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“EUROPEAN KEY CHANGES FOR WOMEN IN MUSIC AND THE PERFORMING ARTS” edited by Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica

Introduction by Silvia Costa


EUROPEAN KEY CHANGES FOR WOMEN IN MUSIC AND THE PERFORMING ARTS

edited by Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica

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This book is dedicated to the unsung heroines in music and the performing arts, those who make a substantive yet unrecognized contribution to art and culture. Author George Eliot wrote “It is painful to be told that everything is very fine and not feel that it is fine – something like being blind, while people talk of the sky”. Women artists never give up and continue to believe in equal opportunities even when these seem to be far away.

Questo libro è dedicato alle eroine non celebrate della musica e dello spettacolo, coloro che apportano un contributo sostanziale ancora non riconosciuto all’arte e alla cultura. L’autrice George Eliot scrisse “È doloroso sentirsi dire che tutto va molto bene e non sentire che va bene - qualcosa come essere ciechi, mentre la gente parla del cielo”. Le artiste non si arrendono mai e continuano a credere nelle pari opportunità anche quando queste sembrano essere lontane.

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This book has been prepared thanks to a contribution from

Progetto grafico, impaginazione e stampa Novecento Media e Consulting Srl Finito di stampare nel mese di Dicembre 2013 Printed in Italy


INDEX

Introduction Silvia Costa

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Presentation Patricia Adkins Chiti

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Enclosure 1: European Parliament Resolution, 10 March 2009

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Enclosure 2: The Worst Practices Around

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Adkins Chiti: Women in Music Foundation

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Introduzione Silvia Costa

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Presentazione Patricia Adkins Chiti

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Allegato 1: Risoluzione Parlamento Europeo, 10 marzo 2009

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Allegato 2: Le Peggiore Pratiche in Circolazione

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Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica

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Addenda 1

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Addenda 2

85

Addenda 3

117

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“EUROPEAN KEY CHANGES FOR WOMEN IN MUSIC AND THE PERFORMING ARTS” Introduction by Silvia Costa

This publication is the result of a necessity that I felt when I was Rapporteur for Creative Europe, the new European programme dedicated to the cultural and creative sectors and created to sustain projects and transnational initiatives with a double objective: to ensure that European works, artists and participants in the cultural sector move freely within and without national frontiers thereby rendering the entire European cultural and audiovisual sector more competitive. In order to ensure total effectiveness and impact for this programme in the next seven years, one billion four hundred and sixty million Euros have been invested, underlining particular attention for the access to culture and all forms of artistic expression by underrepresented groups. It is, therefore, necessary to implement specific measures to reinforce the presence of women in the cultural and creative sectors as well guaranteeing the circulation of their works within and without the Union. A situation currently the result, to a large extent, of the scarce number of women present in decisional positions in cultural institutions. “Artists may entertain people, but they also contribute to social debates, sometimes bringing counter-discourses and potential counterweights to existing power centres. The vitality of artistic creativity is necessary for the development of vibrant cultures and the functioning of democratic societies. Artistic expressions and creations are an integral part of cultural life, which entails contesting meanings and revisiting culturally inherited ideas and concepts […] Obstacles to artistic freedoms impact on the enjoyment of rights by a wide range of people: the artists themselves, whether professionals or amateurs, as well as all those participating in the creation, production, distribution and dissemination of artwork. Audiences may also be affected. It is important to recognize the artistic freedoms of all persons when they par-

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ticipate in cultural life or wish to engage in creative activities. [‌]Women artists and audiences are at particular risk in some communities [‌]� 1

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On the 10th March 2009 the European Parliament produced a Resolution on equality of treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts which clearly stated that whereas inequalities in career prospects and opportunities between women and men in the performing arts are very much present and persistent, the mechanisms which produce these gender inequalities should be seriously analyzed. It underlined that the principle of equality between men and women should apply to all players in the performing arts sector, in all disciplines, all types of structure (production, broadcasting and teaching) and all activities (artistic, technical and administrative), and that inequalities in access to decision-making posts, means of production and broadcast networks are apparent to varying degrees in all disciplines of the performing arts. The resolution underlines that existing inequalities leave skills and talents unexploited and are damaging to the artistic dynamism, influence and economic development of the sector while persistent prejudices too often lead to discriminatory behaviour towards women in selection and appointment procedures and in work relations. At the same time women often receive lower remuneration than men even if they have higher educational qualifications, a stronger interest in training and stronger networks. Finally it confirms that the obstacles to gender equality in this sector are particularly deep rooted and require specific steps to be taken to reduce inequalities, taking into account the leverage effect which this may have on society as a whole. The Resolution calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider ensuring, without delay, and as a first realistic step in the fight against inequality in the performing arts, that at least a third of the people in all branches in the sector are of the minority sex. It encourages the Member States to consider, together with their cultural institutions, how best to understand the mechanisms which produce inequalities so as to avoid as far as possible any discrimination on the basis of sex while removing all obstacles to women accessing top positions in the most prestigious cultural institutions and organizations. Unfortunately at the time of writing the recommendations 1

United Nations General Assembly. Human Rights Council. Twenty-third session, Agenda Item 3. Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development , Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights, Farida Shaheed : The right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity, 14 March 2013, <http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/files/48/en/ShaheedReport_UN_HRC_The_right_to_freedom_of_artistic_expression_2013.pdf>dReport_UN_ HRC_The_right_to_freedom_of_artistic_expression_2013.pdf>


of the European Parliament have not been followed, in the same way in which other European directives, created to change the scenario for women in all fields, have not been put into practice. Not infrequently the proposals contained in resolutions and best practices promoted at Community level not only remain little known by the women themselves but very often do not find adequate space for their application and development within national policies. It appeared essential, therefore, to present in this book the precious work undertaken by the Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica (responsible for the largest network of organizations working on behalf of women in music in the world in 108 countries) referring to current European and International legislation, directives and proposals that should, if put into effect, radically change the world of the performing arts. The ample overview is followed by three addenda which make this text a concrete instrument to support policy makers and all interested organisations: a bibliographical listing of European and international documents referring to gender mainstreaming in the performing arts, a bibliographical listing of European and international documents referring to Equal Opportunities and Gender Equality and a bibliographical listing of European and international documents referring to women in music, the performing arts and in cultural policies. It is my hope that this research will hasten the preparation of a Motion to the European Parliament to ensure Equal Status and Opportunities for women composers and their liberation from Discrimination and that il will also sustain the extension of the application regarding obligatory quotas in Boards of Directors to include those in cultural institutions and public audiovisual organisations. It is necessary that Member States assume strong initiatives to achieve this, and where it is not immediately possible, use moral persuasion towards all the cultural institutions and large organisations within the field of music and the performing arts.2 Silvia Costa Member of the European Parliament

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European Union. Proposal of the European Commission on increasing Gender Equality in the Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s company boardrooms, Europa.eu, November 2013, http://www.europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-1118_en.htm

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EUROPEAN KEY CHANGES FOR WOMEN IN MUSIC AND THE PERFORMING ARTS Patricia Adkins Chiti1

Artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is taken to mean any person who creates or gives creative expression to, or re-creates works of art, who considers his/her artistic creation to be an essential part of his/her life, who contributes in this way to the development of art and culture and who is or asks to be recognized as an artist, whether or not he/she is bound by any relations of employment or association.2 In 2012 MEP Silvia Costa invited the Foundation to research and list the legislation, publications and proposals, produced by EU countries and international institutions, regarding access and gender mainstreaming for women in the performing arts in general and for creative women in music in particular. Why is it essential to document the tools available that should support, promote and mainstream women working in music? Some of the answers are found below:

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As confirmed in 2012 by the French Culture Ministry, 98% of all public funding for music goes to works by male composers, 94 % of all conductors are male and 86% of all training institutions are directed by men.

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During the 2008/09/10 seasons, 99% of all works performed by Swedish orchestras were composed by men. During the present season

Musician, musicologist, founder and President of the Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica 2 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist, 27.10.1980. based on Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention (No. 87), 1948; Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention (No. 98), 1949; Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (No. Ill), 1958; Recommendation on Participation by the People at Large in Cultural Life and their Contribution to It, adopted by the General Conference at its nineteenth session (Nairobi, 26 November 1976)

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(2013/1014) the 19 biggest orchestras in Sweden are playing about 1 000 works. Of these 92, 1 % are composed by male composers whereof 7 % only by Beethoven. It may be hard to believe but these numbers are a distinct increase when we look at the programming of music composed by women, 7, 9% in the programmes of the season. 2013 report from KVAST, Kvinnlig Anhopning av Svenska Tonsättare, association working to increase the consciousness and performances of music composed by women. l

The music industry, not only the classical music industry, really needs to address the sexist attitudes that still prevail & simply no longer accept ridiculous, outdated, bigoted views & ways of behaving that would simply not be accepted in other areas of society & industry......from Glastonbury to The Proms the stages are still full of men, men man the sound desks, dominate the studios, the sessions, the music tech companies, the agencies & create a sexist, ageist, narrow minded music culture that does not honour the true power of music to unite, heal & empower Blog, The Guardian, UK, September 2013

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The amount of contemporary music being programmed is less than it was thirty, fifty and even seventy years ago so lack of possibilities for new works forces women composers in particular to write for smaller ensembles, thereby finding themselves out of the running when an orchestra is looking for larger scale scores. Even more critical in this regard is that women composers do not have a chance to develop their skills through hearing performances of their music, especially largescale works. Vienna Modern Masters, Austria, May 2013

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The majority of conductors are men: they say they know nothing about women composers, alive or dead, and don’t believe that there are many. They also just don’t want to be bothered to learn about music by composers who can guarantee nothing in return for a performance. Statement confirmed by 38 European Women in Music organisations, July 2013 In general, the audience applauds the music if it likes it, without giving importance to the sex of the author. Programmers, publishers etc. don´t work in this way. Associacian Mujeres en la Musica, Spain, April 2013 The answer I have always heard is that my name is unknown. But how can you become known, if your music is not played? How to become a


better composer without hearing what you have written? – Hudbaby, Czech Women in Music association, July 2013 l

There are four macroscopic levels of difficulties to be faced and resolved: Absence of women composers from principal dissemination channels (curricula schools, universities, media and stakeholder networks, history books, encyclopaedias); from mainstream programming (theatres, festivals, radio, television) and in the private sector (commissions, commercial ventures) as well as from economic decision making (artistic directions, programming and commissioning). WIMUST E-book 2013, www.donneinmusica.org.

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If you look elsewhere, I’m sure you’ll find other opportunities. Words no one wants to hear when applying for an opportunity for which they otherwise qualify except for one thing: they are too old. Ageism in Composer Opportunities, Bill Doerrfield, June 5, 2013 (composersite.com)

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Unless a composer has a full-time position as an employee at a university (even working for a coffee bar or playing regularly in a hotel), she generally functions as a freelancer seeking commissions or —in most cases pay-to-maybe-win—opportunities. Working as freelancers and going after typical freelance opportunities means that composers receive no legal form of protection against age discrimination. Statement confirmed by 38 European Women in Music organisations, July 2013

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One problem is the great names of great masters. Discover a couple of measures written down by Beethoven as a child, and the musical world will pay attention. Discover an orchestral piece written by a (so far) little known woman, the musical world will react is it better than one of Beethoven’s symphonies? If not, why should we care about such a discovery? FrauMusicaNova, Germany, June 2013.

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Do you know what it means being a woman at the mercy of every agent, record company owner and those bandits, the men working in television who explain that the road in front of you is paved with business dinners, intimate evenings and special invitations. They convince you that you have to put their names, with yours, on the copyright documents deposited at the Performing Rights Society ... if you don’t want to do this or you hesitate you might just as well forget about having your CD aired, getting a gig on a TV show or even being invited into a decent TV studio. Donne in Jazz, Editore Colombo, Italy 2006

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The EUP March 2009 Resolution on Equality of Treatment and Access for Men and Women in the Performing Arts (2008/2182(INI) was addressed to all European governments and institutions inviting them to implement the proposals contained underlining that discrimination against women holds back the development of the cultural sector by depriving it of talent and skills …..talent requires contact with the public in order to achieve recognition.3 The Resolution notes that whereas inequalities in career prospects and opportunities between women and men in the performing arts are very much present and persistent…the mechanisms which produce these gender inequalities should be seriously analysed…… (and encourages) Member States to produce comparative analyses of the current situation in the performing arts in the various countries of the Union, to draw up statistics in order to facilitate the design and implementation of common policies and to ensure that the progress achieved can be compared and measured. To date no country in the EU has undertaken the comparative analyses called for although a first project was set up by the (Statens Musikverk) Music Development and Heritage in Sweden in 2012.4 Mapping and measurement create a baseline and from there one must generate the will for change. One must look at the existing situation and how it can be affected and then establish a plan and a timeline for that change to happen. Goals must be set, which can be evaluated and measured. Top management must be engaged with the process, so that it is disseminated to all levels and responsibility and commitment are created. Perhaps this process seems banal, but the re-

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Enclosure 1 Equality and Music at Music Development and Heritage Sweden (Statens Musikverk, 2012):In May, 2011, the Swedish government commissioned Music Development and Heritage Sweden to promote equality within the music industry in the years 2011-2014, a project totalling 8 million Swedish Kronor implemented in cooperation with the Swedish Arts Council, the Swedish Arts Grants Committee, and other relevant groups within the music sphere. The institution’s focus is primarily the free music scene, which entails those groups, ensembles, organizations, organizers, and individual performers not otherwise contained in publicly funded institutions. Also included in this scene are composers. The long-term goal is for women and men to be more equally represented in the music industry within those genres where the need is greatest. The role of Music Development and Heritage Sweden will also be to support and encourage a strategic and long-term process towards a more equal music scene. Music Development and Heritage Sweden organized a series of panel discussions in various forums aimed to build an interest in the equality initiative, as well as to encourage members of the music scene to contemplate and create equality projects of their own. The institution engaged in cooperative efforts with women’s interest groups and held networking events, and a think tank at the Swedish music colleges’ jazz departments with discussions centred on developing a more equal, national platform for students and teachers as well as promoting collaborative efforts on this topic. 4


ality is that it applies in the cultural sector, just as it does in private industry.5 Europe (Council, Commission and Parliament) discusses the future growth of a Creative and Cultural Europe capable of building a better society but the documents already in circulation suggest that many organisations have not included the lack of access by women to decision making positions in the fields of art and culture as one of the greatest challenges for gender equality and mainstreaming today. From the research undertaken in the last 20 months it is clear that even though each EU country has a desultory number of documents (proposals, papers, guidelines, laws) referring to gender equality 6, only a small number of these mention culture, women artists or performing arts. The word woman is absent from 99% of all documents referring to Cultural Policy.7 As emphasized by MEP Silvia Costa, Rapporteur European Parliament for Creative Europe, specific support is needed to tackle 5

Borgstrรถm, C., ,Gender Equality and the role of Arts and Culture, in Polacek, R. (FIA), Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, Prague, FIA, 2010, <http://www.fiaactors.com/uploads/Engendering_EN.pdf>, p. 8 6 Pursuant to Article 15 of the Act on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (Uradni list RS, No. 59/02), the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted at its session on 27 October 2005 the following Resolution on the National Programme for Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, 2005-2013 (ReNPEMZM) 3.3 Culture, media and advertising Challenges and policy orientations: The share of women, (self)-employed in the cultural sector, is relatively balanced with the share of men, but in Slovenia, we lack more detailed analyses indicating in which cultural professions (artist or non-artist) and in which fields they work. Likewise, there are no detailed data on public funds granted to artists and to projects and programmes contributing to the promotion of gender equality. However, certain organizations and female artists report that the share of women among the recipients of funds for cultural activities is lower and that higher funds are granted to the fields dominated by male artists. The culture as a category of development has several effects on most different levels of social life, thus it is important that the interests of various social groups are represented with balance in the culture and that equal opportunities of development and expression of creativity, knowledge, talents and capabilities are guaranteed to all of them. It is important that the gender equality perspective is included in all policies and programmes in the field of culture and that at the same time, special attention is paid to the support of projects promoting equal opportunities for women and men in the cultural sphere. In order to monitor the status of women and men in the cultural sector and plan the measures for ensuring gender equality, it is important to analyse in more detail and to examine the status of women and men in the sphere of culture and art and to adopt the indicators that will facilitate the comparisons also at the international level. 7 UK Music Industry and the Alliance for Diversity in Music & Media (ADDM) launched the Equality and Diversity Charter for Music in September 2012. The main points include improving equality and diversity at senior decision making levels and participating in or running activities that promote equality and diversity in the music industry.

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the under-representation of creative women and female artists in the cultural and creative sectors as well as the lower circulation of their works inside and outside the Union, caused by specific obstacles and hurdles faced by them in their professional careers and also by the paucity of women occupying executive positions in the upper echelons of cultural institutions. 8

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In a report prepared in 2001 for the European Convention Conditions for Creative Artists in Europe, organised by the EU Presidency, the Swedish Minister for Culture, Marita Ulvskog, underlined that the identities of European countries, down the centuries, have been shaped by artists with a unique cultural heritage telling us about differences and similarities inherited from previous generations. In most countries even well established professional artists have difficulties to live on their artistic work. The great majority are forced to seek out supplementary sources of income on the side – as teachers in their own fields, if they’re lucky, but increasingly in fields that have nothing to do with their work as artists. She continued by saying that it is artists who are the greatest patrons of the arts – since to a great extent it is they who bear the costs associated with creating, performing or presenting their own creations; through unpaid work. Artists are not jobless so much as incomeless. This lack of income, this state of incomelessness, occurs not just when the work of art is being created. In the case of most artists, this situation also lasts throughout their lifetime, long after he or she could be described as an established name... Equal treatment of men and women has been a fundamental tenet of the European Union since its inception and the principle of gender equality is central to all its activities. The Treaty of Rome, signed by the six founding countries of the European Economic Community in 1957, committed Member States to equal pay for equal work for men and women. The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) underlined that equality between women and men was one of the EU’s fundamental tasks. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000) confirms that equality between men and women is to be ensured in all areas, including employment,9 work and pay (Article 23) and reaffirms the ban on discrimination on a wide number of grounds, including sex (Article 21). The Treaty of the European Union (2009) commits Member 8

Costa, S., (Rapporteur), Draft Report on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on establishing the Creative Europe Programme (COM(2011)0785 – C7-0435/2011 – 2011/0370(COD)), 17.09.2012 9 International Intelligence on Culture, Innovative developments and good practice that is promoting and safeguarding employment in the live performing arts sector in seven EU countries (Final report), Research commissioned for the Social Dialogue Committee by the Euro


States to non-discrimination and equality between women and men (Article 2 and 3). Article 151 of the Treaty establishing the European Community, defines the competence of the Community in the cultural field indicating that the Community shall take cultural aspects into account in its action under other provisions of this Treaty, in particular in order to respect and to promote the diversity of its cultures.10 Since an active, vital and thriving cultural sector encourages growth throughout society, development of equal opportunities in the performing arts will encourage an even more active European citizenship while respect for women’s rights is the non-negotiable foundation for any discussion referring to cultural diversity, which is, in the widest sense, an integral part of all artistic processes. Sir Brian McMaster, in Supporting excellence in the arts: from measurement to judgement, confirms that diversity is an important dynamic element driving art forward, bringing it closer to a profound dialogue with contemporary society.11 Policies for equal opportunities are acknowledged in the general labour market, but rarely applied to the arts. Creative activity and its complex relation to society is poorly recognized and accommodated by cultural policy and the encouragement of women in the arts even less so.

15 pean Commission (Employment & Social Affairs), and European Entertainment Alliance (FIA, FIM, UNI-EUROPAMEI, PEARLE), [the research was led by Rod Fisher….], 24.9. 2001, http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/files/34851/11885685473report_FIM_sept_2001.doc/report_FIM_sept+2001.doc>: Using statistics collated from a number of different sources, the European Commission Working Paper, Culture, The Cultural Industries and Employment suggests that the growth of cultural employment over the past ten years has been very strong and far more significant than the growth of employment in general. ……The report portrays a picture of expansion in the cultural industries and while it fails to explore the fortunes of the performing arts in any detail it does provide estimates concerning the number of people working in the performing arts. It estimates there are around 185,000 classical and/or pop musicians (the equivalent of 80,000 full-time jobs) in the European Union, but notes these figures are incomplete as no data were available for Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany or Sweden. Besides musicians it notes that many people are employed in the live music sector as technicians and maintenance staff, in the organization of concerts and as musicians’ agents. It estimates there are around 23,500 jobs in organisations of this kind. Aside from live music the report suggests that in 1995 there were nearly 350,000 jobs in theatre, music theatre and dance. The paper notes that because many jobs are part-time or for a particular production or performance, it is particularly difficult to make inferences as to the equivalent number of permanent jobs. 10 European Commission. Department of Justice, Gender Equality in the European Union : (Brochure), Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011 [also in digital format: <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/brochure_equality_en.pdf>] 11 McMaster, Sir B., Supporting excellence in the arts: from measurement to judgement, London, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2008.


Women are the creative artists without whom the Creative and Cultural Industries will never be the most powerful economic motor in Europe. The 1995 UNESCO World Commission for Culture and Development identified the relationship between gender and culture as essential for development and followed this in 2005 with the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 12 while the International Music Council of UNESCO has constantly underlined that it is a universal human right to make and have one’s own music. According to the Council of Europe’s White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue, 2008, gender equality is a crucial element of democracy, an integral part of human rights, while sex-based discrimination is an impediment to the enjoyment of human rights and freedoms.13 Women constitute the majority of European citizens but their access to decision making positions in many fields, including the performing arts, is still limited.14 The performing arts include all forms of theatre (prose, opera, operetta, ballet, dance, musical comedy, variety, marionettes), music (symphonic, chamber, traditional, electronic, alternative, jazz, pop, rock, world

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Emphasizing the importance of culture for social cohesion in general, and in particular it’s potential for the enhancement of the status and role of women in society. Article 7 – Measures to promote cultural expressions 1. Parties shall endeavour to create in their territory an environment which encourages individuals and social groups: (a) to create, produce, disseminate, distribute and have access to their own cultural expressions, paying due attention to the special circumstances and needs of women as well as various social groups, including persons belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples; 2. Parties shall also endeavour to recognize the important contribution of artists, others involved in the creative process, cultural communities, and organizations that support their work, and their central role in nurturing the diversity of cultural expressions. 13 Council of Europe, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue : Living together as equals in dignity : 118th Session of the Committee of Ministers (Strasbourg, 7 May 2008), Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2008, [also in digital format: <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/Source/White%20Paper%20final%20EN%20020508. pdf>], p. 11. 14 European Institute for Gender Equality, Facts of inequality between women and men in arts, culture and education, 2012, <http://www.eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Inequalities%20in%20arts%20culture%20and%20education_EN.pdf>. The overall objectives of EIGE’s work are to contribute to and promote gender equality including gender mainstreaming in all Community policies and resulting national policies, to fight against discrimination based on sex, and to raise EU citizens’ awareness of gender equality. It collects and publishes reliable, comparable information and data on gender equality with the aim of helping EU institutions and Member States to take evidence-based policy decisions. The website lists architects, lecturers, directors of museums, Nobel Prize laureates in literature, university graduates and professors. No theatre directors, conductors, choreographers, composers, songwriters, authors or performers.....


music, impro, sound installations) circus and street performance. The main branches of the performing arts offer many different types of employment pattern. There is a division in performing art forms between resident/producing organisations, receiving venues, regular producing organisations (any of which can be publicly owned/operated, independent but subsidised from the public purse, or independent and commercial), producers of occasional projects and individual artists. These last may be salaried, on short or longterm contracts or freelance…..the organisations or producers will have administrative and operational staff and technicians and these categories too have their freelance cadres and the sector as a whole will support a penumbra of independent or linked service providers (marketing and publicity or technical services for example)… There is little apparent common ground between the symphony orchestra, with contract or perhaps self-governing players performing mostly in its own hall, recording or undertaking structured tours nationally and internationally, and the jobbing character actor or dancer fresh from training trying to put together a year of freelance work or finance a project with the prospect of uncertain periods of unemployment and a struggle with the social security system at the end of it15 Employment is characterised by temporary contracts and composers, songwriters and authors work on an intermittent basis on their principal artistic activity while experiencing periods of unemployment (or underemployment). Income consists in payments or contributions from different areas – salaries, unemployment benefits (in some countries), paid commissions (in others), fees, percentages from performing or collecting rights societies. All composers hope to gain income from PRS and digital downloads (a central concern) and revenue for the use of recorded music in public, on the radio, or for advertising. In many countries, the music-generated income is well below national poverty level. Few countries give creativity sabbaticals, stipends, and worthwhile commissions, guaranteed number of performances of new works, finance for research, recording, promotion and production. To date very few European countries have introduced measures to improve the access of women to positions of influence, to grants and subsidies.16 Music is a constant accompaniment to the lives of Europeans, a fundamental element of their heritage and culture, a source of employment and an ener15

With reference to Polacek, R. (FIA): Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, FIA, 2010. 16 Siukola, R., Gender mainstreaming in Finland’s government administration : Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming at Governmental Level in the EU Member States Finland, in Biller, H., Sterner, G., Gender Mainstreaming in the EU Member States : Progress, Ob

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getic economic market, with over 600 000 people working in this sector. Multimedia and music dissemination via Internet or mobile telephone networks opened up new horizons for the commercial exploitation of music. According to the Council of Ministers in 2003, professional artists, the majority of which are freelance or have a non-typical employment status, will measure their degree of success in the marketplace where artistic achievement is still rewarded in the form of either financial feedback or recognition bestowed them upon by prestigious cultural awards or positive critiques. How this marketplace is defined by artists depends often upon in which genre they are active. The word industry comes from the Middle English industrie, or skill, and the Latin industria, or diligence. Websterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Dictionary defines it as a department or branch of a craft, art, business, or manufacture; one that employs a large personnel and capital especially in manufacturing. So the very word industry implies disconnection; a body too large for its separate members to know one another. Conversely, business comes to us from the middle ages, where it was simply busy-ness, meaning engaged in occupation, bustling, full of activity. You can have no staff other than yourself, and still call yourself a business. Interestingly men talk about the industry; most women refer to the business.17

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Musicians are some of the most driven, courageous people on the face of the earth. They deal with more day-to-day rejection in one year than most people do in a lifetime. Every day, they face the financial challenge of living a freelance lifestyle, the disrespect of people who think they should get real jobs, and their own fear that theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll never work again. Every day, they have to ignore the possibility that the vi-

stacles and Experiences at Governmental level, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, 2007, p. 23. Since completion of its youth policy pilot project at the end of the 1990s, the Ministry of Education has promoted mainstreaming primarily in the areas of arts and culture, and sports and physical recreation. The job of assessing the arts and culture area was given to the Foundation for Cultural Policy Research, which was also asked for suggestions for action to promote gender equality. Its report stated that in arts and cultures the biggest differences between women and men concerned pay and finding professional work. There is also inequality in training, opportunity for influence and access to top jobs. The gender quotas called for in the Equality Act have improved the situation regarding womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s access to positions of influence and thus indirectly also access to grants and project funding, for example. However, the Act has no impact outside the public sector, such as in copyright bodies or the culture industry. The report recommended gender impact assessment for instance in implementing programmes for loans or other financial support for new entrepreneurs, performance agreements in the field and monitoring achievement of performance targets. 17 Adkins Chiti, P., Gender Mainstreaming in Music Market-theory and practice, Lecture for International Music Council, MIDEM, Monte Carlo 2003.


sion they have dedicated their lives to is a pipe dream. With every note, they stretch themselves, emotionally and physically, risking criticism and judgment. With every passing year, many of them watch as the other people their age achieve the predictable milestones of normal life - the car, the family, the house, the nest egg. Why? Because they are willing to give their entire lives to a moment - to that melody, that lyric, that chord, or that interpretation that will stir the audience’s soul. Musicians are beings who have tasted life’s nectar in that crystal moment when they poured out their creative spirit and touched another’s heart. In that instant, they were as close to magic, God, and perfection as anyone could ever be. And in their own hearts, they know that to dedicate oneself to that moment is worth a thousand lifetimes. 18 Women musicians represent over 80% of teachers in state and public institutions and in some countries 95% of all private music teachers. They are composers and creators of music, and performers in all fields (classical, art and new music, floor fillers in clubs and emerging acts in pop circuits), music and record producers, publishers, critics, historians, copyists and are always more present and responsible for the organisational and administrative work for festivals 19, teaching institutions, music clubs and media networks. However, even in countries where women teach composition in schools, conservatories or universities, conduct choirs and orchestras or lead bands (wind, jazz or heavy metal) their inclusion in mainstream music events is minimal and consequently they are unable to live from their music alone. Their status is dramatic. Only 2% of women’s music (traditional, popular, classical, and contemporary) is programmed by public funded institutions 20 and 89% of public arts and culture institutions are directed by men.21 If, as ongoing research confirms women represent nearly 40% of all European composers and creators of music, why do fewer than 2% receive performances of their works There are growing by publicly funded organisations? 22 numbers of female songwriters at the top of the charts but relatively few in European club circuits. Why is public money (52,32% of which comes from 18

Ackert, D., LA Times, February 2013 With reference to International Intelligence on Culture, op. cit. 20 Research carried out by French Ministry of Culture until 2009; WIM-UK from 1995-2013; H/F France 2010–2013; KVAST, Sweden 2010–2013; and in Culture-Gates, Exposing Professional Gate Keeping, ArCult Media, Bonn, 2004. 21 France, 2011, the « Commandes d’état » (paid commissions to professional composers) were given to 38 men and 5 women – i.e. 11,6% and in 2012, 52 were given to men and 6 to women – i.e. 10,3%. French composer Sophie Lacaze, President Association Plurielles 34 22 Preparation of online Encyclopedia of European Women Composers for WIMUST EUC funded programme, coordinated by Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica. 19

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female tax payers) used to promote male aesthetics? Performances depend upon a complicated system of funding, patronage, and power play. Look at current music curricula, at what orchestras, theatres, radio and festivals are programming, read reports in national Performing Rights’ Magazines, or watch music videos on You Tube and other forms of social network and digital dissemination and meditate on the necessity for key changes for women in music.

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All forms of creativity depend on multiple factors: age, race, religion, nationality or geographical area where the artist is born, where he/she trained, and aesthetic canons transmitted throughout history, education and specialised training, as well as other external influences such as popular culture, economic conditions, climate and even biological age. Music is a global phenomenon and each musical system is simultaneously a model of, and for, the cultural system of which it is a part. If musical systems are so embedded in cultural difference, so too are other phenomena considered normal, natural and the the way things are. The universe in which women creative artists exists is far from natural. Despite having more limited access to musical education, fewer opportunities for publication and performance, women have created, performed and transmitted their own music (in the Western World) since the time of the Sumerian civilisation.23 Awareness of the changes experienced by women worldwide has not translated into corresponding levels of participation and influence in public life, or recognition that women’s civic participation and cultural presence in the mainstream is severely constrained by the marginal and under-sourced nature of their organized activities.24 There are barriers, hurdles, gates and moats to be passed through and across and the gatekeepers are men who talk about quality and not about wheels behind the scenes: the old boys’ network, politics, and investments from publishers, producers and record companies, special friendships, sexual discrimination, harassment and coercion. Women artists are consistently subjected to gender based discrimination and the absence of information about their creativity underlines that society is neither truly multicultural, nor in conformity with Article 27 of the Declaration of Human

23

Adkins Chiti, P. , Tangible and Intangible – women’s contribution to Music and to Culture, Paper for Session n° 9, 1st April 1998, Stockholm, Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development 24 World Commission on Culture and Development, Our Creative Diversity: report of the World Commission on Culture and Development, direction Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, USA, UNESCO, 1995


Rights 25 or Articles 3-6 of the Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist.26 Current market philosophies value products in terms of commercial appeal and ability to create revenue. As less public funding is available and alternative funding lacking, so the range of challenging musical experiences in every community diminishes. Presenters and promoters prefer to present well-known music and a soloist, composer, ensemble, or line-up that a ticket paying public will pay for. Full houses (or stadiums) are expected if organisers programme standards, the works of great masters (long dead and usually white with beards), film soundtracks, electro, outrageous experimentation, ska, heavy metal, impro, dance music, synth-pop or award winners. The impression being that all of these are only created by men! 27 Composers submit scores or send self produced demos to artistic directors, recording companies and radio stations so that these will be read or listened to by their peers as underlined in the study Secret agendas in Orchestra programming. In 1998, a group of European publishers ran an empirical enquiry into the role of women working in the fields of commercial and pop music and their research revealed a lack of confidence shown by record companies toward women – as composers, writers, performers. They also included complaints about sexual harassment for women in the business and, what one well-known rock singer and author described as media interest in raw flesh but not talent. More than six hundred European women composers interviewed for this research project were invited to fill in questionnaires and to eventually add suggestions or statements. All, in whatever field they are working, have complained about insufficient programming for anything created by women, discrimination both active and passive and increasing pressure from radio and television networks to sign their rights to the in house publisher.28 They have also suggested that publicly subsidised organisations must introduce score reading/artistic commissions comprised of equal numbers of men and women.

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United Nations Department of Public Information, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10.12.1948, p.14. 26 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist, 27.10.1980. 27 Stadium gigs generated more than £220 m. while box office receipts and the associated spend from these events were responsible for two thirds of 2011’s live growth. The future of music at grass roots level and beyond looks in good health, particularly with the implementation of the Live Music Act in October 2012 Money & Business – Adding up the UK Music Industry, M46, December 2012, UK. 28 Enclosure 2

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Those working in the pop field complain that it’s difficult to produce records (unless they do it themselves) because producers prefer boys’ bands and relatively few producers are women. All of the women contacted are becoming increasingly, and publicly, intolerant of the sexual harassment which is taken for granted within the industry.29 Many are forced to set up their own ensembles, groups, bands, record company or home publishing to guarantee visibility and continuity for their own music. Thousands of highly professional women in the field of classical and contemporary music watch the dwindling large scale opportunities due to stringent arts funding but protest that the existing opportunities continue to go to composers backed by powerful advocates. They complain that their work is subject to artistic directors or record producers: commissions, performances, programming all depend upon the magic word – quality as in a woman would have been included if she had the same qualities as a man. Gender mainstreaming for women in music is, therefore, essential to ensure recognition, programming and direct contact with the public.

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All of them agreed with the following considerations in Women in Arts and Media Professions: European Comparisons: Considerable attention and effort is required to increase the visibility and value-perception of women artists from a historical and contemporary point of view. This is vitally important in order to (re)construct references, to promote role-models in the process of artistic professionalisation and to re-construct the box of professional tacit knowledge. A considerable rewrite of text books and other publications of reference is required to include the history of women’s achievements and their current contributions alongside those of their male colleagues.... Many female artists are not in favour of gender-quotas, because they do not want to be treated as a special group. In an ideal world they would like to see their own work given the same opportunities and value as that of their male colleagues. However, since this ideal world does not yet exist, many of them reluctantly recognise that targeted measures have and will continue to help an increasing number of women gain entry to, e.g., universities, thus counterbalancing male dominance.... Mainstreaming policies are aimed at changing the gender balance through accompanying and proactive measures such as quotas, education, earmarked financing, support to women’s networks etc. They can change the composition and modes of operation of formal 29 The industry must take responsibility for playing artists who rely on soft porn to boost their profiles…they are encouraged to present themselves as hyper-sexualised, unrealistic, cartoonish, as objects reducing female sexuality to a prize you can win.Singer Charlotte Church, keynote speaker John Peel Lecture at Annual Radio Festival, Salford, October 2013


gatekeeping systems but they do not penetrate the world of informal gatekeeping systems or managerial decision-making.30 Finally, as underlined by FIA (International Federation of Actors) in their Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, July 2010, In the EU.... there is no specific legislation to combat sex and gender discrimination in the performing arts, film and TV. However the general legislation on sex and gender equality is applicable to all sectors of the economy, including to the performing arts, film and TV. Since the 1970s the EU has adopted a set of directives on various aspects of gender equality in employment, including equal pay, equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, working conditions…In 2006 seven EU directives were incorporated into a single directive aiming to bring more clarity to European law in the field of equal treatment between women and men. Directive 2006/54/EC is now the main directive as regards equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation. It is one of the main legislative instruments of the EU ensuring gender equality. … (and) obliges Member States, in accordance with national law, collective agreements or practice, to encourage employers to promote equal treatment for men and women in a planned and systematic way in the workplace, in access to employment, vocational training and promotion. As this directive is applicable to all sectors of the economy it also applies to people working in the performing arts, TV and film. 31 We are constantly being reminded that the cultural and creative sectors contribution to the European GDP is 2,6 %, with an increasing trend and more than 5 million jobs. Unfortunately, our research has revealed that, notwithstanding the considerable number of EU directives and national legislation, guidelines, publications and proposals, nothing is really happening to ensure that women obtain the equal opportunities proposed, nor is there any systematic monitoring of the violations which take place every day, every week of every year. The attitude of most of the music sector (and within the performing arts) reminds one, ironically, of Don Fabrizio’s musings in Tommasi di Lampedusa’s Il Gattopardo: Se vogliamo che tutto rimanga come è, bisogna che tutto cambi. (If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change)!! 30

Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Wiesand, A., The Project and its Results : Women in Arts and Media Professions: European Comparisons,<http://www.culturegates.info/cg/files/32/en/02eucomp.pdf> 31 Based on: Polaceck, R. (FIA), op. cit., p. 12

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……women who work in the field of culture, whether or not they are creators, performers, producers or in the third sector, dedicate an enormous amount of time and energy to what they consider a vocation rather than a job…. working to achieve individual goals, with enormous personal, social and financial sacrifices….. They are victims of a system that doesn’t change, doesn’t want to be changed and resists all possible forms of change.32 UNESCO’s Road Map for Arts Education - The World Conference on Arts Education: Building Creative Capacities for the 21st Century (Lisbon, March 2006) states that the arts are both the manifestation of culture as well as the means of communication of cultural knowledge. Each culture has unique artistic expressions and cultural practices. The diversity of cultures and their creative, artistic products represent contemporary and traditional forms of human creativity which uniquely contribute to the nobility, heritage, beauty and integrity of human civilization. Awareness and knowledge of cultural practices and art forms strengthens personal and collective identities and values, and contributes to safeguarding and promoting cultural diversity.

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We hope, therefore, that the three Addenda included with this overview turn out to be essential tools with which to convince political decision makers to undertake the essential key changes for women, in the performing arts and music, thereby ending the under-representation of creative women and female artists in the cultural and creative sectors as well as the lower circulation of their works inside and outside the Union, caused by specific obstacles and hurdles faced in their professional careers and by the paucity of women occupying executive positions in the upper echelons of cultural institutions.33

32 33

Report from Italian National Commission of Equal Opportunities, 1998. Costa, S., op. cit.


Enclosure 1 European Parliament resolution of 10 March 2009 on equality of treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts (2008/2182(INI) The European Parliament, – having regard to Directive 2002/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 amending Council Directive 76/207/EEC on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions34, – having regard to Council Directive 97/80/EC of 15 December 1997 on the burden of proof in cases of discrimination based on sex35, – having regard to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, – having regard to its resolutions of 7 June 2007 on the Social status of artists36 and of 3 September 2008 on Equality between women and men - 200837, – having regard to Rule 45 of its Rules of Procedure, – having regard to the report of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (A6-0003/2009), A. whereas inequalities in career prospects and opportunities between women and men in the performing arts are very much present and persistent, B. whereas the mechanisms which produce these gender inequalities should be seriously analysed, C. whereas the principle of equality between men and women should apply to all players in the performing arts sector, in all disciplines, all types of structure (production, broadcasting and teaching) and all activities (artistic, technical and administrative), D. whereas men and women are not proportionally represented in the various jobs in the performing arts, and whereas this initial form of inequality is compounded by disparities in work and employment conditions and income,

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OJ L 269, 5.10.2002, p. 15. OJ L 14, 20.1.1998, p. 6. 36 OJ C 125 E, 22.5.2008, p. 223. 37 Texts adopted on that date, P6_TA(2008)0399. 35

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E. whereas inequalities in access to decision-making posts, means of production and broadcast networks are apparent to varying degrees in all disciplines of the performing arts, F. whereas the objective of equality in jobs in the performing arts presupposes the systematic opening-up of all jobs to both men and women, G. whereas talent alone is not sufficient for the artistic quality of a performance or the success of a professional career and whereas taking better account of the representation of men and women in jobs in the performing arts would have the effect of reinvigorating the sector, H. whereas, therefore, the current instances of segregation that still persist in the performing arts should be changed, not only by modernising and democratising the sector, but also by setting realistic equality goals which promote social justice, I. whereas the existing inequalities leave skills and talents unexploited and are damaging to the artistic dynamism, influence and economic development of the sector, J. whereas persistent prejudices too often lead to discriminatory behaviour towards women in selection and appointment procedures and in work relations; whereas women often receive lower remuneration than men even if they have higher educational qualifications, a stronger interest in training and stronger networks, K. whereas the obstacles to gender equality in this sector are particularly deep rooted and require specific steps to be taken to reduce inequalities, taking account also of the leverage effect which that may have on society as a whole, L. whereas there are great shortcomings as regards social protection for both men and women active in the arts and whereas income, particularly that of women, is adversely affected by this, 1. Underlines the scale and persistence of the inequalities between men and women in the performing arts and the impact that the unequal way in which the sector is organised can have on society as a whole, given the particular nature of its activities; 2. Underlines the vital need to promote and encourage access for women to all the artistic professions where they are still in the minority; 3. Notes that the proportion of women employed in artistic professions and in the official culture industry is only very small and that women are under-represented in positions of responsibility in cultural institutions and in academies and universities;


4. Recognises the need to take specific action in this sector to analyse the mechanisms and behaviour that produce these inequalities; 5. Notes that behaviour is transformed only when the two sexes work alongside each other, through the input of points of view, sensibilities, methods and interests which complement each other; 6. Emphasises the need to promote access for women to all the artistic professions and all jobs in the performing arts where they are in the minority and encourages the Member States to remove all obstacles to women accessing top positions in cultural institutions and in academies and universities; 7. Stresses that discrimination against women holds back the development of the cultural sector by depriving it of talent and skills and notes that talent requires contact with the public in order to achieve recognition; 8. Calls for measures to be taken to increase the presence of women on the directorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; boards of institutions, in particular by promoting equality within cultural undertakings and institutions and professional organisations; 9. Calls on the actors in the field of culture to increase the presence of female creators and their works in programming, collections, publishing and consultation; 10. Notes that the progress achieved in gender equality will progressively allow the mixing of sexes in work teams, programme planning and professional meetings, which today often function according to a system of separation of the sexes which is difficult to reconcile with the demands of our society; 11. Stresses the importance of ensuring whenever possible that applications are anonymous and emphasises the need to continue using screened-off auditions for recruiting orchestra musicians, which has helped women join orchestras; 12. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider ensuring, without delay and as a first realistic step in the fight against inequality in the performing arts, that at least a third of the people in all branches in the sector are of the minority sex; 13. Encourages the Member States: (a) to consider together with their cultural institutions how best to understand the mechanisms which produce inequalities so as to avoid as far as possible any discrimination on the basis of sex; (b) to remove all obstacles to women accessing top positions in the most prestigious cultural institutions and organisations;

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(c) to introduce to the sector new ways of organising work, delegation of responsibilities and time management which take into account the personal-life constraints of women and men; (d) to recognise that in this sector, where untypical hours, high mobility and job insecurity are the norm and are more destabilising for women, collective solutions should be found for providing childcare (e.g. opening of crèches in cultural undertakings with hours adapted to rehearsal and performance times); 14. Reminds the cultural institutions of the vital need to translate into fact the democratic notion that equal work by men and women must be matched by identical pay, which, in the arts as in many other sectors, is still not the case; 15. Encourages the Member States to produce comparative analyses of the current situation in the performing arts in the various countries of the Union, to draw up statistics in order to facilitate the design and implementation of common policies and to ensure that the progress achieved can be compared and measured; 16. Calls on the Member States to improve the social situation of persons active in the arts and culture sector, taking account of the various employment relations involved, and to ensure better social protection; 17. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and Commission and to the parliaments of the Member States.


Enclosure 2 THE WORST PRACTICES AROUND – Discrimination, Harassment and Coercion through composers’ and songwriters’ eyes It is largely understood within the musical world that talent alone is not sufficient for the success of a professional career. The statutes of artists are still being endangered and questioned every day, whilst equal opportunities are far from being a reality. The materials listed below expose some of the worst practices for women composers in every field of music. For six months, in early 2013, we circulated a series of questions regarding Discrimination, Harassment and Coercion (originally defined during the Annual General Meeting of our European Network in 2012) to nearly 600 women composers. They were invited to comment and to add further worst practices. IGNORANCE In general, the audience applauds the music it likes, without giving importance to the sex of the author. Programmers, publishers etc. don’t work in this way. We’re only interested in promoting ‘great’ music! is a good excuse not even to read a score by a woman (do you think they know how to read a score??) Public-conscious programmers and organizers continue to think of composers as men in the same way surgeons or judges are thought of as men. Programmers try to meet public expectations – they need to sell tickets. Artistic or Programming committees have little knowledge of women composers whether from the past or the present so the general public is unaware that there are so many women writing music. Conductors, artistic directors, managers, agencies, record companies, publishers and musicologists are ignorant about women composers regarding both their historic and contemporary production. The majority are men: they say they know nothing about women composers, alive or dead, and don’t believe that there are many. Even with a woman heading an orchestra or a festival, the amount of women’s music being programmed doesn’t get any better. Perhaps they are concerned that if they do promote women they will be considered feminists or out of touch. There are editors, programmers, conductors... who consider the music written by women and the music written by unknown men in the same strange category

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Some men still think that women are unable to create a work of the same quality as a man because of her lower intelligence, or lack of the right hand brain logic. Often women’s music is considered second class merely because it’s written by a woman. There are still directors, agencies, producers and organizers who believe that women can’t play (or shouldn’t play) electric bass, electric guitar or conduct an orchestra The 2013 Montreux Jazz Festival had only 4 female performers and no composers and say they hadn’t any idea that there were jazz composers………..have they never done any research??? Large numbers of musicians don’t want to know that there are women composers. On their résumés, many musicians omit women musicians/composers with whom they performed, unless the woman is more famous than they are

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PROFESSIONAL INCOMPETENCE Many directors are where they are because of political influence, backing by record companies or publishers, prestige in fields other than music, old boys’ networks. Some are not trained musicians, cannot read scores and must, therefore, depend on others for decisions. Administrators and artistic directors do not realize that there must be an adequate representation of women at all levels and in all institutions. There are no public or private juries to appraise scores for commissions and so choice is very much a personal one. Some composers believe that juries generally consist of peer groups whose members rarely disagree with one another The Danish magazine Jazzspecial has no female critics and the same is true of every other Jazz magazine in Europe and we’re in 2013… ..Copenhagen Jazz Festival 2013 has a few female singers and almost no female instrumentalists in their huge programme. BACKSCRATCHING Programming depends on back scratching and women do not or cannot cope with this. Composer gatekeepers promote their own students and/or composers who offer them programming opportunities elsewhere. They do not consider works representing different musical aesthetics. Equal Opportunities is not something that interests them (men). They don’t want to be bothered to learn about music by composers who can


guarantee nothing in return for a performance. Conductors prefer to programme composers who can offer them podium exchanges, Orchestras have insufficient time for the rehearsal of new repertoire and, on the whole, dislike playing contemporary works. This affects all composers and above all women. But they will programme and play any kind of music if there is someone guaranteeing the costs of the performance, or offering them a record contract. Some festivals only accept proposals from managers, agencies, record companies or publishers who offer to pick up some costs for a performance DISCRIMINATION Decision makers are mainly men. As confirmed by the French Culture Ministry, 98% of all public funding for music goes to works by male composers, 94 % of all conductors are male and 86% of all training institutions are directed by men. Constant discrimination against women composers produces unstable economic and social situations for them including the spectre of poverty in old age. Italian figures for the earnings of independent artists, including women composers, show that the majority have earnings below national poverty level. Women face discrimination in the moment when they would like to, or already have, children. Society does not help to make their decision easy. There are almost no part-time jobs, maternity payments are low, but the biggest problem is that nobody in the field (writing for television, advertising or films) accepts a mother with small children - because they might be ill too often, because she has to take them to the kindergarten etc..... and yet creativity and motherhood are an essential part of a womanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life and soul. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s difficult to find a good publisher who will really work for you; there are many out there that are prepared to add your works to their list (they need token women composers) but then they do nothing and, undoubtedly, when making their decisions they take into consideration your age, physique, notoriety, popularity, etc Women composers really need help because by the time youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve received 20 rejection letters or emails from publishers you wonder why you were ever considered a talent. The hierarchal valuation/appreciation of different musical styles/esthetics undermines folk music and to some extent jazz. The jazz-

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scene is mostly run by men so that doubles difficulties for women. The folk music-scene is rather more democratic, but is still not seen as cultural as for example classical music. So women engaged in folk music don’t receive benefits from gender institutions or other organizations supporting women. Jazz Festivals and Clubs are in male hands and it’s a long hard fight to get the right openings and gigs: there is a general feeling that women are not as good as men. As a jazz musician it’s hard on many levels. There are many female players who have given up, because it was too hard to fight discrimination on a daily basis. As a flautist there is no problem because this is perceived as a female instrument. When I say I am a saxophonist, I am asked if it is not too hard to blow, to handle. And how I can put up with my male colleagues.... Often I have to ask a male colleague to tell everyone else in the group what I want them to play since they don’t even listen to me. As a jazz musician you are supposed to be a singer, a pianist, a violinist..... not a drummer, bassist, saxophonist.... The Real Book, the jazz players’ bible and reference book for songs, contains extremely few compositions by women..... As long as the juries and persons in groups deciding on commissions and prices are mostly men there will never be fair and non-discriminating decisions made concerning women. When the Spanish PRS Society had a female director (a composer) she insisted on blind score reading with the result that over 50% of the works chosen were by women – she had a hard time and as soon as they could a man took over! EDUCATION OR LACK OF… There are more young women than young men producing music when they’re at school but then they’re not encouraged to continue and look at their talent as a future possible lifetime engagement – they are told they should study other things. We need more young women in the composition classes. The Rhythmic Music Conservatory in Copenhagen has now nearly only male students, and the few female students haven’t got many chances to mirror themselves in female role models among the teachers. Guidance repertoire to be played in conservatoires rarely includes women composer’s works. Women teaching instrumental repertoire


in training institutions (and school) don’t include women composers in their programmes, lectures and performances. There aren’t any famous women (Hildegard of Bingen, Clara Schumann, Nadia Boulanger, and Dame Ethel Smyth etc) in Music History School programmes. Instrumental teachers don’t even bother to find out if there is contemporary or historic music by women. They rely on what publishers are producing for the 2nd or 4th grade. Gender Studies in Universities can be detrimental when teaching music history and when giving information about the music composed by women. Often the professors are not musicians, have not studied composition and have no idea that all musical composition is a craft which has to be learned, put into practice and then refined through experience and public performances. Rarely do reviews of books about music mention women musicians. When there are discussions about role models and sources of inspiration on the internet, there’s almost never any female composer, songwriter or author mentioned. AGEISM There are far more competitions or calls for scores aimed at under thirty than there are for those which are open to all. Some festivals only programme works by the very young although this is not declared anywhere in their publicity materials – so if you happen to be a woman composer and you’re over sixty, you might just as well consider yourself out of business. Some opportunities list no age restriction but discriminate in private….ageism is a subtler form of discrimination. This added to the ongoing discrimination against women as creators and composers means that women suffer twice as much. There’s a culture of youth driving the marketplace….there’s something more sexy, appealing, or exciting about young talent which can make a better sell in publicity materials, on stage, at the donor’s reception, or in the grant proposal and in less philanthropic endeavors, and helps bring in more money. Those in hiring positions at networks, ad agencies etc are younger these days and prefer working with their own generation rather than with musicians with longer track records and a wider range of experience.

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HARASSMENT AND/OR COERCION A producer who wanted my music, offered me a lump sum but then said that I wouldn’t be earning residuals or PRS in any way – and he was representing an international project which would have meant returns from all over the world. It was a difficult decision to make but I said no – he quickly found someone else which means that he didn’t really need MY music – a very hurtful experience. Sexual harassment has been going on for years in music. Women have to be so strong and if they can’t take it sometimes they just leave the business! Even today, women are harassed and have a difficult time with men promoters and men calling the shots or making the choices. Even when a woman composer feels she has the trust and confidence of a male promoter or agent, the male promoter many times wants something else, not her music. People in general have a fixed idea about what a composer should be or look like, and a female figure doesn’t fit that common image of a great composer. So people tend to unconsciously reject woman composers before even listening to their music, which is a kind of psychological prejudice. Because of this, inevitably women composers get fewer chances to be acknowledged in the first place no matter if they are really good or not. A female composer who is looked upon (by men) as very attractive (or sensual/sexy) almost always has a problem of getting the same respect as a male composer. The traditional picture of the women com poser is a man-like woman with a moustache and thick glasses - a strange creature. This leads to other extremes – half-naked pictures of artists or songwriters who sell themselves with a very sexy look at any price. The worst thing of all in the field of jazz is to not be very young anymore, not to go in dressed in a miniskirt and lots of red lipstick without wrinkles – men can look like slobs and its okay. The culture of demeaning women in pop music is so ingrained that it’s become routine, from the way women are dealt with by management and labels to the way they are presented to the public Songwriters get radio play or television coverage if they sign the Performing Rights Forms with everyone else involved in the project including the sound engineer. VARIOUS – Pleas from the heart! SOS - Isn’t there any woman politician prepared to ask why every damn Resolution in the European Union referring to Equality is


being overlooked??? Signing on to PRS is not always useful: often your local PRS doesn’t find information about performances given elsewhere in Europe. The returns earned are less than the annual costs of belonging to the PRS society. This is also true for membership of some music unions/organizations. Male politicians only come to concerts when a famous performer is present. Celebrations of events for women always take place without the presence of male politicians who make promises to women before elections and afterwards nothing. Most male politicians have no knowledge of art or culture, especially of music and know nothing about women. Female politicians are often not much better – some have got where they are because they adopt masculine ways of behaviour and thinking. Music Information Centres often don’t appear to be interested in what women are doing and don’t invite them to send in curricula or professional materials. Male music professionals always have the last word and never defend women.

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The Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica is an international cultural non-profit organization based in Fiuggi Città, Italy, partner within cultural agreements undersigned by the Italian Foreign Ministry, member of UNESCO’s International Music Council and the European Music Council, and recognized by the European Commission as a European Network for its ongoing activities to obtain recognition, visibility, gender mainstreaming and empowerment for women composers and creators of music. Donne in Musica was created in 1978 by musician and musicologist Patricia Adkins Chiti and today has a network of over 27,000 women composers, creators of music, musicologists and musicians in 108 countries. The Foundation’s activity includes research, collection of historical and contemporary data about women composers in all genres and all parts of the world, preservation of music composed and created by women, publication of dictionaries, monographs and studies and the presentation of concerts, festivals and projects with music by women. The library holds 43,000 scores of women’s music.

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The bibliographical addenda were prepared by librarians Roberta Quattrociocchi and Tiziana Morsanuto, with help from visiting resident scholars: Jenny Dünser (Austria), Genevieve Mathon (France), Rosemary Evans (Great Britain), Vilma Campitelli (Italy), Jelena Arnautović (Serbia), Aránzaxa Hernández and Sara Navarro (Spain), Anna-Lena Laurin (Sweden) and Selen Gulun (Turkey), together with input from the many “Women in Music” organizations in the Foundation’s International Honour Committee in Europe. We also thank Nicoletta Del Monte (Italy) and Carole Kost (USA) for their help.


FIFTITU – Vernetzungsstelle für Frauen in Kunst & Kultur, Austria Vienna Modern Masters, Austria IRDECOF, Belgium Women in Music, European University Cyprus Hudbaby/The Musicrones, Czech Republic Kvinder i Muzik Denmark IMPRA, Denmark Nainen Ja Musiikkiry (NaMury), Finland Rencontres Internationales Musicales En Catalogne, France CdMC, Centre de Documentation de la Musique Contemporaine, France Association Plurielles 34, France Frau Musica (nova), Germany Archiv Frau und Musik, Germany GEDOK, Germany Artemusi(c)a – Compositrici per le Marche, Italy Associazione Parnaso Donne in Musica, Italy Centro Veneto per le Donne in Musica, Italy Conservatorio “Fausto Torrefranca”, Vibo Valentia, Italy Gender Interuniversity Observatory, Italy Università Roma Tre, Italy Neo Musica, Kosova Le forum Femmes et Musique au Cid-femmes, Luxembourg Muzi kicentar Crne Gore, Montenegro Stichting Vrouw en Muziek, Netherlands ATRIA institute on gender equality and women’s history, Netherlands Stichting Tera de Marez Oyens Fonds, Netherlands Miso Music, National Centre for Musical Creation, Portugal Asociatia Romana pentru Femei in Arta (A.R.F.A.), Romania Udruzenje “Zena u muzici”, Kragujevac, Serbia Music Centre Slovakia Ustanova Gallus, Slovenia Euterpe Musica y Mujer, Spain Asociación Mujeres en la Música, Spain Evterpe – Kvinnor i Musik, Sweden IMPRA, Sweden KVAST, Sweden Forum Musik Diversität, Switzerland Women in Music Turkey Women in Music UK

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“CAMBIO DI SPARTITO PER LE DONNE NELLA MUSICA E NELLE ARTI DELLO SPETTACOLO” Introduzione di Silvia Costa Questa pubblicazione nasce da un’esigenza che ho rilevato anche come relatrice di Europa Creativa, il nuovo programma europeo dedicato al settore culturale e creativo, che sosterrà progetti e iniziative transnazionali con un duplice obiettivo: far circolare le opere europee e promuovere la mobilità di artisti e operatori dentro e fuori dai confini continentali e rendere più competitiva l’industria culturale e audiovisiva europea. Per rendere più efficace l’impatto di questo programma, che per i prossimi sette anni investe 1 miliardo e 460 milioni, e che prevede una particolare attenzione all’accesso alla cultura e all’espressione artistica dei gruppi sottorappresentati, è necessario prevedere azioni specifiche per rafforzare sia l’ancora troppo ridotta presenza di donne nei settori culturali e creativi, sia la circolazione delle loro opere all’interno e all’esterno dell’Unione. Una situazione in buona parte dovuta allo scarso numero di donne presenti nelle posizioni dirigenziali delle istituzioni culturali. “Gli artisti possono intrattenere il pubblico, ma allo stesso tempo contribuiscono ai dibattiti di carattere sociale, talvolta portando argomentazioni opposte e operando da potenziale contrappeso nei confronti dei centri di potere preesistenti. La vitalità della creazione artistica è necessaria allo sviluppo di culture vibranti e per il corretto funzionamento delle società democratiche. […] L’espressione artistica e le sue creazioni sono parte integrante della vita culturale, il che significa contestare significati e rivisitare idee e concetti che sono stati ereditati culturalmente. […] Gli ostacoli alla libertà artistica hanno un impatto sul godimento stesso dei diritti per un gran numero di soggetti: gli artisti stessi, professionisti o dilettanti, e tutti quelli che prendono parte alla creazione, produzione, distribuzione e diffusione di un’opera d’arte. Lo stesso pubblico può esserne coinvolto. È molto importante riconoscere il diritto alla libertà artistica di chiunque prenda parte alla vita culturale o desi-

39


deri impegnarsi in attività creative […] In alcune comunità, le donne, artiste o parte del pubblico, sono particolarmente a rischio”. 1

40

Il 10 marzo 2009 il Parlamento Europeo ha redatto una Risoluzione sulla parità di trattamento e di accesso tra uomini e donne alle arti dello spettacolo (CINI 2008/2012), nella quale si invitava ad analizzare con maggiore attenzione i meccanismi che stanno alla base delle discriminazioni di genere e che condizionano le prospettive di carriera e le opportunità di realizzazione personale delle donne. Nel medesimo documento si sottolineavano in particolare le disuguaglianze di genere presenti in tutti i settori relativi allo spettacolo dal vivo, a cominciare dalla produzione, che incidono anche sulla realizzazione e sugli aspetti tecnici e amministrativi. Si rilevava inoltre che i comportamenti discriminatori nei confronti delle donne producono uno spreco di talenti e di capacità, depotenziando il dinamismo artistico e lo sviluppo economico del settore. Occorre aggiungere che nonostante le donne siano spesso più qualificate, motivate, colte e in grado di fare rete, sono però spesso estranee alle relazioni con i poteri politico/istituzionali e poco coinvolte nelle lobbies di potere in ambito artistico. Così hanno ruoli meno rilevanti, sono poco presenti nei poteri decisionali e ricevono remunerazioni inferiori. Il documento citato conferma che nel settore artistico e creativo, dove pure si registra una larga presenza di donne, gli ostacoli all’uguaglianza di genere e al riconoscimento delle loro capacità sono particolarmente radicati e richiedono interventi specifici i cui effetti si potrebbero riverberare positivamente sulla società tutta. La Risoluzione si appella alla Commissione Europea e agli Stati Membri affinché si attivino per assicurare che nello spettacolo dal vivo almeno un terzo dei ruolo decisionali siano attribuiti alle donne, analizzando con maggiore attenzione i meccanismi che producono le disuguaglianze al fine di poter mettere in atto interventi più efficaci per garantire anche alle donne l’accesso ai ruoli decisionali nelle istituzioni ed organizzazioni culturali. Purtroppo finora le raccomandazioni del Parlamento Europeo non hanno avuto seguito, così com’è accaduto per altri pronunciamenti europei mirati a cambiare lo scenario per tutte le donne in tutti i campi. Gli stimoli provenienti da risolu1

Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite. Assemblea Generale. Consiglio dei Diritti dell’Uomo. Ventitreesima Sessione, 3 Punto all’Ordine del Giorno. Promozione e protezione dei diritti umani, di quelli civili, politici, economici, sociali e culturali, incluso il diritto allo sviluppo, Rapporto del Relatore Speciale sul diritto alla cultura, Farida Shaheed: Il diritto alla libertà nell’espressione artistica e alla creatività, 14 March 2013, <http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/files/48/en/ShaheedReport_UN_HRC_The_right_to_freedom_of_artistic_expression_2013.pdf>.


zioni e buone pratiche a livello comunitario non solo sono rimasti poco conosciuti da quelle stesse donne a beneficio delle quali sono state prodotte, ma spesso non hanno trovato adeguati spazi di applicazione e sviluppo negli ambiti nazionali. A partire da queste considerazioni, abbiamo ritenuto utile raccogliere in questo volume, attraverso il prezioso lavoro della “Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica” sostenitrice della più vasta rete - attiva in 180 paesi - di organizzazioni che operano in favore delle donne nella musica nel mondo, leggi, direttive e proposte di livello europeo e internazionale che, se messe in pratica, potrebbero far registrare un significativo impatto di genere nel mondo dello spettacolo dal vivo. A complemento di quest’ampia panoramica e allo scopo di rendere questo testo uno strumento di supporto concreto per i policy makers e le organizzazioni interessate, tre appendici riportano i riferimenti bibliografici riguardanti rispettivamente: i documenti europei e internazionali concernenti il mainstreaming di genere nello spettacolo dal vivo; i documenti europei e internazionali concernenti le Pari opportunità e l’uguaglianza di genere; i documenti europei e internazionali concernenti le donne nella musica, nello spettacolo dal vivo e nelle politiche culturali. Spero che questa ricerca possa incoraggiare la preparazione di una mozione da presentare al Parlamento Europeo per assicurare l’uguaglianza di status e di opportunità per le artiste e il superamento di ogni forma di discriminazione nei loro confronti, e per sostenere l’estensione dell’applicazione della direttiva sulle quote obbligatorie nei Consigli di Amministrazione anche alle istituzioni culturali e audiovisive pubbliche. Per tutto ciò è necessario che gli Stati Membri assumano una forte iniziativa d’indirizzo e, dove non sia possibile, di persuasione morale nei confronti di tutte le istituzioni e grandi organizzazioni culturali nel mondo della musica e nello spettacolo dal vivo.2

Silvia Costa Parlamentare Europeo

2

European Union. Proposal of the European Commission on increasing Gender Equality in the Europe’s company boardrooms, Europa.eu, November 2013, http://www.europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-1118_en.htm

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EUROPEAN KEY CHANGES1 PER LE DONNE NELLA MUSICA E NELLO SPETTACOLO DAL VIVO Patricia Adkins Chiti2

Il termine ‘Artista’ indica chiunque dia vita, espressione creativa a, o ricrei un’opera d’arte; ogni persona che consideri la propria creazione artistica una parte essenziale della propria vita; chiunque contribuisca allo sviluppo dell’arte e della cultura e sia o chieda di essere riconosciuto come artista, a prescindere dalle proprie relazioni di lavoro o associative.3

43 Nel 2012, l’On. Silvia Costa invitò la Fondazione a svolgere una ricerca al fine di creare un elenco delle leggi, pubblicazioni e proposte, prodotte dai Paesi Membri dell’UE e dalle istituzioni internazionali, riguardanti il mainstreaming di genere e la possibilità di accesso, per le donne, allo spettacolo dal vivo in generale e, più in particolare, l’accesso per le donne creative nell’ambito musicale. Perché è così importante documentare gli strumenti di-

1

La traduzione letterale dell’espressione Key changes corrisponde all’italiano, Cambiamenti di tonalità, e lascia intendere un gioco di parole preso in prestito dal gergo musicale che, in traduzione, utilizzando l’espressione più comune, cambiamenti radicali, sarebbe andato perduto. NdT. 2 Musicista, musicologa, fondatrice e Presidente della Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica 3 Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l’Educazione, la Scienza e la Cultura (Unesco), Raccomandazione riguardante lo Status dell’Artista, 27.10.1980. basata sulla Convenzione sulla Libera Associazione e il Diritto di Organizzazione (No. 87), 1948; Convenzione sul diritto di Organizzazione e di Negoziazione Collettiva (No. 98), 1949; Convenzione sulla Discriminazione (Impiego e Occupazione) (No. III), 1958; Raccomandazione sulla Partecipazione delle Masse Popolari alla Vita Culturale e sul loro Contributo ad essa, adottata dalla Conferenza Generale nella sua diciannovesima sessione, (Nairobi, 26 Novembre 1976)


sponibili che dovrebbero sostenere, promuovere e portare avanti mainstreaming per le donne che lavorano in ambito musicale? Alcune risposte a queste domande sono le seguenti: l

Come confermato nel 2012 dal Ministro per la Cultura francese, il 98% dei fondi pubblici per la musica è impiegato per presentare opere musicali di compositori, il 94% dei direttori sono uomini e l’86% delle istituzioni per la formazione è diretto da uomini.

l

Durante le stagioni 2008/09/10, il 99% delle opere messe in scena dalle orchestre svedesi è stato composto da uomini. Durante questa stagione (2013/2014), le diciannove più grandi orchestre svedesi metteranno in scena circa 1000 opere. Di queste, il 92,1 % sono state composte da uomini, il 7% da Beethoven. Può essere difficile da credere, ma queste cifre aumentano sensibilmente se prendiamo in considerazione le opere musicali composte da donne, che sono il 7,9% delle opere musicali in cartellone per la stagione. Relazione per l’anno 2013 dell’associazione KVAST, Kvinnlig Anhopningav Svenska Tonsättare, che opera per la promozione della conoscenza della musica composta dalle donne e per la sua messa in scena.

l

L’industria musicale, non solo della musica classica, ha davvero bisogno di fare qualcosa contro l’atteggiamento sessista che ancora prevale in questo campo: è necessario non accettare più punti di vista ridicoli, datati e bigotti, e neanche comportamenti che molto semplicemente non sarebbero accettati in altri ambiti della società o dell’industria…. Dal Glastonbury Festival ai Proms, i palchi sono pieni di uomini, uomini stanno alle console, uomini dominano gli studios, le sessioni di prove, le aziende per le tecnologie musicali, le agenzie, creando una cultura della musica di stampo sessista, ageista e dalle vedute ristrette, che non onora il vero potere della musica, che è quello di unire, curare e dare forza Blog, The Guardian, Regno Unito, Settembre 2013.

l

La quantità di musica contemporanea in programma è inferiore a quanto non fosse trenta, cinquanta, addirittura settanta anni fa. La mancanza di possibilità per le nuove opere costringe in particolare le compositrici a scrivere per piccoli gruppi, trovandosi così fuori gioco quando un’orchestra cerca brani musicali di più ampio respiro. Inoltre, quel che è peggio è che le compositrici non hanno la possibilità di sviluppare le proprie capacità ascoltando le performance della propria musica, specialmente per quanto riguarda le opere su larga scala.

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Vienna Modern Masters, Austria, Maggio 2013. l

La maggioranza dei direttori d’orchestra è composta da uomini: dicono di non sapere nulla in merito alle compositrici, ancora in vita o meno, e non credono ce ne siano poi tante. Non vogliono neanche essere disturbati per imparare qualcosa riguardo alla musica di compositori che non possono garantire nulla in cambio per una performance. Affermazione confermata da 38 organizzazioni europee per le donne in musica, Luglio 2013.

l

Generalmente, il pubblico applaude la musica se la gradisce, senza attribuire importanza al sesso dell’autore. Chi fa i programmi, le case discografiche, etc. non lavora in questo modo Associación Mujeres en la Musica, Spagna, Aprile 2013.

l

La risposta che mi sono sempre sentita dare è che il mio nome è sconosciuto. Ma come puoi farti conoscere se la tua musica non viene eseguita? Come puoi diventare una buona compositrice senza ascoltare la musica che hai scritto?– Hudbaby, Associazione Ceca Donne in Musica, Luglio 2013.

l

Ci sono quattro livelli macroscopici di difficoltà che devono essere affrontati e risolti: l’assenza di compositrici dai principali canali di diffusione (curricula scolastici, università, media, e reti di practitioner e stakeholder, libri di storia, enciclopedie); dalle programmazioni principali nel mondo della musica (teatri, festival, radio, televisione) e dal settore privato (commissioni, affari commerciali), così come dal processo decisionale economico (direzioni artistiche, programmazione e commissioni).WIMUST E-book 2013, www.donneinmusica.org.

l

Sono sicuro che se cerchi altrove avrai nuove opportunità. Parole che nessuno vuole sentire quando ci si candida per un’opportunità per la quale si sarebbe perfetti, se non per una cosa: si è troppo vecchi La questione dell’’Età’ e le Opportunità per i Compositori, Bill Doerrfield, 5 Giugno 2013 (composersite.com).

l

A meno che una compositrice non ricopra una posizione a tempo pieno come impiegata in un’Università (anche lavorando in un coffee bar o suonando regolarmente in un hotel), generalmente è considerata una freelance in cerca di commissioni o – nella maggior parte dei casi – una persona che paga nella speranza di avere delle opportunità. Lavorare

45


da freelance e cercare le tipiche opportunità della libera professione significa che le compositrici non ricevono alcuna forma di tutela legale dalla discriminazione riguardante l’età. Affermazione confermata da 38 organizzazioni europee per le donne in musica, Luglio 2013.

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l

Un problema è quello dei grandi nomi dei grandi maestri. Se vengono scoperte un paio di battute scritte da Beethoven quando era bambino, il mondo presterà attenzione. Ma se viene scoperta un’opera orchestrale scritta da una (fino ad ora) sconosciuta compositrice, il mondo della musica si chiederà: è meglio di una delle sinfonie di Beethoven? Se così non è, perché ci dovremmo interessare ad una tale scoperta? FrauMusicaNova, Germania, Giugno 2013.

l

Sapete cosa significa essere una donna alla mercé di ogni agente, proprietario di studi di registrazione e tutti quei banditi, gli uomini che lavorano in televisione che ti spiegano che la strada di fronte a te è lastricata di cene di lavoro, serate intime e inviti speciali? Ti convincono che oltre al tuo devi mettere anche il loro nome sui documenti per il copyright che depositi alla Società per i Diritti dell’ Autore… se non vuoi farlo o esiti fai prima a scordarti di vedere il tuo cd distribuito, di ottenere un’esibizione in uno show televisivo o anche di essere invitata in uno studio televisivo decente. Donne in Jazz, Editore Colombo, Italia 2006.

La Risoluzione del Parlamento Europeo del 10 marzo 2009 sulla parità di trattamento e di accesso tra uomini e donne nelle arti dello spettacolo (2008/2182(INI)) è stata indirizzata a tutti i Governi e le Istituzioni europee, con l’invito di mettere in pratica le proposte ivi contenute, sottolineando che la discriminazione contro le donne mantiene basso lo sviluppo del settore della cultura e lo priva di talenti e capacità… Il contatto costante con il pubblico è necessario per ottenere l’altrui riconoscimento.4 La risoluzione afferma che sebbene le ineguaglianze nelle prospettive di carriera e nelle opportunità tra uomini e donne nello spettacolo dal vivo siano molto presenti e persistenti… i meccanismi che producono tali ineguaglianze di genere dovrebbero essere seriamente presi in esame… (ed incoraggia) gli Stati Membri a produrre analisi comparative della situazione presente nell’ambito dello spettacolo dal vivo nei vari Stati dell’Unione, per redigere statistiche al fine di facilitare il progetto e la messa in atto di politiche comuni e assicurare che

4

Allegato 1


il progresso raggiunto possa essere paragonato e misurato. Ad oggi, nessun Paese dell’Unione si è impegnato nello sviluppo dell’ analisi comparativa richiesta, sebbene un primo progetto sia stato organizzato dalla Svezia, (Statens Musikverk) Music Development and Heritage nel 2012.5 Una mappatura e misurazione del quadro odierno può essere utile a definire il punto di partenza, e da lì deve nascere la volontà di cambiamento. Bisogna guardare alla situazione presente e a come essa possa essere influenzata, per poi stabilire un piano e un progetto temporale per la messa in opera effettiva del cambiamento. È necessario stabilire obiettivi, che possono essere valutati e misurati. Il Top Management deve essere inserito nel processo, in modo tale che esso sia divulgato a tutti i livelli e siano creati impegno e responsabilità. Un tale processo può sembrare banale, ma la realtà è che si applica al settore della cultura così come a quello dell’industria privata.6. L’Europa (Consiglio, Commissione e Parlamento) discute della crescita futura di un’Europa Creativa e Culturale, capace di costruire una società migliore; i documenti tuttora in circolazione suggeriscono, tuttavia, che molte

5

Equality and Music at Music Development and Heritage Sweden (StatensMusikverk, 2012): Nel Maggio 2001, il governo svedese ha commissionato a Music Development and Heritage Sweden la promozione dell’eguaglianza nell’industria musicale negli anni 2011-2014, un progetto da 8 milioni di Corone svedesi, messo in atto in collaborazione con il Consiglio Svedese delle Arti, la Commissione Svedese per le Sovvenzioni alle arti ed altri importanti gruppi in ambito musicale. L’obiettivo primario dell’istituzione è quello di liberare la scena musicale, che contiene tutti i gruppi, gli ensemble, organizzazioni, organizzatori, e singoli artisti che non sono protetti da istituzioni pubblicamente sovvenzionate. Anche i compositori sono inclusi. L’obbiettivo a lungo termine è quello di ottenere una più equa rappresentanza di uomini e donne nell’industria della musica nei settori dove il bisogno è più sentito. Il ruolo di Music Development and Heritage Sweden sarà anche quello di sostenere ed incoraggiare un processo strategico ed a lungo termine attraverso uno scenario musicale più equo. Music Development Heritage Sweden ha infatti organizzato una serie di incontri di discussione in vari forum aventi come obiettivo quello di suscitare interesse per le iniziative sull’uguaglianza, nonché di incoraggiare i membri della comunità musicale a progettare e mettere in pratica essi stessi progetti per l’uguaglianza. L’istituzione si è impegnata in sforzi di cooperazione con i gruppi che agiscono nell’interesse delle donne, attraverso la creazione di eventi utili a creare contatti, ed un think tank ai dipartimenti di jazz dello Swedish Music College, il cui dibattito è incentrato sullo sviluppo di una piattaforma più egalitaria, nazionale, per gli studenti e gli insegnanti, assieme alla promozione di forme di collaborazione in quest’ambito. 6 Borgström, C., L’Uguaglianza di Genere e il ruolo delle Arti e della Cultura, in Polacek, R. (FIA), Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe (Manuale delle Buone Pratiche nella Lotta agli Stereotipi di Genere e nella Promozione delle Pari Opportunità nel Cinema, nella Televisione e nel Teatro in Europa), Praga, FIA, 2010, <http://www.fiaactors.com/uploads/Engendering_EN.pdf>,p. 8

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organizzazioni non hanno incluso la mancanza, al giorno d’oggi, di accesso per le donne alle posizioni decisionali nell’arte e nella cultura come una delle grandi sfide per l’uguaglianza ed il mainstreaming di genere. Dalla ricerca portata avanti negli ultimi venti mesi risulta chiaro che sebbene ogni Stato dell’UE abbia uno scarso numero di documenti (proposte, paper, linee guida, leggi), che fanno riferimento all’uguaglianza di genere7, solo un piccolo numero di queste menzionano le parole cultura, artiste donne o spettacolo dal vivo. La parola donna è assente dal 99% di tutti i documenti che fanno riferimento alla Politica Culturale.8 Come sottolineato dall’On. Silvia Costa, Relatrice al Parlamento Europeo per Europa Creativa, C’è bisogno di uno specifico sostegno per affrontare la scarsa rappresentanza delle donne creative e delle artiste donne nei settori culturale e creativo, così come la bassa circolazione delle loro opere all’interno e all’esterno dell’Unione, causate da ostacoli specifici e scogli cui esse si trovano di fronte nella vita professionale, nonché dallo scarso numero di donne in posizioni

7

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Sulla base dell’Art. 15 della Legge sulle Pari Opportunità per le Donne e gli Uomini (Lista UradniRS, No. 59/02), L’Assemblea Nazionale della Repubblica Slovena, nella sessione del 27 ottobre 2005, ha adottato la seguente risoluzione sul Programma Nazionale per le Pari Opportunità tra Uomini e Donne, 2005-2013 (ReNPEMZM) 3.3 Cultura, media e pubblicità Sfide e orientamento politico: La percentuale di donne lavoratrici (autonome) nel settore culturale, è in relativo equilibrio con quella degli uomini impiegati nello stesso settore, ma in Slovenia manchiamo di analisi più approfondite atte ad indicare in quale ambito della cultura (artistico o non) ed in quale campo esse lavorano. Allo stesso modo non abbiamo a disposizione dati dettagliati sui fondi pubblici stanziati in favore degli artisti e dei progetti e programmi volti a fornire un contributo alla promozione dell’uguaglianza di genere. Ad ogni modo, alcune organizzazioni ed artiste donne riferiscono che la percentuale di donne tra i destinatari di fondi per le attività culturali è più bassa, e che la maggior parte dei fondi è distribuita negli ambiti dominati dagli uomini. La cultura in quanto categoria di sviluppo ha numerosi effetti a molti e diversi livelli della vita sociale; è perciò importante che l’interesse dei vari gruppi sociali sia rappresentato da un equilibrio nel campo della cultura, e che le pari opportunità di sviluppo ed espressione della creatività, della conoscenza, del talento e delle capacità siano garantiti ad ognuno di loro. È importante che la prospettiva dell’uguaglianza di genere sia inclusa in tutte le politiche e programmi nell’ambito culturale e che, allo stesso tempo, una particolare attenzione sia riposta nei confronti del sostegno ai progetti per la promozione delle pari opportunità nel campo della cultura. Al fine di monitorare lo status di uomini e donne nel settore della cultura, nonché di pianificare le misure atte a favorire l’uguaglianza di genere, è importante analizzare ed esaminare più nel dettaglio la condizione delle donne e degli uomini nell’ambito della cultura e dell’arte e prendere in considerazione indicatori che facilitino il confronto dei risultati, anche a livello internazionale. 8 Nel Settembre 2012, la UK Music Industry and the Alliance for Diversity in Music & Media (ADDM) ha pubblicato la Carta della Musica per l’Uguaglianza e la Varietà, i cui punti principali riguardano il miglioramento dell’uguaglianza e la varietà ai livelli decisionali più alti, oltre alla partecipazione e la collaborazione nell’organizzazione di attività per la promozione dell’uguaglianza e la varietà nell’industria musicale.


esecutive ai più alti livelli delle istituzioni culturali.9 In un rapporto preparato nel 2001 per la Convenzione Europea Condizioni degli Artisti Creativi in Europa, organizzata dalla Presidenza UE, il Ministro svedese per la Cultura, Marita Ulvskog, ha sottolineato che le identità dei Paesi europei sono state, nei secoli, delineate dagli artisti, che ci hanno regalato una unica eredità culturale, la quale ci dice molto riguardo alle differenze e le similitudini tra noi e le generazioni precedenti. Nella maggior parte degli Stati, anche gli artisti professionisti ed oramai famosi, trovano difficoltà nel sopravvivere con la loro arte. Una grande maggioranza è costretta a cercare fonti supplementari di reddito (come insegnanti nei propri ambiti, se sono fortunati, ma spesso e volentieri in campi che non hanno nulla a che fare con il loro lavoro di artisti). Continuava il suo discorso affermando che gli artisti stessi sono i più importanti patroni delle arti (poiché in grande misura sono loro che si accollano i costi associati alla creazione, la messa in scena e la presentazione delle proprie creazioni); un lavoro, questo, non retribuito. Gli artisti non sono tanto disoccupati quanto sono privi di reddito. Questa mancanza di entrate, questo stato costante di mancato guadagno, si verifica non soltanto durante la creazione dell’opera. Nella maggior parte dei casi, si tratta di una condizione che permane per tutta la vita dell’artista, anche molto dopo il raggiungimento, per lui o lei, della fama… L’uguaglianza di trattamento per gli uomini e le donne è stata un principio fondamentale dell’Unione Europea sin dalla sua fondazione, ed il principio dell’uguaglianza di genere è al centro di tutte le sue attività. Il Trattato di Roma, firmato dai sei Stati fondatori della Comunità Europea nel 1957, sanciva l’impegno degli Stati Membri per uguali salari a parità di lavoro per gli uomini e le donne. Il Trattato di Amsterdam (1997) evidenziava il raggiungimento della condizione di uguaglianza tra donne e uomini come uno dei compiti principali dell’UE. La Carta dei Diritti Fondamentali dell’Unione Europea (2000) conferma che il principio di uguaglianza tra uomini e donne deve essere assicurato in ogni ambito, compreso quello dell’impiego,10 del lavoro, e del salario (Art. 23), e ribadisce il bando alla discriminazione per un 9

Costa, S., (Relatrice), Bozza di proposta sul Regolamento del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio che Istituisce il Programma Europa Creativa (COM (2011)0785 – C7-0435/2011 – 2011/0370 (COD), 17.09.2012. 10 Intelligence Internazionale sulla Cultura, Innovative developments and good practice that is promoting and safeguarding employment in the live performing arts sector in seven EU countries (Final report), Research commissioned for the Social Dialogue Committee by the European Commission (Employment & Social Affairs), and European Entertainment Alliance (FIA, FIM, UNIEUROPAMEI,PEARLE), [Ricerca condotta da Rod Fisher….], 24.9. 2001, http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/files/34851/11885685473report_FIM_sept_2001.doc/re

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gran numero di motivi, compreso il sesso (Art. 21). Il Trattato sull’Unione Europea (2009) sancisce l’impegno degli Stati Membri verso la non-discriminazione e l’uguaglianza tra donne e uomini (Artt. 2 e 3). L’Art. 151 del Trattato che istituisce la Comunità Europea, definisce le competenze della Comunità in ambito culturale, affermando che La Comunità tiene conto degli aspetti culturali nell’azione che svolge a norma di altre disposizioni del presente Trattato, in particolare ai fini di rispettare e promuovere la diversità delle sue culture.11

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Dal momento che un settore culturale vitale e florido incoraggia la crescita all’interno della società, lo sviluppo delle pari opportunità nello spettacolo dal vivo incoraggerà una anche più attiva cittadinanza europea, mentre il rispetto dei diritti delle donne è il fondamento non negoziabile di tutte le discussioni afferenti la diversità culturale, la quale è, nel senso più lato, parte integrante dell’intero processo artistico. Sir Brian McMaster, in Supporting excellence in the arts: from measurement to judgement, conferma che la diversità è un importante elemento di dinamismo, che sospinge l’arte in avanti, avvicinandola ad un approfondito dialogo con la società contemporanea.12 Le politiche riguardanti le pari opportunità sono riconosciute nell’ambito del mercato del lavoro in generale, ma raramente vengono applicate alle arti. L’attività creativa e la sua complessa relazione con la società è poco riconosciuta e accolta dalle politiche culturali e l’incoraggiamento verso le donne (segue da nota 10) port_FIM_sept+2001.doc>: Con l’aiuto di statistiche derivate da una serie di fonti differenti, il Documento di Studio della Commissione Europea, Cultura, Industrie Culturali e Occupazione afferma che, negli ultimi dieci anni, la crescita dell’occupazione nell’industria della cultura è stata molto forte e molto più importante della crescita dell’occupazione in generale… il rapporto fornisce un quadro dell’espansione dell’industria culturale, e sebbene non esplori le fortune dello spettacolo dal vivo in dettaglio, fornisce sicuramente stime riguardanti il numero di persone impiegate nel settore. Si stimano circa 185.000 musicisti classici e pop (cifra corrispondente a 80.000 impiegati a tempo pieno) nell’Unione Europea, ma i dati non sono completi: mancano quelli riguardanti Austria, Belgio, Finlandia, Germania e Svezia. Accanto ai musicisti, il rapporto pone le molte persone impiegate nel settore della musica dal vivo, i tecnici, lo staff di manutentori, e coloro che si occupano dell’organizzazione dei concerti, come gli agenti dei musicisti. Nel rapporto la stima riguarda circa 23.500 posti di lavoro in tali sotto-settori. Accanto alla musica live, il rapporto ricorda che, nel 1995, c’erano quasi 350.000 posti di lavoro nei teatri, nei teatri musicali e nel settore della danza. Afferma altresì che, a causa dell’alto numero di posti di lavoro parttime o limitati a una singola produzione o performance, è particolarmente difficile dedurre a quanti posti di lavoro permanenti le cifre a disposizione corrispondano. 11 Commissione Europea. Dipartimento di Giustizia, Uguaglianza di Genere nell’Unione Europea: (Brochure), Lussemburgo, Ufficio Pubblicazioni dell’Unione Europea, 2011 [disponibile anche in formato digitale: <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/brochure_equality_en.pdf>] 12 McMaster, Sir B., Supporting excellence in the arts: from measurement to judgement, Londra, Ministero della Cultura, Dipartimento Media e lo Sport, 2008.


nelle arti lo è ancor meno. Le donne sono le artiste creative senza le quali le Industrie Creative e Culturali non sarebbero di certo il più potente motore economico in Europa. La Commissione Mondiale dell’UNESCO per la Cultura e lo Sviluppo ha identificato, nel 1995, la relazione tra il genere e la cultura come essenziale allo sviluppo, riprendendo poi questo tema nel 2005, con la Convenzione sulla Protezione e Promozione della Diversità nelle Espressioni Culturali13, mentre il Consiglio Internazionale della Musica dell’UNESCO ha costantemente sottolineato come sia un diritto umano universale quello di fare la propria musica e godere di essa. Secondo il Libro Bianco sul Dialogo Interculturale del Consiglio d’Europa, 2008, l’uguaglianza di genere è un elemento cruciale della democrazia, ed una parte integrante dei diritti umani, mentre la discriminazione basata sul sesso è un impedimento al godimento dei diritti e delle libertà dell’uomo.14 La maggior parte della cittadinanza Europea è costituita da donne, ma le loro possibilità di accesso alle posizioni decisionali in molti ambiti, compreso quello dello spettacolo dal vivo, sono ancora limitate.15 Lo spettacolo dal vivo 13

Enfatizzando l’importanza della cultura per la coesione sociale in generale, e il suo potenziale per la valorizzazione dello status e del ruolo delle donne nella società in particolare. Articolo 7 – Misure per la promozione dell’espressione culturale. 1. I partiti si dovranno impegnare per creare, nel proprio territorio, un ambiente incoraggiante per gli individui ed i gruppi sociali, al fine di: (a) creare, produrre, diffondere, distribuire ed avere accesso alla propria espressione culturale, prestando la dovuta attenzione alle circostanze e particolari ed i bisogni sia delle donne che dei vari gruppi sociali, comprese le persone appartenenti a minoranze e persone indigene; 2. I partiti dovranno altresì impegnarsi per il riconoscimento dell’importante contributo degli artisti, di coloro che sono coinvolti nel processo creativo, delle comunità culturali, e delle organizzazioni che sostengono il loro lavoro ed il loro ruolo centrale nel favorire lo sviluppo della diversità nell’espressione creativa. 14 Consiglio d’Europa, Libro Bianco sul Dialogo Internazionale: Vivere insieme con pari dignità: 118esima Sessione del Comitato dei Ministri (Strasburgo, 7 Maggio 2008), Strasburgo, Consiglio d’Europa, 2008, [disponibile anche in formato digitale: <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/Source/White%20Paper%20final%20EN%20020508.pdf>], p. 11. 15 European Institute for Gender Equality, Fatti riguardanti l’inuguaglianza fra donne e uomini nelle arti, nella cultura e nell’istruzione, 2012 <http://www.eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Inequalities%20in%20arts%20culture%20and%20education_EN.pdf>. Gli obiettivi principali dell’EIGE sono promuovere l’uguaglianza di genere e contribuire ad essa, compreso il mainstreaming di genere nelle politiche della Comunità ed in ogni politica nazionale risultante da esse, con lo scopo di combattere la discriminazione basata sul sesso, ed incrementare la consapevolezza dei cittadini dell’UE riguardo alla questione. L’Istituto raccoglie e pubblica informazioni affidabili e paragonabili riguardo l’uguaglianza di genere con l’obiettivo di aiutare le istituzioni europee e gli Stati Membri a prendere decisioni politiche basate su fatti e dati reali. Il sito nomina architetti, oratori, direttori di musei, premi Nobel per la letteratura, laureate e professori. Non fa riferimento a direttori di teatri, direttori d’orchestra, coreografi, compositori, autori di canzoni, autori o artisti…

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comprende tutte le forme di teatro (prosa, opera, operetta, balletto, danza, commedia musicale, varietà, marionette), musica (sinfonica, da camera, tradizionale, elettronica, alternativa, jazz, pop, rock, world music, impro, installazioni sonore), circo e gli artisti di strada. I rami più importanti dello spettacolo dal vivo offrono differenti tipi di schemi di impiego. C’è, infatti, una differenza, nelle varie forme dello spettacolo dal vivo, tra organizzazioni residenti/di produzione, sedi ospitanti, enti che organizzano produzioni regolarmente (ognuna delle quali può essere a proprietà/gestione personale, indipendente ma economicamente sostenuta a livello pubblico, o indipendente e commerciale), produttori di progetti occasionali ed artisti individuali. Questi possono essere salariati, con un contratto a breve o lungo termine o come freelance… le organizzazioni o i produttori avranno uno staff amministrativo e operativo, così come dei tecnici, ed anche queste categorie hanno i loro freelance; il settore in generale sosterrà tutta una serie di fornitori di servizi indipendenti o collegati, che operano nella penombra (marketing e pubblicità, o servizi tecnici, ad esempio)… Apparentemente, ci sono poche affinità tra l’orchestra sinfonica, composta da musicisti sotto contratto o magari indipendenti, che per lo più si esibisce sul proprio palco, registrando o imbarcandosi in tour strutturati, nazionali e internazionali, e l’attore caratterista o il ballerino che ha appena compiuto gli studi che cerca di sopravvivere per un anno come freelance o di finanziare un progetto con la prospettiva di periodi di incertezza e disoccupazione e, alla fine, una continua lotta con il sistema di sicurezza sociale16. L’occupazione è caratterizzata da contratti temporanei, ed i compositori, i songwriter e gli autori lavorano in modo intermittente sulla propria attività artistica principale mentre sperimentano periodi di disoccupazione (o sottoccupazione). Il loro reddito consiste in pagamenti e contributi ricevuti dalle varie aree (salari, sussidi di disoccupazione) in alcuni Paesi, commissioni retribuite (in altri), tariffe, percentuali sulle proprie esibizioni o dalle società di gestione collettiva dei diritti d’autore. Ogni compositore spera di trarre profitto dai diritti d’autore e dai download digitali (una questione importantissima), così come dall’utilizzo della propria musica registrata in pubblico, alla radio o per la pubblicità. In molti Paesi, i redditi generati dalla musica sono al di sotto delle soglie nazionali di povertà. Pochi Paesi danno la possibilità di periodi sabbatici per favorire la creatività, sovvenzioni, commissioni di valore, o un certo numero di performance garantite per le nuove opere, finanziamenti alla ricerca, registrazioni, promozione e produzione. Ad oggi, pochissimi Paesi europei

16

Vd.Polacek, R. (FIA):Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, FIA, 2010.


hanno introdotto misure per migliorare l’accesso delle donne a posizioni di influenza, a fondi e sussidi.17 La musica è una compagnia costante nelle vite degli europei, un elemento fondamentale della loro eredità culturale e una fonte di occupazione, nonché un mercato economico energico, con più di 600.000 persone che operano nel settore. La diffusione multimediale e musicale via Internet o rete di telefonia mobile ha aperto nuovi orizzonti per lo sfruttamento commerciale della musica. Secondo il Consiglio dei Ministri, nel 2003, gli artisti professionisti, la maggior parte dei quali sono freelance o hanno uno stato lavorativo atipico, misureranno il loro livello di successo sul mercato, dove il risultato artistico è ancora premiato nella forma di feedback finanziario o riconoscimento sotto forma di premi culturali prestigiosi o critiche positive. Il modo in cui tale mercato viene definito dagli artisti dipende spesso dal genere in cui essi sono attivi. Il termine industria viene dal medio inglese industrie, capacità, e dal latino industria, diligenza. Il dizionario Webster definisce il termine come un dipartimento o settore di un’abilità, arte, impresa o manifattura; chi impiega una gran quantità di personale e capitale, specialmente nella manifattura. La parola industria dunque, implica una disconnessione; un corpo troppo grande perché le sue varie parti si conoscano a vicenda. Al contrario business è un termine proveniente dal Medioevo, quando indicava la semplice condi-

17

Siukola, R., Gender Mainstreaming in Finland’s Government Administration : Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming at Governmental Level in the EU Member States Finland in Biller, H., Sterner, G., Gender Mainstreaming in the EU Member States : Progress, Obstacles and Experiences at Governmental level, Stoccolma, Ministero per l’Integrazione e l’Uguaglianza di Genere, 2007, p. 23. Dal completamento del suo progetto pilota per le politiche giovanili della fine degli anni Novanta, il Ministero dell’Istruzione ha promosso il mainstreaming primariamente nell’ambito dell’arte e della cultura, degli sport e della ricreazione fisica. Il compito di operare nell’ambito delle arti e della cultura è stato affidato alla Foundation for Cultural Policy Research, che è stata anche incaricata di fornire suggerimenti per attività per la promozione dell’uguaglianza di genere. Il rapporto stilato affermava che, nelle arti e la cultura, le più grandi differenze tra donne e uomini riguardavano il salario e la possibilità di trovare un lavoro professionalizzato. Le ineguaglianze sono riscontrate anche nella formazione, l’opportunità di esercitare influenza e l’accesso ai posti migliori. Le quote di genere richieste dall’Equality Act hanno migliorato la situazione riguardante l’accesso alle posizioni di influenza e perciò, indirettamente, anche per quanto riguarda, ad esempio, l’accesso alle sovvenzioni e ai fondi per i progetti. Comunque, l’Equality Act non ha alcun impatto sul settore privato come negli organi per il copyright o l’industria della cultura. Il rapporto raccomandava una valutazione dell’impatto delle differenze di genere, per esempio nell’implementazione di programmi per prestiti o altri aiuti finanziari per i nuovi imprenditori, accordi sulle performance sul campo e il monitoraggio riguardo al raggiungimento dei risultati nelle performance.

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zione di occupazione, l’essere impegnati in un’attività, darsi da fare, essere pieno di attività. Si può lavorare con uno staff composto da nessun altro a parte se stessi e considerarsi un business. È interessante notare come gli uomini parlino di industria, mentre la maggior parte delle donne si riferisca al business.18 I musicisti sono tra le persone più ispirate e coraggiose sulla faccia della terra. Gestiscono più risposte negative giorno per giorno in un anno di quanti non siano costrette ad affrontarne la maggior parte delle persone in una vita intera. Ogni giorno, si trovano a fronteggiare la sfida economica di vivere da liberi professionisti, il poco rispetto delle persone che pensano che essi debbano trovarsi un vero lavoro e la propria paura di non lavorare mai più in futuro. Ogni giorno devono ignorare la possibilità che il sogno a cui hanno dedicato la propria intera vita sia una mera utopia. Con ogni nota si espongono, emotivamente e fisicamente, rischiando critiche e giudizi. Col trascorrere di ogni anno, molti di essi sono costretti a vedere altre persone della loro età raggiungere le pietre miliari di una vita normale: la macchina, la famiglia, la casa, i risparmi. Perché? Perché sono disposti a rinunciare alla propria intera vita per un momento, per quella melodia, quel testo, quell’accordo o quell’interpretazione che riuscirà a toccare l’anima del pubblico. I musicisti sono esseri che hanno assaggiato il nettare della vita in quel fulgido istante nel quale hanno lasciato scaturire il proprio spirito creativo ed hanno toccato il cuore di qualcun altro. In quell’istante, sono vicini alla magia, a Dio, alla perfezione, quanto nessun altro potrà mai essere. E nei propri cuori sanno che il dedicare se stessi a un tale momento vale mille vite.19

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Le donne musiciste rappresentano più dell’80% degli insegnanti nelle istituzioni statali e private e in alcuni Paesi il 95% del totale degli insegnanti di musica privati. Sono compositrici e creatrici di musica, nonché performer in tutti i campi (musica classica, musica colta e nuova, musica che attira le masse nei club ed i cantanti emergenti nei circuiti di musica pop), produttrici di musica e registrazioni, editrici, critiche, storiche, copiste, e sono sempre più presenti e responsabili per il lavoro organizzativo e amministrativo nei festi-

18

Adkins Chiti, P., Gender Mainstreaming in Music Market-theory and practice, Lezione presso l’International Music Council, MIDEM, Monte Carlo 2003. 19 Ackert, D., LA Times, February 2013.


val20, negli istituti di formazione, nei club e nei network musicali. Tuttavia, nei Paesi dove le donne insegnano composizione nelle scuole, nei conservatori o nelle università, dirigono cori ed orchestre o guidano gruppi musicali (ottoni, jazz o heavy metal) il loro coinvolgimento negli eventi musicali principali è minimo ed esse sono conseguentemente incapaci di vivere solo della propria musica. Le loro condizioni sono drammatiche. Solo il 2% della musica delle donne (tradizionale, popolare, classica e contemporanea) è programmata da istituzioni sovvenzionate pubblicamente21 e l’89% delle istituzioni pubbliche culturali ed artistiche sono dirette da uomini.22 Se, come la continua ricerca conferma, le donne rappresentano il 40% dei compositori d’Europa e dei creatori di musica, perché a meno del 2% di esse viene data dalle organizzazioni pubblicamente sovvenzionate la possibilità di mettere in scena i propri lavori?23 C’è un numero sempre crescente di songwriter ai vertici delle classifiche, ma le cifre sono molto basse se si guarda ai circuiti di club europei. Perché il denaro pubblico (52,32% del quale proviene da contribuenti donne) viene usato per promuovere l’estetica maschile? Le performance pubbliche dipendono da un complicato sistema di fondi, patrocini e giochi di potere. Basta dare uno sguardo agli attuali curricula musicali delle istituzioni di formazione, a ciò che viene programmato dalle orchestre, teatri, radio e festival; basta leggere i resoconti delle Riviste Nazionali sui Diritti d’Autore, o guardare i video musicali su You Tube e gli altri social network o sistemi di diffusione digitale, e meditare sulla necessità di cambiamenti radicali per le donne in musica. Ogni forma di creatività dipende da molteplici fattori: età, razza, religione, nazionalità o area geografica nella quale l’artista è nato/a, dove lui/lei ha ricevuto la propria formazione ed i canoni estetici trasmessi nel corso della storia, istruzione e formazione speciale, nonché le altre influenze esterne, come la cultura popolare, le condizioni economiche, il clima ed anche l’età biologica. La musica è un fenomeno globale ed ogni sistema musicale è allo stesso tempo un modello di e per il sistema culturale del quale fa parte. Se i sistemi

20

Vedi Intelligence Internazionale sulla Cultura, op. cit. Ricerca condotta dal Ministero della Cultura Francese fino all’anno 2009; WIM-UK anni 1995-2013; H/F Francia 2010–2013; KVAST, Sweden anni 2010–2013; ed in Culture-Gates, Exposing Professional Gate Keeping, ArCult Media, Bonn, 2004. 22 Francia, 2011, le « Commandes d’état » (commissioni retribuite per compositori professionisti) sono state date a 38 uomini e 5 donne, vale a dire l’11,6% e nel 2012, 52 sono state date a uomini e 6 a donne, vale a dire il 10,3%. Compositrice Sophie Lacaze, Presidente della Association Plurielles 34 23 Preparazione dell’Enciclopedia Online delle Composirici Europee per il programma sovvenzionato dal WIMUST EUC, coordinato dalla Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica. 21

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musicali sono così inseriti nella diversità culturale, altrettanto lo sono altri fenomeni considerati normali, naturali e come stanno le cose. L’universo nel quale le donne artiste creative si trovano non è affatto naturale. Sebbene abbiano accesso limitato all’educazione musicale e minori opportunità per la pubblicazione e l’esibizione, le donne hanno creato, messo in scena e trasmesso la propria musica (anche nel Mondo Occidentale) sin dall’epoca della civiltà Sumera.24

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La consapevolezza dei cambiamenti sperimentata dalle donne di tutto il mondo non si è tradotta nei livelli corrispondenti di partecipazione alla vita pubblica ed influenza esercitata su essa, o nel riconoscimento del fatto che la partecipazione civica e la presenza culturale delle donne nelle correnti principali è severamente costretta dalla natura marginale e dalle scarse risorse delle attività che organizzano.25 Ci sono barriere, ostacoli, varchi e fossati da superare, sorvegliati da uomini che parlano di qualità, e non degli ingranaggi dietro le quinte: la vecchia rete tutta al maschile di contatti, politiche, investimenti di case discografiche, produttori e compagnie di registrazione, amicizie speciali, discriminazione sessuale, sfruttamento e coercizione. Le donne artiste sono costantemente soggette alla discriminazione di genere, e l’assenza di informazioni sulla propria creatività evidenzia il fatto che la società non è né veramente multiculturale, né in conformità con l’Art. 27 della Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti Umani26 o degli Artt. 3-6 della Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist.27 Le attuali filosofie di mercato danno valore ai prodotti in termini di appeal commerciale e capacità di generare profitti. Sono a disposizione sempre meno fondi e quelli alternativi mancano, e parallelamente diminuisce la varietà di esperienze musicali stimolanti in ogni comunità. I presentatori ed i promotori preferiscono presentare musica ben nota insieme a solisti, compositori, ensemble, o gruppi che sicuramente un pubblico pagherebbe per vedere. Ci si

24

Adkins Chiti, P. , Tangible and Intangible – women’s contribution to Music and to Culture , Paper for Session n° 9, 1st April 1998, Stoccolma, Conferenza Intergovernativa sulle Politiche Culturali per lo Sviluppo 25 World Commission on Culture and Development, Our Creative Diversity : rapport della World Commission on Culture and Development, direzione di Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, USA, UNESCO, 1995. 26 United Nations Department of Public Information, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10.12.1948, p.14. 27 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist, 27.10.1980.


aspetta il tutto esaurito nei teatri (o negli stadi) se gli organizzatori programmano in modo standard, mettendo in scena le opere dei grandi maestri (morti da lungo tempo e solitamente aventi lunghe barbe bianche), colonne sonore di film, musica elettronica, sperimentazioni inaudite, ska, heavy metal, improvvisazioni, dance music, synth-pop o di vincitori di premi. L’impressione è che tutto ciò sia stato creato dagli uomini!28 I compositori presentano brani musicali o demo autoprodotte ai direttori artistici, alle società discografiche o alle stazioni radio, in modo che queste vengano lette o ascoltate dai loro pari, come sottolineato in Secret Agendas in Orchestra Programming. Nel 1998, un gruppo di case discografiche europee ha condotto una ricerca empirica sul ruolo delle donne operanti nel campo della musica commerciale o pop, e i risultati hanno rivelato una mancanza di fiducia mostrata dalle società discografiche nei confronti delle donne, sia come compositrici, che come autrici che come esecutrici. Nella ricerca è menzionata la molestia sessuale nei confronti delle donne nel settore, e ciò che una famosa cantante rock ha descritto come l’interesse dei media verso la bellezza fisica ma non verso il talento. Più di seicento compositrici europee sono state intervistate per questo progetto di ricerca, e sono state invitate a compilare questionari alla fine dei quali si richiedeva di aggiungere suggerimenti o dichiarazioni. Tutte, a prescindere dall’ambito in cui operavano, hanno lamentato dell’insufficienza di spazio nella programmazione per tutto ciò che sia creato dalle donne, discriminazione attiva e passiva ed una crescente pressione da parte dei network televisivi e radiofonici a firmare i propri diritti d’autore con una casa editrice e/o discografica che appartiene al network stesso.29 Hanno anche suggerito la necessità, per le organizzazioni pubblicamente sovvenzionate, di introdurre la lettura dei brani musicali ad opera di una commissione artistica composta da un numero pari di donne e uomini. Coloro che lavorano nella musica pop lamentano delle difficoltà di registrare commercialmente le loro musiche (a meno che non lo facciano da sole) perché i produttori preferiscono le band composte da uomini, ed il numero di produttori donne è relativamente basso. Ogni donna contattata si dimostra sempre più pubblicamente intollerante nei confronti delle molestie sessuali che oramai sono date per scontate nel set-

28 Gli incassi da stadio hanno generato più di 220 milioni di sterline, mentre i risultati dei botteghini e le spese accessorie per questi eventi sono state responsabili dei due terzi della crescita della musica live nel 2011. Il futuro della musica a livello base ed oltre sembra in buona salute, in particolare grazie all’implementazione del Live Music Act dell’Ottobre 2012 Money & Business – Adding up the UK Music Industry, M46, December 2012, UK. 29 Allegato 2.

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tore.30 Molte sono costrette a organizzare da sole i propri ensemble, gruppi, le proprie band, compagnie di registrazione o a produrre da sole per garantire la visibilità e la continuità della propria musica. Migliaia di donne altamente professionalizzate nell’ambito della musica classica o contemporanea sono testimoni del restringersi delle opportunità a causa dei sempre minori fondi per le arti, ma protestano poiché le possibilità esistenti continuano ad andare a compositori spalleggiati da avvocati potenti. Lamentano il fatto che il proprio lavoro sia soggetto al giudizio dei direttori artistici o dei produttori: commissioni, esecuzioni, programmazione, tutto dipende dalla parola magica, qualità come in: la musica di una donna sarebbe stata inclusa se avesse avuto le stesse qualità di quella di un uomo. Il mainstreaming di genere per le donne in musica è perciò essenziale per assicurare loro riconoscimento, programmazione ed un contatto diretto con il pubblico.

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Ogni donna intervistata concordava con le affermazioni seguenti, tratte da Women in Arts and Media Professions: European Comparisons: Si richiedono considerevole attenzione e sforzi notevoli per aumentare la visibilità e la percezione del lavoro delle artiste donne, sia da un punto di vista storico che contemporaneo. Ciò è di vitale importanza per (ri)costruire riferimenti, per promuovere modelli di comportamento nel processo di professionalizzazione artistica e per ricostruire l’insieme di regole non scritte in uso nella professione. È necessario riscrivere i libri di testo ed altre pubblicazioni di riferimento per includere la storia dei successi delle donne ed il loro attuale contributo accanto a quelli dei loro colleghi uomini… Molte donne non sono a favore delle quote rosa, perché non vogliono essere trattate come un gruppo speciale. In un mondo ideale, esse vorrebbero vedere che al proprio lavoro sono concesse le stesse opportunità ed è attribuito lo stesso valore rispetto a quelle dei colleghi uomini. Tuttavia, dato che questo mondo ideale è ancora di là da venire, molte di loro riconoscono a malincuore che misure mirate potrebbero aiutare un numero sempre crescente di donne a guadagnarsi l’accesso, ad esempio, nelle università, controbilanciando in questo modo la predominanza maschile… Le politiche di mainstreaming sono mirate a modificare l’equilibrio dei generi attraverso misure a latere e proattive come le quote, l’istruzione, i finanziamenti mirati, il sostegno alle reti di donne, e così via. Tutto ciò può cambiare la composizione ed i modelli ope30

L’industria deve assumersi la responsabilità per gli artisti che fanno affidamento sul soft porn per dare una marcia in più ai propri profili… sono incoraggiati a presentare se stessi come iper-connotati sessualmente, irrealistici, simili a personaggi dei cartoni animati, come oggetti che riducono la sessualità femminile a un premio che puoi vincere. Cantante Charlotte Church, oratore principale John Peel Lecture al Annual Radio Festival, Salford, Ottobre 2013.


rativi dei sistemi formali di limitazione all’accesso, ma non può penetrare le difese di quel mondo di sistemi informali di limitazione all’accesso o del decision-making informale.31 Infine, come sottolineato dalla FIA (Federazione Internazionale Attori) nel Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, Luglio 2010, Nell’Unione Europea… non c’è legislazione specifica che combatta la discriminazione sessuale e di genere in spettacolo dal vivo, film e TV. Tuttavia, la legislazione generale sull’eguaglianza di sesso e genere è applicabile ad ogni settore dell’economia, compresi lo spettacolo dal vivo, film e TV. Dagli anni Settanta, l’Unione Europea ha adottato una serie di direttive sui vari aspetti dell’uguaglianza di genere nel mondo del lavoro, compreso il principio dell’uguale retribuzione ed uguale trattamento per uomini e donne riguardo all’accesso all’impiego, alla formazione professionale e le promozioni, riguardo alle condizioni di lavoro… Nel 2006, sette direttive europee sono state incorporate in una singola direttiva con l’obiettivo di fornire maggiore chiarezza alla legislazione europea nel campo dell’uguaglianza di trattamento tra donne e uomini. La Direttiva 2006/54/EC è ora la principale per quanto concerne le pari opportunità ed il pari trattamento degli uomini e delle donne in materia di impiego e occupazione. Si tratta di uno dei principali strumenti legislativi dell’UE atto ad assicurare l’uguaglianza di genere… (e) obbliga gli Stati Membri, in accordo con le leggi nazionali, gli accordi collettivi e la pratica, ad incoraggiare i datori di lavoro a promuovere la parità di trattamento per gli uomini e le donne in modo sistematico e pianificato per quanto riguarda il posto di lavoro, l’accesso all’impiego, alla formazione professionale ed alla visibilità per se stesse e proprio lavoro. Tale direttiva è applicabile ad ogni settore dell’economia, perciò anche a coloro che lavorano in nel mondo dello spettacolo dal vivo, film e TV. 32 Ci viene costantemente ricordato che il contributo ai settori culturale e creativo al PIL europeo è del 2,6%, con tendenze verso un aumento e con un trend occupazionale di 5 milioni di posti di lavoro. Sfortunatamente, la nostra ricerca ha rivelato che, a prescindere dal considerevole numero di direttive europee e di leggi nazionali, linee guida, pubblicazioni e proposte, nulla sta realmente accadendo per assicurare che le donne ottengano le pari opportu31

Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Wiesand, A., The Project and its Results: Women in Arts and Media Professions: European Comparisons, <http://www.culturegates.info/cg/files/32/en/02eucomp.pdf>. 32 Vedi Polaceck, R. (FIA), op.cit.,p. 12.

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nità proposte, né è in atto un sistematico monitoraggio delle violazioni che hanno luogo ogni giorno, ogni settimana di ogni anno. L’atteggiamento dimostrato nella maggior parte degli ambiti del settore musicale (e nel mondo dello spettacolo dal vivo) ricorda, ironicamente, il pensiero di Don Fabrizio nel Gattopardo di Tomasi di Lampedusa: Se vogliamo che tutti rimanga com’è, bisogna che tutto cambi. … le donne che lavorano nel campo della cultura, siano esse creatrici, esecutrici, produttrici o nel settore terziario, dedicano un enorme quantità di tempo ed energie a ciò che considerano una vocazione, piuttosto che un lavoro… lavorano per raggiungere obiettivi personali, con enormi sacrifici a livello personale, sociale e finanziario… Sono le vittime di un sistema che non cambia, non vuole essere cambiato e resiste ad ogni possibile forma di cambiamento.33

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La Road Map dell’UNESCO per l’Educazione alle Arti – La Conferenza Mondiale sull’Educazione alle Arti: Building Creative Capacities for the 21st Century (Lisbona, Marzo 2006) afferma che le arti sono sia la manifestazione della cultura che il mezzo di comunicazione della conoscenza culturale. Ogni cultura ha espressioni artistiche e pratiche culturali uniche. La diversità di culture e di prodotti creativi ed artistici rappresenta le forme contemporanee e tradizionali della creatività umana che contribuiscono in modo unico alla nobiltà, eredità, bellezza ed integrità della civiltà umana. La consapevolezza e la conoscenza delle pratiche culturali e delle forme artistiche rafforza le identità ed i valori personali e collettivi, e contribuisce alla salvaguardia e alla promozione della diversità culturale. Speriamo perciò, che le tre Appendici accluse a questa panoramica possano rivelarsi essenziali strumenti utili a convincere i responsabili delle decisioni politiche della necessita di cambiamenti radicali per le donne, nel mondo dello spettacolo dal vivo come nel mondo della musica, che pongano così fine alla sotto-rappresentazione delle donne creative e delle artiste nei settori culturali e creativi, così come alla scarsa circolazione delle loro opere all’interno e all’esterno dell’Unione, causata da ostacoli specifici e impedimenti affrontati da esse nelle proprie carriere professionali, così come dalla pochezza delle donne in posizioni esecutive ai livelli più alti delle istituzioni di carattere culturale.34

33 34

Rapporto della Commissione Nazionale Italiana per le Pari Opportunità, 1998. Costa, S., op.cit.


Allegato 1 Risoluzione del Parlamento europeo del 10 marzo 2009 sulla parità di trattamento e di accesso tra uomini e donne nelle arti dello spettacolo (2008/2182(INI)) Il Parlamento Europeo, – vista la direttiva 2002/73/CE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio, del 23 settembre 2002, che modifica la direttiva 76/207/CEE del Consiglio relativa all’attuazione del principio della parità di trattamento tra gli uomini e le donne per quanto riguarda l’accesso all’occupazione, alla formazione e alla promozione professionali e le condizioni di lavoro35, – vista la direttiva 97/80/CE del Consiglio, del 15 dicembre 1997, riguardante l’onere della prova nei casi di discriminazione basata sul sesso36, – vista la Carta dei diritti fondamentali dell’Unione Europea, – viste le sue risoluzioni del 7 giugno 2007 sullo statuto sociale degli artisti37 e del 3 settembre 2008 sulla parità tra le donne e gli uomini - 200838, – visto l’articolo 45 del suo regolamento, – vista la relazione della commissione per i diritti della donna e l’uguaglianza di genere (A6-0003/2009), A. considerando che le disparità, in termini di opportunità e prospettive professionali, tra le donne e gli uomini sono fortemente presenti e persistenti nelle arti dello spettacolo, B. considerando che occorre analizzare seriamente i meccanismi che producono tali disparità, C. considerando che il principio di parità tra entrambi i sessi deve applicarsi a tutti gli operatori del settore delle arti dello spettacolo, in tutte le discipline, in tutti i tipi di struttura (produzione, diffusione e insegnamento) e in tutti i settori di attività (artistico, tecnico, amministrativo), D. considerando che gli uomini e le donne non esercitano nelle medesime proporzioni i vari mestieri delle arti dello spettacolo e che a questa prima forma di disparità si aggiungono quelle delle condizioni di lavoro e di occupazione nonché del reddito, E. considerando che le disparità di accesso alle funzioni decisionali, ai mezzi di produzione e alle reti di diffusione vengono constatate in vario grado in tutte le discipline delle arti dello spettacolo, F. considerando che l’obiettivo egalitario nei mestieri delle arti dello spettacolo presuppone il passaggio attraverso l’instaurazione sistematica della parità, 35

GU L -269 del 5.10.2002, pag. 15. GU L 14 del 20.1.1998, pag. 6. 37 Testi approvati, P6_TA(2008)0399. 38 GU C 125 E del 22.5.2008, pag. 223. 36

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G. considerando che il talento non spiega da solo la qualità artistica di una realizzazione o il successo di un percorso professionale e che una migliore considerazione della rappresentanza tra uomini e donne nei mestieri delle arti dello spettacolo potrà ridinamizzare l’intero settore, H. considerando quindi che occorre modificare le attuali situazioni di segregazione che persistono nelle arti dello spettacolo non solo attraverso l’ammodernamento e la democratizzazione del settore, ma anche attraverso la fissazione di obiettivi egalitari realistici che promuovano la giustizia sociale, I. considerando che le disparità constatate lasciano inutilizzate competenze e talenti e sono pregiudizievoli per la dinamica artistica, l’evoluzione e lo sviluppo economico di questo settore d’attività, J. considerando che pregiudizi persistenti determinano troppo spesso comportamenti discriminatori nei confronti delle donne nel processo di selezione e di nomina nonché nei rapporti di lavoro, e che le donne, malgrado un elevato livello di preparazione, la disponibilità ad apprendere e una migliore rete di contatti, spesso hanno un reddito inferiore agli uomini, K. considerando che gli ostacoli alla parità tra entrambi i sessi sono in questo settore di attività particolarmente tenaci e giustificano l’introduzione di un approccio specifico per ridurre le disparità constatate, anche alla luce dell’effetto leva che un simile provvedimento può avere sulla società in generale, L. considerando che la protezione sociale degli artisti è particolarmente lacunosa, sia per gli uomini sia per le donne, e che da ciò consegue, soprattutto per le donne, una situazione reddituale più sfavorevole, 1. Sottolinea l’entità e la persistenza delle disparità tra entrambi i sessi nelle arti dello spettacolo e l’impatto che le modalità di organizzazione non egalitaria del settore possono avere sull’intera società, tenuto conto della particolare natura di queste attività; 2. Insiste sull’assoluta necessità di promuovere e incoraggiare l’accesso delle donne a tutte le professioni artistiche in cui sono minoritarie; 3. Ricorda che la percentuale di donne che lavorano nel mondo dell’arte e in quello della cultura ufficiale è estremamente esigua e che le donne sono sottorappresentate nei posti di responsabilità di istituzioni culturali, accademie e università;


4. Riconosce l’esigenza di avviare passi specifici in questo settore di attività per spiegare meccanismi e comportamenti che producono tali disparità; 5. Ricorda che solo la parità trasforma i comportamenti in quanto apporta una complementarità di opinioni, di sensibilità, di metodi e di interessi; 6. Insiste sulla necessità di promuovere l’accesso delle donne a tutte le professioni artistiche e a tutti i mestieri dello spettacolo in cui sono minoritarie e incoraggia gli Stati membri a rimuovere ogni ostacolo all’accesso delle donne alla testa delle istituzioni culturali, delle accademie e delle università; 7. Sottolinea che la discriminazione nei confronti delle donne penalizza lo sviluppo del settore culturale privandolo di talenti e competenze e fa notare che i talenti, per essere riconosciuti, devono essere portati all’attenzione del pubblico; 8. Chiede l’introduzione di misure volte a migliorare la presenza delle donne nella direzione delle istituzioni, soprattutto promuovendo la parità in seno alle imprese, agli organismi culturali e alle organizzazioni professionali; 9.Invita gli operatori del settore culturale a migliorare la presenza delle creatrici e delle loro opere nelle programmazioni, nelle raccolte, nelle edizioni o nelle consultazioni; 10.Nota che i progressi compiuti in materia di parità tra entrambi i sessi consentiranno di instaurare progressivamente la parità nei gruppi di lavoro, nelle programmazioni e nelle riunioni professionali che spesso oggi funzionano secondo un sistema di separazione dei sessi poco compatibile con le esigenze della nostra società; 11.Sottolinea l’importanza di garantire, ogni volta che sia possibile, l’anonimato delle candidature e insiste sulla necessità di mantenere l’uso delle audizioni dietro un paravento per l’assunzione dei componenti le orchestre, sistema attraverso il quale le donne hanno potuto entrare a farne parte; 12.Invita la Commissione e gli Stati membri a prevedere sin da ora una prima tappa realistica nella lotta contro la disparità nelle arti dello spettacolo, che consiste nell’assicurare la presenza di almeno un terzo di persone del sesso minoritario in tutti i rami del settore; 13.Incoraggia gli Stati membri: (a) a riflettere assieme alle loro istituzioni culturali sul modo di individuare meglio i meccanismi che producono disparità sì da evitare il più possibile qualsiasi discriminazione legata al sesso;

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(b) a rimuovere ogni ostacolo all’accesso delle donne alla testa delle istituzioni e delle organizzazioni culturali più rinomate; (c) a instaurare in questo settore nuove modalità di organizzazione del lavoro, di delega delle responsabilità e di gestione del tempo che tengano conto dei vincoli della vita personale delle donne e degli uomini; (d) a prendere coscienza del fatto che, in questo settore in cui gli orari atipici, un’elevata mobilità e la vulnerabilità legata al posto di lavoro sono la norma e rendono le donne maggiormente fragili, occorre trovare soluzioni collettive per assicurare la custodia dei bambini (apertura di asili nido nelle imprese culturali con orari adeguati alle ore di prova e di spettacolo); 14.Ricorda alle istituzioni culturali l’esigenza assoluta di tradurre nei fatti il concetto democratico secondo cui a lavoro uguale tra uomo e donna deve corrispondere un salario anch’esso identico, che, in campo artistico come in altri settori, non sempre è applicato; 15.Incoraggia infine gli Stati membri a effettuare, nel settore delle arti dello spettacolo, analisi comparative delle situazioni esistenti nei vari Stati membri dell’Unione, in modo da facilitare la concezione e l’attuazione di politiche comuni, compilare statistiche e rendere i progressi compiuti raffrontabili e misurabili; 16.Invita gli Stati membri a migliorare la condizione sociale di coloro che lavorano nel mondo della cultura e dell’arte, tenendo conto delle varie tipologie contrattuali e garantendo una migliore protezione sociale; 17.Incarica il suo Presidente di trasmettere la presente risoluzione al Consiglio e alla Commissione nonché ai parlamenti degli Stati membri.


Allegato 2 LE PEGGIORI PRATICHE IN CIRCOLAZIONE – Discriminazione, Molestie e Coercizione viste attraverso gli occhi di compositrici e songwriter Nel mondo della musica è comunemente noto che il solo talento non è sufficiente per il successo di una carriera professionale. Le condizioni delle artiste sono ancora in pericolo e vengono messe in discussione ogni giorno, mentre le pari opportunità sono lontane dall’essere una realtà. Quanto segue descrive alcune delle peggiori pratiche che le compositrici si trovano a fronteggiare ogni giorno nel mondo della musica. Per sei mesi, all’inizio del 2013, abbiamo diffuso una serie di domande riguardanti Discriminazione, Molestie e Coercizione (originariamente definite durante l’Incontro Annuale Generale del nostro Network Europeo nel 2012) tra circa 600 compositrici, le quali sono state invitate a commentare e aggiungere ulteriori pratiche negative da loro riscontrate. IGNORANZA Il pubblico applaude, generalmente, la musica che apprezza, senza dare importanza al sesso di chi l’ha composta. I creatori di programmi, le case discografiche, etc. non lavorano in questo modo. Siamo solo interessati a produrre ‘grande’ musica è un’ottima scusa per evitare anche solo di leggere un brano scritto da una donna (ma credete che loro sappiano leggere una partitura??). I direttori della programmazione e gli organizzatori che tengono in considerazione il pubblico continuano a pensare ai compositori come uomini così come avvocati e medici sono uomini nell’immaginario collettivo. I direttori artistici cercano di andare incontro alle aspettative del pubblico: devono vendere biglietti. Le commissioni artistiche conoscono poco le compositrici, sia del passato che contemporanee, così il pubblico non viene a conoscenza del fatto che ci sono così tante compositrici. I direttori d’orchestra, i direttori artistici, i manager, le agenzie, le compagnie di registrazione, le case discografiche e i musicologi ignorano totalmente l’esistenza di compositrici e della loro produzione a livello storico e contemporaneo. La maggioranza di essi sono uomini: dicono di non sapere nulla in merito alle compositrici, vive o morte, e non credono ne esistano molte.

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Anche con una donna a capo di un’orchestra o di un festival, la quantità di musica delle donne messa in programmazione non migliora. Forse sono preoccupate che se promuovessero l’attività delle donne sarebbero considerate femministe o poco in contatto con la realtà. Esistono discografici, creatori di programmi, direttori d’orchestra… che considerano la musica scritta dalle donne e la musica scritta da uomini sconosciuti come appartenenti alla stessa categoria. Alcuni uomini ancora pensano che una donna non possa creare un’opera della stessa qualità di quella di un uomo a causa della sua inferiore intelligenza, o mancanza di logica da pensiero laterale destro. Spesso, la musica delle donne è considerata di seconda classe solo perché composta da una donna. Ci sono ancora direttori, agenzie, produttori ed organizzatori che credono che le donne non sappiano (o non debbano) suonare il basso elettrico, la chitarra elettrica o dirigere un’orchestra. Il Montreux Jazz Festival del 2013 ha avuto solo quattro esecutrici di sesso femminile e non c’erano compositrici; dicono di non avere idea dell’esistenza di compositrici di musica jazz… ma l’hanno mai fatta una ricerca a riguardo??? Un gran numero di musicisti non vuole sapere che esistono compositrici. Molti di loro omettono, nei loro curricula, i nomi delle musiciste o compositrici con cui hanno suonato, a meno che le donne in questione non siano più famose di loro. INCOMPETENZA PROFESSIONALE Molti direttori sono arrivati dove sono perché hanno influenza a livello politico, sostegno da parte delle compagnie di registrazione o dei discografici, prestigio in altri campi oltre a quello musicale o perché fanno parte di un club maschile di old boys. Alcuni non hanno studiato musica, non sanno leggere una partitura e devono perciò dipendere da altri nel prendere le proprie decisioni. Gli amministratori ed i direttori artistici non comprendono che ci deve essere un’adeguata rappresentanza delle donne a tutti i livelli ed in tutte le istituzioni. Non ci sono giurie pubbliche o private che valutano i brani musicali prima di attribuire le commissioni, perciò la scelta è molto personale. Alcuni compositori credono che le giurie consistano generalmente di gruppi di pari i cui membri raramente sono in disaccordo. La rivista danese Jazzspecial non ha critici donne e lo stesso vale


per ogni altra rivista sul Jazz in Europa, e siamo nel 2013… Il Copenhagen Jazz Festival, nel proprio vastissimo programma, ha poche cantanti ed in pratica nessuna musicista. SCAMBIO DI FAVORI (backscratching) La programmazione musicale si basa sempre più molto sullo scambio di favori e le donne non vogliono o non riescono a gestire la cosa. I compositori custodi dei portali della programmazione promuovono i propri studenti e/o i compositori che offrono loro la possibilità di essere inseriti in un programma altrove. Non prendono in considerazione le opere che rappresentano estetiche musicali differenti. Le Pari Opportunità non sono qualcosa che interessa loro (uomini). Non vogliono essere disturbati per imparare qualcosa sulla musica composta da professionisti che non possano promettere nulla in cambio. I direttori d’orchestra preferiscono programmare la musica di compositori che possano offrire loro uno scambio di podi. Le orchestre non hanno il tempo per provare dovutamente nuovi repertori e, soprattutto, non amano suonare musiche contemporanee. Ciò colpisce tutti i compositori, e soprattutto le donne. Ma metteranno in programma e suoneranno qualunque cosa se qualcuno garantisce la copertura dei costi delle esecuzioni, o offre loro un contratto di registrazione. Alcuni festival accettano proposte solo da manager, agenzie, compagnie di registrazione o discografici che si fanno avanti per sostenere parte dei costi del concerto. DISCRIMINAZIONE I decisori sono uomini. Come confermato dal il Ministero della Cultura Francese, il 98% dei fondi pubblici per la musica va alla produzione delle opere musicali composte da uomini, il 94% dei direttori d’orchestra sono uomini e l’86% degli istituti di formazione sono diretti da uomini. La costante discriminazione verso le compositrici produce situazioni economiche e sociali instabili per queste ultime, le quali fronteggiano lo spettro della povertà in età avanzata. I dati italiani sui guadagni delle artiste indipendenti, comprese le compositrici, mostrano che i guadagni della maggior parte di esse sono al di sotto della soglia di povertà.

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Le donne sperimentano la discriminazione al momento in cui si trovano a volere, o avere già, figli. La società non aiuta a prendere serenamente una tale decisione. Quasi non esistono lavori part-time, i sussidi di maternità sono bassi, ma il problema più grande è che nessuno, soprattutto nel settore privato (sia che la compositrice scriva per la televisione, per la pubblicità o per i film) accetta una madre con figli piccoli, perché questi potrebbero ammalarsi troppo spesso, perché lei dovrà portarli all’asilo, etc. anche se la creatività e la maternità sono parti essenziali della vita e dell’anima di una donna. È difficile trovare un buon discografico che lavorerà veramente per te; ce ne sono molti là fuori, pronti ad aggiungere le tue opere alla loro lista (hanno bisogno di far vedere che hanno compositrici) ma poi non fanno nulla e, senza dubbio, quando prendono le proprie decisioni prendono in considerazione la tua età, fisico, notorietà, popolarità, etc. Le compositrici hanno veramente bisogno di aiuto, perché, al ventesimo rifiuto che ricevi per posta ordinaria o elettronica dai discografici, ti chiedi perché tu sia mai stata considerata un talento. La valutazione o l’apprezzamento di un differente stile o una differente estetica musicale danneggia la musica folk, ed in una certa misura il jazz. La scena jazz è per lo più appannaggio degli uomini, il che raddoppia le difficoltà per le donne. La scena folk è relativamente più democratica, ma non è ancora vista come culturale, come ad esempio lo è la musica classica. Perciò, le donne che lavorano nel campo della musica folk non ricevono sostegno dalle organizzazioni di genere o da quelle che promuovano le donne. I jazz festival e i club sono nelle mani degli uomini ed è dura la lotta per aprire le serate importanti e per ottenere la possibilità di esibirsi: c’è un sentimento diffuso riguardo al fatto che le donne non siano brave quanto gli uomini. Come artista jazz, è dura a molti livelli. Ci sono molte musiciste che hanno lasciato perdere, perché trovavano troppo difficile combattere la discriminazione giorno dopo giorno. Come flautista, non ci sono problemi, perché il flauto è considerato uno strumento da donna. Quando dico che sono anche una sassofonista, mi viene chiesto se non è troppo difficile soffiarci dentro, se riesco a maneggiarlo. E come riesco a essere all’altezza dei miei colleghi uomini… Spesso mi trovo a dover chiedere a un collega uomo di dire a tutti nel gruppo cosa voglio che suonino, perché neanche mi ascoltano. Come musicista jazz, si suppone che tu sia una cantante, una pianista, una violinista… non una batterista, una bassista, una sassofonista… The Real Book, bibbia dei musicisti jazz e libro di


riferimento per le canzoni, contiene pochissime composizioni di donne… Finché le giurie e i membri dei gruppi che decidono le commissioni e scelgono i brani musicali saranno in maggioranza uomini non ci saranno mai decisioni giuste e non discriminatorie riguardo alle donne. Quando la Società per i Diritti d’Autore spagnola era diretta da una donna (una compositrice), lei insisteva sulla lettura anonima dei brani musicali con il risultato che più del 50% delle opere musicali scelte erano state scritte da donne. Non ha avuto vita facile, ed appena è stato possibile la hanno sostituita con un uomo!

EDUCAZIONE MUSICALE O MANCANZA DI… Ci sono più giovani donne che giovani uomini che producono musica durante gli anni scolastici, ma poi non sono più incoraggiate a continuare e a guardare al proprio talento come a un futuro impegno per la vita. Viene detto loro che dovrebbero studiare altro. Abbiamo bisogno di più giovani donne nelle classi di composizione. Il Rhythmic Music Conservatory di Copenhagen, attualmente ha praticamente solo studenti maschi, e le poche donne che vi studiano non hanno grandi possibilità di vedere se stesse nei modelli femminili tra i loro insegnanti. Il repertorio musicale di base insegnato nei conservatori include raramente i lavori di donne. Le donne, invece, che insegnano il repertorio strumentale negli istituti di formazione (e nelle scuole) non includono le compositrici nei loro programmi, lezioni e programmazione. Non ci sono donne famose (Ildegarda von Bingen, Clara Schumann, Nadia Boulanger, Dame Ethel Smyth, etc.) nei programmi scolastici riguardanti la storia della musica. Gli insegnanti di strumenti non si preoccupano nemmeno di scoprire se ci sia musica, contemporanea e non, creata da donne. Si affidano a ciò che gli editori pubblicano per la 2° o la 4° classe di studi. Gli Studi di Genere nelle Università possono essere uno svantaggio quando si insegna la storia della musica e quando si forniscono informazioni riguardanti la musica delle donne. Spesso, i docenti non sono musicisti, non hanno studiato composizione e non capiscono che la composizione musicale è una materia che va imparata, messa in pratica, e poi raffinata attraverso la esperienza e le esecuzioni in pubblico.

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Le recensioni dei libri menzionano di rado le donne musiciste. Le discussioni riguardanti i modelli musicali e le fonti di ispirazione attualmente disponibile in internet non menzionano quasi mai compositrici, songwriter o creatrici di musica.

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AGEISMO Ci sono molte più competizioni o richieste di brani musicali per gli under trenta che per quelli per tutte le altre età. Alcuni festival mettono in programma soltanto opere scritte dai molto giovani, sebbene non sia dichiarato da nessuna parte nel materiale pubblicitario, perciò se sei una donna over sessanta ed anche una compositrice, puoi considerarti fuori dai giochi. Alcune opportunità non indicano alcuna restrizione di età ma fanno discriminazioni in privato… l’ageismo è una forma di discriminazione subdola. Se ciò si aggiunge alla costante discriminazione nei confronti delle donne in quanto creatrici e compositrici, si deduce che le donne siano doppiamente vittime. Il mercato è guidato dalla cultura della gioventù… c’è qualcosa di più sexy, accattivante, o eccitante in un talento giovane che può far vendere in modo migliore un prodotto da pubblicizzare sul palco, ricevimenti organizzati dai finanziatori o nelle proposte di fondi e negli sforzi meno filantropici, ed aiuta a ottenere più denaro. Oggigiorno, coloro che lavorano nei network, nelle agenzie, etc., sono più giovani e preferiscono lavorare con la propria generazione piuttosto che con musicisti con più un maggiore numero di produzioni ed esperienze alle spalle e con una maggiore esperienza. SFRUTTAMENTO E/O COERCIZIONE Un produttore, che voleva la mia musica, mi ha offerto un Tot, ma poi ha detto che non avrei guadagnato nulla dalla PRS for Music, in nessun modo, e rappresentava un progetto internazionale che avrebbe significato un introito riguardante i diritti d’autore da tutto il mondo. Era una decisione difficile da prendere ma ho detto no, ha trovato rapidamente qualcun altro, il che significa che non aveva assolutamente bisogno della MIA musica. Fu una dolorosa esperienza. Le molestie sessuali vanno avanti da anni nel mondo della musica. Le donne devono essere forti, e se non riescono a sopportare tutto ciò, mollano! Anche oggi, le donne sono molestate e hanno difficoltà con gli uomini promoter e quelli che comandano o che decidono. Anche quando una compositrice sente di avere la fiducia e la confi-


denza di un promoter o di un agente, il promoter, nella maggior parte dei casi, vuole qualcos’altro, non la sua musica. Le persone in generale hanno un’idea precisa di come un compositore dovrebbe essere o apparire e una figura femminile non rientra nei comuni canoni di un grande compositore, alcune persone tendono a rigettare inconsciamente le compositrici prima ancora di ascoltare la loro musica, un certo tipo di pregiudizio psicologico. A causa di ciò, inevitabilmente, le compositrici hanno minori possibilità di ottenere riconoscimento già da subito, a prescindere dal fatto che siano brave o meno. Una compositrice che venga considerata (dagli uomini) molto attraente (o sensuale/sexy) ha quasi sempre problemi nell’ottenere lo stesso rispetto di un compositore. La figura tradizionale delle compositrici è quella di una donna mascolina con baffi ed occhiali spessi, una strana creatura. Ciò conduce ad altri estremi, immagini di artiste o songwriter mezze nude che si vendono con uno sguardo sexy ad ogni prezzo. La cosa più brutta di tutte nel jazz è non essere più molto giovane, non esibirsi in minigonna ed una quantità di rossetto rosso sulle labbra e senza una ruga. Gli uomini possono sembrare anche dei pezzenti, vanno bene lo stesso. La cultura dello sminuire le donne nella musica pop è così radicata che è diventata routine, dal modo in cui le donne vengono trattate dai manager e dalle società discografiche al modo in cui sono presentate al pubblico. Le songwriter ottengono un passaggio in tv o alla radio se firmano i moduli per la Società per i Diritti d’Autore con tutti coloro che sono coinvolti nel progetto, compreso il tecnico del suono. VARIE – Richieste dal cuore! SOS –C’è qualche donna politica pronta a chiedere perché ogni dannata Risoluzione EU che faccia riferimento alla Parità non venga presa in considerazione??? Firmare con una società per i diritti d’Autore non è sempre utile: spesso la tua società locale non trova informazioni riguardanti le esecuzioni avvenute altrove in Europa. I guadagni sono inferiori ai costi annuali dell’appartenenza alla società per i tuoi diritti. Ciò è anche vero per la membership in alcune unioni musicali/organizzazioni. I politici vengono ai concerti solo quando c’è qualcuno famoso. Le celebrazioni di eventi per le donne hanno luogo senza la presenza di

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uomini politici che, poi, fanno promesse alle donne prima delle elezioni, ma poi non le mantengono. La maggior parte dei politici non hanno nessuna conoscenza o cultura per quanto riguarda lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;arte, specialmente quella della musica, e non sanno niente delle donne. Le donne politiche non sono spesso migliori di loro: alcune sono arrivate dove sono perchĂŠ hanno adottato modi mascolini di comportarsi e pensare. I Centri di Informazione Musicale nazionali spesso non appaiono interessati a ciò che fanno le donne e non le invitano a inviare curricula o materiale professionale. I professionisti uomini nel campo della musica hanno sempre lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ultima parola, e non difendono mai le donne.

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La Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica è un’organizzazione culturale non-profit con sede in Fiuggi Città, Italia, partner nell’ambito degli accordi culturali sottoscritti dal Ministero degli Affari Esteri italiano, membro del Consiglio Internazionale per la Musica dell’UNESCO e del Consiglio Europea per la Musica e riconosciuta dalla Commissione Europea come una rete europea per le sue attività volte all’ottenimento di riconoscimento, visibilità, mainstreaming di genere ed empowerment delle compositrici e creatrici di musica. Donne in Musica è stata creata nel 1978 dalla musicista e musicologa Patricia Adkins Chiti ed oggi ha una rete di oltre 27.000 compositrici, creatrici di musica, musicologhe e musiciste in 108 Paesi. L’attività della Fondazione comprende la ricerca e la raccolta di dati riguardanti le compositrici storiche e contemporanee, attive in tutti generi di musica, in ogni parte del mondo; la conservazione della musica composta e realizzata da compositrici, la pubblicazione di dizionari, monografie e studi musicologici nonché l’allestimento di concerti, festival e progetti incentrati sulla musica delle donne. La biblioteca della Fondazione possiede 43.000 partiture musicali composte da donne. Le tre appendici bibliografiche sono state redatte dalle bibliotecarie Roberta Quattrociocchi e Tiziana Morsanuto, insieme alle studiose in residenza: Jenny Dünser (Austria), Genevieve Mathon (Francia), Rosemary Evans (Gran Bretagna), Vilma Campitelli (Italia), Jelena Arnautović (Serbia), Aránzaxa Hernández e Sara Navarro (Spagna), Anna-Lena Laurin (Svezia), Selen Gulun (Turchia) ed anche da molte organizzazioni per le “Donne in Musica” che fanno parte del Comitato d’Onore Internazionale della Fondazione in Europa. Ringraziamo anche Nicoletta Del Monte (Italia) e Carole Kost (USA).

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FIFTITU – Vernetzungsstelle für Frauen in Kunst& Kultur, Austria Vienna Modern Masters, Austria IRDECOF, Belgio Women in Music, European University Cipro Hudbaby/The Musicrones, Repubblica Ceca Kvinder i Muzik Danimarca IMPRA, Danimarca Nainen Ja Musiikkiry (NaMury), Finlandia Rencontres Internationales Musicales En Catalogne, Francia CdMC, Centre de Documentation de la Musique Contemporaine, Francia Association Plurielles 34, Francia Frau Musica (nova), Germania Archiv Frau und Musik, Germania GEDOK, Germania Artemusi(c)a – Compositrici per le Marche, Italia Associazione Parnaso Donne in Musica – Puglie, Italia Centro Veneto per le Donne in Musica, Italia Conservatorio “Fausto Torrefranca”, Vibo Valentia, Italia Gender Interuniversity Observatory, Italia Università Roma Tre, Italia Neo Musica, Kosova Le forum Femmes et Musique au Cid-femmes, Lussemburgo Muzi kicentar Crne Gore, Montenegro Stichting Vrouw en Muziek, Paesi Bassi ATRIA institute on gender equality and women’s history, Paesi Bassi Stichting Tera de Marez Oyens Fonds, Paesi Bassi Miso Music, National Centre for Musical Creation, Portogallo Asociatia Romana pentru Femei in Arta (A.R.F.A.), Romania Udruzenje “Zena u muzici”, Kragujevac, Serbia Music Centre Slovacchia Ustanova Gallus, Slovenia Euterpe Musica y Mujer, Spagna Asociación Mujeres en la Música, Spagna Evterpe – Kvinnor i Musik, Svezia IMPRA, Svezia KVAST, Svezia Forum Musik Diversität, Swizzera Women in Music Turchia Women in Music UK, Regno Unito


ADDENDA 1 Bibliographical Listing for European and International documents referring to gender mainstreaming in the performing arts, in chronological order within sections

AUSTRIA Landeskulturreferentenkonferenz der Östereichischen Bundesländer (Ed.), Künstler in Österreich: Die soziale Lage der Komponisten, bildenden Künstler und Schrifsteller, Salzburg, Landeskulturreferentenkonferenz der österreichischen Bundesländer, 1984 Geschäftsgruppe Kultur und Wissenschaft des Magistrats der Stadt Wien, Kunst- und Kulturbericht der Stadt Wien : Frauenkulturbericht, Wien, Magistrats der Stadt Wien, 2005-2011, <http://www.wien.gv.at/kultur/abteilung/kunstbericht.html> Lechner, Reiter und Riesenfelder Sozialforschung OEG, Zur sozialen Lage der Künstler und Künstlerinnen in Österreich, (Forschung, 2007-2008), <http://www.lrsocialresearch.at/sozialforschung/archivsuche-de?submitsearch=1&id2thid=12>

BELGIUM Fondation Marcel Hicter, Etude exploratoire sur l’égalité homme femme en termes d’accès à des postes de décision dans le secteur culturel, Bruxelles, Fondation Marcel Hicter, 2008, <http://www.fondation-hicter.org/IMG/pdf/EtudeArtemisEP.pdf> The International Federation of Actors, EU Audiovisual Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee, Framework of Actions on Gender Equality, 2012, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/AVSDC-FoA_Gender_Equality_EN.pdf >

DENMARK Denmark. Kulturministeriet, Én musikscene – mangegenrer : musikhandlingsplan 2012 – 2015 = [Ministry of Culture , One music scene - many

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genres. Music Action Plan 2012 - 201 5] , København, Kulturministeriet, april 2012

FINLAND Mitchell, R., Kanerva, A., Onko sukupuolella merkitystä, onko toimenpiteillä vaikutusta taiteissa ja kulttuurissa? : Sukupuolivaikutusten arviointia taiteen ja kulttuurin toimialalla = [Gender impact assessment in the areas of arts and culture], Helsinki, Kulttuuripoliittisen tutkimuksen edistämissäätiö , Yliopistopaino [jakaja], 2004 (Cuporen julkaisuja, 2), [also in digital format: http://www.cupore.fi/documents/Cupore_Julkaisu_2_2004.pdf]

FRANCE

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Prat, R., Mission Egalités: Pour une plus grande et une meilleure visibilité des diverses composantes de la population française dans le secteur du spectacle vivant: 1 Pour l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux postes de responsabilité, aux lieux de décision, à la maîtrise de la représentation, Mission pour l’égalité et contre les exclusions: rapport d’étape n°1, mai 2006, <http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/rapports/prat/egalites.pdf> Gautier, G. (dir.), Quelle place pour les femmes dans les médias? Délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité des chances entre les hommes et les femmes, rapport d’activités 2006-07, Les Rapports du Sénat n°375 (2007) Bouley, B., Chanut, E., Stammbach, A. et al., Lettre ouverte à Mme la Ministre de la Culture pour une application immédiate de l’article 1 de la constitution dans le domaine des arts vivants, 03.12.2008, <http://www.la-gauche-cactus.fr/SPIP/LETTRE-OUVERTE-A-MADAME-LA> L’emploi culturel dans L’Union européenne en 2002 : Données de cadrage et indicateurs, Les notes de l’Observatoire de l’Emploi culturel, n. 39 (2005), Paris, Ministère de la culture et de la communication, Délégation au développement et aux affaires Internationales (Ddai). Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques (Deps), <http://www.irma.asso.fr/IMG/pdf/emploi_culturel_ds_UE.pdf> Prat, R., Arts du spectacle: Pour l’égal accès des femmes et des hommes aux postes de responsabilité, aux lieux de décision, aux moyens de production, aux réseaux


de diffusion, à la visibilité médiatique: 2 De l’interdit à l’empêchement, Mission pour l’égalité h/f: rapport d’étape n°2, mai 2009, <http://www.labarbelabarbe.org/La_Barbe/Arts_files/egalite_acces_resps09.pdf> NACRe Rhône-Alpes, Focus La saison 1 de l’égalité homme-femme dans le spectacle vivant, Octobre 2011, <http://www.lanacre.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Actus/a_la_une_Egalite_h-f.pdf> Loup, M. et Bach-Toussaint, A., Etude : La place des femmes dans les institutions publiques du spectacle vivant, dans les postes à responsabilité en 2011, février 2012, <http://www.hf-idf.org/wp-content/uploads/2011-%C3%A9tudeLaurence-Equilbey.pdf> Sénat. Délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité des chances entre les hommes et les femmes, Gonthier-Maurin, B., Rapport d´information fait au nom de la délégation aux droits des femmes et à l’égalité des chances entre les hommes et les femmes sur le thème « La place des femmes dans l’art et la culture », Sénat, Session Ordinaire de 2012-2013, n. 704, Enregistré à la Présidence du Sénat le 27 juin 2013, [also in digital format: <http://www.senat.fr/rap/r12704/r12-7041.pdf>]

77 GERMANY Mann, B., Antigone als ABM? Frauen im Kulturbereich des Landes Brandenburg, Eine Studie des Ministeriums für Arbeit, Soziales, Gesundheit und Frauen des Landes Brandenburg, Referat Frauenfragen in Bildung, Wissenschaft, Kultur und Medien, Berlin/Potsdam, 1995 Germany. Ministerium für Arbeit, Soziales und Stadtentwicklung, Kultur und Sport des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Kunst und Kultur von Frauen aus Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Ministerium für Arbeit, Soziales und Stadtentwicklung, Kultur und Sport des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, 2000 Equal Opportunities in the Cultural Sector : recommendations at the Congress A Working Culture II, Berlin, A Working Culture, 2000 Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Wiesand, A., Creative Europe : on governance and management of artistic creativity in Europe : an ERICarts report presented to the Network of European foundations for innovative co-operation (NEF), Bonn, ARCult Media, 2002


ITALY Centro Studi Investimenti Sociali, Le donne nelle arti, nelle cultura, nell’industria culturale e nell’indotto : Rapporto finale, Roma, 1999 Centro Studio Investimenti Sociali, Le donne nelle arti, nelle cultura, nell’ industria culturale e nell’ indotto : Considerazioni di sintesi, Roma, 2000, [also in digital format: <http://www.fidae.it/AreaLibera/AreeTematiche/Condizione%20donna/CENSIS,%20Le%20donne%20nelle%20arti.pdf>] Fondazione Fitzcarraldo, Progetto FUM.NET : Imprenditorialità femminile nelle performing arts: elementi per un sistema di eccellenza, 2002, <http://www.fitzcarraldo.it/ricerca/pdf/fumnet_report.pdf> Fondazione Adkins Chiti: Donne in Musica, WIMUST : Women Uniting Strategies for Talent, published with contribution from EACEA/EU, Roma, December 2011

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Santagata, W., Bertacchini, E., Creative Atmosphere : Cultural Industries and Local Development, Torino, Università di Torino, 2011 (Working paper new series No. 4/2011), <http://www.eblacenter.unito.it/WP/2011/4_WP_Ebla_CSS.pdf> 1

LITHUANIA European Institute for Gender Equality, Facts of inequality between women and men in arts, culture and education, 2012, <http://www.eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/Inequalities%20in%20a rts%20culture%20and%20education_EN.pdf>

LUXEMBOURG Ministère de la Culture, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, Loi modifiée du 30 juillet 1999, concernant le statut de l’artiste professionnel indépendant et l’intermittent du spectacle et la promotion de la création artistique : Règlements grand-ducaux d’exécution, <http://www.mc.public.lu/legislation/loi_30_07_99.pdf>


NETHERLANDS Herst, D., Torpus, J., Schaub, A., Axis: Gender, Media, Art, Cd-rom, Amsterdam, Axis, 1999 ART AD 2000 (11 ; 2001 ; Doorn); International Christian Artists Seminar (21; 2001 ; Doorn), Art AD 2001 : volume XI : the role of the arts in a Europe on the way to integration: subject: 10 years cultural paragraph ‘The treaty of Maastricht’, the social and cultural challenge of Europe: reflections on the treaty of Maastricht (1991), Rotterdam, Christian Artists Europe, 2001 European League of Institutes of the Arts, Boosting Gender Equality in Higher Arts Education : A Handbook, Amsterdam, European League of Institutes of the Arts, 2001 Adkins Chiti, P., Where are the women?: Working to change the landscape of European music, MMNiuws 6 (2012): 18-19

PORTUGAL

79 Perista, H., Silva, A., Guia para o Mainstreaming de Género na Cultura, in Colecção Bem Me Quer Nº 12, Comissão para a Igualdade e para os Direitos das Mulheres, Presidência do Conselho de Ministros, 2005

ROMANIA European Cultural Parliament, Sibiu Declaration on Intercultural Dialogue and Communicating the European Idea : 6th Session of the Parliament, Sibiu, Romania, October 2007, <http://www.kulturparlament.com/sessions/2007-sibiu/the-sibiu-declaration/>

SWEDEN Beckman, S. (ed.), Conditions for Creative Artists in Europe : Report from the EU Presidency Seminar in Visby, Sweden, 30 March - 1 April 2001, <http://www.oac.pt/pdfs/EU%20report_On%20the%20conditions%20for%20creative%20artists%20in%20Europe.pdf>


Statens Musikverk â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Music Development and Heritage Sweden, Equality and Music, 2012 Swedish Union Teaterforbundet, Swedish Gender Equality Checklist for theatre, 2012, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/gender%20equality%20checklist.pdf>

UNITED KINGDOM International Intelligence on Culture, Innovative developments and good practice that is promoting and safeguarding employment in the live performing arts sector in seven EU countries : Final report : Research commissioned for the Social Dialogue Committee by the European Commission (Employment & Social Affairs), and European Entertainment Alliance (FIA, FIM, UNI-EUROPAMEI, PEARLE), 24.09.2001, <http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/files/34851/11885685473report_FIM_sept_2 001.doc/report_FIM_sept+2001.doc>

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FIA, FIA Charter for Gender Equality and Equal Opportunities, UK, FIA, 2010, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/2010-Gender-Charter-EN.pdf> Arts Council England, What is the Creative Case for diversity?, 2010, <http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/pdf/What_is_the_Creative_Case_f or_Diversity.pdf> Arts Council England, The Arts Council plan 2011-15, Arts Council England, 1.11.2011, <http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/pdf/Arts_Council_Plan_201115.pdf> Bain, V., An Assessment of the Attitudes and Practices of Equality and Diversity in the UK Music Industry, Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2012, <http://reading.academia.edu/VickBain> COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of the Community action programme to promote bodies active at European level in the field of Culture, COM/2008/0234 final, Brussels, 05.05.2008, <http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/com_2008_234_1_en_act_part1_v3.pdf>


COUNCIL OF EUROPE European Task Force on Culture and Development, In from the Margins: a contribution to the debate on culture and development in Europe, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1997

EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT A4-0103/99 Resolution on the situation and role of artists in the European Union, Official Journal C 175/42, 21.6.1999, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:1999:175:0042:0048:EN:PDF> European Parliament resolution of 7. June 2007 on the social status of artists, 2006/2249(INI), 7.6.2007, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA-20070236&language=EN> European Parliament resolution of 3. September 2008 on equality between women and men, 2008/2047 (INI), 3.9.2008, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P6-TA2008-0399&language=EN> European Parliament resolution of 10. March 2009 on equality of treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts, 2008/2182 (INI), 10.3.2009, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0091+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN> European Parliament resolution of 10 March 2009 on equality of treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts (2008/2182(INI)) : Equal treatment and access for men and women in the performing arts, Official Journal C, 87 E/27, 01.04.2010: 27-29, <http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:087E:FULL:EN:PDF> Costa, S., (Rapporteur), Draft Report on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on establishing the Creative Europe Programme (COM(2011)0785 – C7-0435/2011 – 2011/0370(COD)), 17.09.2012, < h t t p : / / w w w. e u r o p a r l . e u r o p a . e u / s i d e s / g e t D o c . d o ? p u b R e f = % 2 F % 2 F E P % 2 F % 2 F N O N S G M L % 2 B C O M PA R L % 2 B P E 494.523%2B01%2BDOC%2BPDF%2BV0%2F%2FEN>

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EUROPEAN COMMISSION Green Paper : Unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries, COM(2010) 183, Bruxelles, 27.04.2010, <http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/greenpaper_creative_industries_en.pdf> European Commission. Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men, Opinion on Breaking gender stereotypes in the media, Social Europe, December 2010, <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/opinions_advisory_committee/2010_12_opinion_on_breaking_gender_stereotypes_in _the_media_en.pdf> Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions : Promoting cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the EU, 26.9.2012, COM (2012) 537 final, Brussels, 26.09.2012, <http://ec.europa.eu/culture/our-policy-development/documents/communicationsept2012.pdf>

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UNITED NATIONS General Assembly. Human Rights Council. Twenty-third session, Agenda Item 3. Promotion and protection of all human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to development , Report of the Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights, Farida Shaheed : The right to freedom of artistic expression and creativity, 14 March 2013, <http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/files/48/en/ShaheedReport_UN_HRC_The_right_to_freedom_of_artistic_expression_2013.pdf>


UNESCO Colin, J.-P., La perticipation des femmes à la vie culturelle et artistique, Paris, UNESCO; 1992 [also in digital format: <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000922/092280fo.pdf> World Commission on Culture and Development, Our Creative Diversity : report of the World Commission on Culture and Development, direction Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, USA, UNESCO, 1995 World Congress on the Implementation of the Recommendation Concerning the Status of the Artist, UNESCO in co-operation with the French Ministry for Culture and the French National Commission for UNESCO and with the collaboration of the Getty Conservation Institute, 16-20 June 1997, <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001090/109018e.pdf> Background Document on Our Creative Diversity : Report of the World Commission on Culture and Development CLT/1998/PI/H/1, UNESCO, 1998, <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001591/159177E.pdf> The Power of Culture, Action Plan on Cultural Policies for Development, Paris, UNESCO, 02.04.1998, <www.unesco.org/cpp/uk/declarations/cultural.pdf> Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions, Paris, UNESCO, 2005, [also in digital format: <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001429/142919e.pdf>]

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84


ADDENDA 2 Bibliographical Listing for European and International documents referring to Equal Opportunities and Gender Equality, in chronological order within sections

United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 27, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 14.12.1948 Treaty establishing the European Economic Community and connected documents, Brussels, Secretariat of the Interim Committee for the Common Market and Euratom, 25.03.1957 Ireland. Commission on the Status of Women, Report of the First Commission on the Status of Women, 1972 Council of the European Communities, Council Directive 76/207/EEC of 9 February 1976 on the implementation of the principle of equal treatment for men and women as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and working conditions, Official Journal L, 039, 14.02.1976: 40-42, <http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:1976:039:0040:0042:EN:P DF> United Nations, Report on the World Conference on the International’s Women’s Year Women World Conference Mexico (19 June - 2 July 1975), New York, United Nations, 1976 United Nations, Human Rights : A compilation of International Instruments, New York, United Nations, 1978 Suomen hallituksen ohjelma sukupuolten tasa-arvon edistämiseksi YK:n naisten vuosikymmenen jälkipuoliskolla 1980–1985 = [Finnish Government Action Plan for Gender Equality in the latter half of the UN Decade for Women 1980–1985], [approved in 1980] UNESCO, Recommendation concerning the Status of the Artist, Paris, 27.10.1980, [also in digital format:<http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=13138&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html>]

85


United Nations, Report on the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women : Quality, Development and Peace, 14-30 July 1980, Copenhagen, New York, United Nations, 1980 United Nations, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, [03.09.1981], <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/text/econvention.htm> Rubenstein, M., Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value, Basingstoke, Macmillan, 1984 Pannick, D., Sex Discrimination Law, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1985 Finland. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Act on Equality between Women and Men, Helsinki, 08.08.1986/609, <http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1986/en19860609> United Nations, Report of the World Conference to review and appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, 15-26 July 1985, New York, United Nations, 1986

86 Richards, J. R., Women’s Abilities and Women’s Rights, Manchester Guardian Weekly, 3 (December 1989): 23 Hague, G., Equal Opportunities Policy into Practice : Gender, London, Independent Theater Council, 1991 Niedzwiecki, P., Women’s Job Opportunities in Europe, Brussels, European Commission, 1992 Italy. Commissione Nazionale per la Parità e le Pari Opportunità tra uomo e donna, Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Secondo rapporto del governo italiano sull’applicazione della convenzione delle Nazioni Unite per l’eliminazione di ogni forma di discriminazione nei confronti delle donne, 1979, Roma, Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, 1993 Conseil supérieur de la langue française et Communauté française de Belgique, Mettre au féminin, guide de féminisation des noms de métier, fonction, grade ou titre, Bruxelles, Conseil supérieur de la langue française et Communauté française de Belgique, 1994


Equity, Agreement Subsidised Repertory, London, Equity, 1994 Equity, Equity Annual Report 1993-94, London, Equity, 1994 Page, M. A., Propuesta de un Sistema de Indicadores Sociales de Igualdad Entre Géneros, Madrid, Instituto de la Mujer, 1994 Council of Europe, The Gender Perspective, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publishing, 1995 Eide, A., Krause, C. and Rosas, A. (eds.), Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: a Textbook, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, 1995 European Council, 8th Annual International Colloquy on the European Convention on Human Rights, Hungary, European Council, 1995 France. Mission de coordination pour la 4ème conférence mondiale sur les femmes, Avec les Femmes, une nouvelle organisation de la société : compterendu de la Rencontre nationale organisée le 8 mars [1995] dans le cadre de la 4ème conférence mondiale sur les femmes, Paris, Mission de coordination de la 4ème conférence mondiale sur les femmes, 1995

87 Great Britain. Equal Opportunities Commission, Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value : A Guide to the Amended Equal Pay Act, Manchester, Equal Opportunities Commission, 1995 Great Britain. Equal Opportunities Commission, The Life Cycle of Inequality : Men and Women in Britain 1995, London, Equal Opportunities Commission, 1995 Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission : Incorporating equal opportunities for women and men into all Community policies and activities, COM (1996) 67 final, 21.02.1996, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:1996:0067:FIN:EN:PDF> European conference Women for the renewal of politics and society : the charter of Rome, Rome, ASDO, 1996 European Council, Council Recommendation of 2 December 1996 on the balanced participation of women and men in the decision-making process, Official Journal L, 319, 10.12.1996: 11-15, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:1996:319:0011:0015:EN:PDF>


Ständige Konferenz des Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Dokumentation Kunst und Kultur von Frauen, Berichtsraum 1.1.31.12.1994, Bonn, Sekretariat der ständigen Konferenz des Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 1996 United Nations, Report on the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing 4-15 September 1995, New York, United Nations, 1996, <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf/Beijing%20full%20report%20E.pdf> Canço, D. et al., Indicadores para a Igualdade : Uma Proposta Inadiável, in Cadernos da Condição Feminina N.º 47, Lisboa, CIDM, Presidência do Conselho de Ministros, 1997 Centrālās statistikas pārvaldes (CSP), Statistiskais sieviešu un vīriešu portrets Latvijā = [The statistical portrait of women and men in Latvia], Central Statistical Bureau, Rīga, 90 (1997)

88

European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations, and Social Affairs, Unit V/D5, A Guide to Gender Impact Assessment, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1997 Leijenaar, M., Per una partecipazione equilibrata delle donne e degli uomini al processo decisionale : guida all’attuazione di strategie volte ad incrementare la partecipazione delle donne al processo decisionale, Lussemburgo, Ufficio delle pubblicazioni ufficiali delle Comunità europee, 1997 Solana, Y., La Larga marcha hacia la igualdad : IV Conferencia Mundial sobre las Mujeres, Beijing 95: evaluación del proceso en España, Madrid, Instituto de la Mujer, 1997 Finland. Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö. Tasa-arvotoimisto, Pekingistä Suomeen : Suomen hallituksen tasa-arvo-ohjelma 1997 = [Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, From Beijing to Finland : Finnish Government Action Plan for Gender Equality 1997], Helsinki, Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö, tasaarvotoimisto, 1997 Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, Luxembourg, Office for official publications of the European communities, European Community, 1997


Centre nationale d’information et de documentation des femmes et des familiers, Mainstreaming : quelle traduction dans l’action? : actes [de la] conférence-débat, samedi 7 mars 1998, Paris, Centre nationale d’information et de documentation des femmes et des familiers, 1998 Commissione europea, Direzione generale 15., Mercato interno e servizi finanziari, Direzione generale 5., Occupazione, relazioni industriali e affari sociali, Pari diritti e opportunità per le donne e gli uomini nell’Unione europea, Luxembourg, Ufficio delle pubblicazioni ufficiali delle Comunità europee, 1998 (Cittadini d’Europa) Council of Europe, Recommendation No. R(98)14 of the Committee of Ministers on gender mainstreaming : (Adopted by Committee of Ministers on 7 October 1998 at the 643rd meeting of the Ministers Deputies), 1998, <https://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet.InstraServlet?command=com.instranet.CmdBlobGet&InstranetImage=1497046&SecMode=1&DocId=491098&Usage=2> Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers, Message of the Committee of Ministers to steering committees of the Council of Europe on gender mainstreaming, 628th meeting, 15-16 April 1998, Appendix 2 (item 4.5), <https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1949737&Site=CM&BackColorInternet=C 3C3C3&BackColorIntranet=EDB021&BackColorLogged=F5D383> Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission, Kultur und Entwicklung : Zur Umsetzung des Stockholmer Aktionsplan, Bonn, Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission, 1998 Dickens, L., Gender, race and employment equality in Britain : inadequate strategies and the role of industrial relations actors, Industrial Relations Journal 28, 4 (1998): 282-291, <http://www.qc-econ-bba.org/instructors/hull104/BUS393/DickensL%20Gende%20RaceAndEmploymentEqualityInBritain.pdf> European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations, and Social Affairs, Unit V/D5, Equal opportunities for women and men in the European Union : annual report 1997, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998 (Employment & social affairs, Equality between women and men) European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations, and Social Affairs. Unit V/D/5, One hundred words for equality: a glossary of terms on equality between men and women, Luxembourg, Office for

89


Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998 (Employments & social affairs; Equal opportunities and family policy) France. Commission générale de terminologie et de néologie, Premier ministre, Rapport sur la féminisation des noms de métier, fonction, grade ou titre, Ministère de la culture et de la communication, octobre 1998, <http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/var/storage/rapports-publics/994000415/0000.pdf> Nyberg, C., Kultur och fritid - för vem? : en rapport från programberedningen Kommunerna och jämställdheten om jämställdhet inom kultur- och fritidsverksamheten, Stockholm, Svenska kommunförb., 1998 Rees, T., Mainstreaming Equality in the European Union, Education, Training and Labour Market Policies, London, Routledge, 1998 Republic of Lithuania, Law of the Republic of Lithuania on equal opportunities (No VIII-947), Vilnius, 01.12.1998, <http://www.iwrawap.org/resources/documents/GE_Lithuania.doc>

90

Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Institut national de la langue française, Femme, j’écris ton nom… : guide d’aide à la féminisation des noms de métier, fonction, grade ou titre, préface de Lionel Jospin ; Annie Becquer ... [et al.], Paris, Documentation française, 1999 Council of Europe, Gender Mainstreaming : Practice and Prospects, Report prepared by Ms Mieke Verloo, Consultant University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands, December 1999 Evaluación de las políticas de igualdad entre mujeres y hombres : ponencias presentadas en el Seminario celebrado en Santander los días 29, 30 de junio y 1 de julio de 1998, Madrid, Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Instituto de la Mujer, 1999 Gornick, J. C., Gender Equality in the Labour Market, in Sainsbury, D. (ed.), Gender and Welfare State Regimes, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 210-242 Katunarić, V., Cvjetčanin, B., Cultural policy in Croatia : national report, Strasbourg, Council for Cultural Co-operation, Council of Europe Publishing, 1999


Latvian Centre for Human Rights and Ethnic Studies, Muiznieks, N. et al., Human Rights in Latvia in 1998, January 1999, <http://cilvektiesibas.org.lv/site/attachments/30/01/2012/Human_Rights_in_Latvi a98.pdf> Perista, H. et al, Avaliação do Plano Global para a Igualdade de Oportunidades, Lisboa, CESIS, 1999 Silva, M., A Igualdade de Género : Caminhos e Atalhos para uma Sociedade Inclusiva, Lisboa, CIDM, 1999 Beveridge, F., Nott, S., Stephen, K., Making women count : Integrating gender mainstreaming into law and policy-making, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2000 Commission of the European Communities, Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions towards a community framework strategy on gender equality (2001-2005), COM(2000) 335 final, 2000/0143 (CNS), Brussels, 07.06.2000, <http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2000:0335:FIN:EN:PDF>

91 Council of Europe, Council of Europe Activities since 1995 in the field of equality between women and men related to the strategic objectives in the Beijing and Vienna Platforms for Action, Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2000 Council of Europe. Committee of Ministers, Declaration on Cultural Diversity (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 December 2000 at the 733rd meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies), 07.12.2000, <https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=389843> European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Plantenga, J., Evaluation of the Netherlands’ National Action Plan 2000 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2000 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Plasman, R., Rusinek, M., Evaluation of the Luxembourg’s National Action Plan 2000: a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2000 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Ru-


bery, J., Evaluation of the UK National Action Plan 2000 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2000 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Rubery, J., Rake, K., Gender impact assessment in the UK, European expert group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2000 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Silvera, R., Evaluation of the French National Action Plan : a gender equality perspective, 2000 European Union, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, (2000/C 364/01), Official Journal of the European Communities C, 364/01, 18.12.2000: 1-22, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/pdf/text_en.pdf> Pollack, M., Hafner-Burton, E., Mainstreaming gender in the European Union, Cambridge, Harvard Law School, 2000

92 Schalkwyk, J., Woroniuk, B., Tip sheets for improving Gender Equality, Swedish International Development Agency, 2000 Sidhu, G., Women : how far have we come?, Sources, no. 125 (July-August 2000): 4-5, <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001202/120200e.pdf> Spain. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Real Decreto 1686/2000, de 6 de octubre, por el que se crea el Observatorio de la Igualdad de Oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres, BOE n. 251, 6.10.2000, [also in digital format: <http://www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2000-18754>] Sweden, Act on Equality between Women and Men. The Equal Opportunities Act (SFS 1991:433): (Including amendments up to and including SFS 2000:773), <http://www.iwraw-ap.org/resources/pdf/GE_Sweden1.pdf> European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Barry, U., Evaluation of the Irish National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001


European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Emerek, R., Evaluation of the Danish National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Silvera, R., Evaluation of the French National Action Plan : a gender equality perspective, [Report produced as part of the work of European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001] European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Gonäs, L., Evaluation of the Swedish National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Gonzalez, M. P., Evaluation of the Portuguese National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001

93 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Karamessini, M., Evaluation of the Greek National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Lehto, A.-M., Evaluation of the Finnish National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Maier, F., Evaluation of the German National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Mairhuber, I., Evaluation of the Austrian National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001


European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Marage, F., Meulders, D., Evaluation of the Belgian National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Moltò, M.-L., Valiente, C., Evaluation of the Spanish National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Plantenga, J., Evaluation of the Netherlands’ National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001 European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Rubery, J., Evaluation of the UK National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employment, 2001

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European Commission’s Expert Group on Gender and Employment, Villa, P., Evaluation of the Italian National Action Plan 2001 : a gender equality perspective, European Expert Group on Gender and Employment Report to the Equal Opportunities Unit, DG Employmen, 2001 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Gender, employment and working time preferences in Europe, [edited by Colette Fagan with Tracey Warren and Lain McAllister], Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2001 [also in digital format: <http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/pubdocs/2001/49/en/1/ef0149en.pdf>] Fitzgerald, R., Toolkit for Mainstreaming Equal Opportunities into Structural Fund Programmes in Scotland, Glasgow, University of Strathclyde, 2001 Instituto de la Mujer, Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociale, Igualdad de mujeres y hombres a la luz del Tratado de Amsterdam: seminario celebrado en Madrid los días 13 y 14 de febrero de 2000, Madrid, Instituto de la Mujer, 2001 Netherlands. Interdepartmental Working Group on Mainstreaming, Gender mainstreaming : a strategy for quality improvement, The Hague, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, Department for the Co-ordination of Emancipation Policy, 2001


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Great Britain, Minister for Industry and the Regions. Department of Trade and Industry, Statutory Instruments 2005 No. 2467 Sex discrimination : The Employment Equality (Sex Discrimination) Regulations, UK, 5th September 2005, <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2005/2467/made> Grönroos, M., Tasa-arvon tietopalvelu Suomeen: Informaatio- ja dokumentaatiotoiminnan selvityshenkilön raportti = [Gender Equality Information Services in Finland: a report on information and documentation] : Working Group Memorandums of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriön työryhmämuistioita 13 (2005), [also in digital format: <http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=28707&name=DLFE4099.pdf>] Italy, Decreto Legislativo 30 maggio 2005, n. 145, Attuazione della direttiva 2002/73/CE in materia di parità di trattamento tra gli uomini e le donne, per quanto riguarda l’accesso al lavoro, alla formazione e alla promozione professionale e le condizioni di lavoro, Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 173, 27.07.2005, [also in digital format: <http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/deleghe/05145dl.htm>] Latvia. Labklājības ministrija, Informatīvais ziņojums par Programmā dzimumu līdztiesības īstenošanai 2005.-2006.gadam iekļauto pasākumu īstenošanas gaitu 2005. gadā = [Ministry of Welfare, The informative report on gender mainstreaming between 2005 and 2006, the implementation of the


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women and men, COM (2006) 92 final, Brussels, 01.03.2006, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0092:FIN:EN:PDF> Council of Europe. European Commission for Democracy Through Law. Venice Commission, Gender Equality in Norway : CDL-JU(2006)028, Report by Ms Cecilie Ostensen Noss, Deputy Head of the Judicial Secretariat, Supreme Court of Norway, Liaison officer to the Venice Commission, Strasbourg, 12 June 2006, <http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/?pdf=CDL-JU%282006%29028-e> Council of European Municipalities and Regions, La Charte Européenne pour l’égalité des femmes et des hommes dans la vie locale: Une Charte invitant les collectivités territoriales à utiliser leurs pouvoirs et leurs partenariats en faveur d’une plus grande égalité pour toutes et tous, Paris, Conseil des Communes et Régions d’Europe, 2006, [also in digital format: http://www.ccre.org/docs/charte_egalite_fr.pdf>] Darmanin, M., Gender Equality in Malta: A Southern European Perspective, Scottish Affairs, no. 56, (2006): 69-87, <http://www.scottishaffairs.org/backiss/pdfs/sa56/Sa56_Darmanin.pdf>

104 Denmark. Ministry of Employment, Consolidation Act No. 734 of 28 June 2006 : Consolidation Act on Equal Treatment of Men and Women as regards Access to Employment etc., June 2006, <http://uk.bm.dk/Legislations/~/media/BEM/Files/English/Acts/Consolidation%20Act%20on%20Equal%20Treatment%20No%20734%20of%2028%20Ju ne%202006.ashx> Denmark. Ministry of Employment, Consolidation Act No. 906 of 27 August 2006 : Consolidation Act on Equal Pay to Men and Women, Denmark, 2006, <http://uk.bm.dk/Legislations/~/media/BEM/Files/English/Acts/Consolidation_Act_ on_Equal_Pay_No_906_of_27_August_2006.ashx> European Parliament, European Council, Regulation (EC) No 1922/2006 of The European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on establishing a European Institute for Gender Equality, Official Journal L 403/9, 30.12.2006, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:403:0009: 0017:EN:PDF> European Parliament, European Council, Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the implementation


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European Ministerial Conference on Equality between Women and Men, Council of Europe, Human rights and economic challenges in Europe - gender equality : 6th European Ministerial Conference on Equality between Women and Men, Stockholm, 8 - 9 June 2006; proceedings, Strasbourg, Council of Europe Publ., 2007 Gender Mainstreaming Manual : A book of practical methods from the Swedish Gender Mainstreaming Support Committee : (JämStöd), Swedish Government Official Reports, SOU, 15 (2007), [also in digital format: <http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/08/19/82/3532cd34.pdf>] Stoichev, K., Bulgarian legislation and gender equality : a general overview, 2007, <http://www.enelsyn.gr/papers/w14/Paper%20by%20Dr.%20Krassen%20Stoichev.pdf> Grimshaw, D., Rubery, J., Undervaluing Women’s Work, Manchester, Equal Opportunities Commission, 2007 (Working Paper Series, no.53) Johnsson-Latham, G., A study on gender equality as a prerequisite for sustainable development : Report to Environment Advisory Council, Sweden 2007:2, <http://www.gendercc.net/fileadmin/inhalte/Dokumente/Actions/ecological_footprint__johnsson-latham.pdf>


Marcinkeviciene, D., Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming at Governmental Level in the EU Member States Lithuania, In Biller, H., Sterner, G., Gender Mainstreaming in the EU Member States : Progress, Obstacles and Experiences at Governmental level, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, 2007 Memorial Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, Egalite de traitement entre femmes et homes dans l’acces a des biens et services et la furniture de biens et services, Luxembourg, 21.12.2007 Portugal, Decree-Law No. 164/2007 of 3 May 2007 approving the organizational structure of the Commission for Citizenship and Gender Equality, Diário da República, Part I, No. 85, 3 May 2007, pp. 2942-2946 Siukola, R., Gender mainstreaming in Finland’s government administration: Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming at Governmental Level in the EU Member States Finland, in Biller, H., Sterner, G., Gender Mainstreaming in the EU Member States : Progress, Obstacles and Experiences at Governmental level, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, 2007 Spain, Constitutional Act 3/2007 of 22 March for effective equality between women and men, Madrid, 22 March 2007, <www.mjusticia.gob.es/cs/Satellite/1292363990798?blobheader=application/pdf&blobheadername1=ContentDisposition&blobheadervalue1=attachment;+filename=Organic_Act_for_Effecti ve_Equality_Between_Women_and_Men_(Ley_de_Igualdad).PDF> Stenman, M., Gender Mainstreaming in Sweden’s Government Administration : Implementation of Gender Mainstreaming at Governmental Level in the EU Member States Sweden, in Biller, H., Sterner, G., Gender Mainstreaming in the EU Member States : Progress, Obstacles and Experiences at Governmental level, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, 2007 Sweden. Ministry for Integration and Gender Equality, The Conference Gender Mainstreaming at governmental level in the EU Member States 1-2 February 2007 in Stockholm, Ministry for Integration and Gender Equality, 13 February 2007, <http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/08/20/09/5c37d80a.pdf> United Nations CEDAW/C/SVN/4 Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 8. May 2007

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Belgium. SPF Affaires étrangères Commerce extérieur et Coopération au développement, Ministère de la Défense, SPF Intérieur, SPF Justice, Institut pour l’Égalité des femmes et des hommes pour le ministre de l’Égalité des chances, Commission Femmes et Développement, Femmes, Paix et Sécurité: Plan d’action national belge pour la mise en oeuvre de la résolution 1325 du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU, editeur responsible: Dirk Achten, Bruxelles, [2008], <http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ianwge/taskforces/wps/nap/1325Belgium_FR.pdf> Council of Europe, White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue: Living together as equals in dignity: 118th Session of the Committee of Ministers (Strasbourg, 7 May 2008), Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2008, [also in digital format: <http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/Source/White%20Paper%20final%20E N%20020508.pdf>] Denmark, ACT no. 387 of 27 May 2008, Act on the Board of Equal Treatment, Denmark, 27 May 2008, <http://uk.bm.dk/~/media/BEM/Files/English/Acts/Lov%20om%20li11.ashx>

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Denmark. Minister of Employment, The Gender‐Segregated Job Market, Denmark, 2008 European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities Unit G.1, Report on equality between women and men - 2008, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008, [also in digital format: <http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=4613&langId=en>] Hellenic League for Human Rights, National activity Report Greece anti-discrimination and diversity training, May 2008, <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/files/antidiscrimination_training_greece_en.pdf> Italy. Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro, Disposizioni in materia di statistiche di genere : disegno di legge di iniziativa del Consiglio nazionale dell’economia e del lavoro : assemblea, 26 giugno 2008, Roma, CNEL, 2008, [also in digital format: <www.cnel.it/Cnel/view_groups/download?file_path=/shadow_documento_attachment/file_allegatos/000/009/540/ddl_20statistiche_20genere_20-_20riproposizione.pdf>]

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Sweden. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, Act concerning the Equality Ombudsman, 5 June 2008, <http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/11/59/03/b463d1e1.pdf> Sweden. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, Swedish Code of Statutes. Discrimination Act issued on 5 June 2008, SFS n. 567, 25.06.2008, <http://www.regeringen.se/content/1/c6/11/59/03/b463d1e1.pdf> Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, Article 23, Equality Between Man and Women, 2009 Denmark. Minister for Gender Equality, Assessment of the minister for gender quality’s campaign for equal rights, 2009‐2010, Copenhagen, Ligestillingsafdelingen Spain, Real Decreto 1615/2009, de 26 de octubre, por el que se regula la concesión y utilización del distintivo Igualdad en la Empresa, BOE, 03.11.2009 European Commission, Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions : Equality between women and men - 2010, COM/2009/0694 final, Brussels, 18.12.2009, <http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0694:FIN:EN:PDF> European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. Unit G.1, Expert Group in Gender Equality, Social Inclusion, Health and Long-Term Care (EGGSI), Final synthesis report Gender mainstreaming active inclusion policies, Manuscript completed in November 2009, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, [also in digital format: < http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/gender-mainstreaming-activeinclusion-policies-pbKE3010340/downloads/KE-30-10-340-ENC/KE3010340ENC_002.pdf?FileName=KE3010340ENC_002.pdf&SKU=KE30 10340ENC_PDF&CatalogueNumber=KE-30-10-340-EN-C>] Germany. Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency/Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes, Act Implementing European Directives Putting Into Effect the Principle of Equal Treatment, Berlin, Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency/Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes, August 2009, <http://www.antidiskriminierungsstelle.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/EN/publikationen/agg_in_englischer_ Sprache.pdf%3F__blob%3DpublicationFile>

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Perrons, D., Women and gender equity in employment : patterns progress and challenges, Brighton, Institute for Employment Studies, 2009, <http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/policy/resources/040209_40perrons.pdf> Sweden. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, Gender equality in the labour market and the business sector, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, October 2009, <http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/13/36/75/910bd4ad.pdf> Sweden. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, New anti-discrimination legislation and a new agency, the Equality Ombudsman, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, January 2009, <http://legislationline.org/download/action/download/id/3395/file/Sweden_Discrimination info_2009_en.pdf > Sweden. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, The Swedish Government’s gender equality policy, Stockholm, Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, August 2009, <http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/13/07/15/8a48ffb6.pdf>

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UNESCO, Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue, Paris, UNESCO, 2009 (UNESCO World Report No 2) Beijing + 15 : The Platform for Action and the European Union : Report from the Swedish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, Stockholm, Integrationsoch jämställdhetsdepartementet, Regeringskansliet, 2010 [also in digital format: <http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/13/58/90/f49b1bad.pdf >] Commissie Gelijke Behandeling, Jaarverslag 2010, Utrecht, Commissie Gelijke Behandeling, 2010, <http://cgbzoekwebservice.stippweb.net/StippWebDLL/Resources/Handlers/DownloadBestand.ashx?id=480> Czech Republic, Resolution of the Government of the Czech Republic No 464 on the the Summary Report on Fulfilment of the Priorities and Policies of the Government in Promoting Equal Opportunities for Women and Men in 2009, 14.6.2010 European Commission, Communication from the Commission : A Strengthened Commitment to Equality between Women and Men : A Women’s Charter : Declaration by the European Commission on the occasion of the 2010 International Women’s Day, COM(2010) 78 final, Brussels, 5.3.2010,


<http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0078:FIN:EN:PDF> European Commission, Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the Council, The European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions : Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015, COM(2010) 491 final, Brussels, 21.9.2010, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0491:FIN:EN:PDF> European Commission, EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women’s empowerment in development, SEC (2010) 265, Brussels, 8.3.2010, <http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/10/st07/st07261.en10.pdf> European Commission. Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. Unit G.1, Report on Equality between Women and Men 2010, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2010, <http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=4613&langId=en> European Institute for Gender Equality, Mid-term Work Programme (20102012) : adopted 29 April 2010 : final version, Vilnius, European Institute for Gender Equality, 2010, <http://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Mid-term_Work_Programme%2020102012_en.pdf> Germany. Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency/Antidiskriminierungsstelle des BundesGlinkastr, Guide to the General Equal Treatment Act : Explanations and Examples, Berlin, Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency/Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes, November 2010, <http://tbb-berlin.de/downloads_adnb/ADS_2009_AGG_Wegweiser_ englisch.pdf> France. Ministère des affaires étrangères et européennes, Plan national d’action de la France: Mise en oeuvre des résolutions «Femmes, paix et sécurité» du Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies, 2010, <http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/PNA_fr_DEF.pdf> Germany. Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Gender Equality Atlas for Germany, Berlin, Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, August 2010, <http://www.geomar.de/fileadmin/content/zentrum/Gleichstellung/gender_equility_atlas_germany_bmfsfj_2011.pdf>

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Ghailani, D., The policy on gender equality in Belgium : study, Brussels, European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ rights and constitutional affairs. Gender equality, 2010, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201107/20110725ATT24627/20110725A TT24627EN.pdf> Great Britain, Equality Act 2010 : chapter 15, London, The Stationery Office, 2010, [also in digital format: <http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/pdfs/ukpga_20100015_en.pdf>] Great Britain. Government Equalities Office, The Equality Strategy : Building a Fairer Britain : Progress Report, Government Equalities Office, December 2010, <http://www.gla.ac.uk/media/media_197570_en.pdf> The International Federation of Actors, FIA Charter for Gender Equality and Equal Opportunities, 2010, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/2010-GenderCharter-EN.pdf>

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Statistiska centralbyrån, På tal om kvinnor och män : lathund om jämställdhet. 2010= [Women and Men in Sweden 2010], Stockholm, Statistiska centralbyrån, 2010, <http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/LE0201_2010A01_BR_X10BR1001.pdf> UNESCO. Executive Board, Intercultural dialogue in 2010 – revisiting policies within the context of a culture of peace : Thematic Debate, 185th session of the Executive Board, 182 EX/INF.11, Paris, 01.10.2010, <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001895/189555e.pdf> Villa, P. and Smith, M., Gender Equality, Employment Policies and the Crisis in EU Member States, Synthesis Report 2009, 2010, <http:// ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=5630&langId=en> Yannakoudakis, M., Women in the EU : changing lives, growing choices, September 2010, <http://www.marinayannakoudakis.com/Newsletters/women-and-the-euchanging-lives-growing-choices/> Augustin, L. R., The policy on gender equality in Denmark, Brussels, European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ rights and constitutional affairs. Gender equality, 2011, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=60171>


Council of the European Union, Council conclusions on the European Pact for gender equality for the period 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2020 : 3073th Employment, Social Policy, Health And Consumer Affairs Council meeting : Brussels, 7 March 2011, <http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/lsa/119628.pdf> Ireland. Equality Tribunal, What are the Employment Equality Acts 19982011, <http://www.equalitytribunal.ie/Employment-Equality/What-is-theEmployment-Equality-Act-/?> European Commission, Strategy for equality between women and men 20102015, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, <http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=6568&langId=en > European Commission, Commission Staff Working Paper : Report on the progress on Equality between Women and Men in 2010, SEC (2011) 193 final, 2011, <http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/11/st06/st06571.en11.pdf> European Commission, Report on Progress on Equality between Women and Men in 2010 : The Gender Balance in Business Leadership, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, <http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=6562&langId=en> European Institute for Gender Equality, Good Practices in Gender Mainstreaming : Towards Effective Gender Training : Mainstreaming Gender into the Policies and the Programmes of the Institutions of European Union and EU Member States, Lithuania, European Institute for Gender Equality, 2011, <http://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Good-Practices-in-GenderMainstreaming-towards-effective-gender-training_0.pdf> Finland. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Government Report on Gender Equality, Helsinki, Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, 2011, <http://www.stm.fi/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=2765155&name=DLF E-15811.pdf> Fodor, E., The policy on gender equality in Hungary, Brussels, European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizensâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; rights and constitutional affairs. Gender equality, 2011, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201107/20110725ATT24651/20110725ATT246 51EN.pdf>

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European Commission. Department of Justice, Gender Equality in the European Union : (Brochure), Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011 [also in digital format: <http://ec.europa.eu/justice/genderequality/files/brochure_equality_en.pdf>] Italy, Legge 12 luglio 2011, n. 120, Modifiche al testo unico delle disposizioni in materia di intermediazione finanziaria, di cui al decreto legislativo 24 febbraio 1998, n. 58, concernenti la parità di accesso agli organi di amministrazione e di controllo delle società quotate in mercati regolamentati, Gazzetta Ufficiale, n. 174, 28.07.2011, <http://www.normattiva.it/atto/caricaDettaglioAtto?atto.dataPubblicazioneGazzetta=2011-07-28&atto.codiceRedazionale=011G0161&currentPage=1> Sweden. Ministry of Employment, Equal rights and opportunities regardless of sexual orientation or transgender identity or expression, Stockholm, Ministry of Employment, July 2011, <http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/17/25/02/4cdb6344.pdf>

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Szelewa, D., The policy on gender equality in Poland, Brussels, European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ rights and constitutional affairs. Gender equality, 2011, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201107/20110725ATT24649/20110725ATT246 49EN.pdf> Carey, A., Great strides made towards gender equality but playing field is still not level, The Irish Times, 01.02.2012 Council of The European Union, Gender equality and the environment : enhanced decision-making, qualifications and competitiveness in the field of climate change mitigation policy in the EU: Council Conclusions, 11638/12, Brussels, 25.06.2012, <http://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Council%20conclusions%20on%20gender%20equality%20and%20climate%20change.pdf> European Commission, Women on Boards: Commission proposes 40% objective: Press Release, Brussels, 14 November 2012, <http://europa.eu/rapid/pressrelease_IP-12-1205_en.htm> European Commission. Directorate-General for Justice. Unit JUST/D1, European network of legal experts in the field of gender equality, Gender Equality Law in 33 European Countries (Update 2011), [edited by] Sacha Prechal and Susanne Burri, U0pdated by Susanne Burri and Hanneke van Eijken, January 2012,


<http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/files/gender_equality_law_in_33_european_countries_update2011_en.pdf> European Institute for Gender Equality, Rationale for the Gender Equality Index for Europe, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union, 2012, [also in digital format: <http://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Rationale-for-the-Gender-EqualityIndex-for-Europe.pdf>] European Institute for Gender Equality, Review of the Implementation in the EU of area K of the Beijing Platform for Action: Women and the Environment: Gender Equality and Climate Change : Main Findings, Belgium, Publications Office of the European Union, 2012, <http://eige.europa.eu/sites/default/files/Gender%20Equality%20and%20Climate%20Change%20-%20Main%20Findings.pdf> European Parliament. Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality, Draft report on eliminating gender stereotypes in the EU, (2012/2116(INI)), Rapporteur Kartika Tamara Liotard, 20.6.2012, < h t t p : / / w w w. e u r o p a r l . e u r o p a . e u / s i d e s / g e t D o c . d o ? p u b R e f = % 2 F % 2 F E P % 2 F % 2 F N O N S G M L % 2 B C O M PA R L % 2 B P E 491.091%2B01%2BDOC%2BPDF%2BV0%2F%2FEN> Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini. Villa, P., Gonzalez, E., Sansonetti, S., Data for the evaluation of the European semester process from a gender equality perspective, Brussels, European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Policy Department C: Citizens’ rights and constitutional affairs. Gender equality, 2012, <http://www.europarl.europa.eu/committees/en/studiesdownload.html?languageDocument=EN&file=72951> Great Britain. Government Equalities Office, The Equality Strategy : Building a Fairer Britain : Progress Report, UK, 22 May 2012, <https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/85307/progressreport.pdf> Italy. Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali, Audizione I Commissione Affari Costituzionali Senato della Repubblica e I Commissione Affari Costituzionali e XI Commissione Lavoro Camera dei Deputati : Linee programmatiche in materia di Pari Opportunità, relazione del ministro Elsa Fornero, Roma, 24 gennaio 2012,

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<http://www.governo.it/GovernoInforma/Dossier/8_marzo_2012/linee_programmatiche_P_O_24012012.pdf> France. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. Comite Interministeriel des droits des femmes et de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;egalite professionnelle entre les femmes et les homes, Feuille de route, 2013, <http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/Politiques-ministerielles/Egaliteentre-femmes-et-hommes/Actions-Saison-egalite/%28language%29/fre-FR>

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ADDENDA 3 Bibliographical Listing for European and International documents referring to women in music, the performing arts and cultural policies

AUSTRIA Galerie Krinzinger, Frauen Kunst Neue Tendenzen, Innsbruck, Galerie Krinzinger, 1975 Almhofer, E., Performance Art : die Kunst zu leben, Vienna, Böhlau, 1986 Seblatnig, H., Einfach den Gefahren ins Auge Sehen: Kunstlerinnen im Gesprach, Wien, Koln, Graz, Bohlau Verlag, 1988 Bernard, J., Harauer R., Reiter W., Smudits A., Stocker K., Zur Discussion: Kulturpolitik fur die neunziger Jahre, IKUS-lectures Materialinen 8 (1992) Smudits, A., Bontinck, I., Desmond, M., Ostleitner, E., Komponisten-Report : zur sozialen Lage der Komponisten und Komponistinnen in Österreich, Wien, WUV-Universitätsverlag, 1993 Institut für Musiksoziologie, Frau und Musik, Berichte und Informationen, Heft Nr. 18 (1994) Angerer, M., Frauen in der österreichischen Medien- und Kulturindustrie: zur Beschäftigungslage von Frauen als Medien- und Kulturproduzentinnen und vermittlerinnen in der audiovisuellen Produktion : Dezember 1994, Wien, Bundeskanzleramt, Abt. 1/10, Grundsatzabt. für Frauenangelegenheiten, 1995 (Schriftenreihe der Frauenministerin, Bd. 7) Baier, B., Obdachlose Kunst: Das Einfließen sozio-ökonomischer, künstlerischkultureller und geschlechterdifferenter Rahmenbedingungen sowie individueller Lebens-, Arbeits- und Wirkungszusammenhänge in das Kunstverständnis und die Lebenskonzepte junger Kunstschaffender am Beispiel der AbsolventInnen der Studienjahrgänge 1991/92 und 1992/93 der Wiener Kunsthochschulen, Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien, 1995 Ostleitner, E., Liebe, Lust, Last und Leid : eine Studie zur Situation des Orchesternachwuches in Österreich, im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Un-

117


terricht und Kunst, Wien, 1995 Kupf Kulturplattfgorm OO, Frauen – Kultur/Frauen Bausteine und Beispiele zur weiblichen Teilnahme am Kulturbetrieb, Linz, Verein Kupf Kulturplaform, 1997 Sperlich, R., Kunst bzw. Künstlerinnen und Künstler im sowie ums Internet in Österreich, Wien, Mediacult-Bericht, 1997 Ellmeier, A., Rasky, B., Cultural policy in Europe - European cultural policy? : nation-state and transnational concepts, Wien, Österreichische kulturdocumentation, Internationales Archiv für Kulturanalysen, 1998 Ellmeir, A., Ratzenboek, V. (eds), Cultural Competence: New Technologies, Culture & Employment : proceedings of the conference in Linz, 1-3 October 1998, Wien, Österreichische Kulturdokumentation. Internationales Archiv für Kulturanalysen. Bundeskanzleramt, Sektion für Kunstangelegenheiten, 1999 Grosz, A., Delhaes, D. (hrsg.), Die Kultur AG : Neue Allianzen zwischen Wirtschaft und Kultur, München, Hanser, 1999

118 Harauer, R., Mayerhofer, E., Mokre, M., Frauen in Kunst- und Medienberufen in Österreich, Wien, Forschungsprojekt im Auftrag des BM für Soziale Sicherheit und Generationen, Mediacult, 2000 Institut für Musiksoziologie der Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien, Frau und Musik:- Ein Jubiläum, Berichte und Informationen, Heft Nr. 24, (2000) Rollig, S., Hers: Video as Female Terrain, Vienna and New York, Springerin, 2000 Scheuch, F., The Music Industry in Austria : Structure, Opportunities and Economic importance, Vienna, Ueberreuter, 2000 Amann, S., Die Rolle von Kunst und Kultur im Kontext der Reform der Europäischen Union, Engerwitzdorf, InfoRelais, 2002 Eberherr, H., Gruber, N., Hofer, M., Kalny, E., Mayerhofer, Prokop S., Gender-Studies (Cultural Studies?) - Perspektiven von Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung an der Universität Wien. Forschungsbericht im Rahmen des


Forschungsschwerpunktes Perspektiven transdisziplinärer Geschlechterforschung des BMBWK Wien, 2002 Kaufman, T., Raunig, G., Anticipating European cultural policies : Position paper on European cultural policies, Vienna, European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policy, 2002 Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien, Frauenförderungsplan, siehe Mitteilungsblatt vom 07.12.2005, <http://www.mdw.ac.at/senat/satzung/FFP.html#oben> Günther, E., Staritz, N., Abdallah, M.; et al., Trotz.Dem. Immer Wieder. Ansprüche, Widersprüche und Wirklichkeiten der Frauenfrühlingsuniversität 2007, Einblicke und Ausblicke, Wien, Löcker, 2008 Austria. Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten, Women/music : Austria, Wien, Brandstätter, 2009 Pejic, B. (ed.), Gender Check : femininity and masculinity in the art of Eastern Europe, Vienna, MUMOK and Erste Foundation, 2009

119 Pejic, B. (ed.), Gender check : a reader : art and theory in Eastern Europe, Vienna, MUMOK and Erste Foundation, 2010 Rechnungshof, Frauenförderungsplan des Rechnungshofes 2010 und 2011, Wien, [2011?], <http://www.rechnungshof.gv.at/fileadmin/downloads/2010/mitarbeiter/gleichbehandlungsbeauftragte/Frauenfoerderungspl._2010_11.pdf>

BELGIUM Bessieres, Y, Niedzwiecki, P., Women and music, Brussels, Commission of the European Communities, 1985 Bessières, Y., Niedzwiecki, P., Donne e musica, in Donne d’Europa. Supplemento, 22, Bruxelles, Commissione delle Comunità Europee, Direzione Generale Audiovisivi, Informazione, Comunicazione, Cultura, Servizio Informazione Donne, 1985 Buet, J., 100 Jahre Kino : Der Weg der Frauen in der europäischen Filmgeschichte, Brussels, 1996 (Sonderheft von Frauen Europas Nr. 43)


Claeys, S., Het tweede thema : Of the werwaarloosde geschiedenis van de componerende vrouw, Peer, Alamire, 2002 Les femmes et la musique, 2004, <http://www.lamediatheque.be/travers_sons/fc_023.htm>

CZECH REPUBLIC Pachmanova, M., Mobile Fidelity : conversation on feminism, history and visuality, London, KT press, 2006, [also in digital format: <www.ktpress.co.uk/pdf/mpachmanova.pdf>] (First published in Czech as Vìrnost v pohybu, Prague, One Woman Press, 2001) Polacek, R. (FIA), Handbook of Good Practices to Combat Gender Stereotypes and Promote Equal Opportunities in Film, Television and Theatre in Europe, Prague, FIA, 2010, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/Engendering_EN.pdf>

DENMARK

120 Malm, K., Human rights for musicians : ten years with Freemuse, Copenhagen, Freemuse, 2008 Brown, R., Katznelson, N., Hutters, C., Køn og læring i uddannelsessystemet = [Where did the Boys Go?: Gender and Education after A levels], Copenhagen, Center for Ungdomsforskning, 2011, <http://www.cefu.dk/emner/forskningpublikationer/alle-publikationer/koen-og-laering-i-uddannelsessystemet.aspx> Liversage, A., Jakobsen, V., Rode Hansen I., SFI - Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Velfærd, Det var ikke nemt, men jeg klarede det!: Interviewundersøgelse med etniske minoritetskvinder om uddannelse = [It was not easy, but I did it: interview study with ethnic minority women about education], Copenhagen, SFI – Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Velfærd, 2011 ESTONIA Vannas, M., Põhiseadus ja naised, Tallin, Eesti Raamat, 1981 EAS Enterprise Estonia, Creative Industries in Estonia, <http://www.looveesti.ee/attachments/141_Loov_Eesti_web2-11.pdf>


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FINLAND Naisten asemaa tutkiva komitea, Naisten asemaa tutkivan komitean mietintö, Helsinki, Valtion painatuskeskus, 1970 Irjala, A., A minority in music : Women as Professional Composers and Musicians, Helsinki, Arts Coucil of Finland, Working Papers, Nr. 17, 1992, <www.taike.fi/documents/10162/76105/no_17.pdf> Fisher, R., Groombridge, B., Häusermann, J., Mitchell, R., Human rights and cultural policies in a changing Europe : the right to participate in cultural life : report of the European round table held in Helsinki (Finland) 30 April - 2 May 1993, Helsinki, Arts Council of Finland, 1994 (Circle publication, no 6) Kimmo Korhonen, Finnish composers since the 1960s , Helsinki, Finnish music information centre, 1995 Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Ristimäki, E., ARSIS Special Edition 2/2000: Women in the Arts : Changing Landscapes, Helsinki, Finnish Arts Council, 2000 Kasvio, A., Media and the Cultural Industry, 2000, <http://web.archive.org/web/20050425095759/http://www.info.uta.fi/winsoc/engl/lect/ MEDIA.htm >

FRANCE Europe Jazz Network, Goh, F., Strength in Numbers: A Study of Europe Jazz Network, <http://www.europejazz.net/strength_in_numbers.htm> Germain, P., Variations sur un thème féminin, <www.femmesetmusique.com/news/pdf/news1-8.pdf> Le spectacle vivant, un monde égalitaire?: État des lieux, Paris, H-F Ile de France, <http://h.f.idf.free.fr>

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Mayoud, J. (éd.), Femmes et musiques, Paris, Mouvement d’action musicale, 1983 [special number of Action musicale, no. 18/19] Nochlin, L., Femmes, art et pouvoir : et autres essais, trad. de l’anglais (US) par Oristelle Bonis, Nimes, J. Chambon, 1993 [Translation of: Women, art, and power] Femmes artistes international : la plate-forme d’échange des femmes créatrices, Paris, Association Euro-femmes artistes, 1992Menger, P.-M., La Profession de comédien : formations, activités et carrières dans la démultiplication de soi, Paris, Ministère de la culture et de la communication, Département des études et de la prospective, diffusion La Documentation française, 1997 Roster, D., Les femmes et la création musicale : les compositrices européennes du Moyen-Age au milieu du 20 siècle, trad. de l’allemand, Luxembourg, par Denise Modigliani, Paris; Montréal, L’Harmattan, 1998 [Translation of: Allein mit meiner Musik : Komponistinnen in der europäischen Musikgeschichte]

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Rousier, C. (dir.), Histoires de corps, à propos de la formation du danseur, Paris, Cité de la musique, Centre de ressources pour la musique et pour la danse, 1998 Smiers, J., États des lieux de la création en Europe : Le tissu culturel déchiré, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1998 Escal, F., Rousseau Dujardin, J., Musique et différence des sexes, Paris, L’Harmattan, 1999 Herschel, D., Solomos, M., Brotbeck, R. et al., Pascale Criton : les univers microtempérés, Champigny-sur-Marne, Ensemble 2e2m, 1999 Mel Bonis : Une Vocation De Compositrice Contrariée, devoir de maîtrise de Véronique François, faculté de musicologie, Paris IV, Sorbonne, 2000 Chotteau, T., Delmer, F., Jakubowski, P., et al., Rencontre entre artistes et mathématiciennes, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2001 Evain, A., L’Apparition des actrices professionnelles en Europe, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2001


Audéoud, O., Study on the mobility and free movement of people and products in the cultural sector : study No. DG EAC/08/00, Partnership CEJEC – Université PARIS X-EAEA, 2002, <http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/mobility-en_en.pdf> Colloque international : L’accès des femmes à l’expression musicale: Apprentissage, création, interprétation : les musiciennes dans la société contemporaine, vendredi 8 et samedi 9 mars 2002, Colloque organisé par l’Ircam-Centre Pompidou et l’OMF (Observatoire Musical Français), Université Paris IV-Sorbonne, Groupe de recherches Sociologie des faits musicaux et modèles culturels[Abstract of the Colloque available on: http://www.ircam.fr/uploads/media/RA2002.pdf] Goffman, E., L’Arrangement des sexes, traduit de l’anglais par Herve Maury Parsi, La Dispute, 2002 (Le Genre du monde) [Translation of: The arrangement between the sexes] Lyon, M., Hout, G. (dir.), Les femmes et la creation musicale : colloque du Conseil international de la musique et du Centre de documentation de la musique contemporaine : Unesco, 7 et 8 mars 1996, Paris, Conseil international de la musique, Centre de documentation de la musique contemporaine, 2002 Buscatto, M., Chanteuse de jazz n’est point métier d’homme: l’accord imparfait entre voix et instrument, Revue française de sociologie, 44-1 (2003): 35-62 Ravet, H., Coulangeon, Ph., Division sexuelle du travail ches les musiciens français, Sociologie du travail, 3 (2003) Nordera, M., Rousier, C., La Construction de la féminité dans la danse (XVeXVIIIe siècle) : catalogue d’exposition, Pantin, Centre national de la danse, 2004 Donnat, O., La Féminisation des pratiques culturelles, Développement culturel, n. 147 (juin 2005), [also in digital format: <http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/editions/r-devc/dc147.pdf>] IRCAM (éd.), L’accès des femmes à l’expression musicale : apprentissage, création, interprétation : les musiciennes dans la société contemporaine, Paris [etc.], IRCAM, l’Harmattan, 2005 (Univers musical) [Acts of the Colloque international, 8-9 March 2002] Maruani, M. (dir.), Femmes, genre et sociétés : l’état des savoirs, Paris, La Découverte, 2005

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Ravet, H., Féminin et masculin en musique: dynamiques identitaires et rapport de pouvoir, in Green, A. M., Ravet H., L’accès des femmes à l’expression musicale, Paris, Ircam - L’Harmattan, 2005 Des disparités hommes/femmes originales, in Les danseurs: un métier d’engagement, Paris, La Documentation Française, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques, 2006 Ockrent, C., (dir.), Le Livre noir de la condition des femmes, Paris, le Grand livre du mois, DL 2006 Rannou, J., Roharik, I., Les Danseurs : un métier d’engagement, Paris : la Documentation française, 2006 Metteuses en scène: Le théâtre a-t-il un genre?, OutreScène 9 (01.05.2007): 149 Buscatto, M., Femmes du jazz : Musicalités, féminités, marginalisation, CNRS, juin 2007

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Germain, P., Association femmes et musique, Compositrices françaises au XXème siècle, Sampzon, Delatour, 2007 Jelinek, E., Lecerf, C., L’Entretien, Le Seuil/France culture, 2007 Naudier, D., Rollet, B. (dir.), Genre et légitimité culturelle : Quelle reconnaissance pour les femmes?, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2007 (Bibliothèque du féminisme) Sofio, S., Yavuz Perin, E., Molinier, P. (coord.), Genre, féminisme et valeur de l’art, Cahiers du genre n°43 (2007) Germain, P., Des héros pour ces dames! ou Les héros de ces dames ou Des héros pour compositrices!, [Mai 2008], <http://www.femmesetmusique.com/news/pdf/news1-5.pdf> Martin-Fugier, A., Comédiennes : Les actrices en France au XIXème siècle, Paris, Complexe, 2008 Tauzin, A. (dir.), Musique, femmes et interdits : actes du colloque des 3-4 octobre 2008, Centre culturel de rencontre d’Ambronay, Ambronay Editions


Galbaud, D., Place aux femmes, La Scène 54 (21.09.2009): 80-81 Hirs, R., Gilmore, B., Contemporary compositional techniques and Openmusic, Paris, IRCAM-Centre Pompidou; Sampzon (Le Vallier, 07120), Delatour France, 2009 Jambaud, A.-C., La culture est-elle gangrenée par le machisme?, Le Coup de grâce 1 (21.06.2009): 26-31 Qui sont ces femmes qui sont sur nos scènes?: [Actes de la] journée de réflexion du 28 janvier 2009 : Grenoble, Espace 600 Scène Rhône-Alpes, <http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/actualites/co-ddat/co218.html; h tt p :/ / w w w. t h e a t r e d u n o i s . o rg / p u b l i c / p d f formulaire/Espace%20600%20Qui%20sont%20ces%20femmes%2028%2001%2009.pdf> Tissier., E., Etre compositeur, être compositrice en France au 21e siècle, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2009 Hahn, T., Les arts en trans, Danser, n. 304 (2010): 50-52 Benhamou, A.-F., Contemporaines? Rôles féminins dans le théâtre aujourd’hui, OutreScène, 12 (2011) H/F Ile de France, Répartition femme-homme chez les auteurs de la SACD: auteurs ayant perçu des droits en France au moins une fois entre 1997 et 2008, Paris, SACD, 2011, <http://www.sacd.fr> Jambaud, A.-C., En Rhône-Alpes, la prochaine saison culturelle s’engage à l’égalité hommes-femmes, Libération, 29.03.2011 Le Roy, T., D’Avignon à une direction, le rude chemin des metteuses en scène, La lettre du spectacle (2011) Quentin, A., Un cirque d’un nouveau genre, Stradda, 21 (2011): 43-48 Société des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques, Où sont les femmes?, 2013, <http://www.sacd.fr/uploads/tx_sacdresources/OuSontLesFemmes2013.pdf>

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GERMANY Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Wiesand, A., The Project and its Results : Women in Arts and Media Professions: European Comparisons, <http://www.culturegates.info/cg/files/32/en/02eucomp.pdf> Baur, E., … und Frauen kommen vor. Eine Untersuchung über Anzahl und Positionen der Frauen in der privaten Film- und Fernsehproduktion, BadenBaden, E. Baur, 1980 Schmerl, C., Radulovic, V., Sondermeier, T., van Laak-Berenger, R., Frauenfeindliche Werbung : Sexismus als heimlicher Lehrplan, Berlin, Elefanten Press, 1981 Frauenhaus,e.v., Kassel, Gewalt Gegen Frauen, Kassel, Frauenhaus,e.v., 1984 Salmen, G., Musiker im Porträt; 5: Das 20. Jarhundert, Munchen, Beck, 1984 GEDOK, Gegenlicht 60 Jahre Gedok, Berlin, GEDOK, 1986

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Zechlin, R., Situationen, Reflexionen, Gespräche, Erfahrungen, Gedanken, Berlin, Neue Musik Berlin, 1986 Barta, I., et al. (eds) Frauen: Bilder: Manner: Mythen: Kunsthistoriche Beitrage: Kunsthistorikerinnin-Tagung in Wein, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1987 Olivier, A., Weingartz-Perschel, K., Internationaler Arbeitskreis Frau und Musik, Frauen als Komponistinnen : eine Bestandesaufnahme, 2. erw. Aufl, Düsseldorf, Frauenmusikvertrieb, 1987 Weissweiler, E., Sperber, R., Kulturinstitut Komponistinnen, Gestern-Heute, Die Frau in der Musikgeschichte : Komponistinnen Gestern-Heute : 3. internationales Festival, Heidelberg, 12-14. Juni 1987 : unter der Schirmherrschaft von Frau Ministerin Barbara Schäfer, Das Kulturinstitut, Heidelber, 1987 Wiesand, A. J., Frauen im Kultur- und Medienbetrieb. 1,: Datenerhebungen und zusammenfassender Bericht (Pilotstudie) des Zentrums für Kulturforschung, Bonn für das Bundesministerium für Bildung und Wissenschaft, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1987


Hummel, M., Berger, M., Die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Kunst und Kultur, Berlin, Munich, Duncker and Humblot, 1988 Olivier, A., Weingartz-Perschel, K., Komponistinnen von a-z, Dusseldorf, Tokkata, 1988 Rieger, E., Frau, Musik & Männerherrschaft: zum Ausschluss der Frau aus der deutschen Musikpädagogik, Musikwissenschaft und Musikausübung, Kassel, Furore-Verlag, 1988 Eromaki, A., Zur Situation von Frauen in Kunstbetrieb: Dokumentation eines Seminar und Forschungsprojektes, 1983-1989, Berlin, Hochschule der Kunste, 1989 Linder, I., Schade, S., Wenk, S., Werner, G., Blick Wechsel: Konstructuionen von Mannlichkeit und Weiblichkeit un Kunst und Kunstgeschichte : 4.Kunsthistorikerinnin-Tagung in Berlin, Berlin, Dietrich Remier Verlag, 1989 Rieger, E., Oster, M., Schmidt, S. (éd.), Sopran contra Bass : Die Komponistin im Musikverlag, Kassel, Furore Verlag, 1989

127 Breitling, G., Der Verborgene Eros Weiblichkeit und Mannlichkeit im Zerrspeigel der Kunste, Frankfurt, Aufsatze, 1990 Frau und Musik, Internationaler Arbeitskreis : Archiv, Archivbestand Noten 1990, Kassel, Furore Verlag, 1990 (Schriftenreihe des Internationalen Arbeitskreises Frau und Musik, 1) Olivier, A., Komponistinnen : eine Bestandsaufnahme, Düsseldorf, TokkataVerlag für Frauenforschung, 1990 Linder, I., Georgen, T., Radenhausen, S., Ich bin nicht ich wenn ich sehe: Dialogue Aesthetiche Praxis in kunst und wissenschaft von Frauen, Berlin, Dietrich Remier Verlag, 1991 Hoffmann, F., Rieger, E., Von der Spielfrau zur Performance-Künstlerin: auf der Suche nach einer Musikgeschichte der Frauen, Kassel, Furore, 1992 Petzinger, R., Koszinowski, I, Künstlerinnen, Filmemacherinnen, Designerinnen, Arbeits- und Wirkungsmöglichkeiten in den alten Bundesländern, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Wissenschaft, Schriftenreihe Bildung - Wis-


senschaft, Aktuell 3/92 (1992) Baumgart, S., et al. (ed.), Denkraume: Zwischen Kunst und Wissenchaft: 5.Kunsthistorikerinnin-Tagung in Hamburg, Berlin, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1993 FrauenKunstGeschichte Forschung Marburg, Feministische Bibliographie zur Frauenforschung in der Kunstgeschichte, Pfaffenweiler, Centaurus-Verl.Ges., 1993 Jappe, E., Performance, Ritual, Prozess : Handbuch der Aktionskunst in Europe, Munich, New York, Prestel, 1993 Stecker, H., Künstlerinnen im Umbruch, Oder wohin verschwinden die Frauen?, Was soll - was will Feminismus heute? Bulletin Nr. 1, Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Frauenforschung, Berlin, 1993 Bliss, F., Gaesing, K, Häusler, S., Neumann, S., Ansätze der Frauenförderung im internationalen Vergleich, Köln, Weltforum Verlag, 1994

128

Brinkmann, A., Brünglinghaus, I., Keuchel, S., Wiesand, A., Trotz Fleiß keinen Preis? : Frauen in der individuellen Künstlerförderung 1986-1994, Bonn, ARCultMedia, 1994 Frau und Musik, Internationaler Arbeitskreis : Archiv, Bestandverzeichnis Noten 1994. Ergänzungsband, Kassel, Furore Verlag, 1994 (Schriftenreihe des Internationalen Arbeitskreises Frau und Musik, 3) Richter, A., Stark und sensibel, Frauen am Dirigentenpult: Sensation oder Selbstverständnis?, Das Orchester, Jg. 42, Heft 9 (1994) Beckmann, A., Begriefungskrafte : Kunstlerinnen Heute, Karlsruhe, Badischer Kunstverein, 1995 Brinkmann, A., Frauen im Kultur- und Medienbetrieb. 2, Report für das Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. = Qualification and Professional Outlook, Bonn, ARCult, 1995 Deutscher Kulturrat, Frauen in der Kultur, Zwei Untersuchungen des Deutschen Kulturrates, Bonn, Deutscher Kulturrat, 1995 Hoffmann, F., Eber, F., (éd.), Bücherverzeichnis Frau und Musik : 1800-1993, Oldenburg, BIS, 1995


Kunstschule Oldenburg, Frauen in der Kulturarbeit : Positionen und Konfliktlinien, Dokumentation, Unna, 1995 Ziesche, A., Das Schwere und das Liechte: Kunstlerinnen des 20 Jahrhunderts, Skulpturen, Objekte, Installationen, Köln, Dumont, 1995 Kulturamt der Stadt Köln, Künstlerinnen im Kultugeschäft : Zur Situation bildender Künstlerinnen, Musikerinnen, Theatermacherinnen, Filmemacherinnen, Schriftstellerinnen in Köln, 1996 Sperber, R., Komponistinnen in Deutschland, Bonn, Inter Nationes, 1996 Sperber, R., Women composers in Germany, Bonn, Inter Nationes, 1996 Cliche, D., Schmidt, L., Women in Arts and Media Professions : Report from the 1st Europen Expert Conference : Königswinter/Bonn, 1997, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1997 ERICarts, Women in arts & media professions: 1st European expert conference, Königswinter/Bonn 1997 : European Comparisons= Frauen in Kulturund Medienberufen, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1997 (Zentrum für Kulturforschung (Bonn).; Project papers) Gegenwelten : 10 Jahre Internationales Festival fur Neue Musik, 10 Jahre Kulturinstitut Komponistinnen Heidelberg, 10 Jahre Heidelberg Festival Ensemble: eine Dokumentation, Heidelberg, Kulturinstitut Komponistinnen gestern-heute, 1997 Adkins Chiti, P., The Power of Culture, in ERICarts, Women, Equality and Cultural Policies, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1998 Cliche, D., Mitchell, R., Weisand, A. J., Women in cultural policy, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1998 ERICarts, Les femmes dans les politiques culturelles, Bonn, ARCultMedia, 1998 ERICarts, Women, equality and cultural policies, Bonn, ARCult Media, 1998 Kräuter, M., Berufsfeld: Darstellende Kunst : Zur wirtschaftlichen Situation und sozialen Absicherung darstellender Künstler in Deutschland : Eine Stu-

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tus of Women in Arts and Media Professions in Europe, Bonn, ARCult Media/ERICarts/ZfKf, 2000 Hoffmann, F., Bowers, J. M., Heckmann, R., Frauen und Männerbilder in der Musik: Festschrift für Eva Rieger zum 60. Geburtstag, Oldenburg, Bibliotheksund Informationssystem der Universität Oldenburg BIS Verl., 2000 Homma, M. (hrsg.), Frau Musica (nova): Komponieren heute = Composing today : Symposium Köln, 28.-30. Oktober 1998, Sinzig, Studio, 2000 Kumi, V., Ganz automatisch ein Genie? Cyberfeministische Vernetzung und die schöne Kunst, Karriere zu machen = [Automatically a Genius? Cyberfeminist Networking and the Art of Having a Career] in Haase, S. (ed.), Musen Mythen Markt: Jahrbuch VII der Frauenbeauftragten der Hochschule der Künste Berlin, Berlin, 2000 Brinkmann, A., Frauen im Kultur und Medienbetrieb. 3, Fakten zu Berufssituation und Qualifizierung : Report für das Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Technologie, Bonn, ARCult, 2001 Keuchel, S., Brinkmann, A., Wiesand, A., Zentrum für Kulturforschung (Hg.), Trotz Fleiß - keinen Preis? Frauen in der individuellen Künstlerförderung II, Ein Report des Zentrums für Kulturforschung für das Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend, Bonn, ARCult Media, 2001 Kulturbüro Rheinland-Pfalz, Frauen in Kunst und Kultur: Netzwerke, Verbände, Initiativen, Koblenz, Kulturbüro Rheinland-Pfalz, 2001 [CD-ROM with directories of almost 80 different organizations] Hassler, M., Wie ist das aber bei Mädchen? Geschlechtsspezifische Unterschiede in der Entwicklung des kreativen musikalischen Potentials (But How Does it Work with Girls? Gender Specific Differences in the Development of Musical Talent), Üben&Musizieren, Zeitschrift für Musikschule, Studium und Musikpraxis: Gender Studies, Volume 5 (Oktober/November 2002) Liepold, R., Hack, B., Exklusiv für Frauen : Qualitative Untersuchung zum Selbstverständnis von weiblichen Zusammenschlüssen = [For Women Only: Qualitative Research into the Self-perception of female Associations], Mediendienst FORSCHUNG, Nr. 146 (2002) Sick, A., Reiche, C. (eds), Technics of Cyber Feminism, Bremen, Thealit Frauen.

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LUXEMBOURG Hohfeld, B., Kries, M., Lindauer, E., Thoma, M., G/Befangen G/Befreit: Frauenlyrik in Luxemburg, Differdange, Ed. du Centre Culturel, 1980 Roster, D., Höhn, D., Komponistinnen entdecken : Unterrichtsmappe für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer der Vorund Primärschulen, Luxemburg, MENFP, Cidfemmes, 2006

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PORTUGAL Azvedo, S., A invenção dos sons: uma panorâmica da composição em Portugal hoje, Lisboa, Caminho, 1998 Conde, I., Duplo écran na condição artística, In Carvalhão Buescu, H., Ferreira Duarte, J., Narrativas da modernidade : a construção do outro, Lisbon, Colibri, 2001 Fiadeiro, M. A. (coord.), Mulheres Século XX : 101 Livros, Lisbon, Department of Culture of Lisbon Municipal Council, 2001 Conde, I., Making distinctions: Conditions for women working in serious music and in (new) media arts in Portugal, in ERICarts, FinnEKVIT, Mediacult, Observatorio das Actividades Culturais (eds)., Culture-gates : Gatekeeping Processes in Music and New Media Arts in Europe, Bonn, ARCultMedia, 2003 Conde, I., Art and Power: Contemporary Figurations, CIES e-Working Paper n. 121 (2012), <http://www.cies.iscte.pt/destaques/documents/CIESWP121_Conde.pdf

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142 Leppert, R., McClary, S., Music and Society : The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989 Wolff, J., The Ideology of Autonomous Art, In Music and Society: The Politics of Composition, Performance and Reception, edited by Richard Leppert and Susan McClary, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989, pp. 1-12 Wolff, J., Feminine sentences : essays on women and culture, Cambridge, Polity Press, 1990 Bennet, O., British Cultural Policies 1970-1990, Boekmancahier 9 (1991): 293301 Wynne, D. (ed.), The Culture Industry, Aldershot, Avebury, 1991 Bergeron, K., Bohlman, P. V., Disciplining Music: Musicology and Its Canons, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press, 1992 Citron, M. J., Gender and the Musical Canon, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993


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143 Geyer-Ryan, H, Fables of desire : studies in the ethics of art and gender, Cambridge, Polity, 1994 Jackson, C., Honey, S., Hillage, J., Stock, J., Careers in Training in Dance and Drama, Report no. 268, Brighton, Institute of Manpower Studies, 1994 Bennet, O., Cultural policy in the United Kingdom: Collapsing rationales and the end of a tradition, The European Journal of Cultural Policy, 1 (2/1995): 199-216 Burnett, R., The Global Jukebox : The International Music Industry, London, Routledge, 1995 Kawashima, N., Comparing cultural policy : towards the development of comparative study, International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol 1(2), (1995): 289â&#x20AC;&#x201C;307 Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Brian, J., Feist, A, Employment in the arts and cultural industries, Arts Council of England, 1995


Skeggs, B. (ed), Feminist Cultural Theory: Process & Production, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1995 Spence, J., Cultural Sniping : The Art of Transgression, London, Routledge, 1995 Thomas, H., Klett-Davies, M., Unequal Pay for Equal Parts : a survey of performers in the theatre and the electronic media, London, Goldsmiths University of London, 1995 Fuller, S., The Women in Music Guide to Orchestral Repertorie by Women Composers, London, Women in Music, 1996 Pollock, G. (ed), Generations and Geographies, London, Routledge, 1996 Towse, R., The Economics of Artists’ Labour Markets, Arts Council of England, London, 1996 Green, L., Music, Gender, Education, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997

144 Halsted, J., The Women Composer : Creativity and the Gendered Politics of Musical Composition, London, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 1997 Bobo, J., Black Women Film & Video Artists, London, Routledge, 1998 Carter, C., Branston, G., Allan, A., News, Gender and Power, London, New York, Routledge, 1998 Heddon, E. D., In search of the subject : locating the shifting politics of women’s performance art, University of Glasgow, 1999 McRobbie, A., In the Culture Society : Art, Fashion and Popular Music, London, Routledge, 1999 Osborne Marketing Intelligence, Report of a Survey of Members 1999, London, British Actors’ Equity Association, 1999 Pollock, G., Differencing the Canon: Feminist Desire and the Writing of Arts Histories, London, Routledge, 1999


Banks, M., Lovatt, A., O’Connor, J., Raffo, C., Risk and trust in the cultural industries, Geoforum 31, (2000): 453-464 Brown, A., O’Connor, J., Cohen, S., Local music policies within a global music industry: cultural quarters in Manchester and Sheffield, Geoforum 31 (2000): 437-451 Heartfield, J., Great Expectations: The Creative Industries in the New Economy, London, Design Agenda, 2000 York, N., Laing, D., Nice Work – If You Can Get It; - A survey of musicians employment 1978-98 , Musicians’ Union, London, 2000 Ambasche, D., Why Women Composers can no longer be ignored, Classic fm Magazine (March 2001) Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), Creative Industries: Mapping Document 2001, 2001 Reeves, M. , Measuring the economic and social impact of the arts: A review, in Arts Council of England Research Report No.24, Arts Council England, 2002 Grimeley, T., Will Orchestras be Female in the Future, BBC Music Magazine (March 2003) Jones, A., The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, London, Routledge, 2003 University of Strathclyde (ed.), Gender Culture Power, Glasgow, 2003 Arts Council England, The impact of the arts : some research evidence, Arts Council England, 2004 Inness, S., Action Chicks: New Images of Tough Women in Popular Culture, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004 Brzyski, A., Partisan Canons, Durham and London, Duke University Press, 2007 Meyers, T. R., Mary Heilmann : Save the Last Dance for Me, London, Afterall Books, 2007 Petrescu, P. (ed), Altering Practices : Feminist Politics and Poetics of Space,

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London, Routledge, 2007 Bakhshi, H., McVittie, E., Simmie, J., Creating Innovation : Do the creative industries support innovation in the wider economy?, 2008, <http://www.nesta.org.uk/library/documents/Report%20-%20Creative%20Innovation%20v5.pdf> Dean, D., Industrial Relations Research Unit, Age, gender and performer employment in Europe: Report on research for the International Federation of Actors (FIA) project â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Changing gender portrayal: promoting employment opportunities for women in the performing artsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, UK, FIA, October 2008, <http://www.fia-actors.com/uploads/ENGLISH.pdf> Equal Opportunities Commission, Sex and Power Index, London, Equal Opportunities Commission, 2008, <http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/uploaded_files/sex_and_power_2008_pdf .pdf> Appignanesi, R. (ed.), Beyond Cultural Diversity : the case for creativity, London, Third Text, 2010

146 Equality Challenge Unit and University of Westminster, Work Placements in the Arts and Cultural Sector; Diversity, Equality and Access, London, Equality Challenge Unit, 2010, <http://www.ecu.ac.uk/publications/files/work-placements-in-the-arts-and-cultural-sector.pdf/view?searchterm=Placements%20in%20the%20Arts%20and%20Cultural%20Sector;%20Diversity,%20Equality%20and%20Access > Gunnel, B., Bright, M. (eds.), Creative Survival in Hard Times : a New Deal of the Mind report for Arts Council England, London, New Deal of the Mind, March 2010, <http://www.thecreativesociety.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2011/02/Creative_Survival_NDotM_for_ACE_march_2010_FINA L.pdf> Andrew, K., Why there are so few female composers, 8 February 2012, <http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/feb/08/why-so-few-femalecomposers> ECOTEC, Information systems to support the mobility of artists and other professionals in the culture field: a feasibility study: Final report, March 2012, < h t t p : / / e c . e u r o p a . e u / c u l t u r e / k e y -


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VATICAN CITY John Paul II, Apostolic Letter Duodecimum Saeculum (4 December 1987), 89: AAS 80 (1988), pp. 247-249 John Paul II,  Encyclical Letter Fides et Ratio (14 September 1998), 80: AAS 91 (1999) John Paul II,  Letter to Artists, Vatican City, April 4, 1999

147 AUSTRALIA Swanson, G., Wise, P., Going for broke : women’s participation in the arts and cultural industries, Brisbane, Australian Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy, 1998

CANADA Greenglass, E. R., A World of Difference : Gender Roles in Perspective, Toronto, Wiley, 1982 Samuel, R., Women Composers Today: A Personal View, Contact 32 (1988): 53-54 Lazier, K., Where are the women in the pop music business, The Canadian Composer, no. 244 (October 1989): 20-23. Lamb, R., Are There Gender Issues in School Music?, Canadian Music Educator 31 (May 1990): 9-13


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Beale, A., Van Den Bosch, A., Ghosts in the Machine : Women and Cultural Policy in Canada and Australia, Toronto, Garamond Press, 1998 Direction générale de la condition féminine de l’Ontario, A juste titre : guide de rédaction non sexiste, Toronto, Direction générale de la condition féminine de l’Ontario, 1998 Baeker, G., Sharpening the Lens: Recent Research on Cultural Policy, Cultural Diversity, and Social Cohesion, Canadian Journal of Communication, vol. 27, no. 2 (2002) Brault, S., The Arts and Culture as New Engines of Economic and Social Development, Policy Options -Montreal- 26, no. 3, (2005): 56-60 Gates, E., Where Are All the Women Composers? : Reclaiming a Cultural Heritage, Canadian Music Educator 35/5 (Spring 1994): 17-19 [Reprinted in The Kapralova Society Journal 1 (Spring 2005): p. 8-10] Gates, E., Women Composers: A Critical Review of the Psychological Literature, Canadian Music Educator 39 (Winter 1998): 37-41. Reprinted in The Kapralova Society Journal 2 (Fall 2005): 6-11


Gates, E., The Woman Composer Question: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives, The Kapralova Society Journal 2 (Fall 2006): 1-11 Féral, J., Voix de femmes, in Féral, J., Mise en scène et jeu de l’acteur III, Montréal, éd. Québec Amérique, 2007 Turbide, J., Laurin, C., Performance Measurement in the Arts Sector : The Case of the Performing Arts, International journal of arts management, vol. 11, no. 2 ( winter 2009) Secrétariat à la condition féminine du ministère de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine, Pour que l’égalité de droit devienne une égalité de fait: Vers un deuxième plan d’action gouvernemental pour l’égalité entre les femmes et les ommes : Cahier de consultation, Quebec, 2010 [also in digital format: <http://www.scf.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/publications/politique/MCCCF_CahierDeConsultation_12p_WEB.pdf>]

JAMAICA

149 Craig, C., The Changing Status of Women in the Arts : A Preliminary Reference, Kingston, Jamaica, Women’s Bureau, 1975

NORWAY Lorentzen, A. H., Kvinnene i musikken: repetisjonens logikk = [Women in music: Repetition logic], <http://www.ballade.no/nmi.nsf/doc/art2009061715342120353398> Habbestad, K., Arrangement, arenaer og aktører i Norsk samtidsmusikk = Arrangements, arenas and actors in contemporary Norwegian music, Oslo, Norsk Komponistforening, Distribusjon Norsk Musikforlag, 1992 Skyllstad, K., Habbestad, K., Norsk samtidsmusikk gjennom 25 år: temaer, tendenser og talenter = 25 years of contemporary Norwegian music: themes, trends and talents, Oslo, Norsk Komponistforening, Distribusjon, Norsk Musikforlag, 1992 Stavrum, H., Syngedamer eller jazzmusikere? Fortellinger om jenter og jazz =


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European key changes for women in music and performing arts  

Edited by Patricia Adkins Chiti - Introduction MEP Silvia Costa - S&D - European Parliament, Bruxelles, 2014

European key changes for women in music and performing arts  

Edited by Patricia Adkins Chiti - Introduction MEP Silvia Costa - S&D - European Parliament, Bruxelles, 2014

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