congress should be to cover as many areas of Translation Studies as possible and to promote exchanges between the various sub-areas.
Candidatures may indicate a theme for the congress, although this is optional.
EST Activities The EST wins second European research project The EST is part of the consortium that has won the tender for a research project on Translation
To what extent does the
and Language Learning - An Analysis of Translation as a Method of Language Learning,
which will be carried out for the European Commission’s Directorate General of Translation.
The one-year project follows on from the project on The Status of
the Translation Profession in the European Union (2011-12), in
which the EST was also a partner. The other partners in the project are the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom and the Intercultural Studies Group at the Universitat Rovira i Virgili in Tarragona, Spain. The project aims to answer the following questions: Can translation contribute to effective language learning? What is the pedagogical value of translation compared to other language learning methods?
contribution of translation to language learning depend on the learning objective, i.e. the targeted level of proficiency (fluency or mere comprehension of a language)? Does translation currently form a part of the curricula for language teaching in primary, secondary and higher education in the selected EU Member States? If translation does not form part of the language teaching curricula, is there a willingness to introduce it? If not, what are the reasons? How can translation as a method of language learning be made more attractive in order to motivate the students? Is there a difference in attitude towards the role of translation in language teaching between bi/multilingual and monolingual countries? Can translation be
introduced as part of the language teaching curricula with the current teacher qualifications or would additional teacher training be required in certain Member States? The role of the EST is to offer a network through which experts in the topics can be contacted. The project requires input from education experts, language teachers and students, and will include case studies on Croatia, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Australia, China and the United States (with Italy, Lithuania and Turkey as secondary comparison countries). For further information on the project, and to offer contacts and expert information pertinent to the topic, please visit: http://isg.urv.es/publicity/isg/proj ects/2012_DGT/tll.html.
The Vienna Symposium The twentieth anniversary symposium “Same Place, Different Times,” was held on 27 and 28 September 2012 at the University of Vienna, on the same location – even in the same auditorium – where the association held its founding meeting. The symposium offered an occasion for celebration, orientation, and prediction. The contributions not only looked back on the creation of the EST twenty years ago, but reflected on the question, “Translation Studies, quo vadis?” Had the addressee been able to respond, as with Jezus in his answer to Saint Peter, it might have said: I’m returning to Vienna to be crucified again. The symposium attendees could thus safely return home with a feeling of gratification, hope, and renewed sacrificial energy. The symposium was kick-started on Thursday night with an Anniversary Ceremony at the Ceremonial Hall of Vienna’s beautiful main university building, followed by a reception. The opening words were delivered by the Director of the Center for Translation, Professor Larisa Schippel. Professor Schippel gave her speech in German with consecutive interpreting into English, which symbolically underscored the EST’s commitment to language diversity. Next, Mrs Nikola Kunte, representative of the Directorate-General for Translation at the European Commission, specified the aims, functioning and structure of the European Master’s in Translation. Mrs Kunte’s presence at the symposium was indicative of the recent rapprochement between the European institutions and academic associations like EST. Incumbent EST President Anthony Pym closed the ceremony with a talk “On twenty years EST, with thanks.” In his presentation, Pym looked back on the founding of the association and the institutionalization of EST in general. While his words on Thursday night had been celebratory and laudatory, Pym set off the academic program at the Center for Translation Studies on Friday morning with a forward-looking, programmatic speech, “The next twenty years of EST, with hope”, which has been included in this Newsletter as “Word from the President”. Pym’s speech intersected in interesting ways with the two keynote lectures in the morning program. Both explicitly addressed the tensions inherent in translation as something that is, in the words of the French philosopher Etienne Balibar,
“both typically ‘European’ and impossible to enclose in the ‘borders of Europe.’” In her talk “The Language of Europe is translation: EST amidst new Europes and changing ideas on translation,” Michaela Wolf, Associate Professor at the Department of Translation Studies of Graz University, propagated a more reflexive way of doing Translation Studies, which would allow us to address and counter the recurrent charge of “Eurocentrism” in postcolonial critiques of the discipline. Wolf’s lecture at the same time provided historical perspective by showing points of connection between the role of translation in the Habsburg Monarchy and in the European Union today. The second keynote lecture, delivered by Dilek Dizdar, Professor of Intercultural and Translation Studies at the University of Mainz in Germersheim, carried the title “Instrumental reasoning and the politics of translation studies.” Drawing on among other things Foucault’s term dispositif and Andorno and Horkheimer’s critique of instrumental reason, Dizdar pleaded for a broadened conception of translator competence which takes into consideration the noninstrumental, processual nature of translation. In the afternoon, thirty researchers and research teams from all over Europe presented their work at a poster session. The posters represented a wide variety of topics, including online networking sites as research tools, teaching translation processes and translation technology, terminology management in language planning policies, translation revision, and translation and interpreting modalities for increased accessibility in public institutions like museums. The poster session was followed by a roundtable discussion, where the three honorary EST presidents Mary Snell-Hornby (1992-1998) Yves Gambier (1998-2004) and Daniel Gile (2004-2010) presented their respective viewpoints on the genesis, evolution and future of EST. Globalization, advances in technology, increased mobility and the growth of the European Union were mentioned as important factors that have impacted the association over the last twenty years. Here, too, the presenters noted the paradox that questioning the European dimension of EST often serves to
reinforce it. Several interesting proposals were made to increase the visibility of research into translation in the coming twenty years, such as the creation of thematic networks for scholars, interaction with neighboring disciplines (such as adaptation studies, knowledge management and internet studies), transnational training programs for doctoral students, and bibliometric research. As Professor Gambier indicated, we may already have moved from a denial of translation towards a desire for translation, i.e. away from a communication regime in which the translator is by definition overworked and underpaid towards a society in which everybody is potentially a translator. In conjunction with the poster session, the presidents’ roundtable thus proved a valuable counterpart to the programmatic morning session, as the panelists reflected not just on what should be done but also hinted at what is already happening. At the close of the symposium, founding president Mary Snell-Hornby was honored for her path-breaking work for EST and the discipline of Translation Studies as a whole. As a fitting coda to the occasion, Professor Snell-Hornby and Mira Kadrić presented a new volume to the public, carrying the title Die Multiminoritätengesellschaft. The book presentation not only added luster to the event, it was also indicative of some of the continuing concerns that have brought us together as scholars. Ultimately, these concerns explain why EST was created in the first place, why it prospered, and why we decided to return to Vienna – literally, for those who had attended the first meeting, and metaphorically for the newcomers – twenty years later. The publication was feted with a reception hosted by the Center for Translation Studies.
Committees and Grants All the EST committee chairpersons have assured us that they are assiduously pursuing their activities, but due to their differing deadlines, not all have news that they wish to report this month. Please consult the website for updates on the committees that are not included below.
Aline and Lucja
Translation Studies Event Grant The Event grant is awarded annually to help finance Translation Studies events (conferences, symposia, guest lectures, courses, exhibitions). It may be used to cover a wide range of documented expenses such as bursaries, travel, accommodation, or preparation of conference materials. Deadline: January 31, 2013 Amount: Up to 1000 euros Rules and procedures 1. At least one member of the organizing or scientific committee must be a paid-up member of the European Society for Translation Studies. 2. The funds have to support a Translation Studies event. This may include symposia, courses, visits of keynote speakers, etc. 3. Applications should explain the circumstances under which the request is made and include details about the specific use of the sum requested.
4. The Event Grant Committee will conduct an evaluation of each application on the basis of: a) the needs demonstrated in the application, b) the importance of the event for the Translation Studies community, and c) compliance of the event with the EST’s general philosophy of making Translation Studies accessible to all. 5. The sum granted will be transferred to the applicant’s account after invoices and/or receipts have been received. 6. Applications should be sent by email to the Chair of the Event Grant Committee, Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk: magdalenabartlomiejczyk @hotmail.com. Reception will be acknowledged. 7. The deadline for submitting applications for 2021 is January 31, 2012. The decision of the Committee will be announced at the beginning of March. The
grant may thus be requested for events that are planned for between March 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. Previous beneficiaries of the grant 2008: Lawrence Venuti as a keynote speaker to the Translation in the Visual Culture Symposium held in Edinburgh, April 2009. 2009: Bursaries for five postgraduate students attending the 6th International Conference "Critical Link", Aston University, Birmingham, July 2010. 2011: Fachhochschule Köln for the organization of the conference Hermeneutics and Translation Studies, May 2011.
Magdalena Bartlomiejczyk, chair Agnieszka Chmiel Sylvia Kalina Reine Meylaerts Sergio Viaggio
To all potential Young Scholar Award (YSA) prize winners Applications are invited for the EST Young Scholar Prize, to be presented at the EST Congress in Germersheim in August 2013, with the financial support of John Benjamins. The value of the prize is 2500 euros. Deadline: 31 January, 2013.
in person. Teachers are requested to draw the Award to the attention of potential applicants. How to apply Applications must be submitted electronically to h.gerzymisch[at]mx.uni-saarland.de.
Purpose The prize is for a significant contribution by a young scholar to Translation or Interpreting Studies, such as a doctoral thesis or equivalent monograph, not necessarily published. The work must have been completed later than 31 January 2010.
Applications must include • the thesis or monograph to be evaluated • an abstract of about 1000 words, • the curriculum vitae of the applicant.
Who can apply Applicants must be members of the Society at the time of application. Applicants must apply
Assessment procedure Each application will be assessed by three referees. Assessment criteria are (1) added value for the
The work may be in any language. The abstract must be in English.
Translation Studies discipline, (2) originality of thought, (3) clarity of methodology and language (4) quality and uniformity of the formatting. The jury of referees will be arranged and coordinated by the EST Young Scholar Award Committee chaired by Heidrun Gerzymisch. The final decision will be proposed by the Young Scholar Award Committee and ratified by the Executive Board.
Heidrun Gerzymisch, chair Gyde Hansen Jorge Diaz-Cintas Daniel Gile
Book Purchase Grant The Book Purchase Grant is awarded annually to enable an academic institution to purchase Translation Studies publications. The aim is to enhance translation research in new contexts. Deadline: March 31 Amount: About 1000 euros per year Rules and Procedures 1. All universities, faculties, departments and research centres are eligible to apply if at least one of their teaching staff, researchers or graduate students is a paid-up EST member. 2. Applicants should send in an application describing their Translation Studies activities, including a list of relevant publications, theses and/or dissertations, as well as a list of books and materials they seek to purchase, with explanations and justifications as appropriate. The list may include journals, e-books, e-journals, and research software. 3. Applications will be reviewed by the Committee, which has been appointed by the Executive Board of EST.
4. Applications should be sent using the form available here. 5. The Committee will review the applications and select one or more grantees on the basis of available funds, the applicant’s financial situation and the need demonstrated for financial support, the applicant’s literature requirements and TS activity as demonstrated in the application. The Committee will propose the names of the grantee(s) to the Executive Board, which will make the final decision. 6. As a rule, the Society will order the relevant items, have them shipped to the grantee(s) and pay the publisher or point of sale directly. Announcements Yearly announcements indicating details of how to apply will be published on this website and in the EST Newsletter. Discount from John Benjamins John Benjamins has generously announced that it will give a 40% discount on John Benjamins books bought in the framework of this grant.
Previous beneficiaries of the grant Since its inception in 2005, the grant has been awarded to the following institutions: 2006: Dipartimento di Lingue, Letterature e Culture Straniere, University of Messina 2008: Research Group 7 Reception and Descriptive Translation Studies, Centre for English Studies, University of Lisbon, Portugal 2008: Department of Translation Studies, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland 2009: Institute of English Studies, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary 2011: University American College Skopje, Macedonia 2011: Siberian Federal University, Russia
Agnes Somló, chair Carol O'Sullivan Rachel Weissbrod Ton Naaijkens Georgeta Ciobanu
Summer School Scholarship Next deadline: May 1st Students preparing a doctoral dissertation in the field of translation studies are invited to apply for this scholarship of 1,000 euros. Candidates need not be members of the EST. The applications will be scrutinized by the committee, who will base their judgement on the application as a whole, taking into account all information asked for: the technical quality of the project, the applicant's competences and needs, and the relationship between the project and the summer school programme intended to follow.
To apply, please fill in the application form (including the attachments) and send it to Professor Gyde Hansen – gh.isv[at]cbs.dk. Along with the form, applicants are asked to send a letter of recommendation from their dissertation advisor as a PDF or scanned attachment. Receipt of complete applications will be acknowledged by e-mail. The name of the scholarship recipient will be announced on the Society's website in the second week of June each year and notice will also be sent (by email) to each of the candidates. Previous scholarship holders:
2006: Cristina Valentini (Forlì) 2007: Seyda Eraslan (Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey) 2008: Elisabet Tiselius (Stockholm), Alberto Fernández Costales (Oviedo) 2009: Hanna Pięta (Lisbon), Maria Tymczyńska (Poznań), Alice Leal (Vienna) 2010: Sabina Tcaciuc (Aston) 2011: Kyriaki Kourouni (Thessaloniki). 2012: David Orrego-Carmona (URV)
Iwona Mazur, chair Franz Pöchhacker Gyde Hansen Barbara Ahrens Sonia Vandepitte Alexandra Assis Rosa
EST Translation Prize We are pleased to announce a new EST prize: the EST Translation Prize. This prize, of 2000 euros, will be awarded annually for the most deserving project to translate key texts in Translation Studies (including research on interpreting and localization). The deadline for submissions is June 1, 2013 Rules and Conditions 1. The prize shall be used to assist with the translation, editing and/or publication of a book or group of articles in any of the sub-fields of Translation Studies. 2. The prize may be paid to a translator, group of translators, or academic publisher or journal. 3. The translation may be from any language and into any language. 4. The translation shall not have been published prior to the awarding of the prize (six weeks after the
application deadline), since the purpose of the prize is to promote translations that would otherwise not lead to publication. 5. The translation shall be published within two years of the awarding of the grant. 6. All publications and promotional materials associated with the translation shall bear the mention “With the support of the European Society for Translation Studies”. 7. Applications will be evaluated on the basis of: a) potential impact of the project on international Translation Studies, b) feasibility of the project, c) pertinent experience of the translator or translators. How to apply Applicants should send the following materials as email attachments to Isabelle Robert at Isabelle.email@example.com
1. One-page explanation and justification of the project. 2. Text to be translated. 3. A two-page sample translation of the text. 4. Any pertinent agreements or expressions of interest from publishers, especially with respect to the purchase or granting of translation rights. 5. The Committee may request any supplementary documents it deems appropriate. Any questions or requests for further information can also be sent to Isabelle. We are looking forward to reading your projects.
The Translation Committee Andrew Chesterman Birgitta Englund Dimitrova Riitta Jääskeläinen Aline Remael Isabelle Robert Douglas Robinson
Hot Topics in Translation Studies: Two well-knowns & two newcomers Questions of language policy Anthony Pym The success of our recent 20th anniversary symposium in Vienna brought up the question of language policy, eternally returning like a bad penny. The plenary speakers were first invited to use German and French if they liked, then the number of participants meant that we had to move to a larger space where simultaneous interpreting facilities were unavailable. So we had to rethink the invitation. In the end, the whole show included use of consecutive interpreting, a short welcoming talk in German with English on a PowerPoint, a snippet of nonnative German, a lot of English, and a little discontent. Incidents like this make us usefully aware of language policy, of translation, and of practical costs. So it might be apposite to restate where we stand. Our Society has a clear language policy, stated in our Constitution: “Die offizielle Sprache der Gesellschaft ist Englisch“ (1.3). That’s right: our official language is English, even though our official constitution is in German, as a pleasing paradox. At the recent Vienna symposium, our Founding President Mary Snell-Hornby specified that English is in fact our internal working language, the one in which we do our day-to-day business such as Board meetings and the Newsletter. If we had more official languages, the operating costs would be more than a society of volunteers could cope with (I suspect this remains true even in our era of crowdsourcing). Our basic policy is nevertheless complemented by accrued practice, notably with respect to conferences. The official languages were English, French and German in Prague in 1995,
then English, French, German and Spanish in Granada in 1998, and since then the conferences have adopted controlled multilingualism (albeit limited to Europe’s colonial languages), in accordance with decisions made by the organizing committees concerned. Are we happy with this situation? Not entirely. I am personally disappointed when, of the 24 panel sessions at the upcoming Germersheim conference, only one was proposed in German (although I hasten to add that many papers have now been proposed in German). And Professor SnellHornby, having explained the reasons behind the official status of English following the Granada conference (Newsletter 13), is now among the first to lament the increasing dominance of international English. For that matter, one of Professor Snell-Hornby’s arguments at the time was that our constitutional aim is “to promote Translation Studies, and not to promote languages”, which remains worrying. Is the stuff we work on and with really some inert, indifferent matter? I’m not so sure that the reasons we produce knowledge about translation can be easily detached from a concern with linguistic diversity. But times have changed: The “world-language system”, to use de Swaan’s term, is not what it was when we were founded 20 years ago. The super-central role of English is now far more pronounced. Even waiters in Parisian restaurants will now speak English with you (and Spanish, if you’re lucky – most seem to come from Latin America). Twenty years ago it might have been legitimate to produce a translation graduate with a language combination like French-GermanJapanese, but these days anyone who does not have English in their armory is operating at a serious disadvantage. What looked like noble
ethical resistance 20 years ago now seems more like counter-productive head-in-the-sand denial: there is and can be little equality between our languages. At the same time, electronic communications now make it much easier to set up and run associations. Twenty years ago we were alone in Europe. These days we have other associations speaking other languages alongside us: the Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación (AIETI) uses Spanish and Portuguese, and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Übersetzungs- und Dolmetschwissenschaft (DGÜD) uses German. There may and should be many more such associations, large and small. Our functional multilingualism might come from a grouping or federation of those associations. And a final point: A good deal of German was indeed used in the internal communications concerning the Vienna Symposium, and everyone in the organizing committee understood it, apparently despite the official policy. And a lot of complaints about English are regularly made in English, by people who speak the language excellently. For that matter, I think all members of our current Executive Board can follow communications in German, in addition to the many other languages we bring to the table individually. Translation might prove impractical for us to use on a systematic basis, but our strong multilingualism remains. And there is no necessary contradiction there: isn’t translation primarily for people who do not know languages?
Language and translation policy
Andrew Chesterman A few years ago I noticed that most of the diagrams of James Holmes’ famous map of Translation Studies curiously failed to include the heading “Translation policy” under “Applied [studies]”. Translation policy is certainly mentioned in the text: The task of the translation scholar in this area [translation policy] is to render informed advice to others in defining the place and role of translators, translating, and translations in society at large: such questions, for instance, as determining what works need to be translated in a given socio-cultural situation, what the social and economic position of the translator is and should be, or [...] what part translating should play in the teaching and learning of foreign languages. (Holmes 1988/2000: 182) I bring up this topic here, as an important future focus of TS, partly because of José Lambert’s insistent calls for research on translation policy at the CETRA summer seminars, and partly because of my current reading of ongoing work by Gabriel González as part of the EU-sponsored TIME project (Translation Research Training: an Integrated and Intersectoral Model for Europe). Research on translation policy has a huge area to deal with, covering at least the fields of law, politics, ethics, sociology, business and military management, language planning and linguistics. Its relevance covers rather more topics than Holmes lists above, obviously overlapping in part with those studied in translation sociology. At the most general level, international and national law are of course relevant, insofar as they touch on language rights in general. Then there are the organizational and institutional levels such as the EU, multinational companies, cities, courts, churches, hospitals, local bureaucracy, and so on. The notion of policy might even be extended to the family or individual level: I know of a multilingual family who have the language policy of speaking English “in the car”. – That
does not imply translation, of course; but I assume that any treatment of translation policy must be embedded in a language policy; this in turn is a consequence not just of effective communication but also of interpretations of language rights. Also worth researching would be the extent to which a language or translation policy is actually implemented, and further, enforced. In other words, how are policies actually applied in different circumstances? And what happens if one of those family members uses another language “in the car”? There is scope for a great deal of comparative work here, at different levels. Take my own university, for example. Helsinki University has a language policy which is summarized in its latest strategic plan (for 2013–2016) thus: “The University will [...] promote and use its bilingualism on the path to successful multilingualism.” The university is officially bilingual (Finnish and Swedish), but makes increasing use of English as a lingua franca – the strategic plan itself is published in all three languages. As regards implementation, the plan states that “the academic community will be encouraged to improve its practices so as to support the integration of international staff and students. The needs of people speaking different languages will be taken into account by paying particular attention to multilingual communication.” The plan further aims to increase the number of international research and teaching staff, and to increase the amount of teaching run in English, especially at the doctoral level. – Curiously, there is no mention here of translation, although the university’s Language Centre does run a professional translation and language checking service for staff members. The plan appears to assume that the needs of multilingual communication will be mainly met by promoting the use of English; other languages are not mentioned, nor does the plan say anything about providing more facilities for international staff and students to learn Finnish or Swedish. This brief glimpse suggests at least that the role of English as a lingua franca is closely bound up with the need for, and policy for, translation (or non-
translation). This link would be worth exploring. I was once given an award by a translation agencies association for stating in public that I thought Finnish politicians should use Finnish (or Swedish) at EU meetings, rather than non-native English, because there were professional interpreters available. A couple of years ago a professor at the University of Tampere (also in Finland) actually proposed that the language of the university administration should switch from Finnish to English, in order to enable nonFinnish members of the university community to play a fuller role. The suggestion has not been adopted (yet). But such a policy is, of course, already in practice in some multilingual companies (e.g. Nokia). One can, of course, study language and translation policies descriptively. But, as can be inferred from the Holmes quotation, there can also be a strong prescriptive element in such research. “Advice” can be given, yes; but a socially committed scholar might also be aiming to initiate or change policy. Julia Andreotti’s ongoing doctoral work ultimately aims to change the code of practice followed by court interpreters in California, so that interpreters could be allowed to simplify the high legal register of the proceedings in order to make messages understandable to less educated clients. This kind of research can still be validly done within a descriptive framework: one can describe the effects of a given policy, and show that these effects are undesirable (on some criterion), and then show that the effects of a different policy would be better (for instance by experimenting). Toury’s preliminary norms explicitly have to do with translation policy: one can study them descriptively, as he illustrates, but one can also study their effects and draw conclusions that may entail value judgements. To take a simple case: one can analyse what happens to translation quality in cases where the translation policy of a company does not specify the use of native speakers of the target language. I look forward to seeing more research in this interdisciplinary area within TS. Reference Holmes, James S. 1988. The Name and Nature of Translation Studies. In J.S. Holmes,
Translated! Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi,
67-80. Reprinted e.g. in L. Venuti (ed.) 2000, The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge, 172-185.
Translation and empathy
Matthias Apfelthaler Ph.D. student University of Graz
In my ongoing PhD research, I am investigating the connection between translators’ empathy and their target audience orientation. Although empathy as a concept is not new in Translation Studies (TS), empirical research into empathy is almost completely lacking, and there is a lot of uncharted territory waiting to be explored and mapped. So what, exactly, is meant by empathy? Empathy derives from Ancient Greek ἐμπάθεια, which found its way into the English language via translation from the German, where it had assumed the meaning of “feeling into”. And it is probably this sense that people most readily associate with the English term empathy. Batson (2009), a social psychologist, gives four definitions of empathy in the affective sense: empathy as “adopting the posture or matching the neural response of an observed other” (matched motor activity can result in feeling something of what others feel), “coming to feel as another person feels,” “feeling distress at witnessing another person's suffering,” and “feeling for another person who is suffering.” It is not difficult to find examples from translation and interpreting practice to flesh out these definitions. For instance, think of interpreters adopting the same facial expression/posture as the speakers they interpret for; or a translator feeling the same or a similar emotion as the one described in a source text; or a community interpreter feeling distressed when an asylum seeker gives gruesome testimony. If we wanted to focus on empathy in other actors in the translation process, we could talk about the readers of a literary translation and how they might feel sympathy towards the author or a character in the story. It seems, then, that we can construe various relations between the agents involved in the creation and reception of translations, stressing affective factors often ignored in the early days of TS. Before moving on to a different notion of empathy, the one I am focusing on in my PhD work, I would like to draw attention to empathy’s otherorientation: The role of feelings and emotions in the translation and interpreting process is an important one, and has been
addressed by researchers in TS before. However, these affects are not necessarily oriented towards others, whereas empathy is always oriented towards others and involves a matching of emotional response. It refers to the relation between at least two real or fictitious beings, or even between a person and an inanimate object. In the case of affective empathy, this relation is of an emotional nature. But this relation can also be of a cognitive nature. In psychology and neuroscience, this version of empathy is called cognitive empathy. Batson (2009) describes it as: “intuiting or projecting oneself into another's situation,” “knowing another person's internal state, including his or her thoughts and feelings,” “imagining how another is thinking and feeling,” or “imagining how one would think and feel in the other's place.” This cognitive empathy is precisely the notion I am interested in. I see translation as an interpersonal phenomenon, influenced and shaped by society. This leads to the question of how translators put themselves into their readers’ shoes and how they are able to sufficiently anticipate their reactions in order to produce a text for the intended target audience. I propose that cognitive empathy is the mechanism that allows translators to take their prospective readers’ point of view. That is also why I am less interested in affective empathy, since it is arguably not always involved in target-oriented translation, whereas cognitive empathy is, provided that the source text is not particularly emotionally charged, a variable that can be controlled. can be controlled for). I do not claim that translators always produce target-oriented translations, nor that target orientation is the only translation mode that can or should be researched or advocated; what I do claim is that when translators tailor their translations to the perceived needs of the target audience, cognitive empathy is involved. It goes without saying that for this to work, prevailing translation norms, including translation concepts, must be amenable. I am trying to answer two main research questions: What is the correlation between cognitive empathy and the features of a particular translation? What is the correlation between this ability and the translation process? One of my
hypotheses is that highly empathetic translators will adapt their translations more to the target audience than less empathetic ones. To support or reject this and my other hypotheses, I will be conducting a quasi-experiment. Data collection methods will include recording translators’ behavior, translation product analysis, cued retrospection, in-depth interviews, and the distribution of two postexperiment questionnaires (Empathy Quotient, introduced in BaronCohen/Wheelwright 2004, and a translation concept questionnaire). Within TS, I am drawing on research from cognitive translation studies, translation process research, and functional approaches to translation; outside TS, important points of reference include psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. These fields offer a vast methodological armamentarium and have produced a large body of knowledge related to empathy and similar concepts. What will be the contribution of this research to TS? First and foremost, it will close an explanatory gap and contribute to translation theory and the competence/expertise debate; and second, by engaging with pertinent state-of-the art research on mental processes, functions, and behaviors, it will also represent an essential further step towards modeling translation as a cognitive process and towards understanding the neurophysiological foundations of translation. References Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The Empathy Quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of
Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34 (2), 163–175. Batson, C. D. (2009). These things called empathy: Eight related but distinct phenomena. In J. Decety, & W. Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 3–15). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Why do research in nonprofessional subtitling? David Orrego-Carmona PhD student Universitat Rovira i Virgili Technological empowerment, Internet and the Web 2.0 have shown users that they matter and can participate in the production of the content they consume. The power that once resided strictly with the producers has been altered: Now the users also have a saying in the production processes. Consumers are becoming prosumers (O’Hagan 2009), that is consumers whose voice, directly or indirectly, affects the production process. Community translation has evolved into a complex and almost omnipresent activity that needs to be considered within Translation Studies. Although community translation practices have been increasing exponentially in the last decade and now practically every area of professional practice has a non-professional counterpart, discussions about this phenomenon still lack representation and consolidation in the scholarly community. Nornes’ article on abusive subtitling published in 1999 can be considered one of the first attempts to study the non-professional subtitling phenomenon and its implications for mainstream subtitling. Studies on the issue have developed along three main axes: the motivations of non-professional translators, the production conditions and strategies applied, and the quality of the product. Nowadays, studies on community translation, including non-professional subtitling, are experiencing a rapid growth and are gaining more and more attention in Translation Studies. Thus, the areas of study are also multiplying and more scholars and young researchers are engaging with the subject, considering different perspectives and approaches. Nevertheless, the issue is not only doing research in this field, it is also necessary to develop and appropriate frameworks to approach
and analyze the subject. One issue that commonly arises in studies of non-professional subtitling is the decontextualization of the product: The specific nature of the target audience and their reception of the non-professional product have been systematically excluded in some studies – especially in the studies on quality. When dealing with nonprofessional subtitling it is in my opinion mandatory to recognize both, i.e., the multimodality of the audiovisual product and the specificities of the communities producing and using the products. Non-professional subtitling came about due to a discomfort experienced by the audience (irritated by importation restrictions, censorship, delays); it is therefore not merely advisable but actually “mandatory” for research to consider the conditions surrounding the phenomenon. All the pieces of the puzzle should to be considered to achieve a full panorama. It is reasonable to assume that the changes triggered by technology have altered the production structures and reshaped the way users watch audiovisual products. In order to make some progress in the understanding of nonprofessional subtitling, it is necessary to have better knowledge of the viewers’ needs and consumption. In general, and as it is commonly pointed out by scholars in Audiovisual Translation, reception is an area that deserves more scholarly attention. Regarding reception of nonprofessional subtitling, the very first reception study was carried out by Caffrey (2009). Caffrey carried out experiments employing an eyetracker and distributing questionnaires to explore people’s reactions to pop-up glosses in TV anime. The study I propose will set out to investigate the reception of professional and non-professional subtitling. It focuses on comedy TV series (sitcoms) produced in the United States and distributed in Spain and Hispanic American countries. The research explores the reception of audiovisual products with professional and non-
professional subtitles. The goal is to correlate audience reception with the type of subtitles in order to see if there is a difference between the reception of the professional and the non-professional versions. The data will be collected by using a combined method of simultaneous eye-tracking and pre- and postexperiment questionnaires. This approach, will allow me to assess if there are similarities or differences in the reception of the material depending on the type of subtitles used. The design will also allow me to locate the users at the center of the discussion and assess the reception of the product as a whole, in its multimodal form, with the subtitles as one of the modes playing a part in the multimedia ensemble. The findings of my research will shed some light on the reception of specific audiovisual products and will also possibly help understand the expectations users develop when they watch subtitled audiovisual products.
References Caffrey, Colm. 2009. Relevant
abuse? Investigating the effects of an abusive subtitling procedure on the perception of TV anime using eye tracker and questionnaire.
Doctoral thesis. Dublin: Dublin City University. http://doras.dcu.ie/14835/1/Colm_P hDCorrections.pdf. Last visited October 2012. Nornes, Abe. 1999. “For an abusive subtitling”. Film Quarterly 52 (3): 1734. O'Hagan, Minako. 2009. “Evolution of User-generated Translation: Fansubs, Translation Hacking and Crowdsourcing”. The Journal of
Internationalisation and Localisation 1: 94-121.
Obituaries Professor Miriam Shlesinger died on 10 November 2012
It is with great sadness that we announce that our friend and colleague Miriam Shlesinger has passed away. In 2000 Miriam set up and then ran the EST Working Group on Training. She was a member of the EST Executive Board from 2001 to 2004. In 2002 (Newsletter 20) the EST expressed its condemnation of her exclusion from St Jerome Publishing. Miriam was a practising translator and interpreter, a teacher of translation and interpreting, one of the leading international scholars of interpreting, a brilliant self-effacing style-editor, a tireless co-editor of journals and collective publications, and a staunch defender of human rights, at one stage serving as President of Amnesty International Israel. Miriam was Professor at Bar Ilan University, Israel, where she taught from 1978 and was Director of the Language Policy Research Center. Her Masters dissertation broke new ground in the study of translation universals, while her doctoral research centered on cognitive processes in simultaneous interpreting. She worked asco-editor, with Franz Pรถchhacker, of the Interpreting Studies Reader (Routledge 2002) and, from 2003, of the journal Interpreting (John Benjamins), as well as Associate Editor of the Benjamins Translation Library. In recent years, her interests came to include corpusbased translation studies, community interpreting, sign language interpreting, the sociology of translators and interpreters as professional groups, and the self-
representation of translators and interpreters. Miriam was CETRA Professor in 2007, the same year in which Franz Pรถchhacker, Arnt L. Jakobsen and Inger Mees edited Interpreting
Studies and Beyond: A Tribute to Miriam Shlesinger. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press.
Miriam held an Honorary Doctorate from the Copenhagen Business School (2001), the 2010 Danica Seleskovitch Prize, and the Lifetime Achievement Award of the Israel Translators Association (2011). She is much missed. Interview with Miriam Shlesinger Miriam Shlesinger, Lecture on signed languages Miriam's birthday song (as a sign, hopefully not disrespectful, of how much she was appreciated within the EST)
The EST webpage on Miriam Shlesinger is available here: http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/news/2012_shl esinger.html. To pay a tribute to Miriam please visit a dedicated EST website: http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/news/2012_trib utes_miriam.htm
Saarland University, its Faculty Iv Humanities for Languages, Literature and Cultural Studies and its Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting sadly report the passing away of their long-term member and colleague Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Wolfram Wilss Born 25 July 1925. Deceased 3 August 2012 Born in Ravensburg, Wolfram Wilss was an active member of our university for more than 45 years. In 1968 he accepted the "Chair of Applied Linguistics with Special Regard for the Theory of Translation" at Saarland University, in which role he served until 1990, the year he became Professor Emeritus. At the same time as being a continuously active and committed member of our academic community in Saarbr端cken, he was a highly visible theoretician and representative of translation studies in
Michael Henry Heim, a distinguished University of California Los Angeles professor best known for his translations of Eastern European, Russian and German novelists, died Saturday, Sept. 29, at his home in Westwood of complications from melanoma. He was 69. Heim translated Milan Kundera's bestloved novel, "The Unbearable Lightness of Being," as well as the author's "The Book of Laughter and Forgetting" from Czech. He also translated from German Gunter Grass' 1999 masterpiece "My Century," a sweeping look at the 20th century published the year the author won the Nobel Prize for literature. Heim later translated "Peeling the Onion," the first of Grass' two-volume memoir. "Professor Heim was an internationally recognized scholar whose translations from a dazzling array of Slavic and other European languages into English placed him among the foremost ranks of the profession," said Ronald Vroon, chair of the UCLA Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures. "He was a theorist, a practitioner and a cultural activist, among the finest literary translators of the last half-century, and a pioneer in the field of translation studies."
international contexts, one instance being his honorary doctorate from Aarhus. He was one of the professors in leading positions in the former "Sonderforschungsbereich 100 Elektronische Sprachforschung" (Saarland University, 1970s and 1980s), and he was for many years the head of the Department of Applied Linguistics, Translation and Interpreting. His exceptionally broad range of research and teaching is documented in numerous publications and in "Festschriften" dedicated to him. Without doubt, he was one of the internationally renowned and leading contributors to modern translation studies. We extend our condolences to the family of our deceased colleague. We are all indebted to his work and will remember him with gratitude and deep respect. Prof. Prof. Prof. Prof.
Dr. Dr. Dr. Dr.
Alberto Gil Johann Haller Erich Steiner Elke Teich
A lifelong student of languages, Heim mastered 12 of them and produced award-winning translations from eight: Russian, Czech, Serbian/Croatian, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian and Romanian. "It was an honor to have had among us such a major scholar who put translation studies in the forefront of academic studies and whose translations have been admired the world over," said Efrain Kristal, chair of the UCLA Department of Comparative Literature. Excerpt of the obituary written by Meg Sullivan available at http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/ucl a-slavic-professor-and-a-ward239225.aspx.
Recent TS Events: Personal Reports 12th Portsmouth Translation Conference “Those who can teach”: Translation, Interpreting and Training University of Portsmouth 10 November 2012
On Saturday 10 November the University of Portsmouth hosted its twelfth annual translation conference. The Conference was organized by Begoña Rodríguez de Céspedes and Caterina Jeffcote of the School of Languages and Area Studies. The purpose of this year’s conference was to provide a platform for an open and interactive discussion of translator and interpreter training approaches in the rapidly expanding translation industry. In the last 40 years, translation and interpreting have experienced a shift towards greater professionalisation and technological modernisation. The number of courses aimed at both the training of a new generation of students and at continuing professional development has increased exponentially. In this context, trainers have been faced with the daunting challenge of identifying teaching methods that will prepare translators and interpreters for the new requirements of the profession. Bringing together an internationally diverse group of trainers, professional translators and interpreters, academics, researchers and students, the conference favoured a lively and constructive exchange of ideas and highlighted the importance of an ongoing dialogue for the emergence of increasingly functional and updated models of training.
The conference opened with the inspiring intervention of Professor Dorothy Kelly from the University of Granada, who shared her understanding of translator trainer competence. Professor Kelly suggested that besides having experience in translating and having a thorough knowledge of Translation Studies as an academic discipline, trainers should ideally possess a set of organisational, interpersonal, contextual, professional and instrumental subcompetences. It is important that trainers have good research skills and are capable of effectively designing courses as well as teaching, learning and assessment activities. Trainers should be able to work collaboratively with their trainees and to communicate effectively and enthusiastically with them. A contextual and professional understanding of the educational context, in which the training takes place, and the ability to manage and apply training resources were also identified as essential skills. Professor Kelly supported her views with the results from a study which she has recently conducted in Spain. Many of the points raised by Professor Kelly were discussed by some of the 21 papers delivered in the five parallel sessions which followed the opening plenary session. The papers provided a variety of other relevant ideas on how translation and interpreting courses should be structured and taught. The need for an equal balance between theory and practice turned out to be a particularly recurrent object of discussion. Among other issues highlighted by the speakers were the importance of stimulating students’ creativity and of raising awareness of the resources of their source and target languages, the need to help students reflect on the choices and errors made during the translation process, the advantages of group work and of teaching in a virtual environment, the integration of new technologies and CAT tools and the necessity of educating translators as well as clients. Many illuminating case studies were proposed to illustrate examples of training procedures currently in use in different institutions. The conference provided many opportunities for socialising and open exchange of opinions. Fundamental for this purpose were the three parallel workshops run by Gary Massey and Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow from the University of Zurich, Maria Piotrowska from the Pedagogical University of Krakow and Caterina Jeffcote from the University of Portsmouth. Gary Massey and Maureen Ehrensberger-Dow offered a demonstration
of the pedagogical potential of various process research techniques and tools in the classroom setting. Maria Piotrowska encouraged a debate on who is to be considered a ‘beginner’ in translation training as well as on the pedagogical validity of strategic translating and of textbooks in the early stages of translation training. Caterina Jeffcote led a discussion on teacher and student expectations and on the utility of theory in practical translation workshops. The successful and stimulating day came to a close with the plenary session conducted by Daniel Toudic (University of Rennes 2), who discussed translation training from a European perspective. Mr. Toudic’s talk focused on the elucidating findings of the ‘OPTIMALE’ European academic network project, of which he is coordinator. After having highlighted the centrality of Europe in translation service provision and the primary role of translation on holding the Union together, Mr. Toudic pointed to the lack of a European model for translation training. He then reported that despite fragmentation of the translation industry and profession, solid efforts are being made to make translation training programmes more relevant to both professional and societal needs. The talk concluded with the recognition of the need to encourage European universities, employers and governments to invest more in translation training. The conference organizers gratefully acknowledge the support of the European Society for Translation Studies, which awarded the conference an Event Grant of €1,000 which supported the participation of the plenary speakers. Support from the UK’s National Network for Translation (www.routesintolanguages.ac.uk/translati on) allowed us to welcome a number of final-year undergraduate students, whose feedback was very positive. The conference was also supported by the University of Portsmouth’s Centre for European and International Studies Research (www.port.ac.uk/ceisr). Feedback on the event was extremely positive, with almost everyone commenting on the high quality of the keynote presentations and the majority of the 115 delegates commenting on the plethora of ideas that could be applied on their teaching and research.
Alice Colombo (PhD student) Caterina Jeffcote
Report: CETRA, 24th Research Summer School 20-31 August 2012 There is no need to introduce the CETRA Summer School in Translation Studies: More than 500 alumni, an international and experienced teaching staff and twenty-four editions are evidence of the meticulous work that is undertaken every year to organize the best established summer school in the field of Translation Studies. Started in 1989 by Prof. José Lambert and continued by Prof. Reine Meylaerts, this world famous initiative is undoubtedly an engaging and challenging training environment for PhD students working in the field of Translation Studies. From 20 to 31 August 2012, K.U. Leuven played host to 24 participants, 5 fellows of the FP7 Marie Curie TIME project and 14 professors in the field of Translation Studies. All the people attending –students and staff– are vivid proof of our field of study’s global impact: More than 20 universities from 4 different continents were represented in this diverse group, an impressive multicultural and heterogeneous group that created a perfect atmosphere for two thought-provoking weeks. Following a long-standing tradition, the CETRA staff appoints a CETRA Professor who is in charge of chairing the summer school every year. This year, the chair was Prof. Franz Pöchhacker, from the Center for Translation Studies at the University of Vienna. Prof. Pöchhacker offered a very structured and thorough panorama of research in Translation Studies, covering key methodological issues and focusing primarily on research in Interpreting Studies, while creating time and space for both poetic and relaxed interactions. The Summer School activities were organized in four different modes: lectures, theoreticalmethodological seminars, one-on-one tutorials and the presentations of our own projects. During the two weeks, we had one seminar per day, each with a different professor, and the possibility of having individual tutorials. Students signed up for tutorials with the CETRA staff depending on their fields of interests. The lectures by the CETRA professor and an optional seminar on statistical methods took place during the first week, and the second week was mostly dedicated to the students’ presentations and follow-up discussions. The lectures prepared by Prof. Pöchhacker started with general presentations of theories and paradigms that have shaped Translation Studies and Interpreting Studies. He then continued with more in-depth presentations on the evolution of research in interpreting and the research methods that have been successfully applied by different scholars over the past sixty years. Every lecture was followed by discussions, which allowed
participants and staff to ask their questions and express their points of view. Although Prof. Pöchhacker’s lectures focused mainly on Interpreting Studies, there was always something to learn for those working in other areas of Translation Studies. When introducing examples from Interpreting Research, he continuously stressed the importance of having a well-structured and robust method to collect and interpret data. I signed up for the optional seminar on statistical methods by Prof. Laura Winther Balling, from Copenhagen Business School. The course took place over three afternoons in the first week. By nature, statistical analyses are intimidating for scholars in Social Sciences and Humanities; nevertheless, they are now more applied among scholars in Translation Studies who are convinced of their relevance for empirical research. Including the seminar in the program was certainly a bonus for the participants who attended. Prof. Winther Balling covered the characteristics and requirements of experimental design and different types of statistical analysis. In order to have handson experience, she introduced R, an opensource programming language and software for statistical computing. She cautioned about the inconveniences brought about by post-hoc experimental design and the advantages of pre-hoc design. She also offered a step-by-step description on how to structure an adequate experimental design for research projects in Translation Studies. Unfortunately, due to time constraints, we were not able to go into the details of linear regression and mixed models, which seem to be highly interesting. The nature of the seminars was very diverse and the experts teaching them discussed a wide spectrum of both traditional and innovative topics in Translation Studies. Some seminars drew on the stages and issues involved in writing a PhD dissertation, such as research design, methodological questions involved in the research process or the need for being critical about existing research. There was also time for discussions on different subjects, such as the problems posed by the lack of agreement on the definition and adoption of basic concepts, documentation and reference catalogs relevant for PhD students and the importance that should be given to context when doing research in translation and interpreting. Regarding the use of tools for research in translation, we explored new possibilities offered by corpus studies for research on interpreting and we also learnt about the potential of using smart pens when investigating note-taking in consecutive interpreting. Additionally, we revisited the concept of norms in translation, its evolution in the field, the status it has
achieved and the criticism it has provoked. Finally, and to my personal satisfaction, we had a seminar on audiovisual translation. The different modes of audiovisual translation were adequately explained and special attention was paid to the multimodal nature of the object of study and its potential contributions to Translation Studies. The student presentations created an ideal environment for discussion at different levels and about a wide variety of topics. In total, 28 PhD projects were presented in four days. This interaction was without any doubt fruitful and thought-provoking since each student approached a particular area and contributed a different perspective. The postulates, motivation and resourcefulness of participants fuelled stimulating debates for us young scholars, trying to find a place in the research community. One of the biggest achievements of the Summer School was the creation of an interactive space where participants could share their knowledge and felt comfortable in doing so, while staff members were willing to listen and pleased to offer advice. The dynamics of the group allowed a constant exchange that enriched the knowledge of all the parties involved, while, at the same time, making participants feel part of a research community. In summary, the 2012 24th CETRA Summer School in Translation Studies was a success. During the opening session, Prof. Meylaerts pointed out that one of the main goals of CETRA is motivating the creation of networks among young scholar groups, and the Summer School definitely fulfilled this goal: We now have a group on Facebook and also some folders on Google Drive to share resources (and yes, some photos too). The lectures by the CETRA professor were inspiring, the seminars were highly instructive and the tutorials helped all of the participants to shape or fine-tune their designs. It is my personal opinion, but also what I take from the comments of my fellow participants, that CETRA helped us to develop our ability to be critical about the methods and tools we use in our projects, to be aware of elements that need to be included in our research and to uncover approaches that might need to be ruled out along the way; but most importantly, most of us now have new criteria and ideas that will refine our research designs, help in developing our projects and back up the validity our findings. I am certain when I say that all of the participants made considerable progress during these thrilling two weeks thanks to the quality of the interaction afforded in the unique CETRA atmosphere.
David Orrego-Carmona PhD student, Universitat Rovira i Virgili Recipient of the EST Summer School Scholarship
TS initiatives CETRA 2013 Twenty-fifth Research Summer School Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium 14-27 August 2013 CETRA Chair Professor: Michaela Wolf University of Graz In 1989 José Lambert created a special research program in Translation Studies at the University of Leuven in order to promote research training in the study of translational phenomena and to stimulate high-level research into the cultural functions of translation. Since then, this unique program has attracted talented PhD students and young scholars who spend two weeks of research under the supervision of a team of prominent scholars, and under the supervision of the Chair Professor, an annually appointed expert in the field of Translation Studies. From 1989 on, the program has hosted participants from Austria to Australia, from Brazil to Burundi, and from China to the Czech Republic. The list of CETRA professors may serve as an illustration of the program’s openness to the different currents in the international world of Translation Studies: Gideon
Toury (Tel Aviv, 1989),† Hans Vermeer (Heidelberg, 1990), Susan Bassnett (Warwick, 1991), Albrecht Neubert (Leipzig, 1992), Daniel Gile (Paris, 1993), Mary SnellHornby (Vienna, 1994), †André Lefevere (Austin, 1995), Anthony Pym (Tarragona, 1996), Yves Gambier (Turku, 1997), Lawrence Venuti (Philadelphia, 1998), Andrew Chesterman (Helsinki, 1999), Christiane Nord (Magdeburg, 2000), Mona Baker (Manchester, 2001), Maria Tymoczko (Amherst, Massachusetts, 2002), Ian Mason (Edinburgh, 2003), Michael Cronin (Dublin, 2004), †Daniel Simeoni (Toronto, 2005), Harish Trivedi (Delhi, 2006), †Miriam Shlesinger (Tel Aviv, 2007), Kirsten Malmkjaer (London, 2008), Martha Cheung (Hong Kong, 2009), Sherry Simon (Montreal, 2010), Christina Schaeffner (Aston, 2011), Franz Pöchhacker (Vienna, 2012). Basic activities and components of the Summer Session: 1.
Public Lectures by the
CETRA Professor on key topics. A preliminary reading list will be furnished and all topics are to be further developed in discussions. 2.
given by the CETRA staff. Basic reading materials will be made available in advance. Tutorials: individual discussions of participants’ research with the CETRA Professor and the CETRA staff. Students’ papers: presentation of participants’ individual research projects followed by open discussion. Publication: each participant is invited to submit an article based on the presentation, to be refereed and published on the CETRA website.
For further information: - please contact Steven Dewallens: steven.dewallens@hubrussel. be - please see our website: http://www.arts.kuleuven.be/ cetra
Nida School of Translation Studies - NSTS 2013
with peers, and explore the interface of practice and cutting edge theory.
THE NIDA SCHOOL OF TRANSLATION STUDIES announces its 2013 session. DATE: Sunday, May 19 to Saturday, June 1, 2013 LOCATION: San Pellegrino University Foundation in Misano Adriatico (Rimini), Italy
The theme of the 2013 session, Translation, Gender, and Culture, will connect the six lectures that Professor Spivak and Professor Simon present. Additional faculty and scholars-in-residence will develop this theme around their own fields of expertise.
This year’s session marks the Nida School’s seventh year of providing challenging, specialized training in translation studies to qualified professionals looking to expand their skills, engage
Intensive Summer Courses in Audiovisual Translation Translation Studies Unit at Imperial College London July 2013 Imperial College provides several intensive summer courses in audiovisual
Audio-Description Workshops The Department of Translators and Interpreters of Artesis University College, Antwerp, is organising four workshops on AudioDescription (AD) in 2013. Workshops 1, 2 and 3 will be taught in Dutch, workshop 4 will be taught in English. The four trainers, Aline Remael (WS 1), Gert Vercauteren (WS 2), Nina Reviers (WS 3) and Josélia Neves (WS 4) are specialists in the field and partners in the European
Visiting Faculty: Annalisa Baicchi (Pavia); Sandra Bermann (Princeton); Edwin Gentzler (UMass Amherst); Bob Hodgson (Nida Institute); Siri Nergaard
translation open to professional translators as well as students. Course Content: These intensive courses provide a theoretical framework for translators and researchers in the area of AVT as well as hands-on training with
ADLAB project: AudioDescription – Life-Long Access for the Blind (www.adlabproject.eu). Each of the workshops will be taught on a Saturday from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. and from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Workshop 1: Introduction to AD for film and television, 16 February 2013. Workshop 2: Writing the AD script for film and television – specific challenges, 9 March 2013.
(Florence); Jeremy Punt (Stellenbosch); Vicente Rafael (Washington, Seattle); Svetlana Skoromokhova (Warwick); David Trobisch (Nida Institute); Esteban Voth (UBS). School Deans: Roy Ciampa (Admissions); James Maxey (Faculty); Deborah Shadd (Associates). Applications will be received from December 1, 2012 – January 31, 2013. The cost of tuition, housing, and meals for the 2013 session is $1,250 US. A limited number of bursaries ($750) will be available to applicants who demonstrate need and merit.
professional software and audiovisual material taken from different authentic contexts. Languages Offered: French, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish. www.imperial.ac.uk/transsummer courses
Workshop 3: Audio-Description for the theatre, 27 April 2013. Workshop 4: Audio-Description for museums, 18 May 2013 For more information, please consult: http://www.artesis.be/vertalert olk/opleidingen/audiodescriptie.htm
New Publications Please consult the website and Twitter feeds for current updates and new initiatives.
Books Histoire des traductions en langue française. Dixneuvième siècle (18151914)
Sous la direction d’Yves Chevrel, Lieven D’hulst et Christine Lombez Year of Publication: 2012 Verdier, 1376 pp.
Le XIXe siècle est le «��� siècle de la comparaison ». Cette définition entend mettre l’accent sur un phénomène qui touche non seulement la France, les pays d’expression française et ceux où la langue française (langue internationale) est pratiquée, mais aussi l’Europe, voire l’ensemble de la planète : d’intenses mouvements de circulation des personnes et des idées, dans lesquels la traduction devient véritablement un véhicule qui facilite, voire impose les rencontres et, par là, provoque les confrontations. Le volume s’organise autour
Coordinating Participation in Dialogue Interpreting By: Claudio Baraldi and Laura Gavioli (eds) Year of Publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 335 pp. Dialogue interpreting, which takes place in institutional settings such as legal proceedings, healthcare contexts, work meetings or media talk, has attracted increasing attention in
de trois grands ensembles. Les trois premiers chapitres concernent des problèmes généraux. Les deux premiers (théories de la traduction, traducteurs) sont attendus mais incontournables. Le troisième souligne cette autre caractéristique du XIXe siècle, sans doute plus particulière à la France : la découverte, grâce aux recherches historiques, d’une Antiquité classique renouvelée et mise en concurrence avec d’autres antiquités, orientales notamment. Les chapitres suivants, consacrés aux traductions plus spécifiquement littéraires, sont encadrés par une approche quantitative et une synthèse qualitative sur les transformations du panthéon littéraire. Les chapitres qu’ils encadrent traitent des grands genres traditionnels : à côté du théâtre, de la poésie et de la fiction en prose, une place a été réservée à la littérature
translation, language and communication studies. Drawing on transcribed sequences of authentic talk, this volume raises questions about aspects of interpreting that have been taken for granted, challenging preconceived notions about differences between professional and nonprofessional interpreting and pointing in new directions for future research. Collecting contributions from major
d’enfance et de jeunesse qui prend véritablement son essor pendant ces années. Les six derniers chapitres sont consacrés aux vastes domaines des activités scientifiques, y compris les sciences humaines entendues au sens large (sciences, droit, religion…). Cet ensemble met particulièrement en évidence les interdépendances, les filiations et les oppositions que les traductions des œuvres étrangères suscitent. Le bilan proposé pour conclure ne peut être que provisoire ; il essaie simplement de faire la part de l’apport des traductions en français et de fixer quelques grands repères historiques, toutes œuvres prises en compte. L’ouvrage se clôt par deux index : celui des auteurs et critiques cités, et celui des traducteurs, qui les enregistre avec leurs dates de naissance et de décès, quand elles sont connues.
scholars in the field of dialogue interpreting and interaction studies, the volume offers new insights into the relationship between interpreting and mediating. It addresses a wide readership, including students and scholars in translation and interpreting studies, mediation and negotiation studies, linguistics, sociology, communication studies, conversation analysis, discourse analysis.
The Translation of Fictive Dialogue By: Brumme, Jenny and Anna Espunya (eds.) Year of Publication: 2012 Rodopi, 316 pp. This volume presents a systematic overview of current research on the issues that arise when recreating and translating dialogue in works of fiction (including narrative, drama and film scripts). The central concept is that of fictive orality, a situational linguistic variety differing from spontaneous speech in various respects. Speech in fiction is the product of stylised recreation or evocation by an author. While realism and authenticity may be the most celebrated
Iberian Studies on Translation and Interpreting By: García-Izquierdo, Isabel / Monzó, Esther (eds) Year of Publication: 2012 Peter Lang, 389 pp. This volume gathers contributions representing the main trends in translation and interpreting studies by authors in the Iberian peninsula, with a focus on the
Subtitling Matters. New Perspectives on Subtitling and Foreign Language Learning By: Ghia, Elisa Year of Publication: 2012 Peter Lang, 220 pp. Comunicació i Publicacions, 296 pp. Drawing on recent theoretical developments in second language acquisition, this book proposes a new approach to the learning of
qualities, ultimately, the literary functions and the semiotic dimension of dialogue place significant constraints on the decisions taken both by the source text authors and the translators. Moreover, the traditions and conventions of the target culture act as powerful sources of expectations that influence the final form of the text. This collective volume is divided into three parts: Part 1 deals with the translators’ own reflections on the qualities of fictive dialogue. Part 2 discusses the interaction of fictive orality with other varieties such as dialects (geographical, chronological and social) and genres. Part 3 discusses a
range of language resources present in fictive dialogue (syntax and sentence connection, information packaging, pragmatic markers and modalisers, appreciative morphology and phrasemes, spelling and typographical conventions, deictics, etc). All chapters present research results in an accessible language and are thoroughly illustrated with translations from and into various European languages (English, German, French, Spanish, Catalan, Romanian and Italian) and their varieties. The volume will be of interest for scholars in translation studies and contrastive linguistics, for graduate students, and for readers interested in the translation of style.
Iberian languages (Basque, Catalan, Portuguese/Galician and Spanish). The essays cover different methodologies and objects of analysis, including traditional textual and historical approaches as well as contemporary methods, such as cultural, sociological, cognitive and gender-oriented perspectives. This seemingly eclectic approach pivots around seven focal points that aim to reflect the most frequent research
topics in the Iberian peninsula: (i) theoretical and methodological approaches; (ii) translation and interpreting training; (iii) historical perspectives; (iv) terminology; (v) rapidly evolving fields in the translation and interpreting industry, such as localization and public service interpreting; (vi) translation of literature; and (vii) translation studies journals.
foreign languages through subtitled audiovisual input. Subtitled text is explored as a source of language acquisition, and its dialogue and subtitle components are focused on as sources of linguistic input. The primary focus of the research is subtitling and the impact it can have on learners' noticing and acquisition of linguistic structures. The concept of translational salience is introduced, a phenomenon that can occur due to an
accentuated contrast between L2 dialogue and L1 subtitles. Two experimental studies on the acquisition of English syntax by Italian learners are used to test the role of translational salience in both noticing and L2 learning. The results lead to a definition of salience particular to the audiovisual medium and raise challenging issues in the pedagogic applications of subtitling, paving the way for the design of more learnercentred subtitles.
Postcolonial Polysystems. The production and reception of translated children's literature in South Africa. By: Haidee Kruger Year of Publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 306 pp.
Postcolonial Polysystems: The Production and Reception of Translated Children’s Literature in South Africa is an original and provocative contribution to the field of
Texto Base-Texto Meta. Un modelo funcional de análisis pretraslativo By: Nord, Christiane Year of Publication: 2012 Universitat Jaume I. Servei de Comunicació i Publicacions, 296 pp.
Post-Socialist Translation Practices. Ideological struggle in children's literature. By: Nike K. Pokorn Year of Publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 188 pp. The book Post-Socialist Translation Practices explores how Communism and Socialism, through their hegemonic pressure, found expression in translation practice from the moment of Socialist revolution to the
children’s literature research and translation studies. It draws on a variety of methodologies to provide a perspective, both productand process-oriented, on the ways in which translation contributes to the production of children’s literature in South Africa, with a special interest in language and power, as well as post- and neocolonial hybridity. The book explores the forces that affect the use of translation in producing children’s literature in various languages in South
Africa, and shows how some of these forces precipitate in the selection, production and reception of translated children’s books in Afrikaans and English. It breaks new ground in its interrogation of aspects of translation theory within the multilingual and postcolonial context of South Africa, as well as in its innovative experimental investigation of the reception of domesticating and foreignising strategies in translated picture books.
Desde los años 1970 se ha ido poniendo de relieve la necesidad de un análisis adecuado del texto base antes de comenzar a traducir o en la primera fase del proceso traslativo. La autora desarrolla un modelo de análisis aplicable a cualquier tipo o ejemplar de texto y a cualquier tarea de traducción, permitiendo al traductor
comprender de manera funcional las características y estilo del texto base. La presente edición es una versión actualizada y en español del libro publicado por primera vez en alemán.
present day. Based on extensive archival research in the archives of the Communist Party and on the interviews with translators and editors of the period the book attempts to outline the typical and defining features of the Socialist translatorial behaviour by re-reading more than 200 translations of children's literature and juvenile fiction published in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Despite the variety of different forms of censorship that the
translators in all Socialist states were subject to, the book argues that Socialist translation in different cultural and linguistic environments, especially where the Soviet model tried to impose itself, purged the translated texts of the same or similar elements, in particular of the religious presence. The book also traces how ideologically manipulated translations are still uncritically reprinted and widely circulated today.
On Translator Ethics. Principles for mediation between cultures By: Anthony Pym Year of Publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 185 pp. This is about people, not texts – a translator ethics seeks to embrace the intercultural identity of the translatory subject, in its full array of possible actions.
The status of the translation profession in the European Union Final report By: Anthony Pym, François Grin, Claudio Sfreddo, Andy L. J. Chan Year of Publication: 2012 European Commission, online publication at http://bookshop.europa.eu/en /the-status-of-the-translationprofession-in-the-europeanunionpbHC3212205/?CatalogCatego ryID=SIIKABst.SEAAAEjGJEY4 e5L
Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility at the Crossroads. Media for All 3. By Remael, Aline, Pilar Orero and Mary Carroll (eds.) Date of publication: 2012 Rodopi, 439 pp. This third volume in the Media for All series offers a diverse selection of articles which bear testimony to the vigour and versatility of research and developments in
Based on seminars originally given at the Collège
International de Philosophie in
Paris, this translation from French has been fully revised by the author and extended to include critical commentaries on activist translation theory, non-professional translation, interventionist practices, and the impact of new translation technologies. The result takes the traditional discussion of ethics into the way mediators
can actively create cooperation between cultures, while at the same time addressing very practical questions such as when one should translate or not translate, how much translators should charge, or whose side they should be on.
On Translator Ethics offers a
point of reference for the key debates in contemporary Translation Studies.
This report is a study of the mechanisms by which the status of translators is signalled in the European Union in 2011-12, with comparisons with the United States, Canada and Australia. The report is based on previous surveys and input from some 100 experts and informants. It offers sociological and economic modelling of the way signalling mechanisms affect markets in this field, with specific reference to academic qualifications, professional certifications, membership of associations and years of experience. The report proposes criteria for actions that might be taken to
enhance the signalling of status. Status is understood as the presumed value of expert skills, rather than the skills themselves. An individual or group with high status is ideally attributed trustworthiness, prestige, authority, higher pay and a degree of professional exclusivity. However, when the signals of status are weak or confusing, those values are low, market disorder results, and good translators may leave the market. The process of professionalisation can then be seen as the production of efficient signals of status such that good translators stay in the market.
audiovisual translation and media accessibility. The collection reflects the critical impact of new technologies on AVT, media accessibility and consumer behaviour and shows the significant increase in collaborative and interdisciplinary research targeting changing consumer perceptions as well as quality issues. Complementing newcomers such as crowdsourcing and potentially universal emoticons, classical themes of AVT studies such
as linguistic analyses and corpus-based research are featured. Prevalent throughout the volume is the impact of technology on both methodologies and content. The book will be of interest to researchers from a wide range of disciplines as well as audiovisual translators, lecturers, trainers and students, producers and developers working in the field of language and media accessibility.
Apprendere a tradurre. Tradurre per apprendere. La traduzione come obiettivo e strumento di apprendimento in ambito microlinguistico By: Bruna Di Sabato, Patrizia Mazzotta, Emilia Di Martino, Ruggiero Pergola Date of publication: 2012 Pensa, 340 pp. Translation is considered in different ways depending on the historical period, the country and the scholar(s) who deal with this activity. It is looked at as an art, or a craft, or even as the very act of writing or rewriting, according to the value and recognition attached to it by different theoretical
Testi in viaggio. Incontri fra lingue e culture attraversamenti di generi e di senso traduzione By: Bruna Di Sabato, Emilia Di Martino Date of publication: 2011 UTET Università, 288 pp. The book adopts the metaphor of the 'journey' to refer to the passage of a text from one linguistic-cultural 'space' to another. The translator’s task is to find the most successful route to get to the final destination. Each chapter has the same structure: it is revolves around text samples of various types, sometimes presented with their translation(s), with the aim of guiding the reader along an awareness-raising path of
approaches. The latter, however, are frequently regarded by the professional translator as simply useless. The training of translators may be the first (and too often wasted) occasion to overcome this attitude. Any translator trainer knows her/his first aim is to raise the students’ awareness of the added value of critical thinking or reflection on translation models to their experience. This book aims to favour an approach to translation studies and translation criticism as useful tools for the would-be translator. In the light of this perspective, the first part of the book is devoted to revisiting the major theories of translation,
comprehension, disambiguation and recreation, in the firm belief that the translation competence builds upon the critical analysis of original texts and translations. The authors pick from the field of text analysis and translation studies those authors and theories which most clearly help to support their methodology, without the aim of being exhaustive in terms of theoretical framework. The reason is to place the act of translation at the centre, making use of theories only when they are actually useful to teach how to translate. Nonetheless, plenty of bibliographical references at the end of each chapter refer to a detailed bibliography that can help readers widen their
but also of communication in special domains and intercultural contexts. The second part introduces the delicate issue of translator’s competence, offering food for thought to future translators and translators’ trainers, with particular attention to the new professions related to the act of translating which have recently emerged: a whole chapter is about localisation, for instance, and another surveys actual professional possibilities as well as the pros and cons of each, while also offering tips to the newcomer. The final part of the volume is devoted to the ‘rediscovery’ of translation as a foreign language learning tool.
knowledge of the topics dealt with, if they so wish. The volume can prove a useful read to those who would like to become translators and to professionals who wish to take the opportunity to rethink their approach to translation: rather than being a comprehensive survey of translation, it is a collection of what, in the authors’ opinion, would be useful items in a translator’s luggage when she/he starts this journey. The authors are both involved in translation teaching at university level. Translators themselves, they have also researched and written extensively about translation.
Flesh and Fish Blood. Postcolonialism, Translation, and the Vernacular By S. Shankar Date of publication: 2012 University of California Press, 204 pp. In Flesh and Fish Blood Subramanian Shankar breaks new ground in postcolonial studies by exploring the rich potential of vernacular literary expressions. Shankar pushes
Descriptive Translation Studies – and beyond. Revised edition By: Gideon Toury Year of publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 350 pp. This is an expanded and slightly revised version of the book of the same title which caused quite a stir when it was first published (1995). It thus reflects an additional step in an ongoing research project which was launched in the 1970s. The main objective is to transcend the limitations of using descriptive methods as a mere ancillary tool and place a proper branch of DTS at the very heart of the discipline, between the theoretical and the applied branches.
Translators through History. Revised edition Edited and directed by Jean Delisle and Judith Woodsworth Revised and expanded by: Judith Woodsworth Year of publication: 2012 John Benjamins, 350 pp. Acclaimed, when it first appeared, as a seminal work – a groundbreaking book that was both informative and highly readable – Translators through History is being released in a new edition,
beyond the postcolonial Anglophone canon and works with Indian literature and film in English, Tamil, and Hindi to present one of the first extended explorations of representations of caste, including a critical consideration of Tamil Dalit (so-called untouchable) literature. Shankar shows how these vernacular materials are often unexpectedly politically progressive and feminist, and provides insight on these oft-
overlooked--but nonetheless sophisticated--South Asian cultural spaces. With its calls for renewed attention to translation issues and comparative methods in uncovering disregarded aspects of postcolonial societies, and provocative remarks on humanism and cosmopolitanism, Flesh and Fish Blood opens up new horizons of theoretical possibility for postcolonial studies and cultural analysis.
Throughout the book, theoretical and methodological discussions are illustrated by an assortment of case studies, the emphasis being on the need to take whatever one wishes to focus on within the contexts which are relevant to it.
setting, and textual components are related to their texts and then also to the cultural constellations in which they are embedded. All this leads to Part Four, which asks what the knowledge accumulated through descriptive studies of the kind advocated in the book is likely to yield in terms of both the theoretical and the applied branches of the field.
Part One discusses the pivotal position of the descriptive branch within Translation Studies, and Part Two then outlines a detailed rationale for that positioning. This, in turn, supplies a framework for the case studies comprising Part Three, where a number of exemplary issues are analysed and contextualized: texts and modes of translational behaviour are situated in their cultural
substantially revised and expanded by Judith Woodsworth. Translators have played a key role in intellectual exchange through the ages and across borders. This account of how they have contributed to the development of languages, the emergence of literatures, the dissemination of knowledge and the spread of values tells the story of world culture itself. Content has been updated, new elements introduced and
All in all: an innovative, thought-provoking book which no one with a keen interest in translation can afford to ignore.
recent directions in translation scholarship incorporated, providing fresh insights and a more nuanced view of past events. The bibliography contains over 100 new titles and illustrations have been refreshed and enhanced. An invaluable tool for students, scholars and professionals in the field of translation, the latest version of Translators through History remains a vital resource for researchers in other disciplines and a fascinating read for the wider public.
Special Issues of TS Journals The Journal of Specialised Translation Special issue on Terminology, Phraseology and Translation Issue 18, July 2012 Guest-edited by Margaret Rogers The July 2012 issue of JoSTrans, the Journal of Specialised Translation (n°18, www.jostrans.org) is guestedited by Professor Margaret Rogers and devoted to her area of expertise, Terminology and Phraseology. Until recently, those disciplines were considered rather closed, limited to the study of terms, specific concepts and
New Directions in Translation Studies. Special issue of AngloSaxónica 3:3, 2012 Guest-edited by Anthony Pym and Alexandra Assis Rosa This special issue of the journal Anglo-Saxónica offers fifteen papers mainly by Portuguese researchers (Duarte, Keating, Lopes, Maia, Moniz, Assis Rosa, FerreiraAlves, Bennett, Ramos Pinto and Neves) but also from other parts of the world (Pagura, García, Alvstad, Baubeta, Milton). It is organized into four sections on literary, technical, audiovisual translation and interpreting, and covers a wide range of modes of translation and research
meanings but the breadth of the ten articles included in this issue shows that they do not only refer to disciplining words and managing them, but are crucial to the articulation of new ideas in multicultural, multidisciplinary and multilingual communication. As Margaret Rogers, discusses in her introduction, this issue proposes a range of views on terminology and phraseology in relation to specialist translation, mirroring many of the themes outlined above in terms of terminology and knowledge, the use of corpora, figurative language and terminology, the structuring of termbases and relations between entries, the
methodologies: from questioning the binary paradigm governing Western translation discourse, discussing anthologizing by means of translation as reimagining and canonizing, exploring selected theoretical writings in terms of their contribution for a rising interest in the discipline, mapping literary Translation Studies in Portugal and assessing its contribution for the study of literature and culture, analyzing the role of footnotes and endnotes by the translator as privileged spaces to access the agency of the translator, revealing the role of translation in the plight of dominated languages and literature in different times and spaces, or assessing its role in the introduction of a new canon, from describing
particular terminological needs of translators, and terminological variation. Three interviews also broaden the perspective of this issue: Michael Cronin discusses the meaning of authenticity in the global framework of communication with Dionysios Kapsaskis; Myriam Salama-Carr reflects on recent developments in Translation Studies, specialised translation and scientific discourse; Margaret Rogers interviews a freelance technical translator, David Bennett, on the nature of his work.
Lucile Desblache General Editor
an ongoing project to map literary translation in Portugal during the 20th century and creating an online free-access database, to offering a survey of Portuguese language service providers, assessing the impact of translation upon Portuguese historiographical discourse, offering a history of (research on) postediting, or conference interpreting in Brazil, providing an overview of current modes of AVT and current research on AVT or focusing upon joining forces between practice and research in the growing implementation of accessible media, this volume hints at the vitality of the “inclusive humanist discipline” of Translation Studies.
Alexandra Assis Rosa
TRACT : Traduction et communication transculturelle Au nom de l'ATLF (Association des traducteurs littéraires de France) et d'ATLAS (Assises de la traduction littéraire en Arles), nous sommes très heureux de vous annoncer la mise en ligne de notre revue /TransLittérature/. Grâce à ce site, www.translitterature.fr, nous
mettons enfin à la disposition des traducteurs, des étudiants, des chercheurs, mais aussi de toute personne intéressée par les problématiques de la traduction, un fonds d’archives extrêmement riche (43 numéros à ce jour, pas moins de 330 contributeurs). Nous l’avons conçu comme un site de ressources, dont l’axe central est une base de données, avec recherche par mots-clés à travers tout le
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corpus consultable et téléchargeable gratuitement au format pdf. Bonne promenade à travers toutes ces pages qui témoignent de la réflexion menée depuis de nombreuses années par l'ATLF et ATLAS sur la traduction.
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