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Human Rights Report 2016.11.

Myanmar

Massacre in Meikthilar and Justice Unredressed

Daily life of Cha Aye Thar Yar village in Meikthilar in September, 2015 Š ADI


Asian Dignity Initiative We focus on the asian regions with conflicts, natural disaster, and grave human rights violation. We meet local victims and activists who protect their own dignity and strive for changing their lives. We connect heart to heart and people to people. We act together through learning and cooperation.We join in the change toward harmonious and peaceful world through heart, empathy, action and solidarity. Investigating the local human rights condition and human rights monitoring and documentation, providing legal support for victims, supporting activists’ works: human rights education, activity costs, local-based monitoring group, and network activities, providing psychological response at early stage, providing psychotherapy, establishing a peaceful relationship, and introspecting supporting village, and fostering village activists and supporting small-sized gatherings and link for change, we make peace through solidarity.


The Seagull The Seagull was founded in 2014 by a group of prominent human rights and peace activists in Mandalay to develop a peaceful Burmese society which fully respects human rights and democratic values. The organization has gained notoriety for its innovative interfaith approach to stemming communal violence in Mandalay. The Seagull has been deeply involved in the movement for inter-religious reconciliation and respect for religious pluralism in Myanmar. The Seagull is also an active advocacy organization working with many international, regional and domestic partners advocating human rights particularly focusing on freedom of religions or beliefs. The Seagull run a human rights resource center in Mandalay, focusing on challenging discrimination and the persecution of minorities and marginalized communities.


Acknowledgments

This report is a result of the mutual project of The Seagull and Asian Dignity Initiative. We would like to thank a local partner in Meikthilar that organized interview with victims making this report.

Also special thanks to the HTT chairmen and U San Win Shein.

Above all, we would like to show our respect and gratitude to every victim and witness who had to recall the painful memories they want to forget to give interviews.


Table of Contents

Ⅰ Introduction

2

1. Background 2. Objectives 3. Methodology and Limitations

Ⅱ 3 Days of Turmoil: Murders and Arson

5

1. Beginning of Tragedy 2. Expansion of Turmoil 3. Culmination of Turmoil 4. Incomprehensible Reaction of the Police

Ⅲ Access to Justice

13

Ⅳ Status of Local IDPs

16

1. Condition of IDPs Camps 2. People Returning and People Left

Ⅴ Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter, the Resettlement Village

19

Ⅵ Institutionalized Oppression and Discrimination

21

Ⅶ Conclusion

23

Ⅷ Recommendations

24


â… . Introduction

The Massacre of Muslims by the Buddhist-nationalist mob group took place on March 20, 2013 in Meikthilar, Myanmar, and continued for 3 days. 43 people died, 86 people were injured, and 13,000 people were displaced.

1. Background From March 20, 2013, a gruesome massacre beyond

On March 29, 2013, the Myanmar government

imagination took place for three days in Meikthilar,

announced that 43 people died, 86 people were

the central part of Myanmar.

injured, 1,355 buildings and houses were burned down or destructed in 15 townships, and 13,000

The rioters were armed with chains, knives, long

people were displaced.1 Despite the disparity

swords, and iron pipes and moved around in groups

between the statistics announced by the government

of dozens of people. They instigated people by

and the Muslim community, the seriousness of this

saying “We will kill them all. We cannot spare their

incident is still apparent.

lives.� and looked for people as if they were hunting. The Muslims, the minority group, were on the run

The efforts the Myanmar government and

to avoid the riot of the Buddhist-nationalist mob

international society showed regarding this horrific

group and had to take refuge in jungle, swamp, or

massacre and human rights violation have been

anywhere where they could avoid the rioters. The

unsatisfactory. The Myanmar government did not

houses, stores, and mosques of the Muslims were set

put serious efforts into resolving the incident. The

on fire. Some of the rioters mercilessly killed dozens

victims testified that the police were present at the

of students and teachers with long swords and iron

scene, but they only stood by and watched rather

pipes and burned their bodies. Among the bodies

than stop violence or protect victims. Some even

being burned included a number of people still alive.

said that the police indirectly supported the rioters.2

The three days of madness that led to massacre,

The victims pointed out that there was a religious

arson, and violence died down slowly after the Myanmar government declared a state of emergency. 2


discrimination in the process of judicial settlement of

temporarily staying from outside. The members

the perpetrators.3

of the Asian Human Rights Team of MINBYUN realized the seriousness of this incident as they listened to the unbelievable testimonies and witnessed

Above all, a full-scale investigation on the massacre

the poor state of IDPs camps and agreed that the

and human rights violation was not realized, not to

international society should listen to the voices of the

mention the punishment of the people responsible

victims and take action.

and the compensation for victims.

In Korea, the Asian Human Rights Team of

The UN and the international society did not put

MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society

much effort into finding the truth either. Only the

visited Meikthilar for the first time on July 29, 2014.5

Physicians for Human Rights published a report right

They listened to the testimonies of some victims and

after the incident4 and some reports only mentioned

observed the local IDPs camps where victims were

the incident as a disturbance in Meikthilar. The

temporarily staying from outside. The members

incident was covered by several media but was soon

of the Asian Human Rights Team of MINBYUN

forgotten.

realized the seriousness of this incident as they listened to the unbelievable testimonies and witnessed

In Korea, the Asian Human Rights Team of

the poor state of IDPs camps and agreed that the

MINBYUN-Lawyers for a Democratic Society

international society should listen to the voices of the

visited Meikthilar for the first time on July 29, 2014.4

victims and take action.

They listened to the testimonies of some victims and observed the local IDPs camps where victims were

Muslim houses destroyed by the Buddhist-nationalist mobs on March 21, 2013 Š HTT

3


2. Objectives

the perpetrators, appropriate compensation, and prevention of recurrence, and put efforts into respecting, protecting, and realizing the human

It has been three years since the Meikthilar massacre.

rights of minority races and religions in Myanmar in

Until now, no independent and fair investigation on

company with the international society.

the massacre and human rights violation has been made. As far as we know, no measure has been taken to punish the perpetrators, compensate the victims, and prevent recurrence. Rather, the victims testify that they are still enduring the continuous and systematic discrimination.

It is not likely that the Myanmar government has a political will to take such actions. For example, the Myanmar government published in late May, 2013 the ‘Investigation Report on the Violence between Buddhists and Muslims’ that took place in Rakhine State. However, it is questionable whether the government report is showing the results of the independent and fair investigation. The government report is recommending that ‘the number of children of Rohingya women shall be limited to two’.6 Such stance of the Myanmar government is not much different from that of the Buddhist-nationalist mob group and reflects how Muslim, a minority religion, is being treated institutionally in Myanmar.

Asian Dignity Initiative and The Seagull interviewed the victims and interest holders of the Meikthilar massacre who were institutionally excluded by the government and living in the threat and fear of the Buddhist-nationalist mob group and the 969 Movement to record the circumstance at the time of the incident and the human rights violation that has continued. With this report, Asian Dignity Initiative and The Seagull wishes to urge the Myanmar government to take responsible measures, such as neutral and fair investigation on the massacre and human rights investigation, punishment of 4


by giving interview, which hampered Asian Dignity

3. Methodology and Limitations

Initiative and The Seagull from getting detailed information needed for precise description of the incident. In addition, Asian Dignity Initiative and

This report was drawn up after literature research

The Seagull were not able to interview the people

and two site visits. On the first visit, Asian Dignity

concerned with the police, prosecution, and court

Initiative and The Seagull interviewed the local

that were in charge of the incident due to the

lawyers, representatives and activists of local

systematic discrimination and oppression against the

organizations, victimized residents, and IDPs camp

Muslims that are still prevalent in Meikthilar.

residents from May 18 to 20 in 2016 and visited Chan Aye Thar Yar quarter, one of the victimized regions, a IDPs camp at District Stadium, and Yadana Oo Monastery.

The second visit took place from September 24 to October 1 in 2016. The targets of the investigation included the victims of the Meikthilar massacre and their families, the lawyers who supported victims, Buddhist monks, local residents, representatives of local organizations, and the witnesses. The interviews were conducted at safe places after discussion with the local organizations and leaders for the sake of victims’ security. Asian Dignity Initiative and The Saegull also visited some victims’ houses after thorough review. All interviews were closed-door face-to-face with 1 interviewee, 1 interviewer and in time of need 1 interpreter.

In order to keep the neutrality of the information collected via interviews, Asian Dignity Initiative and The Seagull tried to listen to as many victims and interest holders as possible. Asian Dignity Initiative and The Seagull cross-checked the collected information and supplemented the matters that lacked testimonies or clarity with existing reports, newspaper or online articles, and confirmation from the local activists. Many victims and residents were afraid of getting harmed by the Myanmar government or the Buddhist-nationalist mob group 5


Ⅱ. 3 Days of Turmoil: Murders and Arson

People gathered at jewelry shop on March 20, 2013 © HTT

6


1. Beginning of Tragedy

Buddhists. At around 12:30pm, some people started shouting that “The Muslims who participated in

On March 20, 2013, at around 9am, a female

the violence have not been arrested and are hiding

Buddhist Aye Aye Naing and her husband U Khin

somewhere”, and the crowd began attacking the

Maung Win visited New Weint Sein Jewelry Shop

jewelry shop. They threw stones at the shop and

inside a market in downtown Meikthilar. The owner

shouted profanities showing their contempt towards

of this jewelry shop was Muslim. Aye Aye Naing

the Muslims. This incident was quickly spread via

wanted to sell her gold hair clip and she thought she

Facebook, even false facts about the incident. There

would at least get one hundred thousand Myanmar

was an unconfirmed rumor that the customers at

kyats. The jeweler at New Weint Sein appraised the

the time were not the Buddhist couple but actually a

hair clip and confirmed that it is not authentic and

grandmother and her grandson and the grandmother

only worth fifty thousand kyats.7

was murdered and the grandson was taken to the hospital.11

However, Aye Aye Naing stated that the jeweler broke the hair clip and Mying Myint Aye, the owner

As the scene started to get violent, U San Win Shein

of the shop, suggested fifty thousand kyats. Aye Aye

felt a threat to his own security so he got out of the

Naing and her husband insisted that they would

crowd and went to a mosque. On the way, he saw

not sell the hair clip for fifty thousand kyats and

one of his acquaintances escorted by the police,

requested them to restore the broken hair clip. When

bleeding.12

the owner of the shop rejected, their conversation got heated. According to the witnesses, the owner of the shop slapped Aye Aye Naing’s face and her husband

In the afternoon of March 20, the violence got

yelled and protested. Three other staff members of

aggravated irrevocably. At around 5:30pm, several

the jewelry shop beat up the husband and inflicted an

young Muslims tried to murder a Buddhist monk.13

injury on his head.8

According to San San Win who witnessed the

Aye Aye Naing went outside and asked for help to

attempt murder, four young Muslim guys attacked

the witnesses and people passing by. People started

a Buddhist monk who was passing by on a bike and

to gather around. U San Win Shein, who was present

then poured gasoline on him and set him on fire.14

at the scene at the time, testified that “The police

This incident was spread across Meikthilar in an

arrived at around 10am and arrested and confined

instant and over a thousand people started to attack

the shop owner and staff. The Buddhist couple had

the houses, stores, and mosques of the Muslims.15

been taken to the hospital at that time”.9 He also said

Meikthilar, a small city with a population of four

that “The police shouted to people that everything

hundred thousand, was gradually getting seized in a

was under control, but the people would not leave.

turmoil.

Rather, more and more people gathered around”.10

As the police failed to disperse the crowd, the crowd continued to grow and most of them were

7


2. Expansion of Turmoil Turmoil was further expanded on the next day. Ko Maw Naing Htun, the husband of Ma Aye Aye

Thri Mingalar Quarter has a lot more Muslim

who lives in Thri Mingalar Quarter, was taken to

mosques, stores, and housing facilities compared

a ward (quarter-affiliated administrative district)

to other quarters in Meikthilar and it started to be

administrative office and cruelly murdered. His

attacked on the 20th at 7pm.

body was set on fire while administrative officers watched.23

U San Win Shein recalled the situation at the time as follows;

Ko Har Shim, alias, Ko Min Min Latt, Nur

“The mosques in Thri Mingalar were set on fire.

Mohamed, and U Maung Maung who lived in

I heard that a friend of mine nearby was beaten

Mingalar Zayone Quarter were all brutally murdered

up and taken to the hospital. By 8pm, the whole

by two Buddhist monks and rioters.24

Thri Mingalar region was blacked out. I could see mosques being burned from my house. I had to send my family to another region. As I hid on

U Min Shwe who lives in Chan Aye Thar Yar

the second floor and observed the situation, I

Quarter could barely avoid the disaster as he had

heard screams from other quarters as well.”16

noticed the urgent situation and escaped the region. “In the afternoon of March 21, I saw dozens of armed rioters entering our village. At the time,

Noor Bi witnessed rioters kill her husband and

Mosque Imam told us not to fight against but to

brother. The rioters beat up her husband and brother

shelter ourselves. I fled to a swamp nearby with

until they fell down and set their bodies on fire.17

my family and a blanket was all I could bring.

Afterward, the rioters beat up Noor Bi and forced

My neighbours were also taking shelter at the

her to lay face down and bow to them.18

swamp. We had nothing to eat but could not go anywhere.”25

At around 10pm, the Pakistani mosque in Thiri Mingalar were burned down and collapsed19. By 11pm and midnight, the houses of rich Muslims

People swinging clubs on street © HTT

in the region were also burned down.20 Stores were robbed and set on fire and the Korans were shredded and scattered around the destructed mosques.21

Fire alarms went off at night and night curfew was issued. There were vehicles to notify curfew and prohibition of possession of weapons but they were soon destroyed.22 8


Then U Min Shwe witnessed the armed Buddhist

The massacre continued on March 22. In the

rioters’ merciless arson and violence.

afternoon, Ma Khin Khin Htwe’s four family members; her husband, father-in-law, daughter, and son who escaped from Thayagon ward; were

“The armed rioters started to set Chan Aye Thar

brutally murdered by five Buddhist monks and ten

Yar mosques and houses on fire. They attacked

rioters armed with long swords and iron pipes.27

every Muslim they saw. I could not make the

After that, lots of similar incidents occurred.

slightest sound even though there were snake, scorpion, and pests in front of my eyes. My five children were also shaking with fear.”26

The police only got to the village in the morning of March 22 and it was then the residents could finally escape the village in police vehicles and take refuge at No. 1 police station.

A mosque on fire © HTT

9


The Human Rights Watch revealed the satellite pictures of Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter and Thri Mingalar Quarter to show how many houses, stores, and mosques were damaged after this incident compared to before.28 According to them, 442 houses and facilities in Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter and 345 houses and stores in Thri Mingalar Quarter were burned down or significantly damaged.29

The satellite picture of Chan Aye Thar Yar village taken on December 13, 2012 Š

The satellite picture of Chan Aye Thar Yar village taken on March 26, 2013 Š Human Rights

10


3. Culmination of Turmoil: Mingalar Zayone Madrassa

According to the public announcement made by the

warning them the Buddhist rioters were on their way

Myanmar government, a total of forty-three people

to school to attack them.

died from the incident. Among them, thirty-six people were either killed in Mingalar Zayone School

Around 9pm, Meikthilar public servant visited

or while being relocated under the protection of the

the school and said to the teachers, “The Buddhist

police. Thirty-two of them were students and four

terrorists will arrive soon. We don’t think we will

were teachers. The Muslim community estimates that

be able to protect you. You’d better leave the school

far more than thirty-six people have been victimized,

right away”.

since there are still students and teachers that have been missing since the incident. The certain fact is

The teachers collected students’ valuables, money,

that Mingalar Zayone School is the place where the

and IDs and told them to take off their hats and

most disastrous massacre took place at the time, one

clothes, the signs of Muslim.

of the darkest days in Myanmar history.30

At 9:30pm, the teachers and students could hear the sound of the rioters that approached right up to the front of the school. They destroyed school building

An Islamic Boarding School for Boys in Mingalar

as they came in. The students started to cry. The

Zayone located in the village below the long bank

students and teachers escaped school and fled to a

along the Meikthilar Lake was founded in 2009. The

swamp jungle nearby. In the jungle full of tall bushes,

total number of student was 120. There were several

grass, and shrubs, there were Muslim people from

adult students, but most of them were teenagers.

the Mingalar Zayone village. People stayed up all

About ten teachers taught English, Burmese, math,

night hiding half their bodies in the mud, grass, or

computer, science, and the Koran.31

shrubs. The rioters who invaded school destroyed school, burned the houses in the neighborhood,

In the afternoon of March 20, the teachers and

and attacked mosques looking for Muslim people.

students at Mingalar Zayone spent the day as usual

Once they found any Muslim, they attacked them

even after hearing the news about the Jewelry shop

mercilessly with long swords, iron pipes, bike chains,

incident. With the news about the murder of the

and bamboo spears. The rioters looked every corner

Buddhist monk, the situation got worse and the

of the village and shouted “Where are you? Kalas

black smoke gushing out in the downtown area

(slang for Muslim), come out this instant if you have

could be seen from the school. Consequently, they

courage”.33

heard that Muslim stores and mosques were being burned. When the situation got more intense, the

According to the testimonies of surviving students,

teachers divided students in groups to prepare for

the armed rioters continued to stream into Minglar

emergency.32

Zayone late at night in vans and mini buses. Until

At around 8pm, lots of people started to stream into

early in the morning, the armed rioters searched the

school. The students and teachers got phone calls

swamp jungle where students and residents were 11


hiding in with cell phone flash light looking for Muslims.

Some of the students and residents hiding in the swamp fled to another Muslim village, but were soon found. Mingalar Zayone school, village, and the swamp jungle nearby were covered by fear and madness of violence overnight. The cries of the students found by the rioters, screams begging for mercy, and the rioters attacking them with long knives and bamboo spears and burning them alive. It was indeed a hell.34

About one hundred residents, students, and teachers who were hiding in the swamp fled to a compound, Buddhist temple, or military camp at dawn. At around 6am, the armed rioters started to throw stones and pieces of wood lit with fire at the places where the Muslims were hiding. When the residents were injured, the Muslims who were hiding also started to throw stones and stuff at the rioters. They knew that it was impossible to expect mercy from the rioters who were totally carried away by the madness, so they tried to protect themselves to survive.35

12


4. Incomprehensible Reaction of the Police

The burned Muslim mosque Š HTT

Between 8 and 9 in the morning on March 21,

Muslim people approached the Oak Kyune Quarter,

several army trucks pulled over at the bank of

the rioters started attacking the people swinging long

Lake Meikthilar. Fifteen to twenty Myanmar police

swords, poles, chains, axes, and bamboo spears.38

officers in black suit and helmet armed with shields

The Muslims who had come outside believing that

and guns got out of the trucks.36 They approached

the police would protect them were terrified. The

the place where the Muslims were hiding and

teachers shouted while bleeding and the students fell

ordered them to leave weapons and come outside.

down as they were clubbed. The rioters caught the fleeing Muslims and put pork in their mouth, forced them to pray in Buddhist way, and mocked them.

The Muslims who stayed all night up in fear were

The rioters fiercely swung long swords at the fleeing

too afraid to go outside and face the armed rioters,

Muslims and brought the injured people together

but thinking that the police would protect them,

to put gasoline on them and set them on fire. The

they went outside. The police had the Muslims put

air was full of the flesh burning smell. The banks

their heads down with their hands on their head like

were covered with blood. The one hundred and fifty

criminals and transferred them in two rows.37

students, teachers, and Muslims who had trusted the police were helplessly surrounded by the armed rioters and massacred.39

As the long line of around one hundred and fifty 13


However, the police did not put much effort while

Nevertheless, when the Meikthilar jewelry shop was

the merciless attack and massacre were taking place.

being attacked by the people, when Muslim people

Some of the police only shot gun several times in the

were being burned alive at Thiri Mingalar Quarter,

air to disperse the rioters.40

and when the Muslims were attacked by the rioters at Mingalar Zayone Qurater, the police did not put any sort of effort into preventing or dispersing the

Majority of the armed police stepped back from the

rioters even though they were present at the scene.42

massacre scene and moved to where their trucks were parked near the bank. Meanwhile, it was a pure hell on the other side of the bank. The burned

In addition, when the situation was starting to settle

corpses were neglected here and there. After dozens

down and the families of the victims reported the

more police force arrived at the scene, the police

crimes and requested the perpetrators be punished,

gathered the Muslims who were hiding on top of the

the police did not take any action.43 The police

bank’s hill and transferred them to Meikthilar No.2

tolerated the murder and arson of the armed rioters

Police Station.41

and ignored the voice of the families of Muslim victims asking for the realization of justice

On March 22, 2013, Thein Shein, the President of Myanmar at the time, finally declared a state of national emergency and dispatched army to Meikthilar. After that, the situation seemed to settle down. A Muslim house burned down on March 21, 2013 Š HTT

14


Helping Hands Khin Mar Cho44 and Mo Kyi Than45 who live near Yadana Oo Monastery in Meikthilar precisely remembered what happened on March 20, 2013.

“On March 20 around 6pm, on the day of the incident, I could see smoke and fire coming from downtown. I heard from the people that there was something serious going on, so I hurried back home. Then I found out that my Muslim neighbours were hiding at a mosque near my house. I wanted to do something, so I went to the mosque and did what I could do. Mainly, I brought food, water, and clothes from my house and distributed them to the people taking refuge. There were about 70~80 Muslim people at the mosque and the number continued to increase. They slept on the floor under the trees. I felt bad for them.”

Dr. Khin Soe, who founded the Myanmar Medical Association in 1990 and has been providing medical voluntary services in Meikthilar, testified as follow;46

“Before the incident, Buddhists and Muslims peacefully got along. I think that the massacre and arson were systematically carried out by an external influence. After the incident, not only Muslims but also Buddhists were victimized by arson. Right after the incident, the local people organized HTT and carried out activities to support victims. They provided emergency food and water, opened a temporary hospital, and conducted education programs for children.”

15


Helping Hands U Zin Pain, the head monk of Yadana Oo Monastery, received the World Harmony Award and Lokasara Peace Prize for protecting twelve hundred Muslim people from the rioters.

“On March 20, about forty Muslim people who resided in the village near the monastery desperately begged for protecting them. I let them in. I let every Muslim people who asked for protection after that. On March 21 around 1am, armed rioters came to the monastery and requested to hand over the Muslims. I firmly rejected saying that not before I die. There were five more monks at the monastery at the time and they stood against them beside me. Fortunately, the rioters retreated. Not only the monastery but also the whole Meikthilar was in chaos on the 21st. Twelve hundred people in total including eight hundred Muslim and three hundred Buddhist and Christian residents took refuge in the monastery. I took in everyone whoever asked for protection. Many organizations in Meikthilar provided food and water, but it was impossible to accommodate them for a long time with the washroom issue. That is why we decided along with the government officials to transfer them to No. 5 High School, a temporary IDPs camp on March 24.�47

Monk U Zin Pain Š ADI

16


â…˘. Access to Justice

According to the statistics from the Muslim community, 13,000 people were displaced nationwide, 2,245 houses were destroyed, approximately 100 people died, and 86 people were injured from this incident. Nevertheless, the victims and the people concerned testify that the Myanmar government has not taken appropriate measures so as to investigate and reveal the truth of the case, punish the people responsible, compensate for damage, and prevent the recurrence.

1. Revealing the Truth community.

The victims and the people concerned testify that an independent and fair investigation for revealing truth has not been conducted at the government

According to U San Win Shein from Htilar Thukha

level. The Myanmar local government stated that the

Thermeggi, the actual death toll is over 100 and

death toll was 43, but this number is substantially

majority of them are innocent Muslim children and

different from the one apprehended by the Muslim

The list of people died investigated by HTT Š ADI

17


elders.48

are government officials, political parties, Buddhist organizations, and entrepreneurs behind the group

Attorney U Aung Thein said that the number of

that instigate violence in Meikthilar and other regions

people died from this incident investigated by the

and that they plan such violence in advance in

Muslim community is 89 and this number does not

accordance with their interests.54

include the missing people.49

However, the Myanmar government has not

Meanwhile, the government officials and the

conducted a concrete investigation insisting that there

media assume that this incident was initiated by an

is not enough proof to prove such argument.

accidental conflict between Buddhists and Muslims, which spread to the whole communities. However, some argue that there exists an external influence

As such, there exist different and rational opinions

that induces and amplifies such violence between

about the damage and rational question regarding

communities. Here, the external influence refers to a

the de facto force that stimulated a mere assault

group of 30-40 young and armed people.

incident into the Muslim massacre and arson. Yet,

Khin Soe said that this incident was brought about

the government has not begun an independent and

by the fight at a jewelry shop, but insisted that the

fair investigation to answer these questions.

attack and arson were systematically conducted

An official investigation led by the international

by an external influence.50 People who had been

society has not taken place either. When Tomas

living in Meikthilar for a long time testified that a

Quintana, the UN special rapporteur on human

group of unfamiliar people, the external influence,

rights, visited Meikthilar to investigate the massacre

systematically attacked the village.51

on august 19, 2013, two hundred local residents blocked and attacked his vehicle to prevent his visit and investigation.55

Chan Kyaw also stated that the incident in 2013 got serious not because of the Buddhists within the village but with the intervention of an external influence.52

Such perspective is based on the characteristics that commonly appeared in similar incidents across Myanmar after the violence between BuddhistsMuslims in 2012, in Rakhine State. There have been a number of armed groups’ attempts for riot recently in Mandaly, and the analysis of these attempts conducted by the Justice Trust supports this argument.53

Furthermore, U San Win Shein assumes that there 18


2. Failed Justice

legal measure was taken for the rest thirteen people60, not even investigation or indictment.61

Since the incident in 2013, the number of cases in which people got prosecuted and punished for

The Buddhists who were sentenced with 7 years in

murder, arson, violence, etc. is still very limited

jail for murder had killed three children and two

despite the vast range of the damage. In addition,

adults with a Buddhist monk and another Buddhist

there exists discrimination between Buddhists and

person back in 2013.62 The other Buddhist person

Muslims in terms of prosecution, trial, and sentence.

who participated in the murder was recently put on trial and has been serving his sentence for 4 months as of September, 2016. The Buddhist monk is still on

First of all, the police have failed to conduct police

the run.63

investigation and punish perpetrators in many cases. For instance, Buddhists monks and armed rioters killed Muslims on March 21, in Yan Myo Aung,

Also, in the case where Buddhist monks and twenty

Mingalar Zayone Quarter. The families of the victims

rioters murdered Thet Naing and Zaw Nan Win who

reported the murder of Ko Har Shim (alias), Min

lived in Thri Mingalar Quarter on March 20, only

Min Latt, Nur Mohamad, and U Maung Maung and

three people were prosecuted and put on trial and

requested the police to investigate and punish the

only one of them received 5-year sentence. The other

perpetrators, but no measure was taken.56

two were found innocent and set free. The rest of the perpetrators were not even investigated.64

On March 22, Win Chit Oo and Ah Shay Gyi were also brutally murdered by Buddhist monks

On the other hand, four Muslim people were put on

and rioters. The victims’ families continuously

trial for the murder of a Buddhist monk, according

reported the murder to the police and urged them for

to attorney U Aung Thein and U San Win Shein. The

investigation, but no measure was taken.57

owner of the jewelry shop and three of his family members were sentenced with 14 years and now serving their term.65 Moreover, two Muslim children

Secondly, there were a lot of loopholes in punishing

under 18 who were staying at the IDPs camp received

the perpetrators, which was only conducted in

20 years in jail for killing a student and another three

limited manner. According to attorney U Aung

under-aged Muslim people were punished for libel

Thein, approximately thirty Buddhists were pointed

and arson.66

as perpetrators. Seventeen of them were sentenced with 2-7 years in jail58 and sixteen of them were only accused of damaging the corpses. Only one of them was charged for murder and received only 7 years in jail.59 The Myanmar criminal law stipulates the maximum penalty of murder as 20 years. In general, homicide is sentenced with at least 7 years and rate and murder is sentenced with at least 10 years. No 19


A IDPs camp after the 2013 Meikthilar massacre Š UNOCHA

While the Buddhist people who killed five innocent

compensation for victims when truth has not been

Muslims received 7 years for murder, a Muslim who

properly revealed yet. The level of compensation

killed one Buddhist received 20 years for murder, and

can be decided after victims, perpetrators, and

the family of the owner of the jewelry shop received

damage scale are confirmed. In case of the Meikthilar

14 years even when they did not committed murder.

Massacre, the truth has not yet been revealed and

One could see that there is a clear discrimination

restitution or financial compensation have not been

between Buddhists and Muslims in such legal

realized either. On top of that, religious funeral has

application.

not been properly conducted for the deceased.69

Meanwhile, an argument has surfaced that there

The Myanmar government has failed in taking active

were torture and violation of legal process in the

measures for preventing the recurrence of similar

process of suspect investigation and trial. Muslim

violence.

Myo Aung, alias, was arrested in March 2013 for murder and libel under Article 302 and 295 of the Criminal Law. He was forced to confess but insisted on his innocence. Finally, he was found not guilty of murder and libel, but was sentenced with 2 years in jail for violating Article 144 of the Order of State of Emergency.67 Above all, Myo Aung testifies that he was tortured and treated inhumanely during his term and was not guaranteed with the legal process, such as the assistance of counsel.68

It is in fact impossible to expect thoroughgoing 20


IV. Status of Local IDPs

1. Condition of IDPs Camps Among the 13,000 people who were internally dis-

they got clogged all the time.75

placed after the Meikthilar Massacre, 9,600 people

On top of that, privacy was not guaranteed at all in

have been accommodated in five temporary districts,

the temporary tents at the IDPs camp in a district

including schools and stadium and 3,300 people in

stadium where nine hundred people stayed. There

local monasteries.70 The internally displaced persons

was no boundary between each family, so they di-

were first accommodated in police stations and then

vided space with bags or clothes. The space was so

transferred to temporary IDPs camps. They had a

narrow that two people could not pass each other at

hard time at the IDPs camp away from home; some

once.76 U Than Than Oo’s situation was not any dif-

people stayed for two months and some are still

ferent.77 Four families lived in one tent where privacy

staying at the camp until now, three years after the

was not guaranteed, as they had to divide their space

incident.

from one another with carpet or curtain.

For the last three years, a Mr. Sheriff who stayed

During the raining season, the living condition got

at a camp managed by the Water Supply Ministry,

more difficult, because the tents got flooded. In

sought refuge in No. 1 Police Station. After staying

case of temporary tents made of bamboo without

at a temporary tent for a month with his family, he

water-repellent cloth, they were soaked in rain.78

got to stay at a temporary camp of the Water Supply

Moreover, drinking water and water for living were

Ministry.71 The space allowed for Mr. and Ms. Sher-

always insufficient.79 People requested for support

iff couple and their five children was only two meters

and improvement to the local administrative public

wide and two meters high.72

officials, but no measure was taken by reason of the lack of resources.80

The people at the IDPs camps received rice, beans, and oil once every five days from the government

Children did not get to go to school. Of course, some

and meat or tuna, clothes, and blankets from the

parents did not send their children to school in fear

religious relief organizations.73 It was especially hard

of potential attack.81

for thousands of IDPs, because they had to share 15-20 washrooms.74 And the toilets in these limited number of washrooms were not properly installed so 21


The tension was still high after the massacre and arson were terminated. Every IDPs camp was controlled by the local police.82 At the camps, free exit and entry were allowed for the people who resided at the camps only during the day.83 The relatives of the IDPs could not freely visit them at the camps.84 They had to get permission from the police in advance in order to visit the IDPs or enter camps.85

The access to camps were not easily permitted for human rights or relief organizations either.86 They had to endure the hostile attention and threat of Buddhists as they carried out humane support activities.

To summarize, the IDPs who stayed at the temporary IDPs camps had extremely hard times with the lack of food, drinking water, water for living, poor living space and tent, washrooms, and domestic sewage facilities. Their right to live was threatened and freedom of movement was limited. The basic rights for children such as access to school education and medical service were not properly guaranteed either.87

22


2. People Returning and People Left In many cases, the IDPs had to seek refuge at the

Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter, to the IDPs who prove

police station or temporary IDPs camps to avoid

their previous address with a title deed or documen-

the murder and violence of the armed rioters, even

tary evidence of ownership.90 In case of Thri Min-

though their houses were not destroyed or burned

galar Quarter, the local government permitted the

down. These people returned to their houses in April

IDPs with proof to go back to their previous residen-

2013, about a month after the violent situation was

tial area and reconstruct.91

terminated. . In April 2015, the Myanmar government made a According to the UN Office for the Coordination

statement that every IDPs camp in Meikthilar was

of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the number of

officially closed.92 However, there were still 170

domestic IDPs amounted to 13,000 on March 27,

households residing at the temporary camp at the

2013. Among them, approximately 2,900 people re-

district stadium.93 According to the government

turned to their home by May 9 and 7,600 people are

statement, 100 households among them were not

remaining at the temporary camps.88

subject to the resettlement project, since they had

By October 2014, the number of domestic people

enough economic power to move on their own and

residing at the temporary IDPs camps decreased

were not terrorized by the massacre and arson.94

to 3,300.89 One year after the massacre, the local government offices in Meikthilar set up a policy that

The IDPs who could not prove their ownership as

they would preferentially parcel out the land at the

the title of deed for their previous home was vanished

resettlement village, which is being constructed in

A temporary tent inside an IDPs camp in Meikthilar, 2016 Š ADI

23


or who had not had ownership were not recognized

in 2013.97

as the ‘victimized group’ and had no choice but to remain at the camp.

In September 2016 three years and half after the incident took place, 14 households were still staying in

For instance, Khin San Myint Yi who is still staying

the IDPs camp set up inside the sport stadium.98 The

at a IDPs camp had moved to Thri Mingalar Quar-

local government ordered them to leave the camp at

ter 20 years ago as the Education Office of the local

that time.99

government incorporated her house into school site and had been residing there until the massacre took

In addition, it was reported that the authority in-

place in 2013.95

cluding the police rejected some IDPs returning to

Nevertheless, because the authorities concerned had

their original place to live although they satisfied all

not reflected this fact in the official document, Khin

documents necessary for administrative review.100

San Myyint Yi were regularly paying the tax imposed

The reason given to them was that the authority in-

to the previous house.96

cluding the police would not be able to provide them

The local government did not provide her with a

with protection from attacks of neighbors, Bud-

house at the new residence on the ground that there

dhist-nationalist mob group and 969 Movement.101

is no record on the official document about the

This often led to deprivation of the IDPs’ property.102

house she was residing in at the time of the incident

Inside the temporary tent at the IDPs camp in Meikthilar © ADI

24


V. Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter, the Resettlement Villages

Chan Aye Thar Yar village in Meikthilar in September, 2016 © ADI

In April 2015, two years after the incident, the IDPs were resettled in Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter with the financial support from relief organizations, Muslim organizations, and individual sponsors. The village was constructed under the supervision of the Resettlement Committee of Meikthilar local government. Three hundred households moved into the 380 newly constructed houses.103 In turn, the local government resettled some of the IDPs accommodated at the temporary IDPs camps. As of October 2016, approximately four thousand people are residing in 730 houses made of cement or plywood. Before March 2013, the government preferentially parceled out houses to the residents who own land that is more than 30×50 ㎡ and could prove it. Those who own land under that size had to share a house with other family.104 Since U Tin Ko and his wife, a son, and three daughters could not prove their ownership to the house they had been living in before the incident, they have to share a house with other families.105 But since the space is too small for all these people to live together, U Tin Ko’s family has been staying at a mosque in Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter.106 According to him, majority of the IDPs had no choice but to share houses with other families, as the local government resettle other IDPs in Meikthilar in Chan aye Thar Yar Quarter along with the people displaced from the massacre.107

25


Muslim people were discriminated in the process of

With poor washroom and sewage facilities, the toilets

assigning houses in the resettlement village. While

always get clogged and domestic waste water often

Buddhist people did not have to draw lots in the

flows backward into house.115

house assignment process, Muslim people had to.108 The houses made of cement were mostly assigned to

U Min Shwe is a day laborer like any other head of

Buddhist families and the houses made of plywood

household in the resettlement village.116 There are

were mostly assigned to Muslim families.

109

times he does not have work. He has two sons and three daughters. The eldest son moved out of town to make money and all the other children except for a

Majority of the houses built in relatively high region

six-year old son who goes to elementary school are

were assigned to Buddhists, and the houses in the

left neglected at home.117

lower region near Lake Meikthilar were assigned to Muslims.110 In fact, the residential districts of Buddhists and Muslims are divided.111 It is impossible

To summarize, the resettlement village in Chan Aye

to travel in and out of the resettlement village in the

Thar Yar Quarter was arranged to engrave the sym-

lower region during the rainy season, since the whole

bolic meaning of the reconciliation between the re-

region is flooded up to a person’s knee.112

ligions after the termination of massacre of Muslims and arson in March 2013. However, the residents of the resettlement village are exposed to threatening

What is more problematic is the serious odor induced

conditions in terms of the right to housing, drinking

by garbage and waste water that negatively affect

water, health and hygiene, etc. due to unclear con-

residents’ health and hygiene.113 Since the well in the village is not appropriate for drinking water, majority

struction plan, the lack of resources, and the habitual religious discrimination.

of the residents buy drinking water.114

Chan Aye Thar Yar village in Meikthilar covered with garbage Š ADI

26


VI. Institutionalized Oppression and Discrimination

Since the massacre in 2013, Muslims in Meikthilar

Buddhist people are threatened to not buy products

have been victimized by the hate speech systemat-

at Muslim stores122 and Buddhist stores do not sell

ically led by the Buddhist-nationalist mob group

products to Muslims.123 If Buddhist people bought

and the 969 Movement force and discriminated in

products from a Muslim store, they would have

economic and social domains.

to suffer from the assault and threat of the Buddhist-nationalist mob group and the 969 Movement force.124

In Meikthilar community, hate speeches against

Buddhist people who run stores are forced to put

Muslims are routinely broadcast through speakers

up a flag symbolizing the 969 Movement, which is

and DVDs containing hate speeches are distributed

perceived by people as “No Muslims” mark.

in quantity to the general public. Chan Kyaw testifies that he witnessed people on bike broadcasting

Buddhist people are rejecting to rent out buildings

provocative music to promote Buddhism and making

to Muslims.125 In some cases, Buddhist people who

hate speeches to Muslims.118 Since Muslim peo-

lent money from Muslims before the incident in

ple hear hate speeches toward them on daily basis,

2013 denied claim-obligation relationship after the

they fear that violence like 2013 can happen again

incident. In some cases, Buddhist people occupied

any time. Accordingly, their psychological wound is

and owned buildings under the ownership of Muslim

getting deepened.

people after the incident.126

The discrimination against Muslims has already been

Chan Kyaw testifies that the anti-Muslim sentiment

institutionalized. It has become difficult for Buddhists

is recreated at school.127 According to him, Muslims

and Muslims to freely interact with one another as

are belittled and called ‘Kalas’ at middle schools and

neighbours. Muslims and Buddhists cannot marry

high schools and students are indoctrinated with

one another anymore.119 Muslims cannot work at a

unconfirmed rumors and information about Mus-

place of business run by Buddhist now and are often

lims.128

fired if they did.120 Furthermore, as Buddhist monks hold conversion

For example, Htay Khi testifies that the 969 Move-

events in Muslim residential area, they provide pork,

ment force are warning Buddhist people to not in-

which is not allowed for Muslims, to the partici-

teract with Muslims and threatened that they would

pants and residents nearby.129 In September 2016,

assault them if they do. The 969 Movement force is

a Buddhist monk in Meikthilar continued to make

receiving written pledge from Buddhist people that

hate speeches against Muslims with the support of

they would not interact with Muslims.121

an influential entrepreneur for about three hours.130 27


The 969 Movement and Buddhist-Nationalism According to the 969 Movement activists, the 969 Movement is a peaceful grassroots movement organized with a mission to promote and protect Buddhism. The three digits of 969 symbolize the Buddha’s virtues, Buddhist prac-

The 969 sticker © 969movement.org

tices, and Buddhist community. Ironically, the 969 Movement instigates discrimination against Muslims, violence, and murder. The 969 Movement activists believe that Muslims are to take over Myanmar and boycott businesses owned by Muslims. They spread hate speeches against Muslims and display the symbol or flag of the 969 Movement in front of Muslim stores. The 969 Movement force is known to have grown with the support of the military government, but the government denies it.

The Buddhist-nationalist mob group and the 969

work, such as human rights workshop. They visited

Movement force are hampering reconciliation and

the participants’ houses and told their parents that

peace between religions and the human rights activi-

such events are to convert their children to Islam.132

ties altogether.

Consequently, it has become very difficult for the grassroots movement groups to publicly hold human

After 2013, a number of Buddhist, Muslim and other

rights-related events.133

minority religion leaders got together and formed an organization called HTT to contribute to the rec-

According to monk U Zin Pain, due to the institu-

onciliation and reconstruction of sustainable and

tionalized oppression and discrimination, Muslims

peaceful relationship among religions through com-

and a lot of Buddhist residents are living in fear.134

munication and understanding. However, when HTT

The residents of Meikthilar are living in tension that

invited young people of other religions to work-

can explode anytime.135

shop to conduct various programs, the local police, military, The Buddhist-nationalist mob group, and the 969 Movement force came to the event place to interrupt with the event in various ways. For instance, they questioned the participants closely about their personal information to make them feel nervous about participating in such event.131 The local police, military, The Buddhist-nationalist mob group, and the 969 Movement activists also interrupted the events held by Buddhist Youth Net-

A store in Meikthilar with 969 stickers on its door, September 2016 © ADI

28


VII. Conclusion

The direct and indirect victims of the three days of

13,000 internally displaced people had no choice but

madness in 2013 had to make huge sacrifices. The

to stay at IDPs camps for at least two months to up

armed rioters murdered innocent Muslim children

to three years. It was a luxury to expect guarantee of

and elders and burned them while they were still

privacy at the temporary camps much too small for

alive. The rioters set thousands of houses on fire and

all those people. The food and daily supplies provid-

destroyed dozens of mosques. As a result, 13,000

ed by the government and aid groups were always

people out of 400 thousand people of the total pop-

not sufficient. The tents got rained in during the

ulation of Meikthilar have been internally displaced.

rainy season, which hampered not only convenience but also health and sanitation.

The direct and indirect victims of the three days of madness in 2013 had to make huge sacrifices. The

IDPs had to struggle as their lives were threatened.

armed rioters murdered innocent Muslim children

The freedom of go in and outside of IDPs camp was

and elders and burned them while they were still

limited and lots of children had to give up school

alive. The rioters set thousands of houses on fire and

education due to security reasons. Nevertheless, the

destroyed dozens of mosques. As a result, 13,000

government did not take any active measures.

people out of 400 thousand people of the total population of Meikthilar have been internally displaced.

As the situation got settled, majority of IDPs returned to their previous residence. In the process, they had

Since there had not been any proper investigation

to prove their rights, such as ownership, to their

into finding truth, a proper realization of justice was

residence. On the contrary, when the documents and

not possible. Very few perpetrators were confirmed

certificates to prove it were vanished or there was an

and there was discrimination between Muslim per-

error on documents due to the corresponding office’s

petrators and Buddhist perpetrators in the punish-

mistake, the government did not allow the return.

ment process.

Accordingly, these people are still staying at the IDPs camps.

None of the Buddhist monks who led the armed rioters were investigated; not a single person was

There are also cases where the government did not

even pointed out. Furthermore, the government and

allow the return on the ground of security reasons,

the police who were not able to prevent the spread of

even when the documents required for returning to

violence and remained spectators were not punished

the previous residence had been all prepared. Not

either. In the end, the incident was finalized without

only that, the authorities also urged the IDPs to move

any active measure taken to compensate the victims

to other region fearing that there might be another

and prevent the recurrence.

violence in the future considering the extreme anti-Muslim sentiment in the community concerned. 29


The resettlement village in Chan Aye Thar Yar Quarter was planned for the co-existence of Muslims and Buddhists, but is divided in substance. There was discrimination between Muslims and Buddhists when newly built houses were assigned. Buddhists were assigned with the houses made of cement, but majority of Muslims were assigned with the houses made of plywood. The houses of Muslim people were mostly located in the lower region, vulnerable to living and health and sanitation especially during the rainy season.

After the three days of turmoil, the oppression and discrimination against Muslims have become more institutionalized and systematized. Despite the fact that the residents of Meikthilar are exposed to hate speeches against Muslims on the daily basis, disciplinary measures have not been taken. Buddhist people are forced to not buy products from Muslim stores. It has become impossible for Muslims to work at businesses owned by Buddhists and those who had been working under Buddhist were fired. Buddhists are not even renting out buildings to Muslims. The efforts of grassroots movement toward human rights are subject to restriction.

Behind such practice of oppression and discrimination stand the systematized activities of the Buddhist-nationalist mob group and the 969 Movement, which are getting stronger and stronger with the implicit support and intentional negligence from the military government and the police.

30


VIII. Recommendations

Asian Dignity Initiative and The Seagull recommend

ered inappropriate.

the following details to the Myanmar government

o

and international society in order to restore the dig-

The Myanmar government should support

the bereaved families or legal heirs of the victims who

nity of the victims of the massacre in 2013.

have not been able to have funeral for the victims so that they can have a type of funeral they want. The government should erect a monument in memory of

Myanmar government o

the victims and the massacre and let the people know

The Myanmar government must conduct

the truth through school and social education.

independent and just investigation regarding the

o

Meikthilar Massacre that took place in 2013. In

The Myanmar government should take

every legislative, administrative, judicial, and other

order to secure independent and just investigation,

measures required to prevent the recurrence of the

the government should organize the Fact Find-

killings and violence similar to what happened to

ing Committee and guarantee the participation of

Muslims in 2013.

Muslim community and civil society, and that of the UN or experts from the INGO, if necessary. The Fact

o

Finding Committee should investigate every rioter

ination, and violence against Muslims proliferated

and perpetrator who participated in the massacre.

across the whole nation, the religious and political

They should also look into the role and responsibil-

leaders and high-ranking government officials in

ity of the local police and military at the time of the

Myanmar should publicly announce that violence

incident.

between religions or violence against minority reli-

o

In order to terminate the hatred, discrim-

gions and minority races will not be allowed.

After the investigation, the government

should punish the perpetrators and people responsi-

o

ble by law through just and prompt trials in accor-

tionalist mob group including the 969 Movement

dance with the investigation results, and immunity of

that spread hate speeches against Muslims and pro-

any form shall not be imposed regarding the punish-

mote violent and discriminatory treatment must be

ment.

sought.

o

The Myanmar government should provide

o

The measures to restrict the Buddhist-na-

Lastly, the Myanmar government should

full reparations to the victims (or their families or

instantly provide proper residential space to the IDPs

legal heirs) of the 2013 massacre and arson in Meik-

who are still staying at the IDPs camps and allow

thilar. The central and local governments should

them to return to their previous home.

put effort into recovering the damages and realizing justice at community level in accordance with the victims’ intention, if financial reparation is consid31


International society o

The international society should provide

practical and financial support in organizing and operating the Fact Finding Committee to support independent and just investigation of the 2013 Massacre of Muslims in Meikthilar. o

The international society should provide

financial and practical support to the process of reconciliation and peace led by grassroots. o

The international society should put forth

diplomatic efforts so that the Myanmar government will take active measures to disapprove and punish the hatred and violence towards the Muslim people. o

The international society should conduct

research and investigation on the hatred and violence towards Muslim people across Myanmar and judge whether the violation of the international criminal law and international human right law took place. Accordingly, the international society should urge the Myanmar government and international society for appropriate intervention and measures. o

The international society should also provide

living support project for improving living environment and economic independence of the victims inside the resettlement village by priority as a part of international development and cooperation program. o

Lastly, the international society should sup-

port or conduct psychological support program in order to alleviate victims’ emotional distress.

32


Endnotes

1. UNOCHA, Humanitarian Bulletin Myanmar, March 2013, available at http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/ resources/Ref_Doc_UNOCHA_Myanmar_Humanitarian_Bulletin_March_2013.pdf 2. Reuters, Special Report: Buddhist monks incite Muslim Killing in Myanmar, Mon. Apr. 8, 2013 | 7:07am EDT, available at http://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-violence-specialreportidUSBRE9370AP20130408 3. AP news, Myanmar: unfairness over punishment for religious conflict, 12 July 2013, available at http://www. yonhapnews.co.kr/international/2013/07/12/0604000000A KR20130712150700009.HTML

22. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-04 23. Muslim group in Meikthilar, The Violence, Turmoils and Terrors in Meikthilarr Myanmar (Burma), 19 August 2013 24. Id. 25. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 26. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 27. Muslim group in Meikthilar, The Violence, Turmoils and Terrors in Meikthilarr Myanmar (Burma), 19 August 2013 28. Human Rights Watch, Burma: Satellite Images Detail Destruction in Meikthilar], April 1, 2013 5:01 pm, available at https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/04/01/burma-satellite-images-detail-destruction-Meikthilar 29. Id.

4. Physicians for Human Rights, Massacre in Central Burma, May 2013, available at http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/ library/reports/Meikthilar-report-may-2013.html 5. The visits of Minbyun lawyers were aimed to study 2008 Constitution and human rights conditions in general. They had met local organizations, youths and lawyers, MPs and other foundations in Yangon, Mandalay and Shan State during 25 July to 1 August, 2014. See The final report of the Asian Human Rights Team, Minbyun for the detailed information, September 2014. 6. Buddhism Focus, Worrisome oppression on Myanmar Muslim, 2013. 5. 29. available at http://www.bulgyofocus.net/ news/articleView.html?idxno=67663 7. Myanmar Times, Meikthilar erupts, Monday, 25 March 2013, available at http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/5710-Meikthilar-erupts.html 8. Reuters, supra note 2 9. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 10. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 11. Myanmar Times, supra note 7 12. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 13. BBC News, six Muslims charged over monk’s death in Burma’s Meikthilar, 7 May 2013, available at http://www.bbc. com/news/world-asia-22433871 14. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-04 15. International Crisis Group, The Dark Side of Transition: Violence Against Muslims in Myanmar, Asia Report No251, 1 October 2013, p.12 16. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-04 17. Huffingtonpost, Eye Witness Accounts of Meikthilar Massacre: Beaten, Burnt and Stabbed, 9 April 2013, available at http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/assed-baig/Meikthilar-massacre-eye-witness-accounts_b_3008012.html 18. Id. 19. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No.20160926-04 20. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-04 21. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-04

30. Todd, Pitman, Associated Press, AP Impact: Massacre of Muslim in Myanmar ignored, July 6, 2013, 6:00 am., available at http://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/sdut-ap-impact-massacre-of-muslims-in-myanmar-ignored-2013jul06-story.html 31. Physicians for Human Rights, supra note 4, p.8 32. Id. p.9 33. Id. p.10 34. Id. p.11 35. Id. p.13 36. Id. 37. Todd, Pitman, Associated Press, supra note 27 38. Hankyoreh 21, Buddhist monks danced with sword and the police were watching, Vol. 981, 11 Oct. 2013, available at http://h21.hani.co.kr/arti/world/world_general/35512.html 39. Id. 40. Todd, Pitman, Associated Press, supra note 27 41. Physicians for Human Rights, supra note 4. 42. BBC News, Burma riots: Video shows police failing to stop attack, 22 April 2013, available at http://www.bbc.com/ news/world-asia-22243676 43. Muslim group in Meikthilar, The Violence, Turmoils and Terrors in Meikthilarr Myanmar (Burma), 19 August 2013 44. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-01 45. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-02 46. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-02 47. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-01 48. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 49. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-01 50. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-02 51. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-02 52. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-01 53. Justice Trust Policy Report, Hidden Hands Behind Communal Violence in Myanmar: Case Study of the Mandalay Riots, March 2015 54. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 55. Thomas Quintana revealed in the press conference on 21 August 2013 that he was able to feel the same fear that the vic-

33


tims in Meikthilar in March 2013 would feel without protection given by the police stationed at the scene. See Myanmar Times, Government fails to protect UN envoy, 22 August 2013, available at http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/national-news/7909government-fails-to-protect-un-envoy.html 56. Media and human rights watch network, Media, rules of conduct or moral code, extremists, terrorists, saboteurs deteriorating of law and order, in the delicate state after the birth of democracy or in the delicate state of fledgeling democracy, provided by U Aung Thein, attorney residing in Meikthilar and having worked in the cases related to the victims of the communal violence that took place in 2013. 57. Id. 58. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-01 59. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-01 60. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-01 61. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-01 62. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-05 63. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-05 64. See supra note 56 65. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 66. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 67. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160929-01 68. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160929-01 69. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 70. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160925-01 71. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 72. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 73. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 74. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 75. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 76. Vice Media by Danny Gold, The Burmese Muslims Who Are IDPs in Their Own Country, September 13, 2013, available at http://www.vice.com/read/spending-time-with-the-displacedmuslims-of-myanmar 77. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-03 78. Myanmar Times, Meikthilar IDPs brace for rainy season, 6 May 2014, available at http://www.mmtimes.com/index.php/ national-news/10266-Meikthilar-idps-brace-for-rainy-season. html 79. Id. 80. Id. 81. Id. 82. See Final report of Minbyun’s Asian Human Rights Team; See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 83. See the interview taken during the second visit to the IDPs camp 84. Id. 85. Id. 86. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 87. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-03 88. UNOCHA, Humanitarian Bulletin Myanmar Issue 18 April to 31 May 2013, 3 Jun.2013, available at http://reliefweb. int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Myanmar_Humanitarian_Bulletin_April_and_May_2013_FINAL.pdf 89. UNOCHA, Humanitarian Bulletin Myanmar Issue 1-31 October 2014, 27 November 2014, available at http://reliefweb.

int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Bulletin_Humanitarian_OCHA_Oct2014.pdf 90. IRIN, Muslims rebuild homes as communal tensions ease in central Myanmar town, 20 March 2014, available at http:// www.irinnews.org/news/2014/03/20/muslims-rebuild-homescommunal-tensions-ease-central-myanmar-town 91. Myanmar Times, Meikthilar IDPs get green light to rebuild homes, 16 May 2014, available at http://www.mmtimes. com/index.php/national-news/10371-Meikthilar-idps-getgreen-light-to-rebuild-homes.html 92. UNOCHA, Humanitarian Bulletin Myanmar Issue 4/130 April 2015, 30 April 2015, available at http://reliefweb.int/ sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Bulletin_Humanitarian_OCHA_ Apr2015.pdf 93. Id. 94. Id. 95. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 96. Id. 97. Id. 98. See The result of the second on-site research visit of Asian Dignity Initiative 99. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-03 100. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 101. Id. 102. Id. 103. UNOCHA, supra note 92 104. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 105. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-04 106. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-04 107. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-04 108. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 109. Id. 110. See The result of the second on-site research visit of Asian Dignity Initiative 111. Id. 112. Id. 113. Id. 114. Id. 115. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160927-04 116. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 117. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20161001-01 118. Asian Dignity Initiative supra note 45 119. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-01 120. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 121. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-03 122. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Initiative 123. Id. 124. Id. 125. Id. 126. Id. 127. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-01 128. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160930-01 129. See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity

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Initiative 130. 131. Initiative 132. 133. 134. 135.

Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160924-02 See The first on-site research report of Asian Dignity Id. Id. Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-01 Asian Dignity Initiative Interview No. 20160926-01


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