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isn’t it naturally a good thing that emerging artists should struggle? why has curating become an academicised practice? what effect has this had? has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves?


PILOT:1 16 October 2004 email publication@pilotlondon.org http://www.pilotlondon.org http://www.pilotlondon.org/forum PILOT:1 Colin Guillemet Doriane Laithier Elizabeth McAlpine Rory Macbeth Matthew Poole

colin@pilotlondon.org doriane@pilotlondon.org elizabeth@pilotlondon.org rory@pilotlondon.org matthew@pilotlondon.org

All texts Š PILOT and the authors Design by Doriane Laithier Printed in Italy by Grafiche DessÏ s.r.l.


INTROduction PILOT invited a number of international curators, writers, artists and collectors to each nominate one artist, not yet commercially represented, to show work and be present at the PILOT:1 event at Old Limehouse Town Hall, London. Our aim was for this publication to actively open up and provoke debate rather than catalogue artworks or present a series of commissioned essays, which tend to document or summerise. Consequently we asked a wide range of people to give their reactions to the same three questions. In order to elicit as varied a set of opinions as possible, the questions are deliberately broad and open to interpretation. The contributors include artists, curators, writers and collectors from a diverse international spectrum; some established figures, some emerging.


Q1 isn’t it naturally a good thing that emerging artists should struggle?

01-29

Q2 why has curating become an academicised practice? what effect has this had?

31-55

Q3 has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves?

57-77


contributors Dr Michael Asbury Research Fellow, Chelsea College of Art and Design and Camberwell College of Arts 28, 35, 73

Gavin Baily

New Media Artist 4, 35, 76

Nicolas Bourriaud

Co-Director, Palais de Tokyo, Paris 8, 44, 67

Caroline Brockbank

CAPRI 2004 9, 38, 74

Aileen Corkery

Visual Arts Curator, Temple Bar Outdoors 10, 39, 58

Ross Downes

Artist, UK 11, 40, 60

Kerry Duggan

Independent curator, London 21, 36, 64

Patricia Ellis

Artist, Glasgow 15, 34, 60

Lohan Emmanuel Artist, London 4, 42, 58 Milovan Farronato,

Art critic and curator, Italy 6, 42, 64

Berit Fischer

Independent curator, London 11, 43, 77

Rainer Ganahl

Artist and writer, New York 27, 53

Babak Ghazi Artist, UK 5, 48, 63 Carolina Grau

Curator, London 11

Rosanna Guy Greaves

Artist 11, 47, 64

Sabine Hagmann Artist, London 12, 64 Greg Hilty Head of Art and Literature, Arts Council England

5, 46, 60

Len Horsey

Artist, Newcastle upon Tyne 9, 62

Elinor Jansz Art critic 17, 46, 74


Deirdre King

Gallery Administrator, Cubitt Gallery 13, 46, 60

Sharon Kivland

Artist, France/UK 3, 32, 60

Klega

Artist, London 17, 44, 68

Jessica Lack

Critic, Guardian Guide 16, 32, 70

Liane Lang

Artist, London 2

Cedar Lewisohn

Artist, Glasgow 15, 36, 68

Caroline McCarthy Artist, London 17, 32, 70 David Mabb Artist and Course Leader, MA Fine Art, Goldsmiths, London 16, 33, 69

Bartolomeu Mari

Chief Curator, MACBA, Barcelona 8, 43, 59

David Mollin

Artist, London 12, 44, 69

Luke Oxley

Artist and independent curator, London 19, 47, 74

Pil and Galia Kollectiv

Artists’ collective 6

Anita Ponton Artist, London 13, 41, 62 Max Presneill

Director, Raid Projects, LA 17, 39, 76

Nigel Prince

Curator, IKON Gallery, Birmingham 20, 47, 61

David Proud

Artist and Tutor, Slade School of Fine Art 24, 50, 65

Juan Puntes

Director, White Box, New York 22, 32, 75

Jon Purnell

Curator 22, 72

Audrey Reynolds

Artist, London 21, 49, 71

Alistair Robinson

Curator and Programme Director (NGCA) 16, 33, 63

Niki Russell

Director of YAH 23, 35, 64


Giorgio Sadotti Artist, UK 17, 54, 67 Edgar Schmitz

Artist, writer and academic, London 61

Dallas Seitz Artist and Co-Director, 1,000,000mph project space, London 23, 51, 70

Dave Smith Artist and Co-Director, Jeffrey Charles Gallery, London

12, 46, 75

Edward Lucie Smith Writer and curator, UK 24, 35, 70 Terry Smith

Artist, London 14

Peter Suchin

Artist and critic, London 48, 59

The Superficialist International 10, 54, 77 Tayto et Tayto La Pomme de Terre a BasĂŠ des Facilitators

14, 37, 63

Davina Thackara

Editor, Public Art Forum 19, 52, 75

John Timberlake

Artist, London 3, 37, 72

Gijsbrecht van der Heul

Artist, London 22, 52, 62

Gerrie van Noord Independent curator and Project Manager, Zenomap

26, 33, 76

Marcus Verhagen Art Historian, UK 27, 54, 73 Shane Waltener Artist, London 22, 53, 65 Lawrence Weiner

Artist 27, 51, 74

Annie Whiles Artist, London 27, 41, 61 Mark Wilsher Artist and Curator, Tablet at the Tabernacle, London

9, 35


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11

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13

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15

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16


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17

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23

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ISN’T IT NATURALLY A GOOD THING THAT EMERGING ARTISTS SHOULD STRUGGLE? WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD? HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES?


pilot:1 Sharon Kivland Artist, France/UK I misunderstood this question on first reading – perhaps I am still not understanding it. I thought you meant that curating, which is something of a neologism, had absorbed the weight of the canon of art history, so that exhibitions make theoretical propositions about the world and its ideology. I am not sure, but I think that you are referring to various educational initiatives, which strive to make professional the construction of exhibitions and teach the student how to do it properly. I cannot think of these as ‘academic’, even within a university, but it is possible that they propose a theory of exhibitions, which is not the same as a theory of

Q2 WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD?

art. If you did not mean that, do you mean the endless rendezvous of art historian and artist in this or that museum, this or that publication?

Caroline McCarthy Artist, London I was wondering whether the emergence of curatorship courses was a response to a growing academic trend, or has the emergence of such courses led to an academic trend? I think the effect is one where curators can serve a notional academic agenda that in fact mystifies the majority of artists.

Jessica Lack Critic, Guardian Guide This is a good question. It means I spend half my time having to dissect incomprehensible press releases, dragging my feet around group shows of tenuously linked artists and staring glassily at reams of explanatory matter. I have nothing against curated shows, I just wish the results were not so boring and painfully insecure.

Juan Puntes Director, White Box, New York It shouldn’t surprise anyone that a farmer delivers farm products ...

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pilot:1 Alistair Robinson Curator and Programme Director, Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art (NGCA) Competition for status and recognition is as fierce for artists as it is for curators. Accordingly, ego-driven curatorial practices, which underline the curator’s own intellectual prowess, attract greater attention and resources than ‘ambient’ curating, driven primarily by the desire to provide opportunities for artists. The latter approach doesn’t get press coverage or brownie points – the devil always gets the best tunes.

David Mabb Artist and Course Leader, MA Fine Art at Goldsmiths, London I am unclear what is meant by ‘academicised’ here. Presumably it refers to the growth of curating courses that now exist at Goldsmiths and the RCA. In a way they are no bad thing, if – and it’s a big ‘if’ – they teach a professionalism that can help artists to produce better exhibitions. The usual criticism of these courses is that they encourage curators to think of themselves as artists who are ‘creative’, and float around the art world picking out artists without wanting to get down to the really boring organisational and fundraising stuff.

Gerrie van Noord Independent curator and Project Manager, Zenomap Like any practice that develops over a period of time, at a certain stage a process of professionalisation sets in. This usually involves a taking into account of what has happened so far, and an acknowledging of a history. Just as there is a history of art, there is now a history of ‘exhibition-making’ and ‘curating of contemporary art’ – a history that is now a continuously evolving process. Processes of theorisation formalise things, but they also acknowledge and emphasise the plethora of possibilities. And it’s not a bad thing to be aware of that. Just as there are dozens of professional training options for artists and for art historians, (nobody seems to object to their abundance), for quite some time there have been courses that take disciplines like museology seriously. And now there are

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professional training options for people who want to – in whatever context and format – curate. And, like art schools and art history courses, there’s more and more variety in these course.

Patricia Ellis Artist, Glasgow I don’t really see curating as an academic practice – it’s more political, like being a UN diplomat, or the president of an inconsequential nation. It’s a hard racket where only the most devious survive. Maybe it has something to do with what’s perceived as public responsibility. Art councils, governments, museums and corporations all want to be seen doing worthy

Q2 WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD?

things that please everyone and offend no one. Consequently you get biennales titled ‘On Reason and Emotion’ or ‘Mankind’. Who doesn’t support Mankind? (and world peace, a cure for cancer, puppies and rainbows). Unfortunately it doesn’t mean anything in real terms. It requires a true politician to convince the powers-that-be otherwise, and separate them from their money for the greater good of Art. Artists might find curators boring, but there needs to be someone out there who fights the corner that artwork has the potential to be meaningful to the world. It’s just a matter of contextualising things. The Tate would probably be happy (and sell more tickets than ever) if they did live strip-shows and nude Amazonian mud-wrestling; it just requires the right curator to convince them and their funding bodies that it’s symbolic of the deep spiritualism of feminist working-class oppression in the poverty-stricken war-torn regions of some country that is racially disadvantaged and being economically raped by some multi-national corporation (as long as it’s not the one sponsoring the show). It could be great. Black wrestler against white wrestler, Muslim against Jew. Maybe a few of the lap dancers could be handicapped, or asylum seekers. Art is essentially stupid; a little pretension can be a good thing. Curator’s – god bless ‘em and their whole greasy hand-shaking lot.

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pilot:1 Mark Wilsher Artist and Curator at Tablet at The Tabernacle, London It’s just another part of the current over-professionalisation of the art-world, offering a reliable wage and social status to those who like to jump through government funding hoops. Of course, anyone curating an exhibition should be aware of their history and context, but the academic training of would-be curators is only leading to a greater tide of pointless exhibitions and the flattening out of individual artists’ sensibilities.

Niki Russell Director of YAH I don’t see this as a recent thing, but something symptomatic of a shift in practice that privileges museums and universities over other forms of cultural authority, thereby leading to the bureaucratisation of aesthetic taste.

Gavin Baily New Media Artist Is there any evidence for this? What kind of thing should curating be? – commercial, political, theological?

Edward Lucie Smith Writer and curator, UK Curating has become an academicised practice for one very obvious reason: what we are pleased to call ‘the avant-garde’ is now itself a form of academy. In fact the organisation of art – social, political and financial – has reverted to late nineteenth century patterns. See a lot of my recent writing on this subject.

Dr Michael Asbury Research Fellow, Chelsea College of Art and Design and Camberwell College of Arts The academicisation of curatorial practice arises, quite simply, from the increased status of the profession. It is a response to a particular demand. The increased status, notoriety and ultimately the power held by the curator says more about contemporary art than the academicisation of the activity itself. The art-world operates as a perverse food chain where (almost)

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everyone is willing to be devoured while the predators remain capricious animals that follow a very strict diet. Traditionally – over the last century, that is – it was the art critic who would act as the bullish cook imposing the plat du jour. The rise of the curating profession has replaced the plat du jour for the menu a la carte. Such a menu remains, however, restricted to the collection, policy and/or strategy of the hosting institution. This has been the trade-off. Whilst the independent curator remains committed to his/her particular vision, the overriding goal of curating courses seems to be the provision of institutional curators. How many successful (that is after all, what we are talking about) young, independent curators have gone though the curatorial

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academic machine?

Kerry Duggan Independent curator, London I’ve never studied on a curating course and don’t feel qualified to speak about something of which I have no experience directly. However, I do work in the field and know, among other things, that academicisation – if that’s a word – elevates the status of the profession. I also know that postgraduate students incur considerable debt pursuing a higher qualification. What I’m not sure about – and perhaps someone can enlighten me – is what exactly is taught on a graduate or postgraduate degree in curating? Is it all about artists and intellectual debates surrounding the work, or does one learn how to do the dreary everyday stuff like writing contracts, setting up databases and so on? How many practicing curators do have a qualification in the subject?

Cedar Lewisohn Artist, Glasgow To a degree curating is an academic practice – it is also a totally false science whose only real validation comes from the financial system that governs it. Anyone can be a curator if they can fund the projects they want to do – no certificate needed, but it’s difficult to be a microbiologist without training. So the best way for curators who aren’t independently wealthy to qualify for funding is to intellectualise their projects, most often with ideologies and philosophies borrowed from other

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fields. Miuccia Prada doesn’t need to intellectualise the work she exhibits; she just buys it and puts it in her museum. This doesn’t mean that she shows vacuous work, it just means she doesn’t need to bother justifying her choices to a committee, as can be the case in public institutions. Then again, if you’re a curator in a publicly funded institution it’s still possible to run a good programme whose agenda isn’t to educate the audience in the patronising way some places try to. In some ways the rise of the curator-as-star through the 90s is similar to the rise of the DJ in the same decade. DJ’s select other people’s music to make up their sets and curators select other people’s art to make their exhibitions. Now in 2004 discerning audiences are tired of the superclubs and mega-biennales. What will happen in the future? More of the same probably.

John Timberlake Artist, London In the 2001 prospectus from the London Academy of Curation it says that curating has become academicised because academies have become more focused on offering vocational courses, such as curating. The effect of this is that there are now more curators with curating qualifications.

Tayto et Tayto La Pomme de Terre a Basé des Facilitators Tayto was not aware that curating were included an academical thing; it’s much more out there‚ in the everyday spaces. Tayto see what was called curating‚ in the 20th century, as an artistic movement for an intermedia-terranean policy, social processes exchange and interaction between the various cults, recognising that there is a possibility to propose and activate dynamics capable of giving rise to new assets. Tayto suppose that curating is very sexy and futurist, for example, influenced by Tayto’s Esperanto Macromedia Flash presentation attached to lightweight Teflon boom arm supporting a variety of mounting system components for plasma screens, self-clamping iBooks and a plastic cup-holder for Tayto’s Mad Dog 20/20 Key Lime Pie Destruction. Tayto hope that it will allow everyone to become normative and make the same art/resource/

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interface by acquiring new roles for labour and interpersonal relations both really and metaphorically, developing a series of directions for their research and collaboration by laying down models for education in the arts and how these encounters are grafted onto the general activity of extensive structuring of a network of contacts, programmes and initiatives that, through artistic creativity, will lead to new dimensions and inter-community relationships among the definition of the city. Tayto think it would be good if the whole world could discuss the directions the project could take on inter-community so as people that aren’t Tayto can get involved and can communicate all that goes into more detail than ‘new dimension dialogue and relationships

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among the definite.’

Caroline Brockbank CAPRI 2004 Because everybody wants to be creative! And it’s kind of the trendy thing to do now. But I truly believe that curating isn’t necessarily something that can be taught. If you have a good eye and a natural understanding of other artists’ work, coupled with a sense of space, light and arrangement, that makes a curator and those things are not something that can be taught. These traits can be encouraged and brought out and practiced, but really they are intrinsic qualities that you feel and are born with (for want of a better phrase). I also believe that the academicised practice of curating has led too much ‘curating of curating’. Curators are organising shows around ideas of curating and its practice, rather than creativity, ideas, or even artwork. There are too many curators for the amount of shows, jobs and work out there. Some of them are coming out of the over-subscribed curating courses, kind of marginalised, not working within the art world or with practising artists as much as with each other and the ‘idea’ of curating. It is also interesting to note that (in my experience) the majority of people on the curating or ‘arts management’ courses are women. It is fascinating how over-used the term curating is. DJs are ‘curating’ nights and music – soon windowdressers and stylists will be ‘curating’ their shops and magazine pages, thus ‘killing’ curation as an art and

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practice. A bad case of over-exposure and misunderstanding, as people try to add professional weight and gravitas to their fashionable work, endeavouring to distance themselves from the rest.

Max Presneill Director, Raid Projects, LA Courses have been set up that will teach you how to have taste, knowledge, understanding of history and good administrative skills, etc. This brings in students and therfore money. At its best we see energetic, well researched, illuminating and surprising exhibitions. At worst we see dry, dull, historically unrevealing, tepid and irrelevent shows, which too often privilege the curator over the artist. As a curator, I welcome the small degree of power than has increasingly come to us, but I still worry that we are trying to become the ‘art’ ourselves. Exhibitions that use artists’ work as illustration or background noise for their hypothesis, or as a substitute for their own dalliances with various fashions, should be avoided. What is interesting is the rise of the artist/curator. New methodologies for staging events and exploring ideas, or focusing on artists and their own understandings, and many other areas, can be reinvented by those who come to curating from the artist’s perspective. Of course there are some problems with this – one needs to employ a certain barrier between one’s own work and that of others so as to not confuse the two :-))

Aileen Corkery Visual Arts Curator, Temple Bar Outdoors I suppose one obvious reason is that there are many more curators with degree qualifications than ever before in the marketplace. They are young, enterprising and ambitious and are creating opportunities for themselves, as well as for the artists and spaces they work for. On the whole, this is a good thing. However, I do feel in recent times that there has been an influx of similar sounding group shows (the ones with the longsentence groovy titles), which include a certain number of emerging, ‘must have’ artists; the curator’s name is often at the top of the list. A handful of these kinds of shows is fine but unfortunately this trend doesn’t

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appear to be abating, which is slightly worrying. Is it the result of too many curators graduating at the same time with the same game plan?

Ross Downes Artist, UK ICA conspiracy theory It all started when Jackie O and Lee Oswald were attending the same life drawing class at the local OU. The fellow students’ relationship was merely one of chatter and occasional hellos while waiting to be allowed into the room where the nude bloke who hogs all the plug-in fires sits, cock out. Rumour has it that Oswald, the more intelligent and talented of the two

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with an interest in lefty politics, had been selected for a group show in the local community centre where funds were being raised for evening classes on coat hanger abortion and make-up techniques. On hearing about the showing opportunity, Jackie became increasingly flirtatious with young Oswald over the course of the following classes. Oswald, although flattered by the attention from the well-dressed Jackie, had always been unsure of Jackie’s work. She seemed insistent on only capturing the cocks and vags of the confident yet silly sitters. Mammoth canvases of limp cock and baggy fanny with scumbled backdrops in varying tones of ochre, some with pubes provocatively platted like the hair of a small child stacked up in her one metre-squared studio space. Oswald being the Lenin-reading idealist that he is decides that the socialist thing to do would be to introduce Jackie to the curator of the community-centre show with the intention of including her in the show. Although unsure at first reverend Phil I Stein when noting the pink bowed pube plats gave the ecclesiastical nod of approval. The provocation of gigantic cock and balls proved too much for the local newspaper that, over the following two weeks, devoted fourteen colour supplements, a serialisation and pull-out posters (for the more working class among the buyers) to the event. Noticing the spectacle created by Jackie’s cock and ball’s, John Kennedy the entrepreneurial owner and curator of the White House gallery quietly attended the

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community-centre show after the official opening times and purchased all of Jackie’s paintings while failing to even notice Oswald’s polemic masterpieces. A month later while Oswald struggles to find likeminded artists to contribute to a show in an abandoned book depository Jackie is guest editing the Guardian’s G2, contributing to a fashion/art crossover and showing enormous cock and balls on enormous white walls in the E-number galleries of England’s capital.

Anita Ponton Artist, London To a certain extent the academicisation of curation has led to curators rather than artists dictating the direction of work and subject matter. The prevalence of heavy, theoretical texts accompanying many shows can be dreary and alienating. This is not to say that we shouldn’t be smart when talking and writing about art, however. But we must be aware that at times those grand theoretical claims reinforce divisive and hierarchical conceits surrounding art. Good curators respond to the work emerging around them, identifying movements and trends without deliberately seeking to set the agenda – (I’m thinking here of Saatchi’s Neurotic Realism show) – that’s the artist’s job. On the other hand, the expansion of new courses in curating and their subsequent popularity, speaks of a new generation of interested and creative curators who want to get involved and facilitate art in its many aspects. That has to be a good thing; the more opportunities to show work the better.

Annie Whiles Artist, London Perhaps it has become more academicised because its audience has become more critical, more knowing, and in turn the shows feel they have to become more watertight and theoretically backed to the hilt. The effect might be that press releases don’t get read anymore because they can be very boring, long and show-offy, and a lot about art and not a lot about being here.

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pilot:1 Lohan Emmanuel Artist, London A number of factors have contributed to a general shift in art-making from an academic to a non-academic practice (the democratisation of creative expression, the dematerialisation of the art object, the aestheticisation of everyday life, the emergence of theory as a separate discipline, the undeniable stupidity of all but a minority of artists, to name but a few). Seizing its opportunity, curating has emerged to fill this gap. The curator is required to be many things (quasi-artist, social climber, political player, Svengali), and while this means that the ego of your typical curator may indeed be bigger than that of the typical artist, cura-

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tors are still middle-men who are compelled to justify a position that is, by definition, contingent. Academicisation, essentially a form of bureaucraticisation, gives the curator the legitimacy and language to operate within an increasingly politicised, codified, corporate-looking art-world environment: reconciling the art with both the theory and the bureaucracy supposedly there to support it. As a consequence, curatorial practices are able to assume a status and power that threatens to instrumentalise or subordinate art-making practices rather than frame and complement them. In response, art-making practices seem to have capitulated by becoming dull, passive and polite, or resisted by becoming difficult, ambiguous and evasive. In general, artists welcome curatorial mediation since it has succeeded in demarcating and occupying a territory that most artists would be unwilling or unable to occupy themselves. The art-world has reconfigured itself to accommodate yet another set of egos.

Milovan Farronato Art critic and independent curator, Italy The urgent need for mediation between the parties in question is ever-greater and ever-more structured, but the only adequate mediation for a curator is that between producer and consumer, between the artist and viewer. Curating has always been a part of the Academy, in the same manner that we have seen the proliferation of MFA programs throughout the world â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and this is true for visual arts as well as literature â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it just

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became professionalised because the market necessitated this shift, and also because the curators desired it. It’s also a problem of the institutions that supported it, with a ‘big named’ curator usurping the position of the artist. It was always borderline academic – when you had critics and historians asked to curate exhibitions along with artists, professionalism being equated with historical accuracy and so on – but in effect, it has made the curatorial process a pedagogical one. The edification of the general public, ‘building an audience’ and the democratisation of art went hand-in-hand with post-modernism. A Marxist reading of this is an easy and accurate assumption to make. The effect: good curators want to be artists, recognised for their brilliant insights into the market; a form of celebrity for what was a relatively humble position. You have to be careful with all of this, but for instance with the proliferation of group exhibitions, biennials and so on, it is ironically always about the curator, not the artists.

Bartolomeu Mari Chief Curator, MACBA, Barcelona It’s because now you can more or less expect to make a living as a curator. Twenty years ago it wasn’t so certain that you could make a living as a curator. Maybe in the museum structure it was possible, and there you had a very strict academia (such as in Germany or France). With the emergence of independent curating, the system grew to formalise the ‘filters’ and to objectify the criteria of professionalism. In fact, curating training programs are simply places to gather information, which is the basic material a curator works with. The effects are quite diverse, but while people of my generation have learned the job by working with artists, on the side of artists, many colleagues now come from training programs that ‘form’ professionals on the side of the institution or media.

Berit Fischer Independent curator, London The role of the curator has changed dramatically from solely staging and presenting art to having an active role as an author of ideas. The curator has a similar

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impetus as the artist; curating can actually be seen as an art practice itself. In terms of equality to other art practices it seems logical to give curating a place in academia and to place it in a critical and theoretical institutional context. As an effect the whole critical discourse around the curator’s position and significance has only arisen since its establishment as an author of creative ideas.

Nicolas Bourriaud Co-Director, Palais de Tokyo, Paris Curating has not become academic; yet most curators might be. Do we necessarily need more exhibitions with documentary videos involving globalised ethnic/

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sexual minorities living in modernist 1970’s suburbs (in Berlin)?

David Mollin Artist, London Has it? Hasn’t everything? I think the most discernible effect of the academicisation of curating is the opening up of a very welcome (though humble) space called ‘footnotes’. Where will this lead? No doubt one day we will all want to be part of this already popular pied à terre located at the bottom of press releases.

Klega Artist, London This is hive of questions; or rather a wasps’ nest. ‘Curating’ is such an innocent word you might think, and pass over it without a second thought. Evidently, curators are people who run galleries and museums. They take care of our understanding of art works by organising exhibitions, hauling the anointed targetgroups into the sacred spaces of high culture and collect the funding allocated to those audiences by a circumspect government. Thus, the curator is the functionary of social engineering in the public entertainment sector, a kind of national aesthetic health service. Obviously, under these circumstances, an academic certificate needs to be established to control and enable the smooth functioning of the institutions, guaranteeing reliability, accountability, best practice, etc. Since every class of the civil service have their

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own academic licensing structure, it is only natural that members of art institutions also have a license equivalent to their administrative peers. Such is the necessity of ‘academicised practice’. Do curators possess other, greater, more arcane knowledge over and above what is already present in the artworks they present? Is their choice of artwork guided by didactical theory, ideology or knowledge? Is the kind of insight the artwork should exhibit in order to be suitable for this procedure already predetermined? Exhibitions are public; curators work at the interface of institution, audience and artist. Every institution needs a currently meaningful legitimation of its programme to receive funding. Every application to public bodies contains some form of declaration about the audiences that are expected to be drawn into the process of the art institutions. For every particular group there is a financial incentive. Curating is not an innocent game nor a taking care of art and does not result from a knowledge about art. It is a mainly state-sponsored distribution of public funding, and as such, it is not ‘curating’ that has effects, it is the deployment of the funding that determines the treatment of art in the public domain. ‘Curators’ therefore affect the public consumption of art and probably also have influence on the private art market through public legitimation of particular artists or styles. Whether there is a difference between academic and non-academic curators seem to be rather a moot point since the ‘effect’ is constituted by all those institutional restrictions that apply in both cases and not in academic distinctions. The legitimation process itself is the issue of curating today because of the social and commercial pressures on any publicly funded institution. A specific rhetoric is required, which in itself may be dependent on a specific training. In this context it is obvious that academic licensing is the necessary precondition to administer such tasks. There has to be a standard to safeguard administrative competence, and the academic way is the most efficient. Curating is the task of audience management within the system of public art institutions

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pilot:1 Greg Hilty Head of Art and Literature, Arts Council England Insofar as curating has become an academicised practice, it has heightened awareness of the specific responsibilities of the curator alongside those of the artist and the producer. As the practice of curating becomes more professionalised, these responsibilities will begin to be fulfilled.

Elinor Jansz Art Critic I don’t know whether curating has become more academic. Often exhibitions are given weighty-sounding titles and themes, and I wonder if this sometimes

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masks a curator’s lack of faith in the artworks they have assembled, or an uncertainty about their own role. I think the best shows are those where the curator has made something, which is essentially pretty complex and difficult, look easy and natural.

Dave Smith Artist and Co-Director of Jeffrey Charles Gallery, London For any activity to continue, it’s important to continually expand. Art has had a lot to cope with since ‘Duchamp’s little cut-and-paste job on reality’. In respect of its gradual demise, any aspect of art growing academically or in any other way is of use to its practitioners. With regard to its effect, I’d say more talk about curating and more jobs for curators.

Deirdre King Gallery Administrator, Cubitt Gallery, London This is a consequence of the YBA era. The art-world came to operate as a market place on a much larger scale. At the same time, art firmly established itself in popular culture. Given the rootedness of these cultural and economic structures, it would have been too disruptive for new trends in art to attack them. Rather than change appearing at the material level (for instance, addressing the making of art as commodity), change worked at the level of ideas and at a level removed from the artwork itself, i.e. at the level of academicised curatorial practice. In other words, there is a wariness

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of disturbing market structures. Material change in art, more closely connected to change at the cultural and economic level, has been indefinitely postponed.

Luke Oxley Artist and independent curator, London Curating has always been an academicised practice.

Rosanna Guy Greaves Artist I think curating has become more academicised in response to the creative complexities of contemporary art. In the case of many shows it no longer makes much sense for them to be curated in a chronological or thematic way. It is a reflection of curators looking for other ways – often more interesting or relevant – of bringing pieces of work together based around ideas. I think this more creative and intellectual way of curating can be really helpful in bringing new ways of looking at art into the minds of the viewer. It can be more playful, and result in vibrant conjunctions and collaborations between artists and curators. There is a danger, however, that when a curator brings together pieces of work to fit their theory for a ‘meaningful’ show, they can end up overlooking a responsibility to display that work in its best light. Academicised curating should still always enhance the work; never take over or force other meanings onto it to fit the curator’s criteria.

Nigel Prince Curator, IKON Gallery, Birmingham The rise of an academic interest in promoting courses that relate to curatorial work, has clear historical precedent with key practitioners who have precipitated pivotal moments and challenges to the status quo of how things are perceived, experienced and understood. Within such evolution, one can examine and learn from how artists, curators, organisations and various venues have developed, overlapped and integrated such critical thinking. The reinvigoration of economic zones as cultural enterprise makes regions more appealing, as opportunities and projects, which once seemed radical, become professionalised. Much has been written of the rise about the artist/curator,

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an emergence that in recent history could be seen as going hand-in-hand with the development of gallery initiatives throughout the 80s and 90s in the UK, and their relationship to experimental and alternative aspects of the conceptual practice of the 60s. However, the development of a cult – of curator first, artist second – seems somewhat unhelpful in introducing such personality and hierarchy. Roles should be about putting forward new propositions with which to enter the conversations and saying things in interesting, challenging ways. Such change was and is part of broader cultural shifts in which art plays a role. Other impulses develop from universities looking to renew courses, reinvent opportunity and recognise the potential in consider-

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ing curating as a creative practice (in many forms and across disciplines) distinct from but interrelated with artistic practice. The sea change in allowing ourselves to see this as a discipline with its own history and methodologies can be seen to be positive, in that it should go beyond a literal engagement with the mechanical process of administration and procedure, of mediation and facilitation. As for artist read curator, in the sense that while all have potential, not all will become one. And so back we return to examine the notion of creative process and quality.

Babak Ghazi Artist, UK Art is an active mediation of the present. Duchamp’s act of choosing demonstrated the ‘act of mediation as a key artistic element, and it is the mediation that he puts into play himself’ (Fia Backstrom in conversation with Bettina Funcke). He took care of the way his work was photographed, written about and where it was published. We shape the world through our work. Artists can curate themselves.

Peter Suchin Artist and critic, London To quote from my letter ‘Uncritical curating’, published in a recent issue of the UK publication Art Monthly (No. 277, June 244, p13): ‘The recent rise in the status of the curator is part of a wider change in society, the relentless corporatisation of culture as

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a whole. Art education is one area that is aversely affected by this development. Managers and bureaucracy dominate this field to an excessive degree and artists, more and more, choose to legitimatise themselves through enrolling for practice-based PhDs, rather than achieving recognition as artists per se. For their part curators occupy powerful positions, deciding who and what gets shown and how exactly this is carried out.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; The rise of the curator is a kind of revenge enacted upon artists for having â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ideas above their stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in the 60s and 70s when, with Conceptual Art, artists dared to challenge the authority and power of the gallery system by themselves organising, distributing and critically contextualising their work without recourse to the previously dominant artworld hierarchies.

Audrey Reynolds Artist, London

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pilot:1 David Proud Artist and Tutor, Slade School of Fine Art, London ‘Academising’ curating gives immense control to the curator. It can be argued that this comes about with questionable ease, out of societies respect for thingsacademic. The industrious nature of academies and institutions to bring all human activity into an academic or institutionalised framework presents a continuous challenge to open intellectual life. The effect of curating in our contemporary context can be compared with trading quality control, checking, and constraint, restraint, curbing and limiting, to assist in making favoured digestible selections of artists’ work. These are made available for audiences that

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increasingly are pre-prepared for what they get. To counter the above curatorial activity, sometimes curators select by purporting to be open to everything. To counter this the curator also selects from the narrowest angle of view to demonstrate the extreme precision of the curatorial act. A gross simplification? Looking around there is evidence to show that the curatorial system has itself simplified the ‘consumption’ of art and wider cultural events. The establishment of the curators’ presence as a profession that can be studied and therefore examined, consequently has the effect that any number of ‘academicised’ rules from that ‘profession’ are passed on to the artist. The ‘curatorial critic’ and ‘curatorial theoretician’, – sub-species of the curator and increasingly only accepted if they too are academically viable – add additional qualification to the activity. These rules can expand and change from any conjoined theoretical, preferential way of thinking that the curator might subscribe to. In fact, amazingly the curator is actually emerging as a new kind of artist. Sometimes artists, who intermittently feel they have to adopt numerous characteristics outside of their immediate setting to get anywhere, are amazingly behaving like curators. Another feature of curating in the context of art has been to ‘surprise’ artists with the possibility that they might be interested in science, for example. As if artists were not always interested in a great many things, science included. It has however taken the curator to properly reveal the world to them again as if art has

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no power of recall. The actions of curatorial processes are of course intimately bound up with political engineering and the filtering of new and old ideas into the world. The art climate and the economic atmosphere are openly encouraged to respond to each other, to support and fund the ever-increasing expertise available and needed for the march of curation. There is a danger in the continuing rise of the curator. A final velocity of influence may be reached, as society’s confidence grows to experience and learn impartially before evaluating. It could happen as a result of this; curatorial influence eventually becomes invisible, and will only remain as a distant memory of apparitions whose interruptions did not count for much after all.

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Lawrence Weiner Artist When exhibitions are rhetorical they in effect are academic. The purpose of the Academy is to present answers. The purpose or at least solution of art is to pose questions.

Dallas Seitz, Artist and Co-Director 1,000,000mph project space, London The need for quick success by young artists has led to self-motivated projects, shows and spaces. Vanitytype galleries and shows have been for some time now a way for young artists and curators to bypass the system. This is not always curating as I think of curating and is usually a ‘me and all my friends’ type situation, which functions a bit like show and tell; this has potential benefits, at the very least getting work seen. Kate and I at 1,000,000mph never say we are curators because that term has gotten muddled up over time and wields a certain hierarchy, which we don’t associate with our space. We see ourselves as artists, and the space as a part of that. We see it a bit like an artistic collaboration and facilitation of interesting artistic projects. I guess perhaps, like other artists, I am arrogant enough to think I know what a good show is, or what good work is, or how artists need

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to be treated, so therefore give myself permission to put it all together. Is this a good thing? Maybe not, as everyone feels the same way and the amount of small self-curated shows that don’t say or do much tend to water the whole process down.

Davina Thackara Editor, Public Art Forum One reason may be the current vogue for courses on curatorship, which have to prove themselves as academically respectable; another, I suspect, is the academicisation of art generally, which is largely due to the preponderance of theory in art practice and education. There was a time when artists learned skills

Q2 WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD?

(in the widest sense), now they learn theory, producing mostly theory-led art. Of course ideas are important and always have been, but we also seem to have forgotten that art is, or used to be at least, also about aesthetic and visual experience, which means a great deal more than just the ability to shock, and involves unfashionable things like judgment, sensitivity, discipline – qualities that take years to develop. Academic theory, of course, also elevates the power and authority of the curator. There was a time when curators took a back seat - they now have a status and prestige that is unprecedented, yet it is not at all clear why, except as mediators of very complex ideas, which only they (and often not even the artists themselves) fully understand or care about. In what other cultural field do their equivalents have comparable status and glamour? Certainly not the commissioning editors of publishing houses or music impresarios. Since when has art needed all these ranks of curators in order to produce important work? They are also very rarely called upon to defend their choices or decisions. A further reason is probably the devaluation of the visual in our culture generally – in a visually saturated environment, ideas take on a different currency and offer themselves as a more alternative source of meaning and value.

Gijsbrecht van der Heul Artist, London Art can’t always speak for itself. Nowadays art has to compete with television, film, advertising, magazines

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and modern design. Apart from this, young people have hardly any notion of art history; philosophy is a strange hobby and we live in a de-mystified materialistic world. Who would look at a painting for more than two hours a day, a week, a month or longer, like the artist who made the picture? Money, war and sex speak louder. Art becomes a commodity not a necessity. ‘Why should there be Art?’ and ‘what the world needs now?’ are complex questions. Anyone for ‘lights going on and off’?

Shane Waltener Artist, London Curating has inevitably become more academicised as more courses have established themselves and new generations of trained curators are now working in the field. This has contributed to a more discerning and critical approach to curating, which often involves the public in a more dynamic way and has raised its expectations and enthusiasm for contemporary art. The flip side of the coin is that as more emphasis is placed on curating, less seems to be expected of artworks and artists. Worse case scenario is when exhibits are chosen only to fulfil a specific thematic link within the context of a group exhibition and not given the appropriate space they require. Could it be that the increased number of monographic exhibitions programmed in major museums and galleries is a backlash against shows deemed to be over-curated?

Rainer Ganahl Artist and writer, New York Recently, curating has not only become internationalised but also institutionalised and turned into a discipline that is taught academically. International classes for curatorial learning are now created anywhere: at universities, art schools, museums, auction houses and so on. In a time of deskilling and artistic outsourcing, the question of ‘What to teach curators?’ is about as impossible to answer as ‘What to teach artists?’. I am convinced that the recipe for a good curator is the same as for somebody who succeeds in life and anywhere else. It is an elixir that I locate in people themselves. It is the basic understanding of who we

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are, of where we are from, of how we are living, of what we want, and of what we can do. Concerning art and artists, I don’t really have any preference as long as I can see that there is a genuine interest in what a person is doing, an interest that is not opportunistic, externally driven and remote controlled by trends and dominating taste formations. Curators too, should learn to distinguish between motivations and interests that are intrinsic and logical, and those that are not. On top of that they have to figure out what kind of art they would like to defend, for whom, and why. They also have to find inventive ways to respectfully put their vision into practice without completely exploiting artists and anybody else helping in the making of a show. (Extract

Q2 WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD?

from Ganahl’s essay ‘When attitudes become – curating’ on www.ganahl.info/attitudes.html)

Marcus Verhagen Art Historian, UK I’m not sure curating has become an academicised practice. A lot of curating, particularly in this country, is still fiercely anti-academic. But where it is academicised, it often reflects the concerns of artists as much as those of curators. Artists and curators are subject to similar influences, including that of contemporary critical theory. They always have been.

Giorgio Sadotti Artist, UK Because curating was dying. It is now dead.

The Superficialist International Without wishing to sound too academic, we are confused by the form of the question. Academicised? If we are being asked whether curators are over-informed by theories originating in academia then we would argue that this is an understandable reaction to the interest in the arts shown by the media, and a desire to maintain a certain autonomy. Whilst such a strategy is easily denigrated as elitist in an atmosphere where inclusion and accessibility are the watchwords, it is surely better than an appeal to the mass-media (the masses having disorganised themselves, at least in relation to the utilitarian socialism that fetishises access and inclusion).

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If on the other hand what is concerned is the increasing professional and institutional nature of curating then we share the unease of the questionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grammar. While it would be churlish to criticise a profession for pursuing its own interests, it is obvious that curating itself is closer to the media practice of selection, packaging and elucidation than the creation of new work. This is not to say that many artists are not themselves working in a way that is curatorial. We simply wish to affirm the specific nature of curatorial work in its relation to the means of (re)production, and the special danger of it being controlled from a centralised location (which we can call the Academy). As we hinted at in our last response, it is necessary that art practice be collectively self-conscious (a praxis). We need to understand and test (through praxis) how we are to constitute that collective and its common ground. Otherwise, as both artists and curators will find ourselves in an antagonistic space, organised and controlled by agencies which we are unable to confront. Here any self-conscious production will be no more than the knowledge of the limits which define our different practices and which are imposed from without. If we see that self-production is a surface, which either produces space as it contracts or occupies it as it expands, then we are able to think this common ground. How to organise the lateral movements that constitute this surface is a political problem.

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ISN’T IT NATURALLY A GOOD THING THAT EMERGING ARTISTS SHOULD STRUGGLE? WHY HAS CURATING BECOME AN ACADEMICISED PRACTICE? WHAT EFFECT HAS THIS HAD? HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES?


pilot:1 Lohan Emmanuel Artist, London While the history of such events may be held up to be a triumph of liberal and egalitarian principles, it could equally be stated that alternative or fringe events merely represent a different order of exclusivity, a different kind of institutionalism. It is axiomatic that an alternative event, if successful, will become established in its own right, eventually achieving the kind of status where it will give rise to its own alternatives. In their contemporary manifestation, alternative events tend to have a less oppositional, more opportunistic relationship to the main event; a kind of complicity which is actually no guarantee of any radical difference in content. While those involved in an alternative event would quite naturally claim that their event is different and better than the main event, the fact is that these things have a tendency to be more alike than they are different. What they often succeed in demonstrating is the homogeneity of cultural production in the given socio-historical context, that in practice the art-world is a far less differentiated place than would be expected in a pluralistic state of affairs. While this is not necessarily a criticism of individual works on show, anyone who has attended their fair share of these events will be all too familiar with that sense of their apparent interchangeability; that feeling of déjà vu, again.

Aileen Corkery

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

Visual Arts Curator, Temple Bar Outdoors I don’t think it was ever the intention of the founding organisers of these complimentary events to mimic or become the main event. Instead, they were trying to address emerging voices and talents. Time passes and the fringe-styled events start building their own identity with younger, fresher audiences and participants. Out of a genuine desire to make the events better, to include more artists, bring more attention to participants and to ensure financial viability, you may witness a compromising but hard to resist sponsorship deal being negotiated. After which, visionary founding members move on (possibly to the main-style events) and those less interested in founding mission-

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statements (but highly knowledgeable of media/ marketing techniques) take the helm. This process is acceptable – inevitably, there will always be a new fringe to replace the original fringe.

Peter Suchin Artist and critic, London ‘Alternative’ venues might be, at least at first, genuinely alternative, in opposition to or at least at the margins of the established contexts for showing and receiving work. Or they might merely be, or in time become, a space of display from which established galleries and dealers can select new material for sale in the usual way. The artists themselves may aspire to be included in mainstream contexts, to set up new systems of production and distribution or just get their work shown in the old one; these all appear to be quite different things. Some work can and does transform the existing structure though. Isn’t this what Brecht, Benjamin and others were arguing for: the refusal of the old structures and hierarchies and an end to the seemingly eternal repetition of a market form that demands the constant production of a fake novelty? The art market is, like everything else, a historically specific form, and art itself is historically grounded. But the present gallery system looks able to contain, and thus neuter or diffuse, practically anything. Its very essence is that of containment, a labelling process that can and does reduce difference to sameness. The genuinely new work or practice would be that thing which insists upon and forces actual and lasting change in what and where art is seen to do and be.

Bartolomeu Mari Chief Curator, MACBA, Barcelona I think these events take advantage of the media and social attention directed toward main fairs and events, but I would not say they are an alternative. Not at all. They happily expand the scope and attention given to artists who are not in the mainstream of each moment, and this is good.

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pilot:1 Patricia Ellis Artist, Glasgow There’s no such thing as alternative art. There’s just good art, and art that isn’t quite good enough yet. Fringe events are always the most interesting because that’s where the energy is at – the real drive and ambition (so hungry they can almost taste the food being ravaged next door). They’re the human aspects of mega-events, which are always so platinum-card clinical. Fringe events always offer immense possibility, where the headliners are fait accompli. The idea that you’d want to be ‘alternative’ and then market yourself off the back of an art fair/biennale is just too ridiculous to contemplate.

Greg Hilty Head of Art and Literature, Arts Council England No.

Deirdre King Gallery Administrator, Cubitt Gallery, London Yes.

Ross Downes Artist, UK Yes and no but more yes than no.

Sharon Kivland Artist, France/UK

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

Despite the curious arrangement of this question, I take you to mean that there may no longer be the possibility of an avant-garde, of an alternative to what is driven by the market (where one so gladly brings the goods). I imagine you believe that this was once so, in an enviable utopian fantasy (one I do so wish I could share) of all the avant-gardes. Art events (think of them as designating exertions of art) are only local instances. Some will make certain claims; others will do their best to refute those ideas, gently or violently or by stoically ignoring their very existence. They pass into speech, and thus become composed, invented truths (that is, invented as truths, which is their function). Some will be noticed, but not for long. Some will be forgotten, but not forever. The absence of some will be remarked

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upon, with regret or delight. There are events I remember, but even as a keeper of history, I often forget. There is a very high-minded tone to your question. Is there anything else?

Annie Whiles Artist, London No, it’s easy to forget just how conservative or limited ‘conservative’ is, if you are not involved in conservative mainstream events. Attachment to these events is visibility, which is good, but you hope that it’s the work itself that can allow for an autonomy/independence from them.

Edgar Schmitz Artist, writer and academic, London That Pilot London takes place in parallel to Frieze surely makes it a rather welcome addition to the fair, attracting pretty much the same crowd and similar arguments to those brought forward on the internal fringes of the art fair itself, but supported by a much higher level of aspiration? There is a blatancy about the way that the Frieze fair stages itself as both self-conscious financial playground and art event, that manages to attract an otherwise rarely-known density of money – and brainpower – from the art-world to London. Neither the density nor the blatancy of the set-up can be underestimated. And in any case the selection of artists who are not (yet) commercially represented surely offers a complementing addition to the fair, a wish list for future inclusion.

Nigel Prince Curator, IKON Gallery, Birmingham Clearly there are many precedents throughout historical, modern and contemporary practice, which demonstrate artists seizing authority from the established orthodoxies of the day. Most recent developments of artist-run/not-for-profit spaces and project initiatives throughout most major cities have impacted on how we perceive presentations of work, where this might occur and how. Inevitably such initiatives have their day, evolve and move on. Some vanish, others enter the mainstream while retaining a flavour, either

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conceptually or physically, of their origins, and others become superseded by new models and strategies, perhaps retrieved and renewed afresh from other times. Primarily it’s about energy becoming manifest, establishing a locus for dialogue and discourse, and entering into the conversation. If all one is saying has been said before, then it’s time to leave the table.

Gijsbrecht van der Heul Artist, London Call it Infiltration. Once incorporated it can spread the ‘virus’.

Len Horsey Artist, Newcastle upon Tyne ‘The alternative’ needs reclaiming and re-verbing.

Babak Ghazi Artist, UK It is not about alternatives but about transforming the nature of such events. I organise ‘not yet night’ as an act of self-institution. For me, ‘not yet night’ is a compelling point of entry into the possibility of autonomous activity.

Anita Ponton Artist, London The mainstream will always subsume the radical and the alternative. That is how a field or area of practice

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

evolves. Fringe events always define themselves in relation to the main event, usually attempting to bring their (excluded) voices into the debate. The mainstream feeds off the radical and in this the independent and dissenting voice is vital – it causes change to occur. It seems to me that private galleries understand this better than some of the larger institutions but they could do much more to help emerging artists. In London especially it has been getting harder and harder to put on events and shows without the backing of a gallery or public funding; and my concern is that a necessary element in the development of contemporary art in the UK will be lost. I’d like to see more private galleries turning over their spaces during downtime to alternative shows and events, to artist-led projects.

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All that is needed is the space for a weekend or an evening, and a tiny bit of support. As for alternative art events becoming conservative or limited, they become as conservative as we let them.

Alistair Robinson Curator and Programme Director at the Northern Gallery for Contemporary Art (NGCA) Binary oppositions are easy to find and difficult to dislodge. Each type of institution ordinarily emphasises their own form of cultural capital, echoing and reinforcing the status divisions of wider body politic.

Tayto et Tayto La Pomme de Terre a Basé des Facilitators Hairdressing salons are the enemy of fringes, but not are both any alternative to cutting edge systems that give you a professional haircut and styling results in the convenience of your own resource area. Tayto’s own sustainable hair cutting system is so easy to use that anyone can achieve a perfect haircut every time – even with your eyes closed. Ha. Tayto make a very serious metaphorical joke. In the Tayto resource area there have never been any centralisation or fringed spaces only a perpetual search for future various cultures, recognising that the purpose and activities capable of giving dynamics to civil society, including politics‚ can (and will) take place. Tayto thinks it’s more that these are the areas of research that they have communicated that they are interested in developing whilst they are keen to organise and activate in response to the provisional project structuring outline based in the resource area implied by a salon/fringe joke metaphor above. It would be good to start contact to see what possible eventualities can be opened up, expanding the development that has already taken place and making sure that actions and exchanges can bare fruit whilst a continual emphasis is placed on round table compatibility, opening up a series of topics inside relations implied by organising provisional project inter-communities outlined in the independent salon/fringe binary. Of course, it’s all very well Tayto writing about this. Hey, let’s stop asking questions about alternatives and get round the table and actually talk about them.

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pilot:1 Niki Russell Director of YAH It seems quite common that what purports to be ‘alternative’ runs the risk of becoming that which it suggests being an alternative to. The term, ‘alternative’ is problematic and overused. Choosing not to do one thing and instead doing another is by nature choosing an alternative. But, the reason for stressing the ‘alternative’ nature of this activity rather than concentrating on the strength of the activity itself seems generally unclear.

Sabine Hagmann Artist, London Of course.

Kerry Duggan Independent curator, London Setting oneself up in opposition, or as an ‘alternative’, confirms the authority of the system one seeks to challenge. Most alternative art events are dependent upon their established counterparts to forge their identity and most play by the same rules. Equally, established art events benefit from and encourage fringe events. The content or quality of work is not necessarily limited, but a reciprocal arrangement can be limited in scope.

Milovan Farronato Art critic and independent curator, Italy

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

Legitimisation is the reason. Yes, they always want to grow up and in their place, hopefully something truly alternative can emerge in the way that new art is created, from a place that is invisible. Like that quote from Wittgenstein, making the visible within the invisible. The problem though is that everyone is aware of the market, and for there to be natural alternatives there must be a conscious decision or just a stroke of luck, as aesthetics are related to consensus and they are either built or capitalised upon.

Rosey Greaves Artist There is a lot of diversity in the theoretical ideas behind the ‘main events’ themselves that sometimes the

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necessity or desire for the ‘fringe’ can seem a little misplaced. I often find the energy and belief required to push something alternative through the boundaries is lacking, resulting in the events seeming badly managed, unthoughtful and completely unchallenging. I think that the historical precedence of ‘the fringe’ has become a romantic notion upheld by the establishment and the alternative alike, that therein lies the supposed cutting edge, the challenging, the next big thing; the fringe has become a comfortable recognised place to manage it from. The problems do sometimes lie in the motives of the artists running the fringe events. If they are creating their own arena to get themselves noticed by the commercial art-world, the power that the fringe purports to have in its ability to shake up or brake down the establishment is lost, because no one believes in it beyond its purpose as fringe. If it cannot or does not attempt to sustain itself, it is no real threat.

Shane Waltener Artist, London Organisers of the Basel art fair initially tried to get rid of Liste when it first started. Now they are effectively promoting the event, scheduling openings and other activities so none overlap with the fringe events and visitors get a chance to see them all. It’s the same with Art Cologne. The larger fairs have realised that the smaller satellite events are good publicity for them. They also act as talent scouts for them, with the majority of galleries exhibiting in the younger events aspiring to eventually participate in the bigger fairs. In this sense there will always be scope for ‘complementary’ events such as Liste or Nada, but none of these truly aim to offer an alternative to ArtBasel, Art Cologne, ArtForum or Arco.

David Proud Artist and Tutor, Slade School of Fine Art, London This may be a near impossible question to answer directly; there are just too many examples and connections to consider. We know that many events and actions associated with artists and others have contributed greatly over time otherwise we would have no subject to consider today. Art would be a sort of

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absurd empty tangle relating to nothing in particular, no avant-garde, no tradition; thankfully this is not the case, because of artists. To assess and grasp the vast number of different effects from so many complementary and competing events is a never-ending exercise. This is exactly the kind of calculation that some ‘curator accountants’ would like to finally make so they can hold the results over artists to fluster them. Many artists are highly nervous about where their position is in the calculation because they probably half believe it has already been completed and added to with each new generation. What is the relationship between artists and curator? Are artists, employed, invited, favoured, given contracts for fixed terms, are they expected to offer work for the privilege of being seen? I feel confident that many artists are trying to detach themselves from this contest of being the true alternative, and do not accept the terms of the question, which imply that things have come to this. There does however seem to be a docile rivalry of mirroring by the ‘avant-garde’ and the ‘traditions’ created by reflecting each other’s past and present conditions more, and more. Another status quo to contend with, stasis again, no movement, but as I have already said it can be demonstrated that many artists do not view this as a collapse within art but a collapse of curation. They know art is alive and active. There is potentially a disturbing outcome as a

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

direct result of the ‘docile rivalry’ set-up. It is possible to detect a kind of eager belief – held by both the avant-garde and the traditionalists – in the artist as a hyper-individualistic creator, a self-generating star who can illuminate future golden ages for them. These golden ages would presumably look and behave differently depending on which position you observe them from, avant-garde/tradition and so on. This may be just a daft simplification and hyperbole to help make a point but there is more than a hint of conviction in the Messiah model. The legends are persuasive and with consequences that make inroads into cancelling out intellectual and creative life as a wide-ranging secular thing. It might appear easy and flippant to talk about ‘poachers turning gamekeepers’, ‘white

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Russians becoming red Russians’, but rearrangements of priorities for people do come about. We may prefer influence and power not to distort events or relations in life and work, but it does frequently happen. I still believe artists can take an important part in countering the regularity of these traits, so they don’t dominate our lives all of the time. Struggling artists, academically adjusted curators, a collapse in open discourse – because the avant-garde and the traditionalist, ‘small-c conservatives’ are all doing and saying the same things. If this were the allpervasive state of things today it would be a tragedy that would be hard to imagine how to emerge from. It is not the case; worldwide there are great resources and ideas emanating from people who wish to think and act otherwise – many of them artists, refusing to be drawn into debilitating pessimism. The line of questioning that obsessively concerns itself with the elegance of satellite activities around art instead of art itself does not really welcome the capacity for transformation. This may have something to do with new learning and understanding giving pleasure and genuinely transforming our experiences and the different environments we live in for the better. As I said before the confidence derived from this great social interaction can check difficulty and struggle; so outdated mechanisms of governing ideas and events become redundant, not human aspirations.

Nicolas Bourriaud Co-Director, Palais de Tokyo, Paris Alternative to what? That is the right question, I think. The fact is that many experimental projects are happening in so-called ‘institutional’ spaces, and many academic ones in so-called ‘alternative’ spaces. I don’t care where it happens – I care about who does it.

Giorgio Sadotti Artist, UK Yes. Yes obviously. More interesting questions may have prompted more interesting answers?

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pilot:1 Klega Artist, London What kind of alternative do we think of here? If you seek visibility in a certain realm you want to determine a set of new rules to govern the game. After all, you are not prevented by any means to denounce a successful alternative and present an alternative to that ‘alternative’. But is it really about alternatives, like having a ‘choice’? Is it not rather a differentiation in understanding that changes; that does not give a choice, does it? The question that the alternative poses is, ‘is this not more “real?”’ It is the paradigm of understanding that changes what we understand things to be – the ‘alternative-ness’ is not a question of choice but of the historical path in which we find meaning in our existence. Who is it that takes this decision? The understanding of what a ‘painting’ is changes. The artists of the Salon des Indépendants did not see themselves as an alternative, rather they thought of themselves as being the more ‘real’ painters. On the other hand, Picasso never showed in the Salon, he had a gallerist. Was the gallery ‘alternative’? Not to my knowledge. No one took a decision. The ‘alternative’ redefines what we call ‘true’ or ‘real’. History legitimised some of the painters of the Salon but by no means all of them. Once the alternative becomes ‘mainstream’ it also becomes the leading opinion (the conditions of which become obliviated,

Q3 GIVEN THE HISTORICAL PRECEDENCE OF FRINGE EVENTS FROM THE FIRST ‘SALON DES INDÉPENDANTS’ THROUGH TO ‘LISTE’ AND ‘SCOPE’, HAS THE PLETHORA OF ALTERNATIVE OR COMPLEMENTARY ART EVENTS BECOME AS CONSERVATIVE AND LIMITED AS THE MAIN EVENTS TO WHICH THEY ATTACH THEMSELVES? ARE THEY IN EFFECT VYING TO BECOME WHAT THEY PURPORT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO?

until the next alternative takes over). In the arts the ‘alternative’ is as multi-faced as everywhere else, and its ‘place’ is in its temporality and manoeuverability. The ‘mainstream’, the ‘governing discourse’, wants permanence and inertia. Thought, instead, needs flux.

Cedar Lewisohn Artist, Glasgow Yes, this one I agree with. No one wants to destroy the art system anymore. Outsiders just want to slightly alter it so they fit in, preferably somewhere near the top. That’s why I find much of the art that pertains to be political so disingenuous. It takes a holier-than-thou standpoint, then participates directly in the system it was claiming to criticise.

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pilot:1 David Mollin Artist, London I don’t know. The word ‘attached’ is funny. Some of the smarter galleries at Liste might see themselves not as alternative but rather as playing ‘catch me if you can’. That is clever, light blue attachment and highly profitable if you can manage it. I think the question sounds resentful, all this ‘purporting’, ‘vying’, ‘conservative’, ‘scope’. It didn’t occur to me at Liste that the galleries were purporting to be anything other than galleries getting on with their business. They appeared to have a smaller budget, but that might be my presumption. Maybe they want me to think something more? Depression that’s worn on the sleeve? Probably just a low budget. (the penny drops – it’s the same thing). Despite that, I think its okay to have a sense of strength in community. It doesn’t have to purport to anything other than that. I liked Kate Macgarry holding court and Ibid looking professional at Liste. But everyone had their part to play, even the person who came up with the pencil scrawl for the titles, and the gallery who specialised in showing work on paper that had been unrolled after a long flight – anti-business-flight work un-ironed and unprepared for the meeting. In that way there were little side-swipes at the more seasoned business traveler over in the Messe. But I also liked the Messe with the Gallery spaces recreated right down to the flooring and the desks with telephones that weren’t connected. Money was swishing down the corridors, I could see it. All the galleries merged at Messe, and at the Warteck too. They didn’t merge together though, not in my mind, not yet anyhow. This way everyone’s happy.

David Mabb Artist and Course Leader, MA Fine Art at Goldsmiths, London Most fringe events are not alternatives at all. Rather than constituting any critique of the main event, they are usually artists and curators knocking at the door and asking to be let in.

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pilot:1 Edward Lucie Smith Writer and curator, UK

Obviously, in view of my replies to the first two questions, my answer to the third is a simple ‘yes’.

Dallas Seitz Artist and Co-Director, 1,000,000mph project space, London

Yes! These ‘alternative’ fairs are usually for younger commercial galleries who do not meet the rating criteria or have the money to pay to be put on the list or, if they are let in, to pay for a stall. Fairs are for commercial spaces. I also slightly resent spaces that, when it suites them, are ‘artist run’ or ‘project’ or ‘alternative’, but the second another art fair like Frieze comes a callin’ they are well in there. What good would it do for 1,000,000mph to have a stall at, say, Zoo? We don’t represent anyone, neither Kate nor I want to be dealers, we work to present an alternative to the commercial focus and we don’t show our own work. Kate and I have a certain freedom, as it is just us who make decisions on what projects we do. When you start thinking about fairs your freedoms begin to be compromised. They are not the greatest places for looking and thinking but more for shopping and buying and this has to come with some conservatism. These fairs have their place in the commercial sector. I guess if 1,000,000mph had money to do something at a fair they could try and call all this into question through

Q3 Given the historical precedence of fringe events from the first ‘Salon des Indépendants’ through to ‘Liste’ and ‘Scope’, has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves? Are they in effect vying to become what they purport to be an alternative to?

presenting something other, but why bother?

Caroline McCarthy Artist, London

Even the most alternative of events exists to have its voice heard and to be accepted by an audience. If this is achieved, then such an event inevitably becomes part of the establishment, and to sustain itself, will need to justify its worth using the same funding forms for lottery money as everyone else.

Jessica Lack Critic, Guardian Guide

I think you’ve answered your own question there.

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pilot:1 Audrey Reynolds Artist

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pilot:1 John Timberlake Artist, London

As someone prone to aperçus said to me recently, “Was it not the original intention of those rejected for the Salon to exhibit there?” In The Purgative (2003) Stephen Masoch points out that when Manet uploaded halftone images of his work onto a Babbage machine the size of four battleships from a three metre wide punctuated steel drum spinning on a lathe turned by six-man pedal-power, one was unable to surf his images of flat women, since there were, of course, no web sites. Rather, one had to take a hansom to the dockyard where the machines were kept. Later, when Manet emailed one of his attachments as binary digits by telegraph, taking 163 days to send and a similar period to download before transcription onto graph paper by hand, the rudimentary jpegs were only examinable with a magnifying glass. As such, Masoch argues that the available technologies and modes of production, the deadening hand of cultural convention, and, ultimately, the earth itself held sway over the final form of his work, rendering Manet nothing but a mere porn I mean pawn. Masoch points out that to the humanist progressivist, Manet’s pioneering vision still might raise an eyebrow, if not seem astoundingly prescient; a veritable promethean travail that twitched the deadening hand with the spark of creative audacity, and heralded a new Dawn for Mankind. Yes, yes ... all this and more ... and

Q3

yet, as Masoch observes, Manet’s labours would only,

Given the historical precedence of fringe events from the first ‘Salon des Indépendants’ through to ‘Liste’ and ‘Scope’, has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves? Are they in effect vying to become what they purport to be an alternative to?

and downright boring as the internet, and lead us all

after all, presage something as conservative, limited into slaughter and tyranny.

Jon Purnell Curator

Artists curating their own shows is far from being a recent phenomena. For instance, due to the collapse in the art market after the Prussian war, the Impressionists created their own artist-run gallery. Commercial galleries are dictated by the demands of the market economy. Saatchi, who presents himself as a radical finder of cutting-edge artist talent, has taken most of his best discoveries from such ventures.

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pilot:1 For instance, he discovered Sarah Lucas in the artist gallery/squat City Racing and Damien Hirst in the Goldsmiths artist-run show, Frieze. Commercial galleries, governed by the dictates of the market economy, will always sway towards the conservative and staid. Radical, challenging art will at first tend to be too risky for the reputations of such galleries, so artist-run initiatives will always be valid and essential activities in the creation of a thriving and exciting art world. At present there seems to be a vast amount of galleries in London â&#x20AC;&#x201C; hundreds more than there were at the time of Frieze, Bank or City Racing, but unfortunately they seem as unadventurous as ever. The support from the Arts Council towards such artist-run galleries is as necessary now as it was in the late 80s. As I mentioned above, it was enterprises such as Bank and City Racing that created the exciting British art of the 90s and I presume, if things are to stay vital and exciting, such galleries will have their place in the future. Unfortunately, as both John Russell of Bank and Matt Hale of City Racing have informed me, running such independent galleries is exhausting and for this reason they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t usually last for long.

Dr Michael Asbury Research Fellow, Chelsea College of Art and Design and Camberwell College of Arts

Apologies for insisting, but yes, such alternative events are offering themselves as prey. There is, however, an important distinction to be made between the historical examples and the case today. Offering an alternative to the plat du jour is always welcome (even if we decide not to take it), but how do you offer an alternative to a menu a la carte? That is a true challenge, one that requires conviction, determination and above all, honesty of intent. Frankly, I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t believe that establishing a binary relation with an official event is the way to go about it. There is of course no possible prescription other than the hope to see artists empowering themselves.

Marcus Verhagen Art Historian, UK

Yes, alternative phenomena, if they generate excitement,

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Q3


pilot:1 tend to grow and as they grow they make compromises and lose their radical edge. To maintain that edge, they would have to be indifferent to success and all that it means in terms of security and continuity. But as some alternative venues get sucked into the cultural establishments, others rise and take their place. The pattern is so familiar now, it’s hardly worth describing. What it suggests is that it’s best to see radicalism as vested not in institutions but in moments.

Elinor Jansz Art critic

Fringe events get fringed by other fringe events. This spirals until eventually the original event becomes the most outrageous of all – maybe that’s how it works.

Luke Oxley Artist and independent curator, London

Yes. To set yourself apart is to set yourself up.

Lawrence Weiner Artist

A space is a space and dependent upon its content for its identity. An alternative space is a copy of a space that is dependent upon its format for its identity. Ergo: They are not vying to be – they are the system (usually asking artists to forgo rewards in order to maintain staff).

Q3 Given the historical precedence of fringe events from the first ‘Salon des Indépendants’ through to ‘Liste’ and ‘Scope’, has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves? Are they in effect vying to become what they purport to be an alternative to?

But again the proof is in the pudding. If the alternative space can represent non-rhetorical art it can resemble a space ...

Caroline Brockbank CAPRI 2004

People are learning the tricks of marketing themselves and sponsors have been keen to grab the next underground art happening and seize the cool. This inevitably leads to a watering down of ideas, and people jumping on uninteresting bandwagons, as those who can ‘play the game’ appear stronger and more powerful, elbowing out of the way those who may be more worthy or just working hard. But there is definitely room for alternatives, just no

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pilot:1 funds (or imaginative philanthropists) to allow them to bubble up. Harder still, the aforementioned marketeers and the public are so keen for the ‘next big thing’ that the natural development and progression of ideas and inspiration is heavily curbed. Let’s not forget, it may be a dog-eat-dog world but it is also a beautiful one.

Juan Puntes Director White Box, NY

Whilst the Salon des Refusées or des Indépendants was created by mature young artists, generating a high degree of subversion in their works – and always reaching out to the public – the Scope-type fair is modelled as an alternative to the large art fairs it parallels, all the while looking for a particular niche in the market place. The criteria for the selection of artists and artworks no longer need to contain subversive elements. Not always but unfortunately often enough, with the passing of time, alternative spaces end up becoming what they purport to be an alternative to. The reasons for this may vary, spanning the whole spectrum, from artistic or moral fatigue to institutional complacency.

Dave Smith Artist and Co-Director of Jeffrey Charles Gallery, London

Art has become conservative and limited by nature. It being subsumed within an alternative or a main event makes no difference. For me it’s about looking at what artists produce, not the ‘event’. The systems and structures surrounding the distribution of artists’ products are about a wider, more general cultural economy. Whether complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves is hard to know. If an artwork purports to be an alternative to what in effect it is vying to become, it is misleading, but probably characteristic of much art.

Davina Thackara Editor, Public Art Forum

One of the problems of the contemporary art scene is its ability to appropriate and absorb the so-called

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pilot:1 alternative into the mainstream – almost overnight in some cases. Getting noticed is what mainly seems to matter and anything that sets itself up as ‘alterna- tive’ or outside(r) has a good chance of succeeding. The establishment art world depends on its outsider groups along with the intractability of its ideas-culture for its cachet. There is often deep complicity on both sides, so I suspect the answer, in many cases, is probably yes.

Gavin Baily New Media Artist

In that mainstream venues like the Tate can curate quite radical shows, and east-end warehouse spaces can curate conservative shows, the concept of ‘fringe as radical’ doesn’t have much currency.

Max Presneill Director, Raid Projects, UK

Yes. These events are gallery orientated, as they should be. That’s who pays for them. The historical precedents are not the same here. Artists were brought in to the Salon, not the gallery. Although for younger, less established galleries, these events are for commercial galleries and the focus is on which galleries are there, not which artists. They are feeder systems for the main events which they satellite. Given a little more money, and reputation too in some cases, they would gladly move into the ‘adult’ event. Scope or the

Q3 Given the historical precedence of fringe events from the first ‘Salon des Indépendants’ through to ‘Liste’ and ‘Scope’, has the plethora of alternative or complementary art events become as conservative and limited as the main events to which they attach themselves? Are they in effect vying to become what they purport to be an alternative to?

Armory?? Let me think about it ... Dahhh.

Gerrie van Noord Independent curator and Project Manager, Zenomap

It almost seems to be an evolutionary process; movements or events that ‘object’, ‘contradict’ or want to be ‘alternative’ to what is considered mainstream and accepted, almost naturally – when repeated more than once – go through a process of professionalisation and then formalisation. The new alternative will either replace, absorb or supersede the old mainstream. That does not take away from the fact that initially their intentions may have been precise and true.

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pilot:1 Berit Fischer Curator

The question is, what are the original individual motivations and what choices are made along the line to put them into effect? If the executive choices are ‘conservative and limited’ then obviously the event will have a similar outcome.

The Superficialist International All political activity is a restructuring of power relations, drawing power to the challengers or dispersing it in an unpredictable and even radical way. In the first instance it may indeed seem that from the point of view of tomorrow’s rebels the radicals of today have become conservative. The political struggles that produce our culture are continuous, and new strategies, tactics, alliances and technologies are constantly being deployed. To see all change, including success, from a point of view formed whilst in opposition would reduce the content of any work to the status of a simple provocation – this is the response of a hysteric. Long life to the Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

Q3

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PILOT:1 was created in 2004 and designed as a live forum where independent art professionals could meet their interbnational counterparts in a Salon-style environment. It aims to activate links between people, ideas, practices, projects. This book questions the position of such an initiative in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s curatorial, artistic and commecrial landscape.

PILOT:1 Q&A  

First book of a series of three. Published by PILOT (www.pilotlondon.org) in 2004. Each one asks three topical questions regarding the art m...

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