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The Complete Illustrated Book of








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Editor: S �rah Baker Sub-editors: Elizabeth Connolly. Mon1que G1ll Photographers: Andre Martrn (all chapters except Gardemng);

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Contents 6



Herb directory

An A-LO-Z guide to mor·e than l 00 herbs and the various ways to u, e them



Information on gro\\ ing herb

uece, sfully.

from bact.. ·ard to \\inclowsill


Herbal medicine

Herbal remeclic

to boost general hcallh

and well-being and treat common ailment'


Natural beauty

Body ancl beaut� treatments to clean e and pamper. using herbs ancl cs enlial oil

Around th



Fmm 1-.itchens to bathrooms. from clollws

to pets ...the herbal, olulion

that \\or!.. lJrst



Contcmp(m.lf·� and traclilional projects that arc ca, J to clo anfl lmcl� to lool.. at



LkliciouH, Himplc recipes that sllm\case

hcr'IJs ancl spires fi'Om arottn(l the '' orl(l



Introduction li'l'hs liclH' heen usc·<! for thousand

of years to flm or an<I

m·�c'r\l' lood. U'l'cll ailments. \\al'(l off pest� and diseases. n'slwn tile <llr. and decorate and 'c'nlune-;



our li\I'S. Over Lhr

h,l\f' also lwconw associated '' illl ra cinaling

n:,tlls. legend�. and fol�lnre. In gcncral lerms. an llcrh is d plant that is \ alucd for its ·Ia\ or. aroma. or nmlicinal properties. ancl cliffcrrnt parts or an hc•rh- such


tile stc1lks. f!O\\C'r'. fruits. serd ·. roots. or

lea\c>'>- nw) llmc important application • . From small herb. �rO\\ ing hcsidr our l1igh\\ ay. to l)USh) shrubs in mountain ln'as to tall trees in lush tropical rain forests. there are lilerall) thousands of plant

all 0\Cr the \\ Orld that [)elong tO

the hcrh ramil). In Tbe COJ7JfJicle /llus/mteil/3oo� or 1/crbs we ha\t' comilinecl traditional �no''lerlge and llerllal '' isdom \\ illl up-to-date arl\ ice rrom gardening expert.. herhali 1 . natural therapists. cleaning �peciali.'LS. craft experts. and cook to sho\\' you hO\\

10 grO\\ herb

uccrssrull) and make the beLL u e or them in

your dail) life. Th

compl'ellensi\C information on more than

I 00 hcrhs in the 1\-to-Z director . togetllrr witll the chaptrrs on h 1\\ to u


them. \\ill enaiJic ·ou to imprO\C your llealth.

sa\r money. ancl usc fewer cllemical in your !lome. \\ith gardening knO\�-hO\\.

a e herbal remedie . naLural

beauLy product . inno\'ati'e craft iclea . herbal cleaning item ancl cleliciou recipe . this practical reference guide to hrrbs is packed \\ilh information ancl illu Lrated \\ itll beautiful photograph·. \lve hope you \\ill rind it a source of in piration.

IMPORTANT NOTE FOR OUR READERS Growing herbs Some herbs can become invasive and may be tox1c to livestock. Th1s 1nformat1on has been given where possible, but regulations do change from time to lime. Readers are adv1sed to consult local plant services if they have any concerns. Herbal medicine While the creators of this book have made every effort to be as accurate and up to date as possible, medical and pharmacological knowledge 1S constantly changmg. Readers are advised to consult a qualified medical spec1alist for mdiv1dual adv1ce. Moreover, even though they are natural, herbs contain chemical substances that can somet1mes have marked side effects. If used unw1sely, they can be toxic. The writers, researchers, editors, and publishers of this book cannot

be taken as a

be held liable for any

errors, omiSSions, or actions that may

consequence of mformation contained m this book.

Top row, left: Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Right: Sweet marjoram

(Origanum morjorana). Bottom row, left: Garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris 'Silver Posie'). Right: Echinacea (Echinacea sp.)





The hi tor of herb . their use . and meLhods of cu!Li ation are fa cinating, rewarding topics. Thi

praclical guide to more Lhan 100 herb .

mo L of which can b

grown in a home garden,

Lell , ou how to cullivate. u e and ďż˝'tore hCI'bs.

Top row, left o nght: Common thyme ( Thymus vu/gons), feverfew (Tonocetum cmeronifolwm). Oc1mum bosilicum 'Tha1 Basil' and Oc1mum bos11icum 'Dark Opal' M1ddle row, left to right. Common sage (SolviG officmolis), pmk-flowering rosemary (a variety of Rosmorinus officmolis), hawthorn (Croroegus sp.) Bottom row, left to right Marsh mallow (A/rhoeo

officinolis), rau ram or Vietnamese mmt (PersiCOfiO odoroto syn Po/ygonum odororum)

Herb directory Aloe vera


Lemon balm




Lemon grass




Lemon verbena


Anise hyssop














Mallow and hollyhock

79 80



M a rjoram and oregano































Pla ntain








Primrose and cowslip

95 96






Red clover


Clove pinks


Rocket or a rugula










Curry plant


StJohn's wort








Salad burnet








Scented geran ium






Evening primrose


Sweet cicely




Sweet myrtle




Sweet violet




Sweet woodruff










Garlic and onions




G inger


Tea tree










Gotu kola




Hea rtsease


Verva in






Horseradish and wasabi


Watercress and nasturtium




W hite horehound
















Jasmine Lavender

Aloe ve ra Aloe vera syn. A barbadensis, A. vulgans Aloeaceae rlw c�nrit'lll i·:I-!'Jl l i d n

ral l <·d i t t iH ' ··pldlll o l

i m mort a lt t � .·· a n d Ut·opc� t ra 1 1 I'd i l s j u ice· t o lll 'lp prl'�<'nl' lwr IH'd U t \. lilt' ch\tr gel lrom t hr c u t i<'dW l1c1s �ootlnng a nd IH'iiiJ ng propt I l it' · . \lo

\l' ra is

· u i t t�ltlt• lor la rgt' pot s c111d mrk<'rirs anti a s a n i nrloor plant.

Oth r cOIT'ITIOn .,a Part ed Leaves

Barbados a loe, bitter aloe, Curacao aloe

• G a rde n i n g

w•th a g rttty free-drarning potting mix.

Aloe vera rs a succulen plant wrth very

Once they are well establrshed, transfer

leshy lrght green leaves that crea e a fan

them to thetr permanen position.

from the stemless base. In warm climates

• Mai ntenance Aloe is affected by

t produces narrow tubular yellow flowers.

even light frosts, and in areas where

Cape aloe

(A ferox) rs a tall srngle­

stemmed species that has long, grayrsh,

wrnter temperatu res fall below 40·F


it rs best g rown rn pots and brought

sprny succulent leaves and tall, handsome

indoors i n cool weather. It makes an

spikes of awny orange flowers.

excellent rndoor plant i n good light.

• Position Aloe requtres a sunny

• Pests and diseases Mealybug may

positron and a very well-drarned soil

prove a problem for plants grown indoors,

• Propagation Aloe vera can be rarsed

although rt ra rely occurs on those g rown

from seed, but it rarely sets seed rn other

in the garden. Spray With rnsect1crdal

than warm climates. Propagate it from

soap, which is nontoxic to animals and

of aloe vera should not be consumed.

offsets hat form at the base of the plant.

leaves no residue. Apply i t late i n the

Commercial preparations ( without the

Allow hese plantlets to d ry for two days

afternoon, because i t can burn sensitive

laxative constituents ) a re available, and

before plantrng them rnto small pots filled

plants in full sun or at high temperatures.

preliminary research rndicates hat they

• Harvest i n g and storing Ha rvest

may be beneficial in a range of conditions,

Aloe vera

leaves as needed, usrng only as much

rncluding non-insulin-dependent diabetes

of the leaf as required. Cut the used end

mellitus and high blood lipid levels.

back to undamaged tissue, then wrap in plastrc wrap and store


the refrtgerator

for further use.

For the safe and appropriate use of aloe vera, see First ard, page 220 Do not take aloe vera internally if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Topical

He r ba l m e d i c i n e Aloe sp., including Aloe vera syn. A. barbadensis and A. ferox. Part used:

the center of the aloe vera leaf has

Ultra-soothmg and nourrshing for even

aL u ra l bea u t

anti-inflammatory and healing properties.

the most parched and dehydrated skin,

Probably best known for its ability to

aloe vera is also a mild exfoliant. gently

encourage the healing of burns, aloe

removing dead skrn cells and stimulating

vera gel can also be applied to wounds,

cell regeneration, helping to prevent

The exudate from the cut aloe vera


these times.

leaves. The clear mucilaginous gel from

abrasions, eczema, psoriasiS, and ulcers. Plant the dried-out plantlets into small pots filled wrth gritty free-draining potting mrx.

application is considered safe during

scarring and diminish wrinkles. For specific treatments, see Sunburn, page 255, and

leaf acts as an extremely cathartic laxative,

Hands and nails, page 258. To treat your

and consequently, homemade preparations

cat or dog, see Herbal pet care, page 297.


Ange l i c a Angelica archangelico Apiaceae \ s hO\\� . aromat ic 11 'I'l l . a ngr l ica has !1o t h mrdic i n a l a n d c u l i n ary u, r ' . \ngc l i ca·

name honors thr a rc h a ngel Ra phcH'I . '' ho is sa i d

1 0 h m c rnealecl to a m o n � t ha t l lw p l a nt could c u re the p l ague.

commo na11e Archangel P rts us Leaves, stems, seeds, roots


• G a rde n i n g

• Pests a n d d i seases This plant is

Native to northern Europe, Angelico

virtually pest- and disease-free. The

Angelica (Angelica archangelica)

archongelico grows to 4ft. ( 1.2 m) and

flowers are attractive to many beneficial

has ribbed hollow stems, compound

insects, includ ing parasitoid wasps and

leaves and a flowering stem that can


Do not use angelica in greater than

reach 6 ft . ( 1 .8 m). although i t often does

• H a rvest i n g and storing Harvest the

culi nary quanti ties. Do not use dong quai

leaves and flowering stalks in the second

i f you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

not appear until the third year. Ornamental angelica (A. pochycorpo) grows to about 3.5 ft.

(1 m) high and has

shiny dark green leaves. It is mostly grown

consult your healthcare professional.

year. Dig the roots at the end of the second year, then wash and d ry them.

• Cook i n g

Gather the seed when brown and d ry.

Angelica is a popular boiled or steamed vegetable dish in some Scandinavian

or its ornamental value. Purple-stem angelica (A. otropurpureo) has similar

lle r b a l m e d i c i n e

countries; i t has a musky, bittersweet

uses to A. orchongelico. It grows to

Angelica orchongelico. Part used: roots.

about 6 ft. ( 1.8 m), has stems suffused

Angelica is an important digestive tonic in

(in maceration or via the essen ial oil) in

With purple, and pale green to white

Eu ropean herbal medicine. It stimulates the

vermouth and liqueurs such as Chartreuse

taste. The d ried seeds and stems are used

flowers. The most striking species is the

production of gastric juices and can relieve

and Benedictine. Crystallized leaves and

beautiful A. gigas, which grows to 6 ft.

symptoms of poor appetite, dyspepsia and

young stems are a popular decoration for

( 1 .8 m), with deep garnet buds opening to

nausea. Angelica can also reduce the

cakes and sweets.

large wi ne red to rich purple flowers.

discomfort of flatulence, stomach cramps

• Position Angelica requires a shady

and bloating. It is a warming herb and

position in wel l-drained but moist and

suited to individuals who suffer from the

poaching liquids for seafood. Add leaves

sl ightly acidic soil that has been ennched

effects of cold weather.

to recipes for tart fruits, such as rhubarb.

with compost. Allow a d 1 stance of 3.5 ft.

(1 mj between plants.

Blanch young shoots for use 1n salads. Use leaves and stalks in marinades and 1 n

For the safe and appropriate use of

They cut the acidity, and heir sweetness

angelica and dong quai (see box below).

al lows you to reduce the amount of sugar.

• Propagation Plant angel1ca seed soon after collection. M1x the seed with damp, but not wet, vermiculite and place the mixture 1n a sealed plastic bag (see also

page 44). Store i n the crisper section of the refngerator for six to e1ght weeks before planting mto seed trays. Barely cover the seed, and keep the soil mo1s . Transplant seedlings when around 4 in. ( 10 em) high or when the fifth and sixth leaves emerge.

• Mai ntenance Plants d1e once the seed has matured, but you can delay this by removing the emerg1ng flower stem. First­ year plants will die back 1n w1nter but will grow readily 1 n sprmg. Water regularly.

. \ J>Of\ morpiJd 1 dl'. lndlg<'nou



usr<l: moh.

to Gluna. nang qua1 ''found m lidrnp

nwado\\'>. mo1st IJill'l'. and 1111 mt>rhdnb. It gm11s to a hour() rt. ( I.D ml and h<�> gn•enish

l\ o r l t111 ltlt•. dong qudl ll'>t'd 1\IJtiH'n\ mt'lilclnt• it' 'malc

11 hllr


1s ont' ol thr must rommo11ll

lwrt1s. In

lldtltllondl C:lllnt>sr

11 1s con,idl'rt•cl


ldluaillt• tonit lm tlw

rtproducliH' 'i) srem ancl 1s ust•t l lo


II!JII\ lllrnstrual anciHI!'IIop�u�al '' 1npto1Jh.

An i s e Ptmptnello onisum Apraceae \n i sr is n· ·ponsi lllr for m uc h of t h e "l icorice·· fla\ o r i n g in IJa�cd goods . l iqu<•u rs . t !'a'i . and clll'\\ 111g gum. Ch i nC'S!' ,· t a r a n i. l' and a n i ced m� rlle . a l t liougll un rela ted to a n i se. have a s i m i l a r flmor.

Other c Pats u

Aniseed, common anise Roots (anise only). leaves, seeds, dried fruits (star anise on ly )

Anise (Pimpinella anisum)

• G a l'dr n i n g

bears fruits that open to an eight-pointed

the seeds of each plant both contain a

Anise is an aromatic annual wrth stalked,

star. Do not confuse it w1th the neurotoxic

hrgh percentage of a compound called

toothed leaves that may be simple or

Japanese star anrse (Illicium onisotum) or

anethole, which i mparts the licorice-like

lobed. The slender lowerrng stems bear

the inedible Florida an ise (/. floridonum).

flavor. They both possess calming and

Aniseed myrtle (Backhousio onisota,

antispasmodic properties, making them

Family Myrtaceae) is a beautiful small tree

ideal remedies for alleviating flatulence,

Chinese star anrse (Illicium verum,

from the rain forests of northern New

intestrnal colic, and bloatmg. Do not use

Family lllicraceae). an evergreen tree,

South Wales, Australia. The leaves are

star anise in infants and young children,

strongly aromatic, with a sweet anise scent.

as it has produced serious side-effec s.

compound umbels of whrte flowers followed by ridged gray seeds.

Star an1 e 1 ·an rs enllal ingredient

m man� >\ ian cui ines. In \'ietname e cooking it i u rd to ria• or 1 he n odie ·oup kn011 n as pho. \long 1\ith Sichuan pepper. clovr . ca

ia and fennel ·eed .

it 1s a component in Chine e




mix (ingredient, pi LUred below) and in Indian garam masala. )ou can u e tar anr e lvholr. broken. or ground.

dd it to pork. chrcken. or


Insert a whole star anise


mto lhe cavity or a chicken or du k before roa Ling.

• Posi tion Anise prefers an enriched,

Bockhousia anisoto. Part used: leaves. The

light, well-drained and fairly neutral soil.

essentral oil of aniseed myrtle is believed

• Propagation Sow anise seed direc ly

to be srmilar to that of anise, although

in spring. Propagate Chi nese star anise

little is known of its medicinal use. Some

by semi-ripe cuttings; they will grow i n

studies suggest i t may have i m portant

well-drained but moist, acidic soil i n light

antimicrobial properties.

shade. Propagate aniseed myrtle from semi-hardwood cuttings. It is quite hardy, w i ll grow in full sunlight, and prefers a

204, and Wind, bloating and flatulence,

deep, rich, moist acidic soil.

page 206. For an iseed myrtle consult your

• Maintenance Keep anise free of weeds.

healthcare professional. Do not use these

• Pests and d i seases Anise repels

herbs in greater than culrnary quantities

aphids and attracts beneficial i nsects,

if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

such as parasitoid wasps.

• H a rvest ing and storing Cut anise

• Cook i n

when the seeds are fully developed. Tie

Anise seeds and oil are used throughout

bunches inside paper bags and hang

Europe i n drinks such as the French pastis,

them upside down to dry and catch the

the Greek ouzo, and Turkish raki. Use the

seed. Harvest leaves as required, and dig

seeds whole or crushed, but for the best

up roots in autumn. H arvest star a nise

flavor grind them as you need them.

fruits just before ripening, and harvest

Use them i n bakery goods, confectionery,

firm leaves of aniseed myrtle at any time.

tomato-based dishes, vegetable and

• H r b al med i c i n e

seafood d ishes, curries, pickles, soups, and stews. Add the young leaves sparingly to

Pimpinella anisum, Illicium verum.

green salads, fish dishes, fruit salads, and

Part used: dried ripe fruits. Anise and

cooked vegetables.

its Chinese equivalent, star anise, are Sichuan p�p�r 2. Cassia 3. Clov� 4. Star anisr 5. n,nn�l s�rds 1

For the safe and appropriate use of anise and star anise, see Indigestion, page

The leaves of aniseed myrtle are a major

used medicinally for similar purposes.

Australian bush-food spice. Use dried or

Despite belonging to different plant

fresh to flavor desserts, preserves, sweet or

famil ies, the essential oils derived from

savory sauces, and marinades.

An i s e hy s s op Agastache foeniculum syn. A. anethiodoro Lam1aceae l a ny agas tachc have rragrant roliagc. t he i r ·ce n t s ranging rrom ani,e to m in t and

i t ru ·. The lca\CS a re u sed t o m a ke hel'hal t e a . ror

hich navoring. a n d in rnedi i nc'. \vh i le t hf' o m a m e nLal flowe r 'Pi ke,. w a t t ra c t benencial i n,cc t s . mal<.e a pret t

aclcl i t ion t o , alacts.

Other common names Anise mint, giant blue hyssop, licorice mint r s used Leaves, flowers Pat

• G a rde n i n g Anise hyssop (A. foeniculum) is a hardy perennial with a sweet anise scent. Both balsamic and peppermint-pen nyroyal scented forms are available.

• Varieties Two varieties are 'Golden Jubilee', with its golden foliage, and white-fiowered 'Alabaster', wh1le fragrant vaneties and hybrids include 'Heather

AF� t<Yfronv tluv

yree-k worc/yfr


��� ruul "ear of

wheat, re{u-r� to tluv�w er �e!Y. II

Anise hyssop (Agostoche foeniculum syn.

Queen' and 'J ust Peachy'.

A. onethiodoro)

Korean mint (A. rugosa). similar to anise hyssop, is a short-lived peren nial,

• Position A. foemculum, A. rugosa,

slightly more frost-tender, with a flower

and A. urticrfolio prefer light shade and

that ranges in color from rose to violet

a slightly acid to neutral soil. Most other

Licorice mint (A. rupestris) is a perennial

species are from areas with a dry climate,

with small licorice-seen ed leaves and

a re water-thrifty, prefer a light well­

spikes of n ecta r-rich apricot fiowers.

drained soil and sunny pos1tion, and

Hummingbird mmt

(A. cona) is a

are well-suited to pot culture.

spec acular perennial spec1es grow1ng to 3 ft

• Propagation Sow agastache seed 1 n

(90 em) with long, dense spikes of large rosy

spring; just cover t h e seed with soil. It

pink flowers and a romat1c foliage.

takes 6 to 8 weeks to germinate. Plant i n pots when large enough. Established plants produce many basal shoots in spring. Propagate these as softwood

The flowers of an1se hyssop yield large

multiply plants by root division.

quant1t1es of nectar, w h 1 ch was popular

• M a i ntenance Agastaches are generally

with North American beekeepers 1n the

ha rdy. I n cool-cli mate areas keep plants

19th century for producmg a tam ly

1n a green house and transfer to the garden

a n 1seed - flavored honey Native American

1n their second spring, in warm -clima e

Indians used 1t as a ea and a sweetener.

areas do so in the first summer.

Infuse the d ned leaves to m a ke a ho

• Pests and d iseases Leaf-chewing

or cold dnnk. Also, use hem to season

msects can be a minor problem

lamb, ch1cken or salmon. Add the seeds

• H a rvesting and storing Use the

to cakes and m u fins. Use the

leaves and flowers freshly picked, or dry small bunches away from di rect sunlight

or fresh leaves o an 1se hyssop or orean mmt 1 n salads. Korean m1nt has a pepper­ mmt and a n 1 seed tlavor a n d aroma and IS

They will reta in thm color and scent

a good substitut e for m 1 nt.

them by hang1 g them ups1de down 1 n Korean mmt (A rugosa), with 1ts lavender blue fiowers, is also known as wnnkled g1ant hyssop.

Cooki n g

cuttmgs and plant outs1de in sum mer, or


Arn i c a Ari'JCO montana Asteraceae TIH'I!'


cJI Hllll 30 spt•nc·� ol \mica. a n d a l l of l hern a rc prrc• n n i a l s

l h <� l "Jll't'ad ll\ rh iwnw �. \ \ i l 11 1 1 " rht•r• r l u l gol d c · n f!O\\C'r". a r n ira h a s long I H' l'll u st•d for -;pra1n s and ili' U I S t ' s as \\l' l l a s h onwopa l h ic l rC'almrnls.



Leopard's bane, mou ntain tobacco

• G a rdeni n g

alt1tude of aboutl,OOO ft. (3,000 m). Arnica

Armco montana 1 s a n aromatiC hardy


peren n1al hat forms a basal rosette of

collection and the mroads of agriculture,

leaves. From late spnng to late summer,

and wild collection

1t produces flowering stems up to 2 ft.


becoming rare, due to over­ IS

being curtailed.

Consequently, the Amencan species

(60 em) high, and each terminates i n a

A. chamissonis is sometimes used in its

single, golden, daisy flower.

place in herbal treatment.

• Varieties Most vaneties are nat1ve

• Posi tion Arnica requires a cool climate

o subalp1ne areas. European arnica

and ful l sun as well as slightly ac1d to

Arnica (Arnica montana)

lle r b a l m d i c i ne Arnica montana, A. chamissonis. Part used :

slightly alka line free-draimng soil. I n areas

flowers. Arnica flowers have significant

tobacco and leopard's bane (not o be

with wet w inters, grow 1t in raised beds

anti-inflammatory and mild ana lgesic

confused with the ornamental perennial

to prevent fungal attack.

properties. They are appl ied topically i n

leopard's bane, Doronicum orientale, wh1ch

• Propagation You can raise arn ica

the form of infused oils, ointments a n d

(A. montana)


also known as mountain

is also poisonous, from the family

from seed but you'll need a period of

creams t o bru1ses, sprains and strains

Asteraceae). Native to the northern Iberian

moist cold. I n climates with cold wi nters,

to encourage healing and to reduce the

pen1nsula northward to Scandinavia, 1ts

sow the seed outside in autumn. In m ilder

discomfort of pain and swelling. The pam­

natural habitat is low, ferte meadows to an

winter a reas, stratify the seed by mixing

relieving effects of arnica also make this a

it with a little damp vermiculite or sterile

suitable top1cal remedy for the treatment

sand. Seal it i n a plastic bag, and place

of sore and aching muscles and rheumatic

it in the crisper tray of the refrigerator

joint problems.

for a bout 1 2 weeks before sowing (see

Internal ly, Arnica montana is taken

also page 44). Propagate mature pla nts

as a homeopathic remedy, in a very dilute

by division in spring.

preparation of the herb. It may help with

• M a i ntenance Arnica is a slow grower

the emotional effects of trauma as well

and resents competition from pasture

as shock resulting from i njury. It may also

weeds such as white clover. Mulch well

help to alleviate the physical complai nts

and weed regularly, or grow plants in

described above.

weed mat.

Arnica has been ruled unsafe 1n some

• Pests and d i seases Fungal rots occur

countries. For the safe and appropriate

i n wet wi nters.

use of arnica, see Fi rst aid, page 220.

• H a rvesting a n d storing Gather the

Do not use arnica if you are pregnant

flowers when fully open and dry them.

or breastfeeding.


Arnica IS toxic in all but th� tin1est doses. In som� countn�s. it is r�stricted to external u� only.

"anuc4/ »

;;ro6a/.;f;r rlerweo,-fronv

t�yre.ek "arnak&, » � "tun/;'y�," clew to �

UJft fetdur� of � �eo,-.

Artemisia Artemisia sp. Asteraceae amed for· the Gr about 300 of

k godd s.

rtemis. Artemi ia is a genus containing

pecic . allhough fC'\\ are grown in gardens.

peci , inl1ibil othC'r plant . sonwtimc


to the point of d-alh.

- -------- ------------------------- -- ---- ---- ------ - --- ------



Other common names Artemisia absinthium: wormwood, old woman. A. pontico: Roman wormwood, old warrior. A. obrotonum: southernwood, lad's love, maiden's ruin, old man. A. afro: wilde als

Parts used Aerial parts, roots

• G a rd n i n g

As i t is strongly insecticidal, use i t as a


(A absinthium) forms a woody shrub to about 2.5 ft. (80 em) with a

companion plant in the edge of g ardens.

bittersweet smell. Its deeply incised gray­

artemisias by semi-hardwood cuttings

green leaves are densely covered in fine hairs.

taken from midsummer to autumn, or

Tree wormwood

raise from seed. Propagate rhizomatous

(Artemisia aborescens)

Tree wormwood

(A arborescens) resembles

• Propagation Propagate all perennial

wormwood but g rows upright to about 5

species by root division i n autumn. Directly

to 6ft. ( 1 .5 to 1.8 m), with narrower leaf

sow the annual species A. annua into the

Wormwood is used to treat symptoms

segments; it smells less strongly.

ga rden i n spring, or raise as seedlings and

associated with poor digestion, including

(A pontica) is a low­ (40 em),

transplant at 6 weeks.

wind. In many cultures it is regarded as

• M a i ntenance Lightly prune and shape

a valuable remedy for worm infestatiOns

with finely cut, scented leaves. It spreads

perennial bushy artemisias i n spring. Prune

and other parasitic infec ions o f the g u t.

by rhizomes.

southernwood heavily in spring. Artemisias

It is also used as a nerve ton1c and to

White sage or native wormwood

are a drought-tolerant grou p once they

treat fever and menstrual complai nts.

(A ludoviciana) has silvered foliage.

are established, and perennial forms have

An aromatic upright subshrub to 4 ft.

good frost tolerance.

Mugwort is used as a d i gestive stimulant

( 1.2 m) that spreads by stolons. it is used

• Pests and d iseases Wormwoods are

and nerve tonic, and 1s also used to treat

as ornamental ('Silver King' is popular).

very rarely trou bled by pests and d iseases.

menstrual problems.

Roman wormwood

growing plant to about 1.5 h.


(A vulgaris) is a perennial that

spreads v1a rh 1zomes. It grows to about

• H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest the leaves as req uired to use fresh or d ried.

3 ft. (90 em), with deeply incised leaves that a re deep green a bove and grayish white below.

A. vulgaris. Parts used: aerial parts.

A. annua. Parts used: aerial parts. According to traditional Chinese medicme, Chmese wormwood (qmg hao) is a cold

H e r b al m d i i n A. absinthium. Parts used: aerial parts.

remedy and is used for treating fevers, rashes and nosebleeds. It is the subjec of

Southernwood (A. abrotanum) forms a n

intense scientific research. See Herbs in

upward-growing bush to about 3 h.

the uture, page: 187, for more mforma 10n.

(90 em) with threadlike, finely divided

A afro. Parts used· leaves. stems. roots.

leaves with a "lemon and camphor" smell. Wilde als

Wilde als is used as a radi ional med1c1ne b many A ncan cultures. and like wormwood

(A afro) is indigenous to Africa,

from the Western Cape up to Ethiopia.

and mugwort, is somet1mes takenas a

A popular garden plant, it forms clumpy

digest1ve omc. Other traditional applications

bushes from 1.5 to 6.5 h. (0.5 to 2 m).

1nclude respiratory problems, such as colds, flu. sore throats and nasal congest1on, for

• Varieties Some excellent ornamental forms of A absinthium include "Lambrook

which 1t is some 1 mes applied topically. For the safe and a p p ropna e use

Silver· and aromatic "Powis Castle," a hybrid.

• Position Most species prefer full sun,

of these herbs, consult your healthcare

good dra1nage and almost neutral soil. (although mugwort tolerates partial shade!.

p rofessional. Do not use these herbs Wormwood (Artemisia absmthium)

1f you are preqnant or breastteedmo

Ba s i l Ocimum sp. Lam1aceae \\h l l<' s\\ l't' l i >c1si l . \\llh i l'i s m o ry clme l'rngra ncr . is thf'

q u lni!'Ssc' n t i a l l tct l i d ll c u l i n a r� hc rll. l la s i l s a re d\'a i lai>lr in a n c�mazing rann1• ol rorms a n c l rragrances-[I'Om l emon. l ime. a n i'lr, sp in'. cin n a mon and th�me to i n c1·nsc a n c l S \\<'<'l cam phOI'.

Leaves, flower spi kes

• G a rde n i n g

Large-leafed sweet

There are 64 basil spec1es, a l l native to

basils include 'Le tuce

the subtroptcs and uop1cs, but generally

Leaf and 'Mam moth'

speaking, hey are annua ls, or evergreen

(both have leaves that are

perennials and shrubs, with simple

large enough to use as food

aromatic leaves and sp1kes of l i pped

wraps); the very ornamental

flowers a rranged 1n whorls.

'Magical M1chael'; and 'Medinette:

• Varieties Many varieties of sweet

a large-leafed dwarf form suitable

basil (0. basilicum) have been developed,

for pot culture.

particula rly in the Mediterranean region.

Colored-leaf forms are widely used

Compact smal l-leafed forms of sweet

as modern ornamental plantings, as well

basil are popular in Greece and for pot

as for culinary purposes. They include

and windowsi l l culture. They include

'Red Rubin' and the frilly leafed 'Purple

'Greek Bush' and 'Green Globe:

Ruffles: The variety 'Ararat' is green, deeply suffused with purple, and has

sw�et basil

a licorice-and-clove fragrance.

(Ocimum basificum)

Citrus-flavored varieties mclude lemon basil I 0. americanum). Hybrid varieties

(0. x citriodorum) include 'Sweet Dani' and ' M rs Burn's Lemon: which are richly lemon-scented and ideal for culinary use. The variety 'Lesbos' or 'Greek Column' contains heady spice, floral and citrus




separate introduction from Greece. 'Lime' basil


S1r 1 humas \1orr miln ,n•lphihl' pht·r 1 17fi-I->J:)


I 0. americanum) has a fresh lime

and sweet basil scent.

(0. tenuiflorum syn. 0. sanctum), which is

Strongly spice-scented varieties of

available in both green- and purple-leafed

0. basilicum include 'Oriental Breeze',

strains, has a mild spice scent and is

a purple-flowered form much used for

widely planted in India around temples

ornamental and culinary purposes;

and i n gardens.

'Cinnamon'; 'Spice' (often incorrectly sold

'Anise Basil'

(0. basilicum), also sold

as 'Holy Basil'). with its heady, almost

as 'Licorice Basil; has a sweet a nise scent

incenselike fragrance; and 'Blue Spice;

and purple-suffused leaves. The basil

which contains additional vanilla notes.

encountered i n the cooking of Thailand

'Peruvian Basil' L�mon basil (Ocimum am�ricanum) has a fr�sh lemon sc�nt with sweet basil und�rton�s.

wofhA.JV wilt


fovl!/ her akJ� "

notes. A similar variety, known as 'Greek' or 'Aussie Sweetie' in Australia, is a

fak� 6tUd


(0. campechianum

0. micranthum) is a spice-scented

species. 'Sacred Basil' or 'Holy Basil'

and Vietnam, 'Thai Basil'

(0. basilicum),

has a light, sweet a nise scent, glossy green foliage and ornamental lavender

C la H ' ic a l l\ I t a l i a n

lowers. Several select1ons have been made, mcludmg he very aromatiC

l n �.l l<ll<l C<�pn •st' ( -salad 1 n t h e style

'Queener e' and 'S1am Queen: w1th

or <:a p r ( ! . i n I he colors or t11 r l t a l liln

a sp1cy an1se ragrance

nag. , ., a l igh t . sum nwry '>alae! t h a t

Some handsome perennial baslls are the result of hybridization between

silO\\ l d 'i l' S t hl'


fliJ\ 01 Of basi l and

t nm . l l ues . \IT<Jngr tomato s l i e r

basilicum and 0. kilimandschancum, the

l'l (lf'

on a

plat I'. l n t r r s pc·rst' 11 i t h sl ice�

camphor-scented perennial spec1es.

o r rn•sil hocconnm (bah� mozzarr lla).

They have a sp1cy clove

Seaso n \I t ' l l . \clcl a !lash

fragrance, w1th

a n c l a sca t t t ' n ng or rre'>h bas1l lea1es.

or ohl t' oi l

a hin of balsam. They mclude wh1te-flowered, green-leafed 'All Year' basil, and the beautiful purple-suffused 'A rican Blue: Tree basil or East Indian basil

(0 grat1551mum) is

nat1ve to trop1cal A rica but widely grown i n India and Sou h Amenca. The plant


'Dark Opal', a van�ty of 0. bosi/1cum, b�ars long c�nse now�rs and has a d�l1cat� sc�nt.

pleasantly thyme- and clovescented and makes a subs antial bush to about 1.5 m. Ano her stra1n

trays kept in a warm and protected

of h1s spec1es. sol d as 'Mosqu1to Plant' or

enwonment. Grow seed l 1 ngs o smaller

'Fever Plant: has a s rong hyme seen .

vane 1es 1 n pots or spaced about 1 h.

• Position Basils require a protected,

(30 em) apa rt, larger bush types about

warm, sunny si e w1th a well-dra1ned soil.

1.5 h. (45 em) apa rt. Basils cross very

• Propagation With the except1on of

readily between vanet1es, so seeds saved

the perennial basils mentioned above,

in a mixed planting will not grow true to

basils are generally rea ted as a nnuals

type 1n the followmg year unless you

and propagated from seed Do not plant

prevent cross-po l l i nation by bees. You can

seeds d�rectly i n the garden until the soil

also take cut ings from s1de shoots.

warms. For an early s ar , pia t mto seed

• M a i ntenance Water regularly. Bemg a tropical plant, basil grows rap1dly at temperatu res 1n excess of

60 F ( 1 6 C) and

1s frost-sens1t1ve Pmch out flower heads to promote bushy plant growth and to prolong the plant's productive life.

• Pests and d i seases A fungal disease called fusarium wilt can attack plants, causing sudden wdtmg. Remove and destroy affected plants (do not compost hem), and do not replan basil in he con am1nated so11. Cons1der plan mg basi Is among other plants, rather than en masse. They make a fashionable add1t1on to the orname tal garden.

• H a rvestmg and storing Harvest mature leaves and flow r sp1 es f01 fresh use at any t1me. To dry the leaves, cut 1hal Basil', anoth�r van�ty of 0. boslllcum, has a sw��t aroma that combm�s ams� and llcor1c�.

bushes a t the base and hang out o d � rec light, then store m an a 1 rt1ght con amer m a cool place

Prese n r ha 1 ! thr

I ta l ia n 11 a1 ! .a\ t'l'

t il t' It'd I t's m a (dr and t'<K h layrr 11 1 t h sa l t T h r n d t t ill' t o p acid


goo<l-qua1 1 1 1 o l ll l' o1! Sral t hl' (ill

'erun·!1 ant! torr 1 n t il<' rerngt'rdtor.

.J i lt I\\ 111g s e l t rd l da\' ror t h 0 1 1 tu be '

m ru -,!'d 11 t t h l ht• fl a1 o r of t h r bas i l

l st' l ht• 11'<1 1 (' ' d o d tht• o i l For ma�mg J ll' to ( 't't' rt'Ciflt'. fl.lf.!f' .1101. Dnzzle

" l i l t It· 01 1 Olt'r J liZZ<l'- nr saldds. \lso. I I)

dt l tl ll l g a dash t o


m.trin dtlt•.

Ba il


l l <' r'ba l m (' d i c i n e

Ras11 hd� hol h pos 1 l 11 e and negali1e

Oclfnum bosilicum. Par used eaves.

a . o 1 a t 1ons t h a i includt> love and

Sweet basil is known more for 1ts pleasant

rear. dang1·r and protrcuon. an11

taste than for 1 s med1cinal effects. Due

and deat h . Thr nt•gativr connotation.

o 1ts mild sedat1ve properties, herbal ists

prohahlv come from

rad1tionally prescribed bas1l as a tea for

r p 1 t hct

llasil·� La t in

bimllcum. 11 hwh l i n ks it to

Lllr hasJid ( l l' ft ) . t hr my th ica l

easmg nervous irntability

Oc1mum t�nwflorum syn. 0 sanctum.

, rrpr n t 'W i th thr dea!lly gazt>. Thr

Par used leaves. Holy basil, an 1mportant herb m Ayurvedic med1cme,



ancwnt G r rk. and RomJn · llrlievrd Lhd t u t t r n n�: a c u r r \1 hen

used for a

ranqe of complamts. Sc1en 1f1c research


\\Oulrt rn urr

SO\\ mg

J L grrmmauon.

supports 1ts role 1n he management of diabetes (due to a hypoglycaem1c effect) and as a supportive herb during imes of stress. It may also 1mprove concentration

C oo l\ i n g

and memory and, due o an antiallergic

Basil i s one of the g reat culinary herbs;

effect, may be benefic1al in treatmg hay

d i fferent varieties are used ex ensively

ever and asthma

in both European and Asian cooking

For the safe and appropriate use of

If a recipe specifies simply "basil," sweet

bas1ls, consult a professionally tramed

or common basil (Ocimum basilicum) is

medical herbalist Do not use these herbs

the type generally meant. Fresh sweet

i n greater than culinary quant1t1es if you

basil is highly aromatic, with a distinctive

are pregnant or breastfeeding.

scent and flavor remin iscent of an iseed, and ends to be either loved or loathed.

t\ ro u n d t h e h o m e

Dried basil tastes more of curry, and is

Basil 1s a natural disinfectant. Use the

a poor substitute for the fresh herb and

essential oil in combination with other

should be avoided.

In Greece, Greek basil (Ocimum mmtmum 'Greek') is placed on tables to deter flies.

antiseptic herbal oils to make disinfectant sprays for clean1ng household su rfaces. Plant basil m a pot close to the back door to deter fl1es. Cut a bunch of basil as an aromatic table centerpiece when you eat outdoors. The dned flower heads add a sweet and sp1cy note to a pot-pourri.

Using a knife to cut basil can bruise

5wed 6� w

.wtnd� caltetl �

72or Her6.

and d a rken the leaves. For salads and pasta sauces where appearance matters, shred the leaves with your fingers. Young leaves have the best flavor, while old ones have a coa rser, stronger taste. In cooked dishes, basil quickly loses its aroma and the leaves tend to darken, so add it to give depth of flavor dunng cooking and then, for fragrance and visual appeal, stir in a little more just before serving. Tomato dishes, chicken, egg and rice d ishes, spaghetti sauces, fish and vegetables - especially beans, capsicum and eggplants - all go well with basil. See Vegetarian spring rolls recipe, page

354. Basil is a good addition to stuffings. The most famous use of basil is in pesto (or pistou in French). Citrus-scented and caused basil to be adopted

spice-flavored variet1es of basil work well in a range of Asian recipes.


Thr tJay t ree wa� ronsidrretl sacred

Lourus nobilis Lau raceae

to t he

un god Apollo. dncl latrr

h i s son 1\sclepiUS. tile

The i la� i .' a long- l i \ ed a n d . IO\\ -gi'O\\ i ng. pyra m icl- · ! l a p d n e rgrern tree . \ccord i ng to fol�lorr. a il<Jy l!'t'P in Llw ga rden or a t L IH.' fro n t door keep· awa� l'\ il d:i \\ C I I a . t h u n der a n d l igil l n i ng . n rne Bay laurel, Grecian bay, sweet bay O ther corr n Parts us Leaves, flower buds, fruits, bark, roots

• G a rd n i n g

Several other species are known as bay or laurel, and some are also classified

( 1 5 m) over a long period, 1ts slow, dense

as herbs or spices. The northern bayberry

upright growth habit makes i t an 1deal

( Myrica pensylvonico), which is the source

specimen for a large pot. whether it is

of bayberry candles; the bay rum tree

allowed to grow mto its natural form or is

(Pimento rocemoso). used in men's

shaped into an ornamental topiary or

colognes; and Indonesian bay ( Eugenio


polyontho) have all been used for cooking.

this form, a small garden can

fell i n


ccording to m y t h . Apollo

lo\e 11 i l h Daph ne.

a bea u t i f u l

n y m p h 1�ho. ra t her l h a n returnmg hi

affec t i o n . a p pra l rd

LO the



rescur her from h 1 rn . She was d u l c hangrd i n to a llay tree. t h e perf c t



cler lal'f·cl t h e t ree

. a rrd and t hr rcaftPr 11 orr a hay

While a bay tree can reach about 50 ft




Greek god

accommodate a bay without concern; its

The ornamental plants cherry laurel

grow h is even slower when cul tivated in

( Prunus /ourocerosus) and mountain laurel

a pot. Bay generally flowers only 1n warm

(Kalmia lotifolia) are easily confused with

climates. and the small. very fragrant

sweet bay due to a similar leaf shape.

flower buds open to tiny cream flowers,

However, the leaves of these species are

after which come blue-black bernes.

very po1sonous if ingested, and even the

• Varieties There are two species of bay,

honey ha rvested by bees can be toxic.

l a u rel \\ rrath in Daphnr·H honor.

L nobilis and L. ozorico; the latter is

used ornamentally. There is a gold­ leafed orm of L. nobilis called 'Aurea; as well as a wil low-lea

The gods turned the nymph Daphne into a bay tree so Apollo would stop pursUing her.

form, 'Angustifol ia: Rd) ha� lung lwcn ronsHil'rrd a n

Bay (Lourus nobilis)

l l <'l'h or \I rung

mag1r. Jlllt• t o a t t raCI

good lorl u n r anti \\ t• a l t h . a n ti to �l't'P

d\\ d\ l'\ I I . Tht• til' a t h or lld� t l't'I'S \\ d'i l'OilSilil'll'd a POl l P i l l o l l'\ 1\ h e n

il l l m t • :

L lll' C i t y of Romp I t • II to u n asion

from the north 1 11

l lw l l h n'll l ll r \ .


t hr l id) l l'l'I'S 8 1'(' l'l ' plltt•d I l l h d \ 1' i l l ! ' d . l l u ring o u t l lreab o l I l i t • pldgut· Koman l' l l llt ' l i ' I I U I III'd

lia) li'd \ t's 1 11

i lJI' p u l i l iC Sqlldl'l'S. ,lnll t ilt' 111'11> \I d S s U I I U'il'd f i l l t il l s purpoSI'

11110 llil'

l l i l l l ('('ll l l l l'\ The lt'd\t's d rt' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ) lld iTIJ i i r 1 1 1 ! l lldll t l t y; I l lS S d i d l l idl i ll t ' < l i dl ' l t • 1 1 1

l ) t• l p l l l l l l llr•ltH't•

l ; l l'l' l l ' rl\1'\\ t' d iJd\


li'd\ t'S

l'l ltl'l'l'd d p l i tpht'lll' 11\1111'1'

Till' l r m p h · J t l ll' l p l u 1\ d s Jlllllt·d \\ i l h PI ( l l t'l' l l \ t '

l 11 .Ill rill's t!l li.l\


Con tm,;�d

\ n n i i i (J tw� c u s l a rc l Ka\ romplt' lfll'nts 1 1 · h . llii'Jt and ro ul t f)

• Postt ton Bay rees pref�r a deep sod,


so 1f ou are grow1ng one m a pot. plant 1t 1 r one o ger1erous dep h, 1 n a com post­

pnhap . 11 l'rt cu tan1s

enrrched pott1ng rn1,_ Prov1de full sun and



sut h a l h t .

'' ilt'tt' 1 t imparb a ·ii�htlv 'P'r 1

good a1r c• rculat1on Bay prefers a mo1st,


l 'l ar t' 1 n uz. r 1 ;;o m 1 1 m 1 1�. -, n.

nch we -dra1ned so1l.

( L iO

• Propagation Seed may ake 6 mon hs

� en·om, 1

n t l ) l lllt

dlld I IMI h'< f 1 0

to gerrr 1nate Cuttings, best made rom

'illi iTil'l.

sem1-rope wood, may take 3 or more


mon hs o form roots, and must never

a 'aun• Bnng In a

soli hn111 n Ugdr mrlk

w1nters, sweet bay •s best grown m pots

to .r

ns1de durong the wmter

rn1 mg


drop below 5'F ( - 1 5'C). Check plants


rn ,r i.Jf111 I . ,\dil wlu l'rl

t hnruughl\.

Rt'Lii rn 111 1


aun•p;m. Coo owr <1 l oll

r Jr·an

l t rn ng. untrl t u lord t h ir � ·n

hl'at .

mon hs or 1f he temperature IS likely to


J<prnow r""' dill!

Hr·.11 � · t•gg \Uib c.rr111 1 t.1bh• I"����


• M a i n tenance In areas w1th cold


pill l dllllld pcxl

lrnrn lll'a t Jnd

r n fust• lor , -, fll llllllt•

be allowed to dry out.

and brougb

o,atu l'' . urh '" IJt\1rna1 .,.

rt'l'IJII', JIJ/!1' 33U!. aiHI. '-Urpri mgl\,

il'l 11 hull. St>rlt'

II J rrn

. tfo

11 1111 ht•l frUit

Jill'' all!! �ll·aml'tl puddtn:!

regularly for both scale and fungal 1nfestat1ons. Re-pot potted speCimens mto larger conramers wrth fresh addi t1onal so1l as reqUired; when transplanting, dis urb he roo sys em as l1t le as poss1ble.

• Pests and d iseases Bay 1s generally rouble-free but can suffer from scale

adequa e ven !Ia ion and light can develop d1sfigunng gray mildew, wh1ch should be reated with sulphur whtle the plant is wet with mornmg dew

msec s, which may mfest he undernea h

• H a rvest i n g and stori ng Pic green

of leaves and s ems. To remove these,

leaves for use a t any time. Dry leaves out

blend 2 cloves of garlic w1th a cup of

of direct sunsh1ne and store in an a 1 1t1ght

water, filter, and add a lit le liqu1d soap.

bottle Also see Harvesting, preserving and

Apply to the 1nsects w1th cotton buds.

storing, page 1 72.


rleter weevik il-l/ �ur �ff' adrl 6ar �&wetv toFy of

f&ur cuul r�

AI ernauvely, apply horticultural oil m he same manner Plants grown Without

C o o l-. i n g Sweet bay I S md1spensable 1 n French and other Mediterranean cookery. The tough leaves wi hstand long cookmg,



them m soups and stews. Apart from meat and fish, they go well 1n dishes that contai n lentils or beans. Two leaves are suffimn m a dish that serves six people Bay


essential 1 n a bouquet garn1,

wh1ch 1s made with fresh herbs or dned herbs wrapped in muslin Bay 1S also used in p1ckling spice and garam masala Fresh leaves tend to be bttter, but the taste will dimmish 1f they are left to wilt for a few days. Fresh sprigs stripped of a few leaves make aromatic skewers for meat or fish cooked on the barbecue. Dried leaves retam the11 flavor for Bouqu�t garn1, a bundl� of claSSIC h�rbs, usually 1nclud�s bay, thym�. parsl�y and p�p�rcorns.

about a year. Remove dned leaves from dtshes before serving.


IJOta n t · a l n a rn .

/,.Juru ....

lt'llls from the l.atrn 1\!lrd.


-praise.- lll rrf'rrnre

er01\ n of lla}

illll il'llt

Iraws II'Orn lJ� the


IIllO I \. Other oltrn toe

J.w •.

to th

to celcllrate

IH·rtJ, ll t're


tntu 11 rr.r t h · . Thr Roman rm r<·ror



worr a 11r

a t h ol

bay laur l 11 hen

t h under. LOrm.

were r gm{!. 0t>r.1 u e

hr beltl 1ed that it t he •oct· or t h unlll'r ntl hl!hlninc

Berga m o t Monarda sp. Laminaceae \a t i l e \mcricans u sed \ lonarda to m a k

medic i n a l t i , a n ('S .

Hu�ton Tea Pa rt � . i n 1 7 73. 11 i1cn \ m e r i c a n

ft c r t il e

d u m ped Lea s h i pped

olon i L

il� t ll r B r i tish East I n d i a Com pan . i n p ro t e s t aga i n s t B r i l i 11 r u l r . L h r i)rrgamol t ea o l t h e 0 'll ('go I n d i a n s ileca m l' a po p u l a r s u b ' l i l u le . Oth r Part u

Bee ba lm, Monarda, Oswego tea


Wild bergamot ( Monordo flstuloso)


a r'd e n i n g

Monarda obtamed its common name in

different strains have hyme- or rose

• Pests a n d d i seases Some of

geranium-scented leaves.

the garden varieties are susceptible to

The cold-ha rdy M. menthifolia, known

powdery mildew, w h ich. a l though it is

resembled that of bergamot orange (Citrus

as oregano de Ia Sierra, has a true oregano

disfigu ring, does not a ppear to cause any permanent d a mage.

Europe because the scent of 1ts foliage

bergamia syn. C aurantium var. bergamia),

scent and flavor. Spectacular spotted

a small tree that resembles Sevi lle orange

bergamot (M. puncta to) has densely

• H a rves t i n g and stor i n g H a rvest

(C aurantium). Bergamot's leaf fragrances

whorled heads of cream flowers speckled

the ed ible flowers as req u i red. Collect leaves i n late spring and d ry them.

range from oregano to lemon. This herb's

purple and showy lavender bracts. Lemon

spectacular flowers attract bees and also

bergamot (M. citriodora) is a tall annual

honey-seekmg birds.

species with heads of large, lipped, pink

Oswego tea (M. didyma) is a peren nial growmg to 4ft. ( 1 .2 m). with several stems erminating in heads surrounded by dense

Herbal medicine Monordo didyma, M. fistuloso. Part used :

or lavender flowers.

• Varieties Most garden bergamots a re

leaves. M. didymo has been used

hybrids (M.

medicinally to ease flatulence and colic


media), and include vanet1es

whorls of long-tubed, scarlet flowers. The

such as 'Blue Stock ing' and 'Mohawk:

lea es have a very pleasant citrus scent.

• Position With the exception of

thymo l , a n essent1al oil compound that i s

M. fistulosa, which is drought-resistant,

also found in thyme and m a rjoram. a n d

Wild bergamot (M. fistulosa) is found on

and reduce fevers. It i s reputed to contain

well-drained hillsides and in light woodland.

bergamots prefer a sunny position and

m a y explain t h e cal m i n g effect tha the

Two botanical varieties to 4ft. ( 1 .2 m) are

an enriched, moist but well-drained soil.

plant has on the digestive system

grown, both w1th lance-shaped leaves. M.

• Propagation Propagate by seed, or

fis tulosa usually has whorled heads of

by dividing perenn1als in early spring. You

bergamot essential oil. For h e safe

lavender flowers (occasionally pink), and

can also take stem cuttings in summer.

and a ppropriate use of M. didymo a n d

Do not confuse his herb w1th

• M a i n tenance Clear dead material

C bergomio, consult your h e a l hcare

from plants 1n winter. Divide plants

professiona I. Do not use these herbs

every 3 years.

if you are pregnan or breastfeeding.

The l l l l l'IN'i� fragra n t \\ d\� 11 h 1LC' rloll t'rs of l il t ' lwrgdlllol uranl-!t' s� n.

C. dl11'81llillm 1<1 1'. lir'l'{!diTihl).

I'SM' I l l i d l Oil Ul llt'I'O I I . tl 'il'ti ll l l i r l� I ll

II Hl<'l'. aho



tJJ ttl'l'

'iJ JII I't'l' ol l ilt' l il t • [ ll ' l' l lllll!'l� t ratlt•. d l l t i d ht l l l l d l l gt• limi t'!

hut l l lgl i l \ d l'lllllil l ll � 1' 1 1011 jll ' l ' i ls l l 'il'ti t o fidllll' Ea 1 l 1 ; 1<11 It'd. d ! H I

lit' l'l!d lllllt t • o.; s e n t la l I l l I . 11 I n e l l 1 � l l 'il'il for i l l'l lll l d t hl ' l ap\ p u rp11,, .,_

I I can l w lll'lll'fii'IJ I fe l l " 1 a ngc o f , � 1 1 1 c o m l l l itll1'i. <H i l l ' .

Bergamot IS an ingredient in the eau de cologne 4711, wh1ch dates from the late 1 Bth century




t L'IIf'LJ' flt'I'J!dfllld

hornt· in cl u o.; l l ' l> HI sprmg. d lt' t he

i n r l tlllmg

l a �c· l'dll' ll ht•n a p p l \ lllg ' � I l l n c· a m s d l l t l


c111 oil\ U J I I I Pit•\Jou d l l d

l'CHl l il l l l l ll g l ilt' , . ,,, l l l ld l

l h t'l lllljll l l l l l l h . I H' rgil p l l ' l l . l l d 'i d �111 111 1 1 p l l l l l ll'i!'ll 'i i t i�IIIQ t ' l l t • t [ .


Bo rage Boraga offiCina/is Borag� naceae Cons irlt'rt'd t1 r u n • 101 " m r l a n c l w l la


1 1 1 a n c i e n t t i nw'i.

horagc 1 s a lldl'tl� t� n n u d l IH' 1 I 1 and ti n !'\cr l l en t com pan ion

plt� n l . lw l p 1ng t o dt' l t ' l' t o m a t o horll\\ Ol'lll CJnll J a pa n ese I H' l ' l ll's. d i H I s ll lll l l i a l l n g tlw gro\\ l11 of s t ra\\ IJl'l'l' i t • s . Other corr f11 o n

Starflower a P r s .J'i d Leaves, flowers readily, in 3 to 5 days. Thin the plants to a spacing of 1 .5 ft. (45 em ) .

• M a i ntenance Keep the soli moist, and fertilize in spring.

• Pests and diseases Generally pest- and d isease-free.

Borage (Baraga officina/is)

• H a rvesting and storing Harvest borage yea r-round as req uired. Dry

ach ieved when GLA and other omega-6

the leaves in a very cool oven or in a

oils a re taken i n combination with

well-aired place. out of d i rect sunlight.

omega-3 essen tial fatty acids, such as those found in flax seed and fish.

H rba l m d i c i n In the first century CE, Pliny declared that borage made men merry and glad.

The leaves are used as a poultice for

Borago officina/is. Part used: seed oil.

sprains, bru ises and i n flammation, and

Borage seed oil is a rich source of

in facial steams for dry skin.

gamma-l inolenic acid ( GLA) , an omega-6

For the safe and appropriate use of

• G a rd e n i n g

fatty acid that is also found i n evening

borage seed oil, consult your healthcare

primrose oil. GLA exhibits anti­

professional. Do not use borage seed 011

Borage forms a rosette of large ovate

inflammatory activity; some research

if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

leaves before send1ng up hollow flower�ng

suggests that it may be of therapeutic

stems to 3 ft. (90 em). The whole plant

value i n the treatment of dry and itching

• C

has a cucumber scent.

skin conditions, including eczema and

Remove the sepals from flowers and

and can irritate sensitive skin. The flower

psoriasis. The latest evidence suggests

use them i n salads, or crystallize (see

is five-petaled with a wh1te n n g in the

that better therapeutiC results may be

page 380) for use as cake decorations.


coarsely hairy

center and a cone of black stamens.

• Varieties There are three species of borage, but only B. officina/is is used as an herb. There are three color variants. The common form has intense blue flowers, but some plants have flowers suffused

During th

Cru a de,. boragl'

\1. 3 '

with pink. There is also a rare white form.

mfu. r.d m �urrup cup and orrrrell

• Position Borage requ1res a sunny,

to Cru�ader' mountl'd on their

well-drai ned position and prefers a


well-dug and com posted soil.

for the Holy Land. A lso. lad1r

• Propagation Sow plants directly 1nto the

traditionall e1nbroidered it starlike


m readlne

for departure

ground in spring and 1n autumn. You can

flo11 rrs onto scar1es. which they

sow them in pots, but you should transplant

ga1 e to thrir chosen knight

them while they are young, because they

thr1 wrnt mto combat

develop a large taproot. Boraqe oerminates

be for


Boxwoo d The art of topiary - sc u l p t i ng

Buxus sempervirens Buxaceae

cornrac l.

\ltllougll lherc are

orne 70

pecie · of ho:-.wood, il i · the �IO\\ -growing

and long-l ived common bo:-.. . \� i l ll il ' neal foliag<' and dense wood. tllal i

u eel in formal

arcl e n i ng. I L i · also used in llomeopa l ll



\·a riou


srna ll-leafPd IJiants i n to

shapes (see

also Panerr·e

gardens. pagl' I 14) - da le back t o Roman t r rn es . \\ hrn topiar·y

anrrnals and ouelr�ks were s u l pl'd

not in modern hel'bal medicine. due to i ts toxicity.

to a<lorn gardrns a n d a l rr u rns.


Leaves, bark (note that the plant can cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, and that all parts are toxic i i ngested)

grand l•; u r•opean formal garden

• G a rd n i n g

rleclined 11 h e n fashion drcla rccl a

Toriary rl'achc<l its p a k i n t h e



t h r 1 7t h and 1 8t h r<'nturies. b u t


retu r·n

rn ore nat u r·al land rapes.

Common boxwood is a hardy evergreen

I n 1 7 1 3. t he po 1 A l e xa nd !' r Pope

shrub to small tree, attaining ful l height

\\ rote a sati rical e ·sa

over a long period of time. The small, oval

CuarUian newspaper rn 11 h irh he

glossy leaves are deep green to yellowish

d sc r t bed an u nf m i hed box1100d

green. Borne in spring, the necta r-rich

lOiliary of St Geor�e t ha t would not

flowers are pale green with very reduced



Ia� t llP dragon u n t i l il wa

petals, while the fruits are three-horned.

cornpletrd - six mon t h s hencr.

• Varieties Some garden varieties

Today. topiary ts rmre again a

or g r·an c l cou n t r� horn

selected for their form include

fea t u re

'Eiegantissima; a very compact type with

pa rl ir u tar l y 111 Lhc L f.. 8nd E u rope.

white-edged leaves; 'Au reomarginata; also

but r t

known as 'Marginata; with gold-edged

ga rdens 11 here her!J .. , uch as

leaves; 'Suffruticosa; which is dwarf,

boxwool l . at' s ulpted into

dense, and very slow-growing. making it


particularly popular for edging herb gardens and creating topiary; and 'Kingsville Dwarf; which is favored by


is a l so popular tn olll<:ll n er im1 le

. I n Japan. cloud-pru ning ­

the art or crea t i ng cloud l i ke form. -

The wood of box was traditionally used in engraving blocks, marquetry and instruments.

and !Jon ai are

lloth fot·rns of topia ry.

bonsai growers.

• Position Boxwood prefers full sun but is tolerant of shade, and prefers a well-drained neutral-to-alkaline soil.

• Propagation Take semi-ripe tip cuttings with a l i ttle hardened wood at the base, preferably in autumn.

• M a i ntenance To encourage dense, compact growth, trim boxwood toward the end of spring. Carry out light shaping of topiary and hedges i n summer.

• Pests a n d diseases This plant is not susceptible to many pests and diseases, although the young spring leaves may be damaged occasionally by sucking insects, and rust can occ u r o n leaves. I t i s natural for boxwood to appear bronzed in wi nter.

• Harvesting and storing Ha rvest and d ry leaves i n spring, before flowering.

The small leaves and compact growth habit of boxwood ( Buxus sempervir ens) make 1t 1deal for topiary

Bra h m i Bacopa monnien Scrophulaceae T h i .· l ro p i c a l h < ' l i l IS I'C ' PU l l'd 10 i rn prm f ' I >O l h b r a i n ru n c l ion tliHI l l H ' I Il l l r� . tliHI l h< ' d r ied plant h u-;t•d i n rn a n J l ra d i l i o n a l \� t l l'\ l'd il' ro l'lll l l i d l iOil . R ra h l l l l lll tf �( ' S d ll a l t racl iH' h a n g i ng i lcf-;�< ' 1 . ) o u t tl II aho �rO\\ it i n c1n orndllH ' n l a l po n < l .

Bacopa, thyme-leafed

C a nl e n i n g

Brahmi (Bacapa monnienl

& � '6ralz,n,w '

fonv Br�, t� Hiiulw�r/ of creafiotv.


rr �ke, • ' ' r




• yrown 1r the qr•)W brahm

,. r "_, r ter

rap gat10r Y

s eu bJ

• •


car qr'>v. brahm1

rrrs ad"ent '1ous roots




1� a

ping our bodir�

hape. Brahmi has hcen u ·rd

a� a "h1 am 11 orknut" hcrll rn the ·\vu rwdil t ra d 1 l ron or mrdiCIII<'

1• grows well

"1eter o•

t-.rC11ing o u r bra1n h ra l lh �

1 m 1JO r l a n l

on creepmg shoots, and the detached shoots q uickly grow into new plants

for allout

:iOO yt•a r�. Rr:enr her:

h� polhesil!' t h a t r t may hrlp hy

when potted. U nrooted 1p cutt1ngs also

impro11ng t he 11 ay the nrr1ou'

strike q u1ckly.

s��tt'm t ra n , m l l me

• Ma i ntena nce As brahmi has very shallow roots. water it regularly, espwally 1f exposed to d�rect hot sunsh1ne. Promote rapid growth w1th liqu1d seaweed fer ilizer diluted to the recommended strength.

agr. r n t he

l1ra i n . Gntu ko l a i Crn lella asia/Jca s y n . II} UfriCOI,I Jc• J ·ialicaJ 1 �


someume conrustngl� rere r rrd to

lJ� l l w rommnn name bl\l h m i and h a "brai n" hrrh 1n


011 n ngh l.

• Pests and d i seases None of note.

l loll t'll'r. the t11 o piJnt a n· t'J ily

• Harvesting and storing HaNest stems

chsungur�lll'd h� thl'ir difrerrnt lear

and leaves when plant is 5 months old,

·IJailrs ( 'ieP Gutu kolil.

pagl' 0 1 ) .

leaving 2-1n. (S-cm) stems so that plant can regenerate for further haNesting. Dry leaves


the shade at room temperature

and store 1n a�rtight containers.

take around 3 months to occur. Brahmi is also renowned as an exceptional neNe ton1c, so it 1s notable that a reduction i n

l l c r ba l m d i c i n Bacopa monnieri. Parts used: whole herb.

clinical studies, supporting its use during

In AyuNedic medicine, brahmi is prescribed

times of anx1ety and neNous exhaustion.

by herbalists to 1m prove memory, learmng Brahmi is an aquatic herb, ideal for growing m damp places m the garden or even in a pond.

anxiety levels was also obseNed i n some

For the safe and appropriate use of

and concentration. Scientific research has

brahmi, see Memory and concentration,

provided encourag1ng evidence for some of these effects. but suggests improvements

page 2 13. Do not use brahmi if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Bu r d o c l< Arctium lappa Asteraceae B u rclock is cn jo� ing a re u rg<'nCC' in po p u l a rity. both as a \ C'ge l ablr a nc l a s a trad ition a l m rd i c i n a l pla n l. I L i

rc·ga rded a . a \I C < ' t l i n t h e 1 o r l lw r n

· \\·e l f

on rough gro u n c l in a s u n n � pos it i on.

Hemi · plwrc. '' h P rr it grO\\

Other com mon n a mes Beggar's buttons, g reat bu rdock Parts used Leaves, roots, seeds

• G a rd e n i n g

• Propagation Propagate from seed in

Burdock is a strong-growing biennial.

spring or late autumn. Although the seed

The fairly bitter but tender young foliage

usually germinates easily, soa k the seed

of spring regrowth is used as a green

overnight in warm water before sowing,

vegetable. The leaves are large and oval,

then lightly cover it with soil and firm

Burdock IArctium lappa)

and the numerous purple thrstlelike

down. Thin seedlings to about 6 in. (15 em)

flowers are quite remarkable in their

apart. To produce h i g h-quality, long

perfect symmetry. Burdock can grow

straight roots, dig the soil to a depth of 2

Arctium lappa. Pa rt used: roots. I n

as h tgh as 8 ft. (2.4 m).

ft. (60 em) and incorporate well-rotted

Western herbal medicine, burdock root

• Varieties Some named varieties are

compost before sowing.

is used as an alterative or blood purifier.

grown as a vegetable for their slender,

• M a i ntenance Keep the soil moist and

These terms describe its gentle detoxifying

crisp, textured taproots, which can grow

weed the crop regularly, particularly when

effect on the body and stim ulation of

as long as 4.5 ft. ( 1 .3 m). These include

the plants are young. Remove the flowers

the body's eliminatory channels, namely

two Japanese varieties - 'Takinogawa

and burrs to promote root growth.

the lymphatic, drgestive and u rinary

llc r b a l m e d i c i n e

Long' and 'Watanabe EarlY: Both have a

• Pests and d i seases Burdock is rarely

systems. It is commonly prescnbed for

flavor between that of parsnip and

seriously affected by pests and diseases.

chronic inflammatory sktn and joint

Jerusalem artichoke. Arctium minus is a

• H a rvesti n g and storing For cooking,

conditions, which traditional herbalists

very bttter weedy species that is found all

collect young shoots and leaves i n spring.

regard as the result of a buildup of

over North America.

Lif the roots in autumn, about 100 days

unwanted toxrns in the body. When used

• Position Burdock requires a moist

after planting, when they are at least

over a long period of time, burdock root

humus-rich soil and full sun, although

1 ft. (30 em) long. For medicinal purposes,

can be particularly effective in clearing

it will tolerate some light shade. It is also

dry the grayish brown roots, which are

fully cold-hardy, and dtes down in winter.

white on the inside.

dry, scaly skin complaints, such as eczema and psoriasis, and t m p rovrng rheu matic JOint condittons. For the safe and appropriate use of burdock, consult your healthcare professronal. Do not use burdock if

The !' I C n l y

cit t rt l l u ted hook: on t h e uunlork

burrs. " hich kept st icktng t o h t . rloliH•s o n

11 alb

i n t h e cou n t r) Siclr. in pired c;l'ori,W cl�

\1f' tral to in H' n t \ e lcro rn 1 9 15. The ndmr comr. l ro m the l•'rcnch 11 onls t eluur. meaning


and r'ru('/7£'1 or -hook.- Tht• t m t• n t ion

has been applied to a 11 tilr rang!' of J l t'm\.

from fa�trners on clot he�. !Jags dJHI shoes 10 stain lt>s�-stcrl hook and l oo p Fa t e ners t ha t are u�ed to a t t a h car part..

you are pregnant or breastfeed ing.

C oo k i n g Burdock is not a n t m portant edible plant, although the cultivated Japanese arm, gobo, is used as a vegetable and also rn varrous ptckles and a mrso-base d condr ment. It is also eaten as a vegetable rn Korea. Scrape he young leaf stalks and cook them as you would celery. Use the roots raw as a salad vegetabl e, or cooked rn stir-fries l i ke carrots .

Calendula Calendula afficmalis Asteraceae Calt•nd u la ha. la r,ge clil i s\ l i �c riOIH' rs in go lden yei iO\\ o r orange. In t� n c i c n L Rom e . L h e ht•rll \\ a · U'>t'tl Lo m a �e a tl ro t ll L ll a l \\ i:h -<aitl lo u p l i ft t he "Pi r i t. · . I n I nd i a . L IH' ll righl riO\H'r' decora l <'d the a l t a i\' in l l i n t l u t e rn p i P s . a

Other c( Part

Golds, marigold, pot marigold, ruddles

Peta ls


• G a rcl n i n

Calendula (Calendula afficmalis)

Native to the Mediterranean, calendula

Itl/ t� fYlidr/te-A�, ��y

forms a dense clump of simple lance­ shaped aromatic leaves. The flowers resemble large daisies.


• Varieties The orig1nal calendula of


'fYlan!' ff<Jtd' ' y

of f� Vir� fYlarr-

the herb garden was the single form; however, i n the 20th century, double­ flowered forms were extensively bred,



yielding much larger harvests of petals.

• M a i ntenance In hot summers,

ll r b a l m d i c i n e

Two notable choices are 'Pacific Beauty'

calendulas usually cease flowering.

Calendula officina/is. Part used: flowers.

and the dwarf 'Fiesta Gitana: 'Erfurter

Regular deadheading will help to

Brightly colored calendula flowers

Orangefarbigen' from Germany is used for

prolong flowering.

possess significant wound-healing and

commercial medicinal flower production

• Pests and d i seases Plants are prone

local a n ti-Inflammatory properties. To aid the healing of wounds, cuts and

in Europe. A remarkable heirloom single

to mildew in autumn. The variety 'Orange

variety from the Elizabethan period,

King' has good resistance. Spider mite can

burns, apply them topically i n the form

C officina/is 'Prolifera: is still grown.

be a problem in midsummer, although

of an ointment, cream or infused oil.

This is the quaint 'Hen and Chickens:

reducing water stress lessens the severity

which has a central flower encircled

of attack.

help to staunch bleeding, while its

by a number of miniature flowers.

• H a rvesting and storing Gather

antimicrobial effects help to keep the

• Position Plants need full sun but will tolerate partial ligh shade. They prefer

petals after the dew has dried and

site of injury free from infection. Use

spread them very thinly over paper on

a calendula tincture as an effective

Calendula's slight astringency may

a moderately fertile, well-drained soil.

racks, out of direct sunlight, in a well­

mouthwash against gum infections

• Propagation Calendula is an annual

ventilated place. When they are dried,

and mouth ulcers and also as a topical

that is very easy to grow from seed.

store them in airtight containers.

antifungal agent for some skin conditions. Traditionally, calendula flowers

�Pot mar�gold should not be conru ed w1th the


1extcan genu ( Tapele J. which Lhe o-called Arri ao and french

marigold ( right) as �ell a the coriander­



ndean herb h uacata or Peruvian

black m m t I TageLe ternif/ora). and the clo

I� re la ted T. minu111.

� .

.. ...

are taken i n ternally for i n fections and inflammation of the gut, including stomach and duodenal ulcers, and also as a lymphatic remedy for the treatment of swollen lymph nodes. For the safe and appropriate external use of calendula, see First aid, page 220. For i nternal use, consult your healthcare professional. Do not take calendula internally if you are pregnant or breast­ feeding. Topical application is considered safe at these times.

C a raway Roll o u t reany-made rizza dough

Corum corvi Apiaceae

or rurr pa t ry on a lighll

Ca ra\\ a� \\ a S a po p u l a r

l i dtllr !� a s t e r n h c rll heror

b r i ng i n L roc l u ced

i n t o \\'e , tern E u rope i n L hr I _ L il cen t u r" . I t s sreds a r·c u srd a s a n a n i f'­ cen tetl

p icf' in cooki ng. The herb a ! o h a

mecl i c i n a l a n d co' m e lic u sc .


u rrace. \\ h i k


I egg yolk with

2 Lallie roans water u n t i l combined and IH'U h ligh tly over dough. . u t dough i n to square . Combine

2 table poon each or popp

eed .

Other com mon n a m e Persian cumin


Parts used Leaves, roots, dried ripe fruits (known as seeds) and their essential oil

chopp d almond . Sprinkle over

eed .

u n nower eed

quare . Cook 10 preheated


400°F oven

• G a rd e n i n g

• M a i n tena nce Regularly weed and

ror I 0- 1 5 min ute . or u n t i l pastry is

Caraway is a biennial with divided fernlike

water the crop, because the seed is often

golden. Serl'e warm.

leaves and a parsley-dill fragrance. It has

slow to germinate.

a spindle-shaped taproot, which can be

• Pests a nd d i seases Caraway is rarely

cooked as a root vegetable, like carrot. The

troubled by pests. To prevent fungal

flowering stem, about 2 ft. (60 em) tall,

diseases of foliage, water i n the morning:

bears tiny white flowers touched with

try not to water from above.

pink that are followed by crescent-shaped

• Harvesting and storing Gather leaves

ridged 'seeds: C. roxburghionum, known as

at any time. Lift roots after harvesting seed.

ajmud, is a popular Indian spice.

Cut flowering stems when the seeds begin

• Varieties 'Sprinter' is high-yielding

to darken and ripen. Secure stems i n small

and the seeds don't shatter, making it

bunches to allow air movement, and hang

easier to save the seeds.

the bunches upside down until dry. Then

• Position Caraway requires a well­

shake bunches over sheets. The seeds often

drained fertile soil and a warm sunny

contain insects, such as weevils, so freeze

position. Thin plants to 6 in. ( 1 5 em) apart.

to kill the eggs before storage.

• Propagation Sow caraway seed directly into the soil in either sprino ..

,. , .,.

Herbal m ed i c i n e



a calming, a ntispasmodic effect on the gastrointestinal tract makes it a reliable

or autumn (the latter crop will seed

Corum corvi. Part used: dried ripe fruits.

remedy i n cases of flatulence, i n testinal

the following summer).

Caraway's ability to dispel wind and exert

colic and bloating. As a result of i s slightly drying nature, it is also prescribed with other appropriate herbs to assist i n t h e relief of diarrhea. For the safe and appropriate use of caraway, see Wind, bloating and flatulence, page 206. Do not use caraway in greater than culinary quantities 1f you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

• Coo k i ng Caraway seeds are used to flavor rye bread, sausages, cabbage dishes, cheeses, soups, pork dishes, goulash and cooked apples, as well as liqueurs and sp1rits such as schnapps. A digestive known as "sugar plums" 1s made from suga r-coated seeds.

Caraway ( Corum carv1)


Use the feathery caraway leaves in salads and soups. Thw taste resembl es a m i xture of parsley and dill.

C a tn i p Nepeta catana Lam1aceae \ l t� n \ ca t s t lw t c•ncou n t c ' r' t h i s \ l' l \l · t � . c u rious!� sn• n 1 c•d P<'f'<' n n ia l rc·act 11\ rol l i ng 111 i t . r u l i l i 1 ng aga i n : t it and g<' IH'ra l l� l u' h d \ 1 ng " " t h ough t h <' <H'Oilld i '> i r r<' · i : t i l l l < ' . Ca t n i p 1 s u s C ' r l t o IT i i t'\ l' rc· , c·rs. col ic a n rl t ee t h i n g pa i n i n \ D u ng c h i l r l rl' n .

P rt use


a rd c n i n g

• Position Catmp needs a well-drained

Catn1 p is a short-lived perenn1al nat1ve

soil, and preferably full sun.

to Europe that resembles its relative, mint. It has soft, hairy, aromatic gray-green

possible m seed trays; seeds germinate best

leaves and small, wh1te, lipped flowers.

between 68 and 86"F [20 and 30"C). You

• Propagation Grow catnip from seed, if

The chemicals responsible for the amazmg

can also propagate 1t easily by tip cuttings,

response of many cats are nepetalactones.

and by root division in early spring.


A lemon-scented variety, N cataria var.

• M a i ntenance Cover young transplants

• H a rvesting and storing Once the

citriodora, has a similar effect. Not all cats

in wire netting to protect them from

bush is well grown, harvest catnip at any

exhibit such reactions· young kittens and

felines. Plants grow rapidly in summer to

time after the dew has dried. Secure small

older cats show almos no response.

form q uite large, floppy bushes, so you'll

bunches of stems with string and hang them upside down i n a well-aired place.

• Varieties There are some 250 species

need to stake them. Water regularly.

of Nepeta, many of wh1ch contain

• Pests and d iseases In warm h umid

When perfectly dry, strip the foliage and

nepetalactones and attract cats. These

climates, septaria leaf spot may cause

store it in an airtight container.

include two common garden perennials

spotting, followed by yellowing of mature

that are both called catmints, namely

leaves. The nepetalactones effectively

N. mussmii and N. x faassenii.

repel 1nsect pests.

H rbal m dicine Nepeta cataria. Parts used: leaves, flowers. An excellent remedy for children, catnip helps to resolve feverish conditions, and its antispasmodic properties alleviate

Ca tn i p ca t toy

flatulence and colic. It is a mild sedative and can reduce sensitivity to the pain of

yow wilt need

teething and improve irritability. Catnip can also be used to treat the

0 thin cardboard

symptoms of colds, flu, digestive bloating,

0 soft pencil 0 two 5


nausea and cramping i n adults, and it is

6'/, in. rectangles fabric

particularly effective when stress is a

0 sewing thread

contributing factor. For the safe and appropriate use of

0 dried catnip

catnip, consult a healthcare professional.

0 small bell

Do not use catnip if you are pregnant

Trace a fi h outlinr onto orne th1o cardboarcl and cut out a trmplate. Placr t he fabn togethrr. .


leaving a small opening for turn mg.

rectangl s right Ridr

Traer the fish onto I he ��orong

of one

add X-in.

2 Slitch the l\\O ,hape together,

a llo\\ a o c e a l l


• A ro u n d t h e h o m Catnip i s a useful herb t o have o n hand

rrctangll:'. remembering to


or breastfeedmg.

in the home. Nepetalactones are a very a

mall bell

to the head or th fi h

powerful mosquito repellent and cock­ roaches don't like them much, either.

C e l e ry Cel riac i · a elected form of Apwm gra1eolen, w i t h a very large

Apium graveolens Apiaceae Ricll in \'i ta rn i n

a n cl m i ne ra l . w i l d celer


bee n u ed a s a rood a ncl

flavo r i ng i nce a n c i e n t F:g p l i a n l i mes. Tile G reeks crownecl L ll e victors in t ile

ernean G a rnes w i l ll ga rlancls or it

wr a l ll

leave . a n d al o r nacle funera l

from l ll e m .

taproot. which is grown as a root vcgrtable . outer

lice orr thr rough. lOugh

kin rather t ha n peel iL then

u e i t raw or cooked. in

oups and

baked dishes. The root and hollow terns have a cele ry flavor; lict'

Other c o m m o n n a m e s

Cutting leaf celery, smal lage Parts used Leaves, seeds, roots

• G a rd e n i n g

• Propagation Grow wild celery from

The deep green leaves of wild celery may

seed in spring. Space plants about 1 .5 ft.

reach 2.5 ft. (80 em), while the flowering

(40 em) apart

stem bears compound umbels of

• M a i ntenance Keep the soil moist

inconspicuous white-tinged green flowers.

with regular watering.

The whole plant, including the tiny brown

• Pests and d i seases Celery has good

seeds, is very aromatic. Chinese celery or

disease tolerance, although septaria leaf

kin tsai (A. groveolens) is strongly flavored,

spot can occur.

with thin stalks that can be dark green to

• H a rvest i n g and storing Ha rvest

white in color. A. prostrotum is a creeping,

leaves from midsummer to autumn, as

shiny-leaved, somewhat succulent

required. Pick ripe seeds, then dry, deep­

Australian coastal plant with a strong

freeze for several days to kill any insect

celery flavor. It is now used as a flavoring

eggs, and store in an airtight container.

in commercial bush foods. • Varieties Excellent selections include

the stem

and use them a


For d r i n king Blo dy Mary .

remedy for the treatment of painful joint

Herbal medicine

conditions, such as gout and arthritis,

'French Dinant' and the Dutch 'Soup

Apium groveo/ens. Part used: dried ripe

in which an accumulation of toxins i n

Celery d'Amsterdam:

fruits (seeds). Celery seed has a strong

t h e joint area m a y b e partly responsible

• Posit ion Celery prefers a well-drained

diuretic effect and enhances elimination

for the characteristic symptoms of pain

soil enriched with rotted compost and a

of uric acid and other toxins from the

and swelling.

sunny but protected position, and is

body via the u rinary system. This action

As a result of its diuretic properties,

tolerant of saline soils.

may help to explain its use as a specific

celery seed can also be used to treat fl uid retention. Due to its slightly a ntiseptic nature, it can be of assistance in treating uri nary tract infections. For the safe and appropriate use of celery seed, see Arthritis and gout, page 225. Do not use celery seed in greater than culinary quantities if you are pregnant or breastfeed ing.

• Cooki ng Celery's tiny edible seeds are aromatic and slightly bitter, tasting of celery. The whole seeds retain their Javor wel l ; crush as needed and use to complem ent fish and seafood d1shes, pickles and relishes, soups, stews, egg dishes, salad dressings, breads and savory biSCUits.

Chamom ile Chamoemelum no bile syn. Anthem is n obil1s and Matncana recutita Asteraceae Rom a n or prre n n i a l chamom i l e or m a n za n i l la ( {;. nobile ) . the·


a n n u a l < ; c r m a n c t w m o m i lr' ( \/. ( \ nthcn11s

Ci ne ! d '<' �'"

ch m om i le

tmctoria) ·h are' t h e sanw common n a m e . The fl O \\ ers

Roman chamomil� (Chama�m�lum

u! !loth RomCJn a n cl Germ a n c h a m o m i l e are u ser! me<l i c i n a l l .

nabil�). for�ground; G�rman chamomil�

\\ h i le I IH' f!0\\ 1' 1'." of dyer"s c h a m o m i ll' �irld a go lclrn l l i'O\\ Il dye.

(Morricorio r�cuttro),

P rt



Flowers, leaves

• G a rd e n i n g

• Propagation Ra1se each spec1es

Roman chamomile is a densely carpeting

from seed 1n spring. Propagate perenmal

and low-growmg. cold-hardy plant

varieties by cuttings or root d1vis1on.


feathery green leaves have a ripe apple

• M a i ntenance Weed regularly, especially

scent and the flowers of the spec1es are

1f you are establishing a chamomile lawn.

single wh1te daisies.


• Pests and diseases There are no

is often confused

significant problems.

with German chamomile, an upnght growing annual with fine ferny leaves

• H a rvesting and storing Gather

and white daisy flowers. Another annual

the flowers when fully open. German

species, pineapple weed (Motricana

chamomile will reflower if harvested

motricorioldes}, has greenish yellow flowers

in summer. Dry the flowers and store

and foliage with a pineapple scent

them in an airtight container.

• Varieties A non-flowering variety, C. nobile 'Treneague:


popular for lawns.

H rba l m d i i n

An attractive fully double variety, C. nobile

Matricaria recutito. Part used: flowers.

'Flore Plena: is grown commercially for its

Chamomile has a mild sedative effect on

essential oil in many countries. Vaneties of dyer's chamomile include the golden­

the nervous system. Chamomile's relaxing

compounds can help to stimulate the

effects extend to the gut, helping to ease

digestion and relieve the discomfort of

flowered 'Kelwayi:

colic, and also to the female reproductive

nausea. Chamomile is a gently acting herb,

• Position All thes� chamomiles require

system, alleviating the pai n of menstrual

making it especially suitabl� for children.

a sunny position and well-drained soil.

cramps. Chamomile's bitter-tasting

Topically, the soothing and anti­ inflammatory effects of chamomile are excellent for treating itchy and inflamed skin conditions; 1t has also been shown to promote wound healing.

F'or a relaxing I ep. try combining the senlial oi l s of both



lavender m an oil burner. Chamomil al o a nllfungal and Lime you make se ond



hamornile tea. brew a

up LhaL· extra strong and usc

the liquid 1.0 wipe down the kitchen a n d Labl . o r 1.0 w1p out to rid iL or a must onto p la n ts dl




a cahlnet

m 11. AI o. pray it

nd vegeLalJI

1.0 deter fungal

u h as mildew in th


Chomor:melum nobile syn. Anthemis nobilis. Part used: flowers. Roman

chamomile is commonly used in essential oil form and the dried flow�rs can be hard to obtain. Some h�rbalists suggest that the Roman variety has a more pronounced relaxing effect on th� gut and ut�rus. and can be used i n a similar way to German. For the safe and appropriate use of these herbs. see Nausea, pog� 205. Do not use these herbs in greater than culinary quantities if you are pregnant or br�astf�eding.

C h e rvil Anthriscus cerefolium Apiaceae Tlli d liciou cul ina

herb. u. ed , ince Roman


Lime . ha a delicate flavor b tween tat•ragon and par le

thal i ind i s pen able in French cui ine. E i t h e r

u e i l raw o r add i t at lh

I a · t m i nute. after t il

ha been taken off the heat and i

r acl


di h

· rv .

Other common n a me Garden chervil Parts used Leaves, stems

• G a rd n i n g Apicius, the renowned gourmet of 1 st­

of colder conditions.

century Rome, set his seal of approval

• Position Chervil requires good drainage

on chervil, which is an annual plant with

and a moist soil that is close to neutral,

delicate and lacy, fernlike foliage that

preferably enriched with compost. Grow

forms a low-growing rosette. The tiny

chervil in a lightly shaded position, because

white flowers, borne in umbels on slender

excessive sun exposure will cause the

stems, are followed by thin black seeds.

leaves to burn and turn rose pink. In warm

• Varieties There are flat-leafed and

climates. grow chervil in spring, autumn

lightly curled forms as well as a strain

and even winter, as it has some cold

Chtrvil (Anthriscus cerefolium)

tolerance and will withstand light frosts. • Propagation Scatter seed over the

preferably with scissors, because the plant

soil, press down lightly and water

is delicate. Leaves can also be deep frozen

regularly. Seedlings usually emerge in

in sealed plastic bags.

about 10 to 1 4 days. Plants are ready Chervil i e pecially popular m

for harvesting about 8 to 10 weeks after

French cooking. and e

planting. Chervil has a long taproot and

(along With parsley. ch ive and

Chervil flowers, leaves and roots are all

bare-rooted seedlings do not easily

tarragon) in the etas ic herb blend

edible, although it is the faintly anise­

transplant. It will not germinate in soil

flavored leaves that are most frequently

that is too warm. In cool-climate areas

used. There are various types, including curly


called fine herbes. which is u rd rre h "' it h poached fi h .

hellfi h

and chicken and in green salads and egg di he

uch a omelr tes.

Cooki ng

with mild summers, grow chervil for a

leafed varieties that make a pretty garnish.

continuous supply during the growing

Use fresh chervil in cooking, because 1ts

season, although light shade promotes

delicate flavor is destroyed by heat or

lush growth. and the season can be

drying. It goes well with glazed carrots and

further extended with the use of

1n butter sauces and cream-based soups.

protective covers.

Chervil frozen into 1ce cubes adds a

• M a i ntenance Water regularly to

refreshing taste to summery fruit drinks.

promote lush growth.

Chervil butter (see Herb butters,

• Pests and d iseases There are no

poge 336), makes a delicious spread for

significant problems.

savory biscuits or bread. Also, use it as

• H a rvesting and storing As w1th

a flavorsome topp1ng for barbecued

parsley, harvest leaves from the outs1de,

fish, meat or poultry.

!}row ckrvd to eur� � aMJ�fronv M4r6� v�a6� cro�

Chili Caps1cum sp. Solanaceae l 'a r l ol l h t• Sou t h \ m t'l'ican t l i t' l for al lt>ast 7.000 \ ca r s . c h t l i \ ct r i t• l i c•o; a rt • l lw \\ oriel's most frc·q uc·n l l\ u f'd c u l i n el r\ s p ice . The heal i

mos l lj

concc n t r<l l c'ct 1 11 t ilt' -;e<'ds a n d t he \\ h i l l' p i t h . so n·mo\ l ' e i t her or holh for c1 m i lder h i t .


G a rd e n i n g All Capsicum species are indigenous to South America. The most commonly grown is C. annuum, which contains many chili vaneties as well as the bell peppers, p1mentos and other sweet capsicum

So� c/z.i,.tu variefietv �� a;v aitradw�


varieties, such as 'Banana' and 'Cubanelle: Chilies and bell peppers differ from each

and thick-walled, fruity-flavored hot fruits

other by a smgle gene that produces the

with black seeds. • Varieties There 3re possibly hundreds

fiery-flavored compound capsaicin.

C. baccatum, a spec1es less known

of named varieties of C. annuum, and

outside South America, requires a long

these have been selected worldwide for

growing season.

climate tolerance, color, size, shape,

The rocoto pepper (C. pubescens), from

degree of heat and flavor, wh1ch may vary

the Andes and upland Mexico, forms a

from citrus and prune to smoky, coffee,

perennial bush that is tolerant of cooler

raisin, almond and tobacco. They are all

weather and that produces purple flowers

divided into groups by shape: cherry­ shaped (Cerasiform). cone-shaped

The tiny bird peppers - including he

(Coniodes), clustered elongated cones

wild pepper of New Mexico, the 'Chiltepin'

(Fasciculatum), sweet peppers (Grossum)

or 'Tepin' - all belong to C. annuum var.

and long hot peppers (Longum).

aviculare. 'Tabasco' is the most widely

Among the best -known varieties of C. baccotum are 'Anaheim; with large,

known variety of the species C. frutescens.

long, tapering, mildly pungent fruit;

of the hottest chili varieties, including the

'Poblano; which has large, medium-hot,

'Habanera' and its variants, the 'Scotch

The species C. chinense contains some

heart-shaped fruits (and is known as

Bonnet' or 'Jamaican Hot', and the

'Ancho' in its dried form ) ; 'Pasilla; a large

somewhat milder Puerto Rican 'Roc.atillo:

ra1sin-flavored tapering variety; 'Jalapeno;

All three types are excellent for culinary

a thick-walled variety that is used in salsas

use and widely grown in the Caribbean.

or smoked (when it is known as chipotle);

The best-known variety, 'Aji Amarillo'

'Guajillo; a l�athery, dark reddish brown

or 'Kellu-Uchu; is widely used i n the cuisine

variety that is moderately hot; and

of Peru.

'Mirasol; a reselection of a pre-Columbian

• Position All chili varieti�s require good

Mexican variety.

drainage, full sunshine and an enriched

Som� - such as 'Purpl� Tiger, 'Riius Blue; Variegata' syn. 'B�IIingrath Gardens' 'New Mexico', a variety of C. onnuum. has a sweet flavor and can be either green or red.

Tiny bird peppers (var. ovicu/ore)

soil. Do not grow chilies where related species of the family Solanaceae, such as

- are very ornam�ntal and widely grown

tomatoes and eggplan ts, have recently

for landscape purposes. They are all edible.

been grown.

\1osl nf Lhc rapsn1 in L ha t"s respons1h le for the h Pa l

m pepper� 1 s . tored in Lh •

serrls and L ht• 11 hi t r :wpt<H' 11 l l h l n Lhr

fn1 1 l . To rrtlu r the heal i n a d 1sh. you nt't'd Lo rrmo1c t hcsl' before cookmg. Ca psa 1 r 1 n 1s nol I� JH'r-soluh lr. and

IWIL IH'r 11 a t er nor !Jeer ll'l l l nrut rai iZe t hr" hea l . II IS. hOII l'H'I'. fat- OIUIJie. and a glass of mil� or yog u r t . or l hr l nd1an �ogurL-hasecl d rin � lass1 arr dfrr t l l l'IV soo t h l ll{!.

The dark purple fruits of Thai chili (C. annuum var. fa5Ciculatum) turn red when ripe.

ll rar protec l 1 1 e giOi t'S 11 hen

Chili 'Ebony F�re' is one of many chili varieties whose name indicates the intensity of 1ts heat.

choppmg q u a n l l l irs of c h 1 i l prpper · .

l wca u se

t hl'y ran n u m iJ )our fingert i p

For m a n � h o u r s . \ l so . a1 oid touchin

• Propagation Even the fastest­

• Pests and d iseases Plant rotation

your Fare. rye•<. or gr11 1 ta l

maturing chili varietieS of C. annuum

will mmim1ze verticill1um wilt and other

preparing t hem. Do nut f rd pe l � food


reqUire a minimum growing season of

soil-borne diseases. Vegetable bugs may

contai111ng c h i l i . lwcau .t• i t �� Fatal for

3 months. In cooler areas, grow seedlings

damage leaves.

somr· IJrrrcls.

under protect1on before planting them

• H a rvesting and storing P1ck peppers

out after the last frost. Although the

at any t1me, but remember that they reach

Scr ll i l l r' l l rat l.' n i ts ( S il l ) . 11 i l h Lhr

flowers are self-pollinating, they also

peak heat when they turn red

" l labaiirro· Pquaung to lll' t ll en

readily cross-pollinate, so carefully 1solate plants in ended for seed saving

oo k i n g

C h i l i heal is common!

mrasurrli i n

200.000 c�nd 300.000 S i l l . l n l l l recen t ! . L h r II OI'Id\ hoursL c h i l i 11 a s

with fine nettmg.

Some cuismes - Indian, West Indian,

an inramous 1 a ril't� of C:. cllmcn

• Mai ntenance You may need to

Afncan and As1an CUISines 1n general -

�n011 n as 1 hr "Red Sa1 ina l lallaiiero." 11 h1ch measured 3 7 7 . 000 S i l l . Far


protect your plants from b1rds. Control

are almost unth inkable without chilies, yet

aph1ds to prevent the spread of viral

they were unknown m those regions until

lr · · l et hal for t he w-,tcbud�. "T<�llasco·

diseases; destroy any plants that have

after 1 492, when Columbus mtroduced

IS a ml're 30.000 to �0.000. In 2007.

mo tied or distor ed leaves.

them from the New World.


nt'll rt'cnrd 11 as t•stahfl,hed lJ) a

l d riPL� From \ssam 111 l ntl1a �n011 n a . " Hh u l Jolr1�1a ." 11 h1ch reached a 1 er� <ldngerou� 1 .000.000 � I l l . l l lgh-prt's�urr l i q u id c h romato­ graphl ( I I PLC) is no11 used to mea u re


\ rela i l l t' ht'at scah·. hd st'd on

d s1 m p l t' 0 to 10 rat ing. has also llren dt'l t•lopcd. 11 i t h

Ill' I I prppcrs ra t i n g 0

and " l ldll<Jiiero· 1 0

1. Chmy-shaped chilies 2 Red and yellow caps1cums 3. Banana chili 4 Olive chilies 5. B�rd chil ies 6 Long hot peppers 7 B�rd ch1lies

Habaiiero, a C chmes� variety, 1S among the hottest chilies 1n common use.

C h i Ii

C h i l i ron(l i m e n l s Continur:d

TIH're i s 8 ra ngr u f rh 1 l i

roncl imen t � to

c hoose from.

Chilies are always green • Pa p ri ka 1 s <I

when unripe; when ripe, they may be red, yellow. purple or almost black.

prod ure c l l l

The1r heat level varies from negligible

drying a n d gri n d i ng

-, u i tablf' val' it' I ies. Spa i n a n d

to incendiary. Generally, the smaller the

l l u ngar) arf' t hr \\ Oriel'

chili, the hotter it will be. Varieties lacking the capsaicin gene produce sweet fruits that taste more like capsicum (to which they are related) and have a fruity flavor but

m 1 l d l y hot. S\\ ee l .

l 1 i l i powdC'r t 11at. is

b r igh t rl'cl

l i ttle

Dried chilies: 1. Thai chilies 2. Pasilla 3 . Guajillo 4. Habaiiero 5. Chipotle (dried, smoked jalapeno) 6. Pimentos 7. Ancho (dried poblano)

The heat level may vary considerably even

always used fresh ; red chilies can be

among chilies of the same vanety, so the

used fresh or dried. Dried chilies differ

stated quantity i n a recipe should always

in flavor to fresh, being fruitier and

be adjusted to taste.

sweeter. a l though still retaining their heat. Buy dried chilies whole, crushed

cut the end off one and give it the tiniest,

or powdered, and fresh chilies whole, or

tentative lick. A remedy for chili burn

chopped and preserved in vinegar in jars;

on the palate is dairy foods, such as milk

these are a good substitute for fresh.

or yogurt.

In one of those transatlantic differences

To minimize irritation from the fumes

in spelling, "chili" - together with the

when grinding chilies. use a spice grinder

less often used "chi lie" - are both used in

rather than a mortar and pestle.

the UK, while the Spanish-originated

Choose firm, shiny fresh chilies: avoid

11 11 1 c h m u ·t be i n l ensrl) red �� hr n fu l ly ri pf' n rd . mclude

' l l u n ga ria n .'

· pa p r i ka S u preme· a n d ·

or no heat.

To check the heat level of your chilies,


proclucf'r�. S u i J a l l l c> \ a rirt ws.


Conquist ador.' • Caye n n e is a spirt' powder t h a L

i s drriH'd fi'Om d rird h o t red c h i l ies. ·cayenne· is a


Co l u m b ia n 1 a rit'l) From French G u iana. \ n u mbrr of caye n ne-type va ri e ti e s ha\ r

been de1 e loped

from i l . i nc l u d i ng ' I lot Portuga l . ' ' Long Red . ' ' R i ng o f l'i re· a n d

· l l a d e l lot.' I rird c h 1 1irs a n d c h i l i fla�rs a 1·e a lso usecl.

'chile' is commonly used in the United

those that are wrinkled. Green chilies are

States and Mexico. The term "ch ili" is

These colorful strings of chil ies include only a fraction of the varieties available.

originally from Mexico, which the United

reserved for a regional hot and spicy stew, States subsequently made its own.

\. h i l i n n d l i m e H CI U C C' CaniJbra n


de l ir1uu

v. i lh

auce recipe i s

Cayenne pepper

IJ a r becurd o r ba�cd

f1 h or \rgctables. Ba�te the food v.ilh il. or serve il ·eparatcly.

• ' l�1basco. the

mnst ra mu u � c h 1 1 i

sa u ce . i s m atle i n l .o u i s i a n o . acc o rd i ng to a 3-) C'<l l

2 fresh red chilies

prorr�s i m e n t rd i n I fltill iJ\

1 tablespoon sea salt 1 cup (250 ml) fresh lime juice RemO\c the se d and w h i l e p i t h

�:d m u n d �lr l l lw n n\ . • I 'CI'i Peri 1s

a sa uce· d t 'l t ' l np t •d 1>1

from the c h i l 1r if you do n o t want

ttw l'ort ugu<' 'I' from t i l t •

too m u c h heat. Sl ier rhilirs nnel

J Hli\ C' r l u l l � hot Sou l lit' l ll \ l r 1 ca n

and pack i n to a jar. D issol\ e thr

l (lflt'l)

sal t i n the j u ice and pou r over t h e

lt · mons, sp1ces .1 n d lwrl .s.

h i l ie'. Sral and sJore i n a cool place to let the fla\or

de\'e l o p .

I t is ready ror use after keep

4 davs and

for u p to 4 wre�s.

' l 'rn

1 1 111 h u l

l 'n i ' : l t iiH'Iudcs

• \ loll' pob l ano - c·ompt •u n tlctl ol

c h i l i ( sur II as p<J s i i i<� J . Sj lll't'S a n t i

Sl'�ds 0 1 '

t horo l i i l t ' .

jlt': l l l U t S

a llO I HI Idl' s a u c e 1 1 1 \ l t' \II'O ,md l l l t ' l'('dSi ngl) <illl'ildd


C l ove p i n l<s OJOnthus caryophy/fus and 0 plumanus Caryophyllaceae \\ i t ll d l l i n t o\it a i J ng

p1c� l rdgra n c t • . l lll' pn• t t � IIO\\ l'J'S ol c l m c· p i n ks

rt•st • m h l t• smc� l l L'<l r n < J i ion:. The l rc -; 1 1 pe t a l · a rc l'l l i l l l e a n d a rt • u sed

111 m u l lt•d '' 1 1W s . conl 1 a l JH' J'\ l' t o n i c s . salads and t l c ssl' rt.·. '' ll i l c t he ('sSl'll l J a l o i l is (1\t'd in I H'J'I U llH'I'\. l . i �t· J lle �pin' r l ol e . thr noll ers uf

G i l ly fl owe r

• C a rd ' f l i n g Clove pinks were bred from h e grass pink or cottage pink (O plumanus) and 0 caryophylfus (which also gave rise to

the carnation). They form a dense, low, spreading cush1on of grasslike foliage, rom which emerge many flower stems in early summer. All are perenn1al.

rh,l e pink'- Jnll rarnctLJon-, �rt· rirh m t·u�enol. ancl the prrfum!'

& yredcJ/ ruul

12ohUUZ!Y r�rlecl

f� dov€/� w.v � flower of f�y:;r/J;-.

• Varieties A remarkable number have survived the centuries, mclud1ng 'Sops 1 n

double-flowered forms mclude 'Mrs

Wine: used m Elizabethan t1mes t o flavor

S1nkins: 'Earl of Essex: 'Rose de Mai' and

mulled wines. 'Bridal Veil', 'Queen of Sheba:

'Mrs Gullen: 'Napoleon

'Ursula le Grove' and 'Pheasan 's Eye' date

variety that involves a cross with sweet

I l l' IS

a h1storic

from the 1 7th century. E1ghteenth-century

william (0 barbatus). The Carthusian pink

heirlooms include the Pa1sley Pin ks, such as

(0. carthustanorum) was used i n medicinal

'Dad's Favorite' and ' Paisley Gem: which

l1queurs by the Carthusian monks.

were bred to resemble i ntricate Paisley

The famed Allwoodi1 20th-century

fabric patternmg, as well as 'lnchmery'

pmks include 'Arthur: 'Kestor: 'Dons'

and 'Cockenz1e: Nmeteenth-century large

and 'Fus11ier' Other very fragrant modern

a l lso l u l t'

is u. t'll m manv lllgh­

q u a l l l \ prrfu mrs. i n c l ud i ng Flons·�

ma Rirci' · 1; \1r tlu

\ la l m a i ·o n .

l'r mps. Gur·rlaul' $am ·ar anll

1;1 1eun• BIPu. \\ ortll's Jr RPi iens. l l l' r mh ' Rt•l Ami. Eslt'c Lauder\

\\ h i t r Linen and Bllgan·. Bll(!arl For \len. It

tnkt'' 1 . 1 00 Ill ( �00 kg)

of nll\1 l'l' to produce 3.3 n oz. ( 1 on m i l or thl' r s ,t· n tw l mi. u '� n t h e l ic.

surh a eugenol ,Jntl

1soru�rnol are ortro ust'd i n

modrrn pt>rfu mr n .

p1nks include 'Kim Brown: 'Tuscan Lace: 'Highland Fraser: 'Pretty: 'Tudor Manor: 'Jean d'Arc: 'May Queen: 'Falstaff and 'Gioire Lyonna1se: • Position These plants requ1re a well­ drained, sunny position. They grow well in pots, and are both d rough - and cold­ tolerant once established. Pinks thrive in alkaline soil ; if gardening on acid soil, add dolomite or garden lime. Alternatively, tuck small pieces of concrete rubble under the plant. These will leak lime mto the soil during watering. • Propagation Mixed seed of perennial pinks are available. Named varieties must be propagated by cuttings. • M a i ntenance Clove pinks are hardy and easily grown. Do not let these plants be overshadowed. • Pests and d iseases There are no significant problems. • H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest flowers as required. To use fresh, remove

Clovr pinks (Dtanlhus caryophyl/us)

the bitter white heels of the petals.

C o m frey Symphytum officinale Borag1naceae Com rrey·, o t ll e r common n a m e . kn i t bonc. is a c l u l !'a d i l ional u


i n I JO U i l ice

broJ..c n bone . Corn rrcJ i

to i t s

t o encou rage t il e h e a l ing o r a l o a fa bric c l c a n d dyn a rn i

cornpo t accelera t o r. Otner c r Part



Knitbone Leaves, roots ( high in toxic a l ka loids)

• G a rd e n i n g

• M a i ntenance Comfrey requires ample

Common comfrey is a vigorous perennial,

nitrogen; a n annual top dressing of rotted

with mauve bell-shaped flowers, that

manure is recommended. Water regularly

grows to about 80 em. Varieties are not

i n the first season.

commonly available. Comfrey is also an

• Pests a n d d i seases Comfrey is

"accumulator," a deep-rooted plant that

generally trouble-free. Some strains

taps mto minerals in the subsoil. A "soup"

are prone to rust, usually when the

made from rotting comfrey leaves in water

plants are water-stressed.

makes a great organic l iq u id feed for crops.

• H a rvest i n g a n d storing Harvest

Other species are the ornamental cream­

mature plants up to 5 times a year. Cut

flowered groundcover 5. grondiflorum, and

with shears and wear gloves, because the

S. asperum, which has bright blue flowers.

hairs on the leaves are an irritant. Leaves

• Position Comfrey grows readily from

can be dried. Do not harvest in the first

segments of root and, once established,

year or after early autumn.

is difficult to remove. • Propagation Dig the site deeply,

l lerbal medicine

incorporatmg ample compost or rotted

Symphytum officinole. Parts used: leaves,

manure. Space plants 3.5 ft. ( 1 m) apart.

roots. Traditionally, comfrey has been

Lay out segments of root horizontally and

used as a top1cal appl ication for bruises,

cover with about 2 in. (5 em) of soil.

fractures and wounds.


has a remarkable


For cen turie from herb

tlyrs ha1 e lwen maclr

a nd ut 11er pla n t . Coml rr)

lealf•s produce J go l de n ye1 1o11 dye. 11 11 1 1c ua ndr l io n one.

ro01 s create a rrur 1 1 s h

L nlil md 1gn rrom t llr �·ar Ea-;1

wa ' l raded 11 1 t h E u ropt'. 11 uau


llnctorial 11 as used In prorlur:P " hlur rl1 c•. ancl l h r r:haril te nsl ic 11 ar pJ m l

reputation for hastening the repair and

or 1 11r anrirnt Bri ton� a n d C r l l -; 11 a -;

renewal of damaged tissue as well as

m a d r fi'OIIl i t .

reducing inflammation. One of the compounds found i n comfrey, called allantoin and though to be responsible

Oi l'!' n a t u ra l

'Ill make

l ight.

ron s u l t l lw

While traditionally comfrey was also such practice is strongly discouraged because comfrey contams pyrrollzidine alkaloids that have been shown to have tox1c effects. For the safe and appropriate op1cal use of comfrey, re er o Sports lnJunes, page 222. Do not use comfrey 1f you are pregnant or breastfeeding


onrs hrl'<HISI' the� dll'

rt' ' l ' l d l l l l o ldtllllg l i lllll l'\PO'ill'l' ln

herb, has been shown to have a

prescribed for i n ternal use, these days

I n Iodd;\ rommi'IT!dl

11 0r l rl . �) n t l l r t it d 1 rs c1rP

for many of the healing effects of this regenerative action on connect1ve t1ssue.

Comfrey comes in many color variat1ons, Including pmk, lavender or wh1te.

Comfrey {Symphytum officino/e)

l O I I I' l l\1 11 hl'rllal


l ntCI IH'I or 1 1 dfl l ioob.

Cor i a n d e r Conondrum sot1vum Ap1aceae l•'n1 l l l OI't' t ll c i ll l im'<' m i l l < • n n i c l . coria nder i l a s i lc c n c u l l i \ B l ('d

lor i t s <l f'OI11a t ic l o l iag�·. roo t s dnd seeds. d l l fo u n (l i n t lw t n l l l i l " ol I I H ' pil c1 1 c�oll'>. I t is nw n l ioncd i n t i l e H i i l l c a n d i s o n ! ' of t i l l ' h i l l l' l i l l ' r i l s t ra c l i l iona l l � c a l < n a t Passo1 c r.

Chi nese parsley, cilantro Leaves, seeds, roots

• G a nl c n i n o

presoaking the halved seeds

Coriander resembles flat-leaf parsley,

for 48 hours.

although it


more tender


• Mai ntena nce Weed the


forming rosettes of long, thinly stalked

crop regularly. To stop premature

leaves ansmg from a crown. The leaves

bolt1ng of vaneties grown for foliage,

are d1ssected i nto wedge-shaped

protect the plants from water stress.

segments, developing a fernlike

Apply seaweed liquid fertilizer to promote

appearance. Vietnamese conander or rau

leaf growth over flowering.

fries. In I ndia, the leaf is used i n types

ram ( Polygonum odorotum) is a leafy

• Pests and d i seases Late crops may be

of fresh chutneys. Long cooking destroys

Coriander ( Coriandrum sot1vum)

perennial used in tropical areas. The leaves

susceptible to mildew and fungal leaf spot.

the flavor of the leaves, so add them

of Mexican coriander or cilantro (Eryngium

• H a rvesting and storing Harvest the

just before serving.

foetidum) are strongly aromatic.

seed crop when half the seeds on the

• Varieties 'Spice' is popular for its

plant have turned brown. Tie harvested

Used whole or ground, their mild, slightly

seeds, while 'Santo' is a variety in which

stems into bunches and then hang them

sweet taste works well in sweet and

premature flowering is delayed and

upside down inside paper bags to trap

savory dishes and i n sauces such as

profuse deep green foliage develops.

the falling seed. Once the plant is full-size,

harissa (see recipe page 338). The fiber in

• Position Good a1r circulation, a sunny

harvest foliage to use fresh at any time.

g round seeds absorbs liquid and helps to

position and adequate fertilizing will

Roast the seeds to enhance their flavor.

thicken curries and stews.

l lcrbal med icine

minimize disease problems.

The root has a more i n tense flavor

• Propagation Sow this annual directly

Coriondrum sativum. Part used: dried ripe

than leaves. It is used in Thai cooking,

in the garden in spring after the last frost.

fruits (seeds). Seeds have a ntispasmodic

especially pounded into curry pastes.

Assist germination by rubbing the seed,

properties and a stimulating effect on the

separating it i nto halves and then

appetite. Traditionally, coriander is often used in conjunction with caraway, fennel, cardamom and anise to ease symptoms of indigestion, including spasm, flatulence, and abdominal distension.

Palathal. or fig cake . date from Roman limes. They are

popular in Egypt and

1\J rkcy. R move s ta l ks from 400 g dried figs (select soft ones). Pro e s figs to


paste In food t.>rocessor. Sha l)e into a n oval cake w i t h

your hands. Combint'

1 teasnoon fre hly ground coriander seed and


teaspoo n

n ur. Du t r.ake

.,.; ith mixture. Serve \1-edg


for d


For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of coriander, consult your healthcare professional. Do not use coriander in greater than culinary quantities if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

• C oo k i n g The pungent leaves and stalks are popular i n Southeast Asian, Middle Eastern, South American and Mexican cooking, i n salads, soups, legume dishes, curries and st1r-

C u r ry p l a nt 'u rr� pla n t is some t i me. confu sed

H�lichrysum italicum syn. H. angustifolium Asteraceae

1\lth t he cu rr:r t ree

The inLen,ely

i l\'e rccl needlrlikc foliagr or t h i s p i nt rclrasrs a

This � ma l l tree 11- 1 Lh p m nate leaves i

mouth,• atering fragran (' or curr . The l'lo\\ e r · can l>c clricd and

a l . o m t c n e l y c u r ry-. cen tt'd a n d m a y

included in floral arrange m enL o r u ed in crafl \\ Ork. " h i l e t h e e

Use fre h leave adding t hem ju.

Part u

I 0 to

vrmually 1·ra h

enlial o i l L used in pe rfume ry.


( Murra_ra koenigiJ) .

11 h ich IS 111 Ayurvrd1c medicine .

rr '"In n

Strawflower Italian everlasting d Leaves, flowers

1 3 fl. ( 3 to 4 m ) .

in I n lian d i s h e . L

before serving. The

curr) t ree makes c�n attracuve conta iner pla n t . prrfrrring a 11-arm cl imatr in full . un to partial �hade.

• G a rd n i n g

H. stoechas is also used as a source of

The common form of curry plant found

essential oil for the fragrance industry.

in herb gardens is H. italicum subsp.

The oil of both species is known as

italicum, a form widely sold in the n ursery

'immortelle' or 'helichrysum:

trade as H. angustifolium. It is an upright

• Position Curry plant requires an open

but eventually semi-sprawling shrub to

sunny position and a very well-drained

about 2 ft. (60 em ) , with densely arrayed,

soil. Plants may suffer temporary dieback

needle-shaped leaves covered in very

after light frosts. In areas where the

fine hairs, which give the plant a silvered

temperature can drop below 23"F (-S"Cl.


grow plants under protection i n winter.

• Varieties Other forms that are less

• Propagation Take tip cutt1ngs in

commonly grown include the dwarf curry

spring and autumn.

plant (H italicum subsp. microphyllum).

• M a i ntenance Curry plants respond

• Pests and d iseases Pests are rarely

which is popular for edging herb gardens.

well to a light pruning and shaping.

a problem but curry plant is affected by prolonged rain, often developing fungus

Curry plant (H�Iichrysum itolicum

on the foliage. To avoid his, m u lch around the plant w1th gravel and ensure tha the plant has excellent air Circulation. • H a rvesting and storing As a n herb, curry plant is only used fresh. Pick sprigs as required.

C oo k i n g The entire plant is strongly aromatic of curry, particularly after ra1n Add sprigs to egg, rice and vegetable d1shes o i mpar a m ild curry flavor, but cook only bnefly. To enhance fruit flavors, the oil and the extract are used commerc�ally i n food a nd beverage processing.

Currlj';danJ- re!JfOnd.Y welt fo fr�, ..w (X)nai.der � if ilv fow -yow�, aronudib � w

Dand lion Taraw"m' olfrcrnate Asteraceae l l< � rH I I ' I r o n ' d l'l ' l il t • p l d ll l \\ o r ld\ r • q tl l \ d l t ' l l l o i l i l l ' prg: \ l rno�l

c 1 l l ol rl i s l'd l t ' ll Till' fl o\\ C ' I'S ma�t· d d l ' l i c i u u -; \\ i ll t ' .

l l w \ i l d l l i i THil h . -; l rg l l l l � l n l l t ' l' \ o u ng lt'ct \ < ' s cl l't ' u -; c d i n co!l� t n g c� n d ! Il l ' J()Oh d l'l' u-.t·d l o ll lcl�t' twrilal collet · .

Clocks and watches, fa 1ry clocks

• Ga nh·n i ng

• Pests and d i seases The

Dandelron • s a perennial with a thiCk,

leaves are prone to mildew,


par rcularly late 1n he

( Taraxacum officrnole)

leshy, deep aproot and a rosette of coarsely too hed leaves. From the ·eaves

season. Root rot can occur

emerge many unbranc ed flower stalks,

in poorly drained soil.

each termrnating rn a double golden

• H a rvesting and

Dandelion root can improve a sluggrsh

yellow flower. The flowers are followed

storing Blanch the leaves for culinary

digestron and provide a laxa rve effect

by spherical balls of seed, or 'clocks;

purposes by covenng them from the light

For the safe and appropnate use of

whrch are dispersed by the wrnd.

for 2 to 3 weeks before harvesting rn late

dandelion, see Uver support, page 208.

• Varieties I mproved forms were

spring and before flowering occurs. Lift

Do not use dandelron rn greater than

developed rn France rn he 1 9th century.

roo s at the end of the second season.

culinary quantitres if you are pregnant

Thick Leaved' has tender, broad, thrck

Both leaves and roots can be drred for

or breastfeeding.

leaves. 'Improved Full Heart' has profuse

herbal use.

foliage that rs easily blanched • Position Despite its weedy reputatron, dandelion crops will thrive if you dig the soil deeply and ennch rt with rotted compost. It requ�res a sunny srtuatron and prefers a neutral to slightly alkaline sod.

A y;orlFrleiV �


j,()n-w \ , .




• PropagatiOn Sow the seed directly mto the soil m spring. The plants dre

can be used fresh in salads, or cooked in a similar way to sprnach. Dandelion and burdock rs a traditional British, naturally rzzy soh dnnk made from fermented dandelion and burdock

l lcrbal me<li i nc

d'lwn rn wrnter.

Taraxacum officina/e Parts used leaves.

• M a i ntenance Cut spent lowers

roots Dandel1on rs well known for its

to prevent reseedmg.

C o o h. i n g The variety 'Thrck Leaved' has leaves that

roots - rn much the same way as root beer and sarsaparilla.

therapeutic effects on bo h the krdneys and !rver, hence rts traditronal reputa 10n as a cleansrng cure rn the sprrng months. The leaf exerts a powerful diuretic action on the unnary system and may reduce flurd retention and assrst the removal of toxins from the body. It also contains high levels of potassrum and helps to replenish potassrum that would otherwise be lost as a result of i ncreased urrnatron. The root, which has a bit er taste. 1s utilized when a stimulating actron on the digestive system rs required. It promotes bile secretron and is a valuable remedy

attract1ng beneflc1al 1 nsects such as bees

for many liver and gallbladder conditions.

Dandel ion has ac(Jurred a number or name . mrluctrn wet l h l'ffect.


pts. en Iii Wrenrh for

a reference

lD it


It common names Include fairy

clocl.. and

dor� · and 11. atche . both

or v. h 1ch n•rer to lht' rhllllrt·n· gamr or

tellmg tum• h� tht·

numtlt•r or

scrt1. I rt

nfter hlo11 log a 'clock.' . notller oamr. caput muoachl. refer. to thr ton uret1 heall of a rnt'dlelal monk.

Dill Anethum graveolens Apiaceae o u , u l frrrtl from h i ccups. i n so m n i a or i n d iges t i o n . d i l l .. .. ,, a, a n ideal r·e mrtl � . I t : name cornrs from Lhe old \ o rsr \\ OI'll d� l la . Trad i t iona l l y. if

m a n i ng LO lli ·tor

oo l hr or l u l l . \\ i t ll i t : :-> l ig h t cara\\ a� t a s t e . d i l l h d s a long

of u sr i n l nc l i a n cooking a n c l m ec l i i n r .

0111 seed 1s used in the spice m1x, ras el hanout. See Moroccan lamb recipe, page 368.

Oi l l w eed con 01 Parts u d Leaves, seeds


• G a rd e n i n g

l l c rba l m e cl i r i n r

flatulence, page 206. Do no use dill i n

Dill is a n annual plant with feathery,

Anethum groveolens. Part used: dried ripe

greater than culinary quantities if you a re

aromatic, blue-green foliage and

fru1ts (seeds). The essential oil found in dill

pregnant or breastfeeding except under

attractive flat-headed compound umbels

seed is a key ingredient in the preparation

professronal supervision.

of yellow flowers, which are followed by

of dill water, a popular treatment for

small elliptical flat seeds.

flatulence and mtestlnal colic 1 mfants

• Varieties Dill varieties suited to

and children. Dill seeds have been used to

C o o h. i n g With a taste remmiscent of a nise and

improve he flow of breas milk m breast­

parsley, the fresh leaves complement soft

feeding mothers. Used m th1s way, even

cheeses, wh1te sauces. egg dishes, seafood

'Du at: which is strongly flavored. Dwarf

culinary quantitieS of dill seeds can allow

and chicken. salads. soups and vegetables

varieties sui ed to pot cui ure include

the herb's med1cinal properties o be

dishes. especra l ly potatoes. Dill is famously

'Fernleaf and 'Bouquet: If you are growmg

passed on to the child.

used rn gravlax, a Scandinavian drsh of

dillweed harves ing that are also slow o bolt include 'Hercules: Tetra Leaf and

dill for seed, 'Long Island Mammoth' 1s a

Dill seeds can be used in adul s for

salmon cured with salt and dill. Add fresh

good dual-purpose heirloom variety.

gastrointestinal condittons characterized

dill to ho drshes JUSt before servtng,

• Position Dill requires full sun and a

by wind, bloatmg and cramptng as a

because cooking dtmrntshes its flavor.

well-drained, moist soil.

result of its ant1spasmodic effects.

• Propagation Sow seeds directly mto he soil in spring after the last

For the safe and ef ective med1crnal use of dill, see Wind, bloatrng and

fros . lightly cover them w1th soil and keep hem mo1st until they germmate, or plant seedlings with the po ing soil attached. In frost-free areas, plan it 1 n late au umn. • M a i ntenance You may need to stake some tall varieties. Thin plants o about 1 .5 ft. (45 em) apart

• Pests and diseases Dill has no noteworthy pests or diseases. • Harvesting and storing Harvest leaves as required. Spread them htnly on paper, then microwave them o retain good color and fragrance. S ore 1n an airttght container i n a cool, dry place. Store fresh leaves m a plastic bag m he refrigerator, or chop them fmely, put 1n o tee-cube trays, top with water and freeze. Harvest he seeds after the heads have dned on the plan .

Dill {Anethum graveolens)

Dill seeds are used m p1ckling spree mixtures, 1n breads (espwally rye bread), and rn commercial seasonmgs or mea .



ch i nacea

Ecnmac:ea sp. Asteraceae

To sprrd gt•rmmalion.

t rau ry your

�e ·d-,. �II\ !'I'd II lth ffiOI.l

Et h J nan•a

a rt• not o n l � s t r i � i ng l \ llca u l i fu l . l H l t le r fl � -a t L ra c t i ng p l a n t

l iH ·� a rt' a l so among t h e m o s t s ign i fi c a n t mrtl i c i n a l herb · . \\ i c l(' ly u c·cl as a n 1 r n m u m•-s\ s l l ' m s t i m u la n t . " i l h a n t i \ ira I . ru ngi icla l . hacLr r i c icla l . tl ll l i - J ll fl tl m m d to r\ a n c l rle t o\ i ly i ng p ropert ies.


�and or 1Nm1cul 1te and placr in a sealed Ilia lie bag i n t he cri pt'r sec I ion

or the reFrigerator ror

4 11 reks. Plant treated eed m pot.. Transplant inlO the ground once thr root> han· hllrd the pots.

Coneflower Roots, leaves, flowers, seed while retaming their herbal potency. They include 'Magnus: w1th rose-purple flowers; 'White Swan: which is believed to have a similar potency to the pink forms: and the large-flowered 'Primadonna' series, available in deep rose and pure white. The extraordinary 'Doppelganger' has a crownlike second tier of petals emerging from the top of the cone. 'Fancy Frills' resembles a fragrant pink sunflower. Narrow leaf echinacea (E. ongustifolia) and pale purple echinacea (E. pol/ida) are more potent medicinally than E. purpureo. Yellow echinacea or yellow conefiower

E. pol/ida. Parts used: roots, aerial parts.

(E. paradoxa) is a handsome species that

Echinacea's reputation as an effective

has large fiowers with narrow yellow petals

treatment for the common cold, flu and

and a chocolate center. Its roots have

acute upper respiratory infections has

similar properties to those of E. pal/ida.

been the focus of extensive scientific

• Position Echinaceas require a well­

research. The results of many clinical

drained, sunny position. The plants are

trials indicate that echinacea can indeed

deep-rooted and, i f grown in areas with

reduce the symptoms a nd duration of

shallow soil, should be planted into raised

such conditions.

beds. They are drought resistant once they Eminac�a {Echinac�a sp.]

H e l' b a l m e d i c i n e Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpureo,

Traditionally, echinacea has been used

are established.

as a popular and valuable herbal remedy

• Propagation Echinaceas are perennials,

for the treatment of many contagious

and can be divided in autumn and spring

illnesses and skin infections. It has a significant immune-stim ulating effect,

• G a rd e n i n g

or propagated by root cuttings. However, most propagation is by seed, which will

enhancing the body's ability to fight

There are nine species of echinacea, all

germinate more readily after stratification

off bacteria, viruses and other disease­ causing microorganisms.

North Amencan, of wh1ch three are

(see box above).

commonly used medicinally. Echinocea

• Mai ntenance Plants requ1re little

purpurea syn. Rudbeckia purpurea is the

except watering and weeding.

weakened immune systems due to

Consequently, individuals who have

best known and the most widely grown

• Pests and d i seases No serious pests

prolonged ill health or drug therapy

species. Its roots are the most potent part

or diseases are likely to occur.

may also benefit from using echinacea.

of the plant, but the leaves and seeds are

• H a rvesting and storing Dig up the

For the safe and appropriate use of

also used i n herbal medicine.

roots of mature plants i n autumn, then

echinacea, see I m mune support, page 202.

• Varieties A number of varieties are

clean and d ry them. Gather flowers and

Do not use echinacea if you are pregnant

valued as ornamentals and as cut fiowers

foliage from mature plants as required.

or breastfeeding.

E lder Sambucus nigra Caprifoliaceae There is a con t i n u i ng be l ief in t h e m � .· l ical a n d m agica l JlO\\ C'r' of the elder. :o man

people as� t he t ree· pe r m ission before h a r\P . l i ng i l.

flowers or be rries. Th and to fla\ or de Other c

Parts us


flowe r · a r

u cel l o hrC\\ elde rflower cham pagne

\\' h i lc t h e berric

a rc t h e n u t ri t ional equal of grape

mo na s Bore tree, devil's wood, Frau Holle, Judas tree, pipe tree Flowers. ripe berries, leaves (insecticidal only)

• G a rd n i n g

• Position These cold-hardy plants

The European elder is a multi-stemmed

prefer a moist but well-drained, humus­

shrub-tree with deep green compound

rich soil and full sun to partial shade.

leaves that repel flies. mosquitoes and

• Propagation Collect fresh seed i n

midgets. The large lacy inflorescences bear tiny, creamy white, fragrant flowers.

autumn o r stratify older seed for 4 weeks

The leaves. bark. green berries and roots

suckers, by semi-ripe wood cuttings taken

(see page 44). Alternatively, propagate by

Elder (Sambucus nigra)

are poisonous if consumed.

in late summer or by cuttings of ripe

• Varieties Ornamental varieties of elder

wood in autumn.

include 'Black Lace' syn. 'Eva; with finely

• Pests and d iseases Elder is resistant

Sambucus nigra. Pa rts used : flowers,

cut purple-black foliage and pink flowers;

to honey fungus. To repel aphids, mites,

berries. Elder flowers and berries have a

'Black Beauty' syn. 'Gerda; with similar

leafhoppers, whitefly and cabbage loopers

long history of use for alleviating he

colonng, and the bronze-purple semi­

from the garden, make a strong infusion

symptoms of colds and flu. i n particular

dwarf 'Guincho Purple' syn. 'Purpurea:

of the leaves.

fever and congestion of the nose and

European red elder (5. racemosa}, which

• H a rvest i n g and storing Harvest the

sinuses. Elder flowers have a lso been

has large bunches of red berries. is also

berries when hey are black. Pick flowers

used to reduce mucus production in hay

used herbally, while the 'Sutherland Gold'

early on a dewless morning, spread the

fever. sinusitis and middle-ear infections.

and 'Piumosa Aurea' varieties both have

heads on clean kitchen paper and leave i n

golden foliage.

a warm, dark, dry place for several days.

1 rcrbal med i c i n e

Recently, clinical trials found that a commercial elderberry syrup reduced both the symptoms and duration of flu i n sufferers. Laboratory studies suggest that constituents in the berries may activate certain i mmune cells and act d i rectly on

I n man� pam of Europe. rldrr wa

viruses to reduce their infectivity.


For the safe and appropnate use

ll ed in mag1c a n d med1c10r. acquinng )lame surh a

of elder, see Sore throats, colds and flu,

Frau Holle ( ll u ld a ) for

its association With th

page 200. Do not use elder if you are

goddrss or

death. tran rormallon and

pregnant or breastfeeding.

l la i iOI\CPn.

and dev11'· wood a n d J udas t rer ror

Coo " i ng

1t · mrdlr\ a l association \\ l l h Chi'ISI's

Use the fresh flowers to make elderflower wine or cord1al or an herbal 1nfusion ; such

cro. s: J udas w as �aid to ha\t' IJe n hanged rrom the bough or an 1•ldrr.

& rr� Jie�?UY, rehWtJec/,

iflv �jUJiMJIWU!YjUflv


wert!/ Of'lee/

tAMYI fo


processmg results in a pleasant floral­ asting beverage. H1gh in vi tamms A and C, the berry JUICe is ermented to produce elderberry wine. Freeze the berries for later use, but cook them for a few m mutes first and use them in baked goods.

E u c a lyp t u s Euc'Jiypcus sp , Corymbia sp. Myrtaceae l .d rge l \ i n d igt•nous 10 \ u � t ra l i a . l iH' L ' liCdl'v J l i S d i'L' I ' I C h in t'N' I I l ia l n i h l lltil t�re \ il l tl t ' d I o 1 ho i ll i l l l ' i r nwd i c l n tl l c� p p l ica l io n � a n d ! h e i r fragra nc<'. '' ll lr/1 ranges / rom lemon lo pt•ppt'rl l l l n l c� n d l li i' J lt ' l l l i l l < ' .

Eucalyptus seeds or "gum nuts" [ Eucalyptus sp )

• C a rd e n i n g

• Vaneties Many spectes are steam ­

• Pests a n d d iseases The otis tn

The genus Eucalyptus has undergone

distilled for their essential otl. These

eucalypt leaves render them distasteful to

taxonomic revtston and a number of

tnclude the lemon-scented gum

most tnsects; they are not suscepttble to

( Corymb10 citriodora syn. Eucalyptus

fungal diseases of the leaves. Heavy bee le

although older names still prevai l in much

citnodora) and lemon tronbark

infestation, parttcularly during droughts,

of the ltterature. Ktno, a gum produced as

(E. staigeriana). which has a fragrance of

will cause dieback and eventually the

a response to wounding of the tree, tS

lemon and rosemary, and E. globulus, the

death of the whole tree.

gathered commerctally from spectes such

most stgntficant spectes. Narrow-leafed

• H a rvesting and stor i n g The oliage

as scrtbbly gum, also known as whtte gum

peppermtnt (f. radio to) yields a sweet,

of mature or regenerated coppiced trees IS

bo anical names have been changed,

kino ( f. haemostomo). and the red blood­

fruity essenttal oil with some camphor.

wood (E. gumm1fera). Some eucalytpus

The com mereta I chemotype of broad­

spectes have shown weedy tendencies tn

leafed peppermint (E. dives) produces a

parts of the world, such as South Afrtca,

peppermtnty essential oil with sweet

Eucalyptus globulus. Part used. leaves.

so consult local plant services before

balsamtc no es; it is used tn toiletnes

The essential oil from eucalyptus leaves

growing them.

and aroma therapy. Gully gum [f smith1i)

possesses signtficant a n tibacterial and

essential oil is used 1n aromatherapy_

a n ivtral effects.

• Position Most species requtre a

Use a little eucalytpus oil on a cotton pad to remove a stubborn label and glue from a jar. See also Caring for clothing, pages 286- 7.

harvested for steam distillation.

H rbal m dicine

Eucalyptus essential oil is used today

sunny position and do not tolerate low

as a popular remedy for upper resptratory

temperatures. In general, eucalypts require

tract infections, predominantly as a

a well-drained soil and are quite drought-

decongestan t for catarrhal conditions. It IS

tolerant once established. When mature,

commonly used as an external preparation

they are able to regenerate after fire.

in the form of a chest rub or as an inhalant

• Propagation Raise from seed.

with a few drops added to a vaporizer or

• M a i n tenance Water regularly durmg

put on a handkerch1ef. Internal use of the

the establishment phase. Plantation­

essential oil is not recommended except

grown crops are usually coppiced for

in commercial preparations. such as cough

ease of harvesting and to 1m prove ytelds.

lozenges and cough mixes, in which the oil is present in a diluted form. The oil can also be used toptcally, especially for as a cold sore treatment. It is also common in a number of ointments

Contrar\ to popular b lief. t he long- lrrpmg koa la 1 · not prrmanrntl� t nlllxtra tetl From mgesting

ru alwtus 011 - koa la . 'ilt't'P ror up to 20 hour·

a da� l>rcau·e tht' 1011 - n u t rt rnl gum leaH'S thai rorm the major pan or Lhetr d t r t requtrr a l,lreaL


of tligesling and gt\(' them little energy.

used to relieve muscle aches and joint pain. For the safe and appropriate use of eucalyptus, consult your healthcare professional. Do not use eucalyptus if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Opposite. Eucalyptus globulus. lt ta es 11 lb. (5 k.g) of l�av�s to produce 1 .5 fl. oz (50 ml) of pur� oil.

E ve n i ng pri m ro s e Oenothera sp. Onagraceae Til(' hPa u l i f u l <'\ e n i ng pri m ros<'S ga i n t lw i r n a m r from t h e m a n

spr ir

L lltlt a rr po l l i nc l l<'< I IJJ mot h s . opr n i ng l h c i r flowe r · at n ig h t a n d po u r i ng fo r t h {'\(i U i S i t C fragrancr J•: \ r n ing p r i m r'OS(' O i l h a , a p p l i ca t ion

in L ll e

lwa u t \ a n d llra l t h i n d u s t r ir:.

Other c


Suncups, sundrops Seeds, roots, leaves


• G a rd e n i n g

• Position Wild Oenothera species

The princ1pal species cultivated for evening

require a sunny position. They are,

pnmrose oil extraction is 0. biennis, a

however, very tolerant of freely draining,

bienn1al form1ng a basal rosette of leaves

poorer, sandy loam soils and are also fairly

from which emerges a central flowering

drought-tolerant and frost-hardy.

Evening primrose (Ornothero birnnis)

stalk. This terminates in a cluster of buds

• Propagation Propagate plants by seed

that open during successive nights. The

sown in spring to early summer. Extreme

research suggests that a greater therapeutic

large, circular, faintly phosphorescent

heat in summer reduces the gamma­

effect may be achieved if EPO or GLA

lemon-colored flowers mimic the moon

l i nolenic content.

supplements are taken in combination with

and, together with their sweet lemon and

• M a i ntenance Keep free of weeds.

omega-3 essential fatty acids, found i n flax

tuberose fragrance, draw the attention of

0. lamarckiona is a much better competitor

seeds and fish.

moths. which are their chief pollinators.

than the other species mentioned above.

By the following morning, the flowers

• Pests and d i seases Where plants are

begin to wither and turn reddish orange,

overcrowded, powdery mildew may affect

Do not use EPO if you are pregnant

later developing slender pods, which are

the foliage. In inadequately drained soils,

or breastfeeding.

filled with tiny seed.

root rot may also occur.

other trials have been negative. The latest

For the safe and effective use of EPO, consult your healthcare professional.

• Varieties Other Oenothera species

• H a rvesting and storing Gather the

used as sources of evening primrose oil

fresh young leaves as required. Lift roots

Evening primrose oil is widely used i n

include 0. lamarckiana (sometimes

at the end of the second season and use

cosmetics. T o make your own skincare

considered a synonym of 0. glazioviono)

them as a vegetable. Gather the seed

treatment, see Three roses moisturizer,

and 0. parviflora.

when ripe; shattering can be a problem.

page 247.

a t u ra l b .a u t

H rba l m d i i ne Oenothera biennis. Part used : seed oil. Evening primrose oil (EPO) contains Theophra lU

(37 1 --<:. 287 BCE) wrote

two innuenlial botanical volume . On

the Cau e · or Plants and Enquiry into

significant levels of omega-6 essential fatty acids, especially gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), thought to be i nvolved in many of the oil's therapeutic effects. G LA has

Plant.s; thi


d to him bring rega rded

notable anti-inflammatory activity and

b some a


Path r of Taxonomy.

several clinical studies suggest that this

l ie named evening pnmrose OenoUJera. po sibly from the Greek words oinos. meaning winr. hunt.

ll i.

and thera. meaning

thought Lhar Th ophra tus

recomm nded u lng evening prunrose for tammg w i l d bea s.

effect may be of benefit in alleviating the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetic neuropathy, eczema and dermatitis. Further research also indicates that EPO supplementation may help to reduce high blood pressure and improve some of the symptoms of PMS. However, results of

Evening primrose oil tends to be taken in high doses, so capsules are the most convenient.

Eye b r ig h t E�dH 1ght 1\ a� f1rst rPrordNI

Euphrasta officmalis Orobanchaceae

lrlC!I iCina\ ht'rb for "all

Eycll r i�ll l is a �; u ropean a l p i n e '' i l dfl o\\ C t' L h a l La kes i t :; com mon n a rn ' from i l � U c't' i n \ a r i o u . e� e a i l m e n t s . i nc l u d i n g con j u n c l i \ i l i s . st yt's a n d the i n fla m m a t ion a n d conge s t i o n c a u srd IJ� ha� fl'\ < I' a n d cold-; .

Parts us


The use of eyebright dates back to the Middle Ages when it was cultivated in Northern European monastiC herb gardens. A\ 1 Euphrasta spec1es are sem1-parasitic on the roots of host



l l h c r n tu ry. P a i l h m



�1gn a t u res. a p h i l o so ph \ propou n ded m t h r I !l l h crntur) h) a S11 i s · physiwm l ie propo>rtl l h a t . h\ oh e n a t lon

£¥h� coi11AY.Yfronv yre.ek worrl �


''y;orl cheer. "

a plan t 's color



rorm. or t hr placr

11 ht'rr 1t grPII. on!' could clt'trrmine i t s purpo. c 111 Cod\ plan. Eyl'hng h t 's JlUrplr and yr l l 01� spots anrl stnrr. 11 rrr t110ugh t to re. rmblr . uch a i l m e nts as 11\ood. hot eyt'\. co u l d h r used to t reat


Hrnce. 1 t

u c h a l lmrnts.

plants, namely grasses, plantam (Plantago sp.) and clover ( Trifolium sp.).

• Propagation I f you have these

The genus 1s widely distribu ed around

conditions m your garden, you can

the world.

establish these three species by scattering

• Varieties The princ1pa\ species used

seed around host grasses dunng spring.

1 1 r b a l m ed i c i ne Euphrasia officina/is. Parts used : leaves.

herba\ly as eyebnght are E. officina/is.

Alternatively, grow seedlings i n pots. but

flowers. Eyebright, as noted above. has

E. brevipila and E. rastkoviana, a \ I annual

add generous amounts of dolomite or

traditionally been used as a spwfic

herbs with small, oothed, rounded leaves

lime to the soil and also some established

remedy for imtated or 1nflamed conditions

and yellow-throated wh1te flowers, striped

soft meadow grasses.

of the eye. The combined astringent and

or spotted with purple. The lower flower

• M a i ntenance Ensure that the soil

anti-inflammatory effects of eyebright

lip 1s three-lobed, and each lobe is incised.

remains moist.

also make it well su1ted to the treatment

• Position These particular spwes,

• Pests a n d d iseases No problems of

of catarrhal conditions of the upper

which will not thrive under hot summer

Significance has been noted.

respiratory tract. It can also help to clear

condit1ons, require a mo1st soil. Eyebright's

• H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest the

up postnasal drip, middle-ear i n fections

native habitat is meadowland with alkalme

whole plant when in lower, and dry it for

and sinus congestion.

soil and a cool climate.

use in herbal preparations.

Eyebnght is regarded as an effec ive hay fever remedy and can ease m a ny of the symptoms expenenced by hay fever sufferers, mcluding 1tchy, weep10g eyes. watery secretions of the nose and also sinus headaches. For the safe and appropnate use of eyebright, see Hay fever and sinusitis, page 203. Do not use eyebright i you are pregnant or breastfeed10g.

\ a t u ra l hea u t � The pretty flowers o th1s plant have a ton i ng, cooling and m i ldly astnngent effect on the eye Eyebright may be used as a compress or top1ca1 lot1on to relieve common eye disorder s and Eyebnght [Euphrasia officina/is)


sl rrngthl't11'd lly lhr Doc t n n t• or

11 h o adoplt'd t h r name Parace tsus.


• G a rd n i n g

in l hr

I'\ il�

d· a

Of I hr t')P

infec 1ons. To make a compress, see Eyebr1g ht compress. page 256.

Fennel Foemc,ourr. vulgare Ap1aceae ScHil t ' \ .t r i t ' l l ! ' · t l l ft ' ll ll t ' l l i d \ ! ' <1 pd i ' L i l' l l l d l' S\\ ! 't' I 11('SS ancl SOITH' e l l n.r lll!'ll l t i l qud l r l lt's. 11 h r l t • n l lit·r� tll'l' l'<l l <' n d '> a \ t'gl' lahlc o r u st•d I n ll;n or prd-i c•s c1 1 1 d hd�t·d goocl s . "J o \I O I H i c ' l ' Chd l'l<'lllagriC' dt'lllciiidt•d 1 11 B I :.! t ll < l l l (' n rw l l ll' p l a n ted in c'\ ( ' 1'\ monast · r·� gard l ' n .

Pa•t u ed Leaves, flowers, seeds, stems, roots

• G a rd e n i n g

• Position It prefers a light, well-drained.

Fennel plants are annual or perenn1al and

slightly alkaline soil tn a sunny posit1on but

can reach 5 ft. ( 1 .5 m) or more, With one

is adaptable and tolerates the cold well. • Propagation Raise all fennel vaneties

to several erect, hollow stems com1ng from the base and beanng fine, glossy aromatiC

by seed sown 1n spring Propagate

pmnate foliage. The tmy yellow flowers,

perenn1al forms by divis1on in spring.

borne in umbels, are used 1n pickling and

• M a i nten ance Cut down and remove

the small seeds are very aromatic.

old stems.

• A ro u n d t h e h o m e

• Varieties There are two subspecies:

• Pests a n d d iseases Fennel rarely

Fennel is a natural flea repellent. Crush

a large group classified under F. vulgare

has any problems.

a handful of fresh fronds and rub them

subsp. vulgare, with the second, F. vulgare

• H a rvesti n g a n d stori n g Harvest

all over your dog or cat. Put handfuls of

subsp. pipentum, contaming only the

foliage and flowers as reqUired. Harvest

fennel fronds under your pet's bedding.

pepper or Italian fennel. F. vulgare subsp.

seeds when ripe, then dry and freeze for

vulgare IS further div1ded into three

a few days to kill any insects. Lift roots

• C oo "- i n g

botanical variet1es: var. vulgare, which

in autumn and dry them.

Slice the raw bulb thinly and add to

contains perennial fennel; var. ozoncum,

• l l r b a l m ed i c i n

salads, or cut in half and roast as a

which contains the annual Florence fennel, w1th its enlarged bulbous leaf

Foeniculum vulgare. Part used: dried

Use fresh fennel leaves in salads, salad

bases grown as a vegetable; and var.

dressings and vmegars (see Fennel and

dulce. known as sweet or Roman fennel.

ripe fruits (seeds). Fennel has calming effects on the digestive system, relieving

Many superb Italian regional vanet1es of

flatulence, bloating and abdominal

pork and seafood dishes, or as a garn1sh.

Florence fennel mclude 'Romanesco' and

discomfort, and its pleasant taste and

The dried seeds are used in cakes and

'Fennel di Firenze:

gentle act1on make 1t popular for such

breads, Italian sausages, salads, pickles.

conditions m children. Fennel has also

curnes and pasta and tomato d1shes

Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare)

vegetable o bring out its sweetness.

saffron vmegar, page 332), with fish,

been taken by breastfeeding mothers as a remedy for improving breast milk flow; used 1n this way, the therapeutic effects of fennel can be passed on to young infants experiencing colic and griping. Fennel has long been used to treat respiratory complamts with catarrh and coughing, and is suitable for treating these conditions in adults and children. For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of fennel, consult your healthcare professional. Do not use fennel in greater than culinary doses if you are pregnant The bulbous leaf bases of Florence fennel arc deliCIOUS sliced raw in salads or roasted.

or breastfeeding except on the advice of a healthcare professional.

'fhl' ancien! G rrek name lor frn nr l ,

marathon. 11a a l ·o the namr of th

bat t ! Held to th north r �LIJCn.

\lht•re. in 100

s�r. a

Greek. arm�

d fratcd t hr im adm;: Per�tao rorc •. 1\ot'tl of thr c : rrr� victor'\- 11.a carrt d thr 2(1 mt. (-12 km) to \thc•n rrom the balllr-n Itt llv c1 runnrr,

11. ho

dted on

tht• pot dfler d�li\rrlng bt lll !'��a .

Feve r few Tanacetum parthemum syn. Chrysanthemum parthenium, Matncaria parthenwm As eraceae

In 1 U7:l


Jc n � 1 n s ol \\ , l i e · � too�

1111'1'1' fr!'�ll lt'J\ ,., or it' I !'fit'\\

\\ l l il


long h h t n r� I l l E u ropra n i H ' rl k l i l l H 'i l l ! i n c · . t il< ' l l d l l l ( ' r!'\ l ' rl l '\\


is dt•ri\ l'd i rom " l c>hril ugl' . . I H 'Ci:1 U�l' i t \\ d S .\ l i d I n d i spl'l l t ' \ < ' I'S. I t '\ C'\Cl' i lc n t Ul'll d llll' l l l et l flm\ !'1' I S


[ I'L' s l l - Joo�Hlg c l S C'IH'l'�l'd gingl1 c i f l 1 .

I.'C \ I ' l'lc '\\ i : U SC'ti 8 S c l l l i ll Sl'L'l l'l ' pC I I l ' l l l < i l l d d l'O i l l j ld l l iO i l p la n t .



tn r u n · Ill' I ��·If or mJgrdlllt's \[lrr I ( ) lllllll l h�. c i S long ' " sill' �i'pl l illdng

l lw 1 'd\ C's. \nrtt• n o l o ngn sufft·rc·li

from n11graint' .

11 1111 l l prmn p t c · t l

Londnn n11gramc· 'PI'C W I I · 1

rontlurl , 1

,.; u n l'l. Tile



cllnH JI

[ l l d l \� llirh foi!OII !'d [rtUild l h d l l h crr

Part u s J Leaves

\\ (}� i1 ht•rll'l l l

• M a i ntenance After flowenng 1S

I l l I J � I IIg

[i 'l l 'ffl'l\ [11

111"1'1 1'111 lll lgl'illll\'.

in1shed, cut back the tall flowenng stalks. • Pests and d iseases The leaves of everfew are bitter and highly aromatiC, and act as an msect repellent. No fungal diseases are of s1gn1ficance. • H a rvesting and storing Harvest the

feverfew is more likely to cause adverse

fresh leaves a any time. (Take note that

effects 1f taken th1s way, so he use of

handling plants can cause dermatitiS in

commerc1ally produced everfew ex racts

some sensit1ve md1v1duals )

may be preferable.

I I l' b a l m e d i c i n e Da1sy-like feverfew. Varieties can be confused w1th pyrethrum ( Tanacetum cmeraridalium).

Fresh leaves of feverfew are somet1mes chewed or medicmai purposes However,

For the safe and appropriate use of everfew, see Headaches and m 1grame,

Tanacetum parthemum. Par used leaves.

page 2 1 5. Do not use feverfew if you

Feverfew is used as a valuable remedy for

are pregnant or breastfeed1ng.

the treatment and prevention of m1grame headaches. Cl1nical tnals have shown that

'\ I'O U l l cl t h ' h o m '

• G a rd e n i n g

the herb can reduce the severity of


symptoms, Including visual dis urbances

quali 1es. For nformatiOn on us1ng moth­

and nausea. Laboratory s udies suggest

repellent herbs, see Herbs for your c1o hes,

hat the therapeutiC effects of feverfew

page 288, and also Scented coat hangers,


a perenn1al, forming a clump

of deeply 1nC1Sed compound leaves o about 1 .5 . (50 em). The all branched nflorescence conta1ns many small, white­

are a result of 1ts anti-Inflammatory and

petaled, yellow-centered da1sy flowers.

pa1n-rellev1ng properties as well as a

• Varieties I n addition to the spwes,

muscle relaxant act1on.

several vanenes are commonly grown. 'Golden Feather' has golden yellow

Feverfew ( Tanacetum

foliage, and there is also a compac form called 'Golden Ball' and a dwarf form,


'Golden Moss: Double-flowered forms include 'Flore Pleno' and he Ivory­ flowered 'Snowball; 'Wh1te Bonnet' and 'Tom Thumb: • Position It 1s a very easygoing plant, which responds to a sunny poSition, good soil, regular watering 1n summer and good dra1nage The plan s remain evergreen in w1nter and are fros -hardy. • Propagation Fever ew sel -seeds readily, but you can also grow 1t from seed, by cuttings or by root d1v1S1on.

Feverfew is no ed or i s mo h-repellen

page 290.

F l ax Lmum usttotissimum Ltnaceae

flil\ I"> onl' o l l iH' o l ! l r • s L - k tHJ\\ n c rop p l a n t s .

H<'il l l l i l u l h l tH'-11 0\\ ( ' f'<'d

I t prod u r < ' · d filwr L ha l ·.., u Td L o m a k<' l i n e n . a ncl fla\S<'nl o i l . a l so knm\ n as l i ll'wed o i l . '' h i ch 1 s a sourc<' or l i n o l e n ic , c i t! ( o rn rga<� J . Se!'d .


hoi<' o r cold- rn 1 l l!'<l. el l'<' u ·<'d in conki ng .

d Whol e plan


seeds, stems

• e a rde n i ng

upward-fac1ng, sky-blue flowers, followed

Ltnum usttottsstmum 1S a crop spec1es

by round capsules, about 4 10. (1 em) i n

developed by humans that has been

diameter, filled with glossy, flattened oval

cui 1vated for at least six millenia. The

seeds. The seed IS milled and extracted

spec1es has been developed as wo

for flaxseed oil, also known as lmseed

d1stmct types: the taller forms known generically as long-stalked flax (for fiber);

oil. The industnal-grade oil is used 1n a range of products, from printmg i nks,

• H a rvesting and storing When

the shorter, more floriferous types known

paints and varnishes to linoleum; the

mature, cut plants for fiber. Harvest the

Flax (Unum usitottss1muml

as crown flax (for seed production).

residual linseed cake is used as feed for

seed when ripe. Store the seed whole 1n

The plants are slender, erect, narrow­

cattle. The cold-extracted oil is used for

the refrigerator, or preserve in oil.

leafed annuals, with m ult1ple stems from

quality human n utritional supplements. Linola is a new crop specifically bred

the base. I n summer, they bear single,

for the production of a cooking oil that is comparable to that of sunflower and

oil. Taken whole or crushed with a l i ttle

corn oil. Flaxseed is also used i n bakery

water, the seeds of flax have a gentle

and cerea I products.

laxative effect and are a popular remedy

• Position It requires a sunny position

for constipation. The mucilage content

and a well-drained, open soil.

of the seed produces a soothing effect

• Propagation Sow the seed directly

on many Irritable and inflamed conditions

into prepared ground in spring.

of the gut.

• M a i ntenance Keep flax weeded so

Traditionally, fr�shly laundered linen was laid out on grass or ev�n lav�nd�r bushes to dry.

H e rbal m d i c i n Unum usitotissimum. Parts used: seeds,

The seed oil is the most concentrated

it does not compete against weeds.

plant source of the omega-3 essential

• Pests and d iseases A 3-year crop

fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (AlA),

rotation is recommended. Flax may be

which is often deficient in the Western

vulnerable to fungal problems.

diet, especially for vegetarians. Supplementing the diet with flaxseed oil or a l pha-linolenic acid may have n umerous health benefits. H uman studies indicate that AlA has positive effects on

a l l\ !' to \e��> Zt•a l a m l. Pilormwm lena\ (from th

cholesterol levels and a potential role i n

Fam i l

\ga1 acra<'l h a been wi<lrlv adopted for l nd caP!nl! purpo e

t h e treatment o f other cardiovascular .

twr�u�e 11 form handsome architrcLUral clumps or long. trap­ l i kr

lrmes t ha t haw bt•en used in r rac1il ional baskrtry (rtght).

\s a Jacm hrrlJ. k mm n as harakeke. i t l s u rd ·1milarly ltl aloe It' I

a. llemg applied rop!cally





��>ounds and sores. hurns and

n ng.,.orm. \aricose ulcer,. chillllams and rheum tl

JOint ·. II hds also hel'n usrd to normaliz(' digestive' 1!1 ord r .

diseases. The anti-mflammatory omega-3 oils can also be useful for treating inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. For the safe and appropriate use of flaxseed, see Eczema and psoriasis. page 2 7 7. Do not use flaxseed if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

G a l a nga l Alpinia go fango Zingiberaceae There a re two type s of ga la nga l - greater ga l a nga l . " ll i c h nati\ e t o J a \ a . a n d lesser ga la nga l . '' h ic h can llr fo u n d i n


t he coa t a l region · o f sou t hern C h i na . Tile

, ia. I ndonesia a n d I n d i a .

t h roughou t Sou t h ea t - -- --- - - -- -- - ----


a re bo t h gro�A n



- - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -

Other common n a mes Blue ginger, Siamese g inger, Thai g inger Pa rt used

Galangal (A/pima golongo)


• G a rd e n i n g

after planting. Store dried slices in an

Greater galangal (Aipinia go fango) is a

airtight container in a dry, dark place for 2 to 3 years.

rhizomatous perennial producing several 6.5-ft. ( 2-m ) stalks with alternate

In tile L o l l e d Statrs. galanga/

sheathing leaves. The flowers are followed

11 as tradi t ional/� ciH'II Pli. just

by red three-valved fruits. The white-

like cllr11 ing tobacco. to calm the

Alpinia officinarum. Part used. rhizomes. I n t h e past, galangal's calm1ng effects on the

l l e L' b a l m e d i c i n e

eshed rhizomes have a characteristic

·tomarh anc/ s1�erten thP brea t h .

spice and pine fragrance, and are widely

but i t i a l so associated 11 ith good

gut were often used to relieve symptoms

used in Asian cooking. The flowers, flower

luck: i t 1 . sa1d I h a t if �ou p i t t hr

of indigestion, including flatulence and

buds and cardamom-scented red fruits are

j u 1ce onto the floor of a courtroom

nausea. Like ginger, i t was reputed to be

all edible. Lesser galangal (A. officinarum),

heron• t h e judge enters. )Ou'/1 11 i n

helpful in alleviating seasickness.

native to Vietnam and China, is a smaller

you r case. O t h e r names fo1' t h i s

plant w1th aromatic reddish brown

root are Little .J ohn anti L I L t lr

rhizomes that are used medicinally.

John 10 Che11.

For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of galangal, consult your healthcare professional. Do not use galangal i n greater than culinary quantities if you

The related low-growing Kaempferia

are preg nant or breastfeeding.

galanga is also known as lesser galangal and resurrection lily, and it flowers at ground level. It is used as a spice and

taste. The Australian Alpinia caerulea has

• Cooki ng

medicinally. Fingerroot (Kaempferia

ginger -scented rhizomes. The red fruits of

Galangal's lavor is sim 1/ar to ginger's but is not as strong. Greater galangal (Aipinia

pandurata), also called Chinese keys, grows

A. oxyphylla from southern China, known as

to 1 .5 ft ( 50 em ) and has long, slender

black cardamom or sharp-leaf galangal or

galanga) 1s the ype more often used i n

finger/ike storage roots attached to the

yi zhi, are used in Chmese medicine.

cooking, especially

rhizome, which is crisp, with a fresh lemony

• Position Galangal requires warm­

Malaysia, Singapore, I ndia a n d China.

temperate to subtropical conditions,

Use the rhizome fresh, or i n dried slices, with fish and m soups ( especially

and grows best in rich, moist, wel l­ drained soils. • Propagation Galangal is an annual crop, grown by seed or from rh1zome


Thailand, b u t also 1 n

the hot-and-sour ones of Southeast Asia ) . It features in sp1cy condiments such as samba Is and i n the Moroccan

con a ins one or wo buds.

spice blend ras el han out ( see page 364). If galangal is no available, subst1tute

• M a i ntenance Keep the soil mo1st.

half the quantity of grated fresh g inger.

segments; cut them so that each segment

• Pests and d iseases Rh1zome rot is the principal problem. • Harvesti ng and storing For fresh culinary use, dig up the rhizomes 1n late Fingerroot 2. Grated fresh root 3. Whole root 4. Dried ground root 5. Sliced fresh root 6. Sliced dried root 7 . Peeled fresh root 1.

summer or early autumn. Store fresh galangal 1n a cool, dark place for up to 2 weeks. Dry the root about 10 months

Bef;r� � rlried' �� wai'er

j,{)ak fhuw ill/ lwt

for 3



G a rl ic a n d o n io n s Allium sp. L •aceac

Garlic (Allium sorivum)

llw S t i ! Jl t ' r i . l l l " pltl l l l l 'd t H t io n -; 11101 1 ' I h a n :J.OOO � ! 'il l'S ago. \\ h i l t ' l l l l ' d iU 11 ' 11 1 l·.g� j i l l d l l '\ h,HI aho u l H . OOO llll'd i c i n < t l l ! S!'S 1 1 1 1 l l h ' ll l . tl l l d o l l l ' l l pld< 'l'd t l w m in l lw i r lOmhs. In (' l ! l i n a r� 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 " . 1 1 1 1\\ t ' \ t ' l. t H I H ill

cl l"l' ' d i d In lw L ll r poor lll il lf� l r u iT i e .

Leaves, bulbs, bulbi ls, seed, fl owe rs

• G a rd e n i n g

garlic varieties, and

The alliums - approximately 700 spwes

'hard necks' (A. sativum

of them - mclude not only globe on1ons,

var oph10scarodon). wh1ch

eschallots, leeks, garlic, wild garlic and

contain the remarkable

chives of various kinds, but also exotic

rocambole (serpent garlic or

forms, such as walkmg on1ons and po ato

Spanish garlic). It produces tall,

on1ons Many are so attract1ve they long

Sinuously loopmg stems w1th a

ago made their way into the ornamental

head of bulbi Is (secondary bulbs

garden. Alliums are all either bulbous or

that can grow into new plants) mixed

rh1zomatous in habit, charactenstically

with miniature plants. Belowground

w1th straplike or hollow leaves and simple

it forms a bulb of 4 to 14 cloves.

umbels of star-shaped lowers emerging

Ramsons or bear's garlic (A. ursinum) is an

from a papery sheathing bract.

intensely garlic-scented species, and both

O n i on s

the leaves and bulbi Is are used.

Common globe onion (Allium cepa) is the


Russian garlic or giant garlic or sand leek

best known of this aromatic tribe. Spring

Garlic (A. sotlvum) IS div1ded m t o two

(A. scorodoprasum) develops a large basal

onions are any variety of onion that is

groups. 'softnecks' (A. sativum var

bulb comprising several huge cloves.

pulled when JUSt beginning to bulb.

sativum), which contain all the common

Wild garlic or three-cornered leek

Tree onion or Egyptian on1on or walking

(A. triquetrum) has garlic-flavored foliage,

onion (A. cepa, Proliferum Group) forms

small garlic-flavored bulbs and nodding

a basal bulb, while the flowers are replaced

umbels of attractive starry white flowers.

by a cluster of small bulbi Is that weigh the stalk to the ground, allowing the bulb1ls


Wild garlic (A. rnquerrum) bears umbels of pretty wh•te flowers.

to take root.

Four culinary spec1es of chives are widely

Potato onion (A. cepa, Aggregatum Group)

grown for their foliage: fragrant garlic

forms a large cluster of plump smallish

chives (A. odorum) from central Asia,

on1ons at the base.

with red-striped white petals; onion

Shallots - or eschallots or scallions

chives (A. schoenoprasum). with umbels

(A. cepa, Aggregatum Group) - form an

of pink flowers; garlic or Chinese chives

aboveground bulb that splits to form a

(A. tuberosum). with white flowers and

cluster of bulbs with a delicate flavor.

deliciously garlic-scented, straplike foliage;

Chinese onion or rakkyo (A. chinensis)

and mauve-flowered, garlic-flavored

is an Asian species cultivated for its cnsp

soc1ety garlic (Tulbagh10 vio/acea) in both

textured bulbs, which are popularly used

a green and vanegated leaf form.

raw, pickled or cooked.

Vur� Wort/ War L yv!i&� Wab uud ilv

tet/ tl'r� to prwed �ei'U!/.

Nodding onion or lady's leek (A cernuum). a North Amencan perennial, has an intense onron flavor rn all parts Canada onion (A canadense) forms crisp whrte bulbs and has deliciOusly on ron­

mature rn the second season. Raise chives, cold-tolerant leeks and their relatrves by gar l i i�

seed. Propagate garlrc by plantrng cloves

l 'rrltn!l ld r!ll' qua n t i l ic� or

vertically, with the pointed tip covered by

r<.l ther

about 2.5 em of soil.

Uwt rs to he ·iicr<l or chopped. first

tf'<liou . . I f )ou·re pef' l i n g ga r l i<

scented foliage. Milder-flavored leeks (A. porrum)

• M a i ntenance Regular weeding

t h u m p the clo\1' w i t h t hr nat h l adr

is essential, particularly in the earlier


origtnate from the Medrterranean. Some

stages of growth. Do not overwater.

crack the

excellen varieties include 'Musselburgh;

• Pests and d iseases The main

rrmo1 r. If you �� a n t to u r t h e ciO\l' �

a l a rge k n r fe. T h rs \\. i l l distort an<l . kin. making it easu'r to

'Giant Carentan' and 'Bieu Solarse:

problems are downy mildew and black

11 holr. use a ro m m c r c i a l l

Garlrc leek. sweet leek or Levant garlrc

aphid. Garlic is susceptrble to nematode

gadget ron ·h; l ing of a ;.mall flc\ihlr

a � a ilahlc

ruhiH'r t u h e : IJiacr thr u n peelrd cloves

(A. ampelaprasum) is perennial and

(eelworm) attack. As it is an accumulator,

develops a large basal bulb. whrch splits

do not use chemicals. To clear the soil of

i n t h rs and roll t h r t u tw on a work

into several cloves.

nematodes, plant a prior crop of dwarf

su rran· fo r a fc1� seconds. \\ hrn you

CIOICS h o u l d

Poor man's leek or Welsh onion

orange marigolds ( Tagetes potu/a).

l i p O U l i hl' l'Oi l lPntS. t h e

(A fistulasum) grows in the same manner as

• Harvesting and storing I f growing

hr n ra l l ) st'paratrd rrorn t h e i r h u sks.

leeks but has hollow leaves. The plant divides at the base, formtng a perennial clump.

species for their aromatic folrage, use

Ramps or wood leeks (A. tricoccum) form

stage. When hey've stopped growing, the

them fresh. Harvest globe onions at any

scallionlike, onron and garlic-tasting bulbs.

ops of both onions and garlic fall over

• Position All the principal Allwm

and wither Choose a sunny day to pull the

specres reqwe a well-tilled and weed-free

bulbs of both types, then leave them for a

soil, good drainage and a sunny position.

few days to dry out. Store in a dry, well-

• Propagation Plant onrons by seed. In

ventilated area to prevent fungal rots.

areas with a short growtng season, grow them to he size of bulbils. or se s, rn thetr trst season, then plant hem out to

1- l e l' b a l m cl i c i n e Allium sativum. Part used: bulbs. Regular consumption of garlic, a potent natural antrbiotic, can help to prevent and treat t nfecttons of the lungs and rs a traditional cure or coughs and colds. Garlic's an imrcrobial effec s also extend to the gut, and it can be helpful tn the treatment of gastrorntestinal rnfectrons. Furthermore, inclusion of garlic tn the dret has also been

EI ' p h a n l g a rl i c

shown to have a preventatrve effect

\ a t l l •' to t ht•

agatns stomach and colorectal cancers.


Garlic produces a n umber of benefictal

t'l!'phclnt ga r l i c



( 1 . ampt'/cJJlf'asum

' E II•ph a n t ' l lid l l' a sll t't' t

many of whtch have been confirmed by

mulll IPss p u ngPn t th<lll t i ll'

cltntcal trtals. Garlic supplementation has

cmnrnonl� U'>ed r n t·oo�urg.

been shown to lower cholesterol levels,

IS dl t UJ I I ) a ITit'lllht•t o f t ht• l t • t· � J,l l l l l il lOOt' til l i s ('t llillllt!ll naHH's IS l it ' l't ' l l l l i d l

lessen the nsk of blood-clo formation. It can also help to reduce blood pressure as well as rmprove general circulatron. For the sa e and effec rve medrcinal use of gar'tc, see Sore hroa s, colds and flu. page 200, and Hrgh blood pressure Green on1ons 2 Brown onions J. Green on1ons w1th thelf tops 4 Red on10n 5. Spnng onions

te<lrt <'ITilllt'an and

Ea'> l . t hr• gra n t

effec s on the cardrovascular system,

prevent the hardening of artenes and


\ t ultllr

and choles erol, page 228. Do not use garlic rn greater than culrnary quantities tf you are pregnant or breastfeedtng

fla1or· t h a t r · g,nlit

ltw pldllt

sll t't ' t lt·t• k J . l·:dt ill!'

dm t•s

I'd\\ 01' t'tlttk t lit'lll

G a l l ic a n d onion C o o l d n .g Gari•C cor-plements almost any savory d•sh, a11d goes well w,th most culinary herbs and sp1ces I 1s an essential 1ngred1en 1n many cuis1nes. espec1ally As1an, Mex1can, Mediterranean, M1ddle Eastern and Car1bbean. Even 1f you don't like the taste o garlic tself, a small amount will enhance the lavor of many dishes. Garl1c comes m wh1te-, pink- and purple-sk1nned var1et1es, and in a range of sizes. Choose firm bulbs that are not

mellow and sweet Try baking a whole

sprouting, and that are tightly encased in

head 1n foil, then squeeze out the

their husks. Peeled cloves should be creamy

contents of the cloves. This mellow,

white, not gray or yellow. Remove any

creamy paste is delicious spread on

areas of discolorat1on before using, as

bread or cooked meats or s irred through

these will impart a rank taste to the dish.

mashed vegetables such as potato. Take

When peeled, then sliced or chopped,

care when cooking garlic; if i is cooked

the enzymes w1thin a clove of garlic react

over too high a heat, it will burn, become

on exposure to w to produce a strong,

bitter and taste unpleasant Even a tiny

lingering, sulphurous aroma. The flavor of

amount of burned garlic will permeate

garlic is similarly strong and sharp,

and spoil a whole dish.

and gives he Impression of heat on the

Above: Ch1ves (Allium schoenoprasum) Opposite: In a Cambodian village, garlic heads are separated and the cloves set out to ory.

Garlic is used raw in a'loli [a French

palate. The more finely it IS crushed or

garlic mayonnaise) and tapenade (olive

chopped, the s ronger its aroma becomes.

paste). Crushed garlic mashed into butter is a delicious and simple sauce for cooked meats, or it can be spread on a sliced loaf or baguette, wrapped in foil and baked i n a medium-hot oven for 10 minutes o r so. Push sl1vers of garlic into slits in a joint of lamb or pork, or put a few cloves instde the cavity of a chicken before roastmg. Vanous processed forms of garlic are commercially available, i ncluding crushed pastes and dehydrated flakes, powders and granules. If you are using commerctal garlic pastes 1n a recipe, you may need to make adjustments for the flavor of the salt and vinegar that are often added as

Dt'll!'nding on lhr 1·a r ir1�. rlll\rs

1 ·\. 'clwenopriNJm) hal t' a m t h l onion

or ga r l tc fla1or t hat goc · wel l

wi th :auces. str11

1 rgl'lalllc

�uch a

·. m a �hr c l potatoes. fi�h.

pou l l l') An<l t•gg di�lws ( r prciJil� sr ra mh l t•rl eggs ) . and cr·ram rhee'e�

ami . a lad drrs s i ng . The deltcatc na1 o r is eastl� drstro�rd IJ� hrat.


a d rl chr1r. during the Ia t rc1� minutes or cooking lime. or them on


a lini hPCi llish to ga rn rs h .

Sntp ch11r. 11 ilh . cis�or, . ra th er than chop tllrm 11 t l h a �nife. Tht'\

are r � �l'n t 1 a l (dlong 11 i t h chrr1 tl, parslr� ami tarrago n ) tn the F'rrnch herb b l r nd


rim" hrrhrs (.'<'t'

l lr r b gutdr.' 336) .

Snip clme,

nnrty an(J rreezr Lh 'm rn trf'-CUIJe w prr. f'l'\f'.

preservatives. Garlic is also used in many


commercial spree blends, including herb

a prrtt1 garmsh.

The no11er. ma�r

salt, garltc salt and piua seasonrng.

Ch•vrs bear pale purple to pale pink bell-shaped umbels of nowers '" summer.

12enwvf!/ � �yeuv JhootJ-­ yonv the, cuz/er of w cut y;-rli& c&vf!/, 6� t� tuu/ to �£!/ pori ta.M-f!/ 6iiter.

G i nge r Zmgtber of icmote Z1ngiberaceae c ; i 11gt' (

\\ tl .

h r�lll\ ITCOIIl lll ! ' l l t l ( ' d l l\ 11011(' o t ll l ' l' L ll d l l Coi1 1 U C i U 'i .

\\ IHl h n • p u t t •t l t o hcl\ t' llt�\ O r l ' t l c � l l h i

food \\ i t l l r t . l t llCl'i m a n �

m t>t i H i nc� l u st· � . i n t l u t l r ng l rc d l i n g m o t ion ��c �ll(' 'i 'i d n t l l l a u 'i('<L


us d Rhizomes

• C a nt n i n � Nattve to roptcal Asia, gtnger is a rhizomatous perenn1al to about 90 em htgh, productng many fibrous leaf stalks sheathed in alternating lanceolate leaves. The plump rhizomes. known as 'hands; are pale yellow when freshly dug. The yellow flowers, wtth purple l t ps and green bracts,

Cured U1/ JAb, ��� ruul �� � t/.V UM!d U1/ t� J� rMJ

� rlidv-, �

Ginger root (Zingiber officmole]

mannades, stir-fnes and meat, fish and vegetable dishes. Fresh ginger's uses are mostly savory; crystallized g inger is used

are arranged in dense, club-like spikes. They are followed by fleshy, three-valved

• Pests and d i seases Rh1zome rot

in baked goods, or eaten on its own as


is the princtpal problem.

confectionery, often sugar-coated.

The spnng shoots and flower buds

• H a rvest i n g and storing For fresh

of Japanese or myoga gtnger (Z m10go)

culinary use, dig up the rhtzomes in late

Dried ginger is hotter than fresh gmger. Ground dried ginger is used 1n bakmg and

are popular in Japanese cuisine, and

summer or early autumn. If drying, do

in commercial spice mixtures. Both ground

cassumar ginger (Z cossumor) is used

so about 10 months after planting.

dned ginger and gtnger essential oil are used in commercial food flavoring, while

in Southeast Asia. • Position It grows best in rich, moist,

Herbal medi ine

well-dra t ned soil and requires warm

Zingiber officina/e. Part used : rhizomes.

temperate to subtropical conditions.

Ginger has been clinically proven as a

• Propagation Grow ginger by seed or

safe, effective remedy for the prevention

from rhizome segments, cut so that each

and treatment of nausea. It can also

segment contains one or two buds.

benefit other digestive symptoms such

• M a i ntenance Keep the soil moist

as indigestion, colic and flatulence.

ginger extracts are used 1n cordials, ginger beer and ginger ale.

It is traditionally used to relieve various conditions associated with 'cold' symptoms as well as period pain, cold hands and feet, arthritis and rheumatism. It may also help protect the heart and blood vessels by preventing the formation of blood clots Selrct clean. plump. firm rhizomes.

then Map them ligh t ly in fot l and tore tn t he \egetabl cri per of the refrig ratur for �rve ra l \\ Cek

. For

long-term . torage. ginger ma� be

and lowering cholesterol levels.

• Co k i n g Young ginger is tender and sweet, with a spicy, tangy, warm to hot flavor. Older

pickled, Jlrr ·rrwll in sherry or other

ginger is stronger, hotter and more fibrous.

strong ·ptril. or rr� rallized. Store

Japanese gmger (Z miogo), known as gari,

rry ta lllzrd gmgrr or ginger in yrup

is widely used as a sushi condiment.

m an a trllgltr contamrr in a coul. dry p la et• . Thr} \\ t i l kerp for up 10 J yt•ar.

I n Asian, Caribbean and Afncan cuisine, ginger is a n essential ingredient i n curries, stews, soups, salads, pickles, chutneys,

1, Who l� ging�r root 2. Pickl�d ging�r 3. Ground dri�d ginger 4. Sliced dried ginger 5. Crystalliz�d ginger 6. Glac� ginger

G i n l<go Ginkgo bilobo Ginkgoaceae Tl1r � i n �go d a l es bac� to t he l i 111e of llw d i nosa u rs. l lc forr l h

C\ O i u L ion

ol flm1 r r i ng p la n ! .' . I I m a y nt l\\ l w cxli n l i n 1 11r \\ i l < l . l l u l i s o n e o r l h r

rnosl frrqucn l l y presc r i l lrtl lwrh. i n We. l r r n hrrhal m r t l i c i n e . Other c o



Fruits, leaves




Maidenhair tree

• G a rd n i n g

These include the fastigiate 'Princeton

The sole remaining species of the once

SentrY. the dwarf 'Chi Chi' and 'Jade

abundant and widely distributed plant

Butterfly; and the excellent male clone,

order Ginkgoales, wh1ch dates back to the

'Autumn Gold:

Jurassic and Triassic periods, ginkgo has

• Position Ginkgo is fully hardy, suited

long been cultivated in Japan and China

to a cool climate, and prefers a sunny

as a sacred tree. The plant has fan-shaped

position and well-drained, fertile soil. It

notched leaves resembling those of the

is very slow-growing.


I Gmkgo b1fobo)

maidenhair fern, and makes an attractive

• Propagation You can propagate

ornamental tree. The species is dioecious,

g inkgo by seed, and if you require fruit,

of some circulatory disorders, mcludmg

so he unpleasant smelling plum-like fruit

plant a male with a female. Grow named

intermittent claudication, where poor

are formed only where male and female

varieties by grafting or by cuttings of

blood flow to the legs results in symptoms

trees are grown together.

semi-ripe wood in summer.

of numbness, pai n and cramping, and

• M a i ntenance These trees require

Raynaud's syndrome, where there

little pruning.

circulation to the hands and fee . Further

the flowering plants. Within is a seed

• Pests and d iseases G1nkgo is virtually

cli nical trials also indicate its use in the

resembling an almond, prized in both


treatment o vertigo, tinn1tus. asthma

China and Japan, which is boiled, roasted

• H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest ripe

and premenstrual syndrome.

or ba ed before bemg cracked open. The

fruits when they fall from the tree and

tree is dec1duous, coloring a clear gold

extract the almond-like seed. Harvest

ginkgo, see Memory and concentration,

in autumn.

the leaves and dry them as they begin

poge 2 13, and Circulation, poge 226.

• Varieties Most varieties of ginkgo

to change color i n autumn.

The 'fruits' are naked seeds, as true frui s only developed with the rise of

were selected for ornamental purposes.

l l e r b a l m c cl i c i n



For the safe and appropriate use of

Do not use ginkgo 1f you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Ginkgo bilobo. Part used: leaves. Extensive laboratory research has Identified many pharmacological actions associated with l.mkgo ha' a long. tandmg a s�oda lion hram

11 n h


l ffi iJI'Owmrnt m

a n d mouu. t'�pt•na ll�

in olclrr propl1• I I u man t ri a l s halt'

hu11. n 110 1l11e e ffl't ls nn


11llpairm 1 · n t and pour t'unc!'nl ra t u m

a s 111'11 h <

1 111'

t rc a t nH' n l dnil

Prt'l !'nllon of S\lllfl!om'

t}(l!'s of df'lll l ' l l t l a . \lzh�un('r\ cJi ea

of StlnH'

i n r l u d 1 ng t'.

ginkgo leaf, 1ncluding potent anti-ox1dant and anti-mflammatory effects, an abil ity to enhance blood flow through arteries, vems and capillaries, as well as a protective ef ect on many cells of the body agains toxin damage. These properties explain the herapeut1c applicat1on of gmkgo to a range of health conditiOns, many of them verified by human trials. (See A seed of prom1se, le t.) Clin1cal studies m patients have shown g1nkgo to be benefic1al for the treatment

Dunng the Jurass1c penod. gmkgo trees werf part of the landscape m wh1ch brach1osaurs roamed.

G in seng Pona.1 sp. and Eleu herococcus senticasus Araliaceae l ; i l u•ng lw� I H'I'fl uscrl 1 11 C l l 1 ne�1· medicine l o r d l lt · a s l :i.OOO � ea r� . lildd\ i t 1 s ll l ( lt•l\ n ·cogn iZ!'ci l n \\ t • s L t· r n mt•t l ictnl' a : a n adapLOge n . red u c i ng t ill' hod\ \ l'!'cH' l ion LO t ra u ma d iH I �ll't•<;s. The closel:r rr l a L c < l S I I H' r i a n g m �eng d l l d \ m c r il'dll g i n seng lld \ t ' s i m i la r u :-- l '

Part u



• G a rd e n i n g

• Pests and d iseases Fteld-grown crops

Chmese (Astan or orean ) gmseng (Ponax

can attract a range of pests and diseases.

g i nsengs appear to be

gmseng) is a long-l1ved deciduous

• H a rvesti n g a n d storing Harvest

of benefit 1n a wide range of chronic

perennial with branched taproots, from

gtnseng roots in autumn from plants

illnesses, many clinical trials investlgattng

which spnng long-stalked, divided leaves.

that are usually 6 years or older. Use

these herbs have produced mixed results,

Sibenan gmseng ( Eieutherococcus

them fresh or peeled and dned.

sentlcosus), which IS part of the same plant family, is a deciduous shrub with

l lerbal m dicine

thick roots. divtded leaves and umbels

Korean ginseng (Ponax gmseng), American

of blac berries.

g i nseng ( P. quinquefolius), Siberian

perhaps due to the large ariat1on� in the quality, dose, preparat1on and duration of he different g i nsengs used. For the safe and appropnate use of Korean g i nseng, see Tension and s ress,

• Varieties American gmseng (Ponax

ginseng (Eieutherococcus senticosus).

page 2 10 For the safe and appropnate

quinquefolius) is close in appearance

Part used : roots. Modern research has

use of Sibenan ginseng and w1thania, see Tiredness and fatigue, page 2 1 2. Do

and activity to Chmese g1nseng, while

shown that these herbs improve the

Japanese ginseng ( P. Japonicus) is Widely

body's capac1ty to cope with stress, so

not use these herbs if you are pregnant

used m tonic dnnks 1n Japan. Notoginseng

they have become popular remedies for

or breastfeeding.

(P pseudog1nseng) is a hemostatic herb.

enhancing mental function and physical

• Position Plants grow in full sun to

performance during t1mes of overwork,

light shade, and need a mo1st. rich, well­

fatigue, exhaustion or convalescence.

drained soil. Panax species require mild

American g i nseng has recently been

summers and cold wmters, deep shade

successfully trial led as a treatmen for

and a slightly acidic soil.

reducing the incidence of upper

• Propagation Plants are seed grown,

respiratory infections. All three ginsengs

germinating rather erratically, so that

have also been shown to lower blood

seed is ohen stratified ( see box, page 44).

sugar, and may be of benefit in the

Propagate Eleutherococcus by seed, by

treatment of diabetes. Although the

sof wood or hardwood cuttings. and by

\I thou h not relal d Lo Lh e gin en ·. 11 ithania ( l�tlhania omelimt> catted

omnifera) i

Indian g in . eng a

a result or 1L

ability to i mprove mood. mrntal caparit} and phy ica i , tr nglb

d u ri ng rr overy Fro m iltn

root cuttings.

times of

• M a i ntenance With forest-floor crops,


u ·e



\Vithania a l o

ppl'ars to ha\r an adapl{){,>enic-

lit le is required other than patience.

type effect on the LK>d) a

po ·iuv effrc


w el l

on immun

llowe\er. i n ontra t

to tile gin eng

. withnnla ha' a

m ild rdative actiOn and ha Lrad1tiona11

been pr .cntlt'd fol'

.omr en es of io omnia. It 1 high

Gins�ng ( Ponax gins�ng)

ai o

in 1ron. and can be a �a lnable

rt'lnedy ror trrallng anemia

G o tu l<o l a Centella asiat1ca syn. Hydrocotyle asiatica Apiaceae The reputed e\t raorcl i n a r) Ionge\ i t � of Professor L i C h u ng Yon . \\ ho is .aiel t o h a \ e cl iecl a t the


of 2 � 6 . ou l l i \ i ng 24 · ucccs i\C' wi\ c . is a t t r i b u t ed Lo d r i n king tea madC' \v i t h t h i s C h i nr'.'C " l ong- l i fe h e rb . .. \\' h i c h i

a l o an i m porta n t Ayu rwdic p l a n t .

Other common na me� Arthritis herb, Asiatic pennywort Parts used Whole plant, leaves

• G a rd e n i n g

• Propagation It can be

Gotu kola is closely related to the

propagated by seed, but is

pennywort (Hydrocotyle sp.) and more

most easily grown from

remotely to celery and parsley. The plant

rooted sections of stolon with

is a small, creeping, subtropical to tropical

at least one plantlet attached.

groundcover that spreads by stolons, in a similar manner to strawberries and violets,

water and weed gotu kola

forming plantlets that root into the

as necessary.

ground and eventually form


• M a i ntenance Regularly Gotu kola (Centella asiatica)

• Pests and d iseases There are

dense mat.

Individual plants have basal rosettes of

no significant problems.

shiny, kidney-shaped, slightly fleshy,

• Harvesting and storing Harvest the

serrated, long-stalked leaves. The modest

leaves and use them fresh as required. Dry

flowers are borne in umbels below the

the leaves out of direct sunlight: Spread

leaves. Its natural habitat is in damp places

them out in a single layer or dry them

and along stream and pond margins.

under warm fan-forced air, then store

• Position Gotu kola is easily grown in a

them in an airtight container for medicinal

large pot or a dedicated garden bed filled

use and for tea. You can also j u ice the

with free-draining, sandy soil enriched

leaves and add them sparingly to tonics.

with compost and kept moist. It can be

H e rba l m e d i c i n e

grown in full sun or light shade. In cool­ climate areas it should be grown under

1/arww.Y Wil'v r�enafwtv;;rorluct.Y, �fw kofw jf�ecy co�;;rorluctwiV. ().w;( il'v

herbalists regard gotu kola as an effective nerve tonic that exerts a calming and

Cen tello asiatica. Parts used: whole

strengtheni n g effect on nerve and bra i n

cover in winter. I t tends to die back, but

plant. leaves. Gotu kola has been used

cells, helping o improve memory a n d

will reshoot in spring.

therapeutically for centuries. Ayurvedic

reduce anxiety. According to tradi ional Chinese medicine, gotu kola is believed to slow senility, act as a promoter of longevity

ccordrng lO official record of the C h rnese go1 ernme n l . Pro fe . or Li C h u ng \on. a renowned

cholar and herbali t . wa

born r n

1 egetarian who u ed gotu kola a n d gin ultivating a calm and

1 6 77. The stor� go s r ha t he was

ng and took bns� daily 11 a l �s ll h i le

erene a t t i t ude to l i re ( walking l i ke a pigeon. � i l l r n g l i k

tortDi e and sleeping like a dogr. \\ he n he died in


1 933. as reported by The Ve"

}ark Times. he appa rent!� looked l i kr a man m h i prime. w i t h hi h a i r and teeth intact. He

pent t h e first

1 00 year

or hi

l i re

tudying and gathenng wild herhs.

and t h e latter part lecturing and educati ng people ahout herb

and longe\ ily.

and improve rheumatic problems. Studies investigatin g the topical and internal use of gotu kola have confirmed an i mpressive burn- and wound-he al ing capacity, and a strengthen rng effect on veins, w1th notable improvem ent in varicose veins and other vern disorders. For the sa e and appropna te use of gotu kola, consul t your healthca re professio nal. Do not use go u kola 1f you are pregnan t or breast eed1ng.

H ea rtsea se

�1uny 11 1'l.1S. lllCi utllllf! hParL t'a�C'.

Viola tricolor Violaceae

havr ccliille flower . �V Ii lc h l ooJ..

T h i · I J IT l ly E u ropt'illl ll i lt l llmx t · r, \l h ich h a s acq u i red an t''<l raorr l i n a i'J n u mber of name.·. i ::; a:soc i a tt'cl '' i l h t hougll l i n L h e lang11agc of no\\ ers. \ I L huugh i l ma) not I H 'a l l l rn k c • n hea r t s. a s once r< · p u i r • d , il docs haw a 11 idr ,·a r i<'IV of lleriJal usrs.

\ e ry pretty

1n a ,a lad. ( Some

I l ow er

pcusonou�. so he


t o rhrrk hrfore u. e.) 1\- l ( h


\ f i\ a \'arirty

or salad



flhP gr('en paris rrmo1 rf1)

heorl ·ed e

and lhP !lowers nr nasl urliurn. l)()raac. llerl!amOL . fenn!"L

mL John ny -jump- u p , 0 he .:o 1 o n love-lies-bleeding, wild pansy I' s rl Flowers (culinary), aerial parts (med i c i na l l y)


or rCiir·n!lu !<L r\!lrl a lighl <Ire� ing t ha t won't D\erv.helm Lllr del icate navor of


• G a rd e n i n g

• Position Heartsease prefers a moist,

Heartsease is an annual or short-lived

cool location in light dappled shade and

perennial form i ng a spreading, low­

slightly acidic soil. In the right position,

growing herb, wh1ch flowers profusely in

it will reseed generously.

spring and summer with tiny pansylike

• Propagation Raise plants from seed,

flowers. It was one of the progeni ors of

then plan the seedlings in autumn and

the modern pansy, and the flowers vary

lightly cover with soil. They can also be

considerably in their color patterns. They

successfully sown directly into the garden.

usually have a purple spur and upper

• M a i n tenance A gentle clipping over

petals, while the remaining three petals

the whole plant in summer will encourage

are variously colored purple, wh1te and

it to bloom through autumn. The plants

yellow with characteristic "pussy whisker'

are fully cold-hardy.

markings created by fine purple veins.

• Pests and d iseases Heartsease

The leaves are oval and coarsely toothed.

encounters few problems.

The flowers are followed by three-valved

• H a rvesting and storing For culinary

the flowrr .

H e rbal med i i n e Viola tricolor. Parts used: aerial parts.

capsules, which burst open to reveal

purposes, harvest the fresh flowers at

Heartsease may have acquired its name

densely packed, round brown seeds.

any time. The aerial parts of the plant are

from its traditional reputation as a

• Varieties The variety 'Helen Mount'

harvested for medicinal use, usually when

beneficial remedy for heart conditions

is a short-lived perennial with r1chly

i n ful l flower. To dry the plants, hang them

or a belief that it acted as a Jove potion_

colored flowers of purple, lavender

upside down i n a well-ventilated place

and yellow.

away from direct sunshine.

However, these days heartsease is regarded as a remedy for the skin and is used to treat eczema and other skin conditions. It is commonly prescribed for such conditions in both infants and adults. and is administered either as an infusion or topically to the area i n the form of a compress on the affected area. When taken internally, the soothing and anti-inflammatory properties of heartsease are also useful for conditions of the lungs and urinary system. helping to alleviate the symptoms of bronchitis and cystitis. For the safe and appropriate use of heartsease, consult your healthcare professionaL Do not use heartsease if

H�arts�as� (Viola tricolor)

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Hops Humulus lupulus Moraceae keep \ l a l t ed gra i n s 11 co for l ll'l'\\ i ng lwc r a re v e ry S\\ t'l'l a n d rio n o t \\ C I I . so man� h i l l e r ile riJS. l i ke llnps. ll�l\t' l >rrn u srcl t o i m pro,·c i t � flm or a n cl lle l p prr, r n e i t . l l o p, a l so ila · scda l i \C' p ro pe r l i

, ell to m a kP a rrla.\ing dcco l i on for L lw ha t il . all(! r a n b e u ' Parts



Strobiles (cones). shoots, flowers, leaves, vines

• G a rd e n i n g

• M a i ntenance For the home garden,

Hops arms a perennial vine that reaches

tram hops on a tall tripod or pyramid

33 ft. (10 m) each season. Only female

support. In hop fields, vines traditionally

plants produce the required small, conelike

are trained on tall poles. Clean away all

inflorescences called strobiles. The leaves

dead material in winter.

resemble those of a grape vine and are

• Pests a nd d iseases The maJor

used as a brown dye, wh1le the vines are

problems are downy mildew on leaves,

used for papermaking and basketry.

and Verticillium wilt.

• Varieties 'Aureus' is a popular

• Ha rvesti n g and storing Young

ornamental variety, with light golden

shoots are harvested i n spring for culinary

leaves that can be used for similar

use. Strobiles are harvested in autumn

purposes. Early maturmg 'Fuggle' IS

and dned. Both the pollen and leaves can

popular With home brewers 1n England.

cause allergiC responses.

prefers an open, sunny position and a

The heavily scented essential oil is believed to be responsible for the plant's

• Position Hops 1s very adaptable but

l lerbal medicine

relaxing effects on the nervous system ;

moist, humus-rich soil.

Humulus lupulus. Part used: female

• Propagation Hops can be raised

flowers (strobiles). Hops is well known

by the bed to induce sleep. Hops' calming

from seed Only the female plants are

for 1ts mild sedative properties and is

effects can also help m reducmg anx1ety.

the flowers can be used in pil lows placed

required, so propagate either by root

commonly prescribed with other relaxing

diVISion in spnng or from cuttings

herbs for insomn1a, particularly when

on sluggish digestion due to the presence

taken 1n summer.

there IS difficulty falling asleep.

of bitter compounds, and it IS a useful

Hops has a gently stimulating effect

remedy for gastrointestinal com plaints, particularly when they are exacerba ed

H� 6eer

by tens1on and stress. Hops also contams estrogen-like substances and 1s bein g

Brt'I\PO m anril'nt Egy p l . hopped hrcr \\.il

men unned 11


the Roman \\Ti t e r

\\. h O r t' l i h r d ea t i ng

wnng grm\lh 11

the p l a n t "s

hen 1t 11 as prepa red

l i ke a s pa ragu . l lnp. lwcamr \1 idelv

u ·rcJ


E u rop('. but


England ot her

b i t t e r h •ri.J\ 1wn· preferrrd u n t i l t ilt' I Ht h ren t u ry. m pan hrcau'>t' tlwrr 11 a · a llf'lil'f t ha t hops rould raust•


Snmt· lw rha l aut honlws

s t i l l atl1 1 'f' thJt patie n t s �ulft>ring from tiPpre. �ion o.;hnultl �\!lid hops

inves igated for i t s use i n menstrual and menopausal problems. For the safe and appropriate use of hops, see Insomnia, page 2 1 4. Do not use hops if you are pregnant or breastfeed1ng.

It t<Y � yeorp III

cured lw.v in.MJ� 6;r � o;v �filtow of rlrd hof!v.

,..1 ) ..

H o r s e ra d i s h a n d wa s a b i Armoraoa rust,cana and Wasabia JOpanica syn. Cochlea no wasab1 Brass1caceae Tile' gJ\J l <'li root u r lmrsnadl 11 . C U I ! J \ d l !'d 1 1 1 l hC' t'd S l l'rn '\ 1 P d i l r• r ra n l'd l1 n•g Jon rM m o n · t ll d n


\ ca rs. i s LJ '>('d a s a pu ngC' n l cond i m e n t a n d

i n nH'd J C J n a l prepara t io n '\ . \\ a a i H . n d l i \ r t o J a pa n . llc s l wc•n r u l li \ a t rd -, i nct• t h l' I O L11 crn l u J·� tllld posst\' Sl'S a s i m i l a r. \ t ' J'� llol t a s t r .



Roo a n d leaves (horseradish); rhizomes (wasabi)

• G a rd r n i n g

heart-shaped leaves. I s Inflorescences

Horseradish and wasabi both belong to

of white cruc1form flowers reach 1 6 1n.

the same botanical family, Brassicaceae

[40 em). There are a number of vanet1es, 1nclud1ng 'Tainon No. 1 ' and 'Daruma; but

H o rserad ish Horseradish [Armorac/0 ruscicana)

all form th1ck, knobbly rh1zomes. IS


Horstradish { ltft) and wasab1

• Position Horseradish requrres a sunny

hardy perennial tha forms a roset e of

position and a well-dug soil enriched with

the presence of compounds responsible

long leaves. The 30 or more stra1ns in

rot ed compost. Grow wasab1 rn very clean,

for many of therr med1cinal properties.

cultivation 1 nclude 'Bohemian; 'Sw1ss' and

cool, slightly alkaline runnrng water, w1th

'Sass: and almost all of them are sterile.

plenty of shade The temperature should

a nasal, sinus and bronch1al decongestant,

There are two ornamental forms - one

be between 50 and ss•F ( 10•c and n•c).

mak1ng 1t a popular remedy for colds and

vanegated w1th white, the other has

• Propagation In spnng, plant pencil­

respiratory tract infections. Its antiseptic




antimicrobial and acts as

purple-suffused leaves. Belowground,

thin sections of lateral horseradish roots

properties and a diuretic effect have also

horseradish forms a taproot that expands

horizontally, or up to an angle of 30' from

been used to treat urinary tract 1n ectrons.

the horizontal. Cover with soil, and firm

Wasabi is believed to have therapeutic

down. Propagate wasab1 from offsets of

effects s1milar to those of horseradish.

in diameter in the second and th1rd year. Wasabi

the rhizome.

Nat1ve to Japan, wasabi or Japanese

• M a i ntenance Don't let horseradish

use of horseradish, see Hay fever and

horseradish [ Wasabiajapanica) is a semi­

dry out, or the roots will become b1tter.

sinusitis, page 203. Do not use these herbs

aquatic perennial with long-stemmed,

Keep wasabi well-shaded, cool and watered.

1n greater than culinary quantities 1f you

• Pests and d iseases A n umber of

are pregnant or breastfeeding.

leaf-eating insects can be a problem for horseradish. Wh1te rust, A/rernorio and

bacterial leaf spot may occur.

Young horseradish leaves can be eaten as

"- i n

• H arvesting and storing Dig up

a vegetable, but the root is the part most

horseradish roots and use them fresh

ohen used. Peel and grate rt as needed, as

at any time 1n the second and third year; they are at their peak in flavor aher the first frost. Store clean roots in sealed

it loses 1ts pungency soon aher grating, or when heated. Alternatively, grate the root [in a well-aired place to avoid the fumes) ,

plastic bags in the refrigerator for up to

adding 1/2 cup ( 1 25 ml) wh1te wine

2 months.

vinegar and 1/4 teaspoon salt to each cup

l l erbal medi i ne Armoracia rusticana, Wasobiojaponica. Uft tht young ltavts of horstradish in spring and tat thtm frtsh.

For the safe and appropriate med1c1nal

(250 ml) of pulp. Store, covered, in the

refrigerator. Use as a condiment for beef or fresh or smoked fish. Wasabi, often in

Part used: roots or rhizomes. The hot and

paste form, is served with sushi, sashimi,

pungent nature of these roots is due to

saba noodles and other Japanese dishes.

H o r s e ta i l Equisetum arvense, E. hyemale EqUisetaceae The rore't where d i nosa u r once roamed were fu l l of giant hor.etail .


t he h e igh t or l a rge t ree . l l u t lhe few t ha t

remain 3 5 0 rn i l l i n yea r


\vere once u sed to sc r u b pols.

Other com m o n na m e Pe wte r wo r t , Part us d

m a l l t J c o mp a r i o n .

l a w r a re

exc 11 n l :ou rce of s i l i a. t h e

scouring rush

Sterile stems

• G a rd e n i n g Horsetails have slender, hollow, jointed

• Position Horsetails are primarily located around water sources, but the

stems with leaves that are reduced to

rhizomes allow them to move into drier


scales. The plants have a deep root system

areas. They prefer full sun to part shade

l fqUisetum hyemale)

and can spread by rhizomes. Horsetail

and are fully cold-hardy.

produces spores in club!ike terminal

• Propagation You can g row horsetails

s ructures, reproducing by cell div1sion of the fallen spores. Occasionally, livestock

in moist soil from small pieces of rhizome or divisions in spring; however, it can be a

are poisoned after long-term grazing on

very invasive weed that is both difficult to

material from he body, and was used

horsetail, a condition known as equisetosis.

control and resistant to herbicides. It is a

for arthritiC and skin disorders where

Horsetails are divided botanically into

Horsetail has long been regarded as an excellent herb for removing waste

prohibited weed 1n Australia where it is

the presence of toxins was believed to

two major groups: the horsetails, which

under statutory control.

exacerbate these conditions. Externally, a

have whorled branches, and the scouring

• M a i ntenance None required.

poultice of horsetail was used to staunch

rushes, which are unbranched.

• Pests and d i seases None of note.

bleeding and promote the repair of slow­

• Varieties The field horsetail, bottle­

• H a rvesting and stori n g Harvest the

healing wounds.

brush or shave grass (E. arvense) grows to

sterile stems in mid- to late summer and

about 2.5 ft. (80 em) and the sterile stems

dry them.

have whorled branches. The rough horsetail or Dutch rush (E. hyemale) produces upright unbranched stems to waist height.

H e rba l medi i ne

For the safe and appropriate use of horsetail, consult your healthcare professional. Do not use horsetail if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Equisetum arvense. Part used: stems. Horsetai l has notable astringent and tissue-healing properties due to its exceptionally high silica content. Th1s herb has a particular affinity for the

Rich m <il1ca. hor e1 e1J cook·



urinary tract and male reproductive �

re once

ing. Thr hardrnrd

longitudmal ilicrou. ridgr on t h e


�e re

uullzed i n anCient Roman

ume through to the 1 8t h rentufl ror

�r ru bb m g pot · and pan trm

\\ e rr round to he


l lorseta1l


errt'rt lll' for rlran mg and

t>OI I hlllll

J>t'11 trr11arr. h ·ncr one or t ill' p l an i 's common namp-, - 1>1'1\ LPI'II ort. S i l1ca aho pro1 1drd a natural t�pc .tJc� coaun l! for couk11 arr.

or non·

system. Combmed w1th its gentle d1uretic action, horse ali is a favored remedy for treating mild inflammatory and Infectious condit1ons of the urmary trac , bladder and prostate gland. Perhaps surpnsmgly considenng 1ts diuretiC effects, 1t 1s also used in the management of incontmence and bedwetting in ch1ldren.

Eqwsetum arvense has whorled branche�.

ConcuzirafioN.Y of� W luw� 6ee;vfund iJv j.(;� lwrw� - ()/ �or/ indicator for � W;;ro.yuctorY.

Hys sop Hyssopus officmo/Js Lamiaceae C ro\\ n a. r n u c h for i t s llea u t :y a n d a l l i l i t � to a u rae t hee

a n d bu t le r f l i e

as for i t s c u l i nM� ami rnccl i c i n a l u ses. hyssop i · a n ancie n t h e rb t h a t \\ a a t t ri lJ u t e< l " i l h c l ean ' i ng prope r t ies in IJ i i J i i c a l U rn e s . a n d for t h i s r e a on \\ a , even used aga i n s t leprosy.

Gratiola Other c Parts u ' Flowering spikes, leaves

Hyssop (Hyssopus officina/is)

• G a rd e n i n g

• M a i ntenance To prevent plants

particularly suited to alleviating

A semi-evergreen perennial subshrub to

from becoming "leggy," lightly prune

conditions of the respiratory tract and is

2 ft. (60 em ) , hyssop is multistemmed

after flowering and again in spring.

associated with antibacterial and antivirai

from the base, and has small linear leaves

Hyssop makes an excellent hedge

activity, assisting the removal of catarrh

borne in whorls up the stems. In summer.

that is comparable to that of lavender.

and alleviating fevers. Hyssop is therefore

the plant bears long slender spikes of

• Pests and d i seases Hyssop has few

often prescribed for colds, flu, feverish

l ipped, rich blue, nectar-filled flowers

problems. I t is used as a trap plant for

conditions, bronchitis and coughs.

borne to one side of the stem only.

cabbage white butterfly around brassicas

• Varieties A white-flowered variety

and as a companion plant for grapes.

calming effect on the nerves and can

called 'Alba' and a pink-flowered variety

• Harvesti n g and storing Harvest

assist with reducing anxiety. It has been

called 'Rosea' are also available. The dried

the leaves at any time and use them

used to help bring on delayed periods,

flowers and leaves are used to make a

fresh, or dry them out of sunlight before

particularly when the cause is due to

tea for sore throats and bronchitis. Rock

storing them in airtight containers. When

tension and stress.

hyssop (H. officina/is 'Aristatus') is a dwarf

flowering starts, pick the i nflorescences

compact form with purple-blue flowers.

to use fresh, or dry them.

• Position Hyssop requires a sunny, well-drained position, and is not fussy

Hyssop is also reputed to have a

Modern research indicates that as a topical agent, hyssop may help combat herpes infections such as cold sores.

H erbal medi i ne

For the safe and appropriate use

about the soil.

Hyssopus officina/is. Parts used: aerial

• Propagation You can easily propagate

parts. Hyssop possesses a remarkable

professional. Do not use hyssop if

hyssop by seed sown in spring, or you

range of medicinal properties. It is

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

of hyssop, consult your healthcare

can grow it from cuttings taken either i n spring or autumn. The plants require a minimum spacing of 2 ft. (60 em ) , although the distance can be halved if you are using hyssop for hedging.

�-tad"� �ed/ UM?d to {twor ridvfoci.Y � a.:Y wild� tli'LC!;M-fb.

& 6ilter


Iris Iris sp. lrtdaceae h. 1 1 011 n ThP bea u t iful i r i ,l ' S i n c l t H i e seH· ral l w r l >a l specie: '' i l h rh izomes.

roo t . '' h i c h a n' usru for a m u l l i l u dr of p u r posl'S . J r·orn p('rfumcr�

a, orri

(a: a fi\al i\l') a n d h e rl>al rnl' d i c i n e t o rl m o ring g i n and riH'II i n g g u m .

Part u e


• G a rd n i n g

tall -stemmed, pale lilac flowers. T h e blue

Ins x germanica 'Floren tina' and the

flag (I versicolor) has purple to violet

Dalmatian 1ris (/. pal/ida 'Dalmatica') are used for commercial orris production. The early flowering 'Fiorentina' IS a tall bearded

flowers and tall, swordlike decJduous

iris with white, sweetly scented flowers. The species form of I. x germanica. which has also been used for orris, is known by names such as 'Old Purple Flag; 'Germanica Anc1en' and 'Fiorentina Blue: The beautiful

leaves: the plant can cause allergic responses. The yellow flag (/. pseudacorus) has tall, sword-like dec1duous foliage and tall, stemmed yellow flowers.

Iris ( Iris sp.)

• Position Iris pal/ida 'Dalmatica' and /. x germamca 'Floren tina' are hardy,

Blue flag IS often used in combination

easily grown plants 1f prov1ded w1th

with other cleansing herbs, such as yellow

ceremonial white-flowered I. x germanica

a well-dra i ned soil and fu ll sun. Grow

dock and burdock, for these pu rposes.

'Aibicans' is still planted on Muslim graves

both I. versicolor and I. pseudacorus 1n

in the eastern Mediterranean.

moist soil.

• Varieties Iris pal/ida has grape-scented owers, but its variety, 'Dalmatica; has

For the safe and appropriate use of blue flag, consult your healthcare profess1onal.

• Propagation Grow I. pal/ida 'Dalmatica'

Do not use blue flag if you are pregnant

and I. x germanica 'Floren tina' from

or breastfeeding.

divisions of rhizomes that have at least one leaf fan attached. Cut back the fans

The � ello� flag the

( /.

pseul1acorus1 1'

fleur cle It' of heraldr . In L ilt>

1 2t h c e n t u r�. the Prench kmgs 11 r•n· the fir ·t to use an 1rnagr of the fl011 r on t h e i r English k1ng. their claims

Its re

h ield

a n d l a tn

used J t to em phJsizc

to rhe French t h rone.


to a spearhl'ad is

>cen as an apJJrrJpriate

s) rnbol of

marllal pm� c r anrl stren�t h .

\ ro u n d t h e h o m e

to about 6 i n ( 1 5 em). and plant the

Orris root, a gray1sh powder with the

rhizomes horizontally so that only the

aroma of v1olets, is derived from the root

lower half is buried in the soil.

of the Florentine 1ris. It IS used less for 1ts

• M a i ntenance Control weeds.

scent than for its ftxat1ve ability - that is,

• Pests and d iseases Rhizome rots

1t slows the evaporation of essential oils

occur 1n poorly drained or shaded plants.

and prolongs the life of pot-pourns. Orns

• H a rvesting and storing I n late

root can be sprinkled around the edges

summer, d1g rh1zomes. clean and dry

of areas of carpet or under rugs to deter,

them, and cure for 2 years to intensify

although not kill, moths and des ructive

the violet fragrance.

carpet beetles.

J l crbal med i c i n e Iris verstcolor Part used: rhizomes. A close relat1ve of the popular garden irises, blue flag has a long history of med1cmal use 1n the treatment of skin problems such as acne and eczema Traditionally these conditions are believed to be the result of an accumula ion of toxins 1 n the body, and blue lag appears to work by encourag1ng the liver, bowel and lymphatic system to remove waste ma enal from the body more effectively.

Dried orns roo1 is used 1n homemad e toothpast es and '" pot-pourn (see pages 284-5).

J a smi n e Jasm1num sp. Oleaceae f'.. 1 a n

�prcie� o f j a s m i n e - L he d c l i ca lr flora l c m lliCill of l n cloncs i a .

l>a k i s L a n a n d LhC' P h i l i p p i nes - a rc renowned f o r L h c i r s u perb scnsuous scr·nL. a n d L h r very va l u a l l l e c ' ·en li a l o i l i ' producccl i n seve ra l cou n L rir for prrfu m r ry a n r l a rornatllC'rapy.



Pa s

Jessamine Flowers, roots royal jasmine, poet's jasmine or Spanish jasmine, is variously regarded as a variety

Common jasmine (Jasminum officina/e)

of J. officinale 'Grandi flora: or as the • Maintenance In cold areas J. sambac

separate species, J. grandiflora. Arabian jasmine (J. sambac) is used to make a fragrant tisane in China, the

unlikely to survive frost exposure. Trim J.

morning and mixed with dried green or

officinale immediately after flowering. Pests and d iseases Jasmine plants

Oolong tea. Native to India, it forms an

arching bush.

grown in the open have few problems; however, those grown under glass can

favored for garlands and religious

be attacked by whitefly, mealy bugs and

ceremonies, include the very double,

spider mites.

miniature rose-like 'Duke of Tuscany'

• Harvesting and storing Gather fully

(syn. kudda-mulla), the semi-double

developed buds i n the early morning and

'Maid of Orleans' and the smaller­

add the opening flowers to tea. You can

flowered double 'Belle of India:

dry them for herbal use. Lift the roots of J. sambac in autumn and dry them for

Other common fragrant, white­

G a rde n i ng

under protection, because they are

blossoms being hand-picked early in the

Double-flowered forms of J. sambac,

Angel wing jasmine (Jasminum nitidum)

and its varieties should be overwintered

flowered species include angel wing

medicinal use.

jasmine (J. nitidum), the pink-budded

Common jasmine (J. officina/e) is a frost­

J. polyanthemum, Azores jasmine

hardy, tall twining climber with compound leaves and five-petaled, i n tensely fragrant

(J. azoricum), Canary Island jasmine (J. adoratissimum), J. multiflorum and

flowers fused into a tube at the base.

J. floribundum. There are a number of

Brought to Europe in the 1 6th century, it

yellow-flowered species, some fragrant,

The delicate.

is now extensively cultivated commercially

but they are not used herbally.


for its flowers in southern France, Spain,

Position Plants prefer a well-drained

I ndia, Egypt, China, Algeria and Morocco.

soil enriched with rotted compost. Most

Varif:tks Fancy leaf forms include

species require warm to tropical climates

'Argenteovariegatum: 'Aureum' and

but in colder areas can make excellent

'Frojas: Fragrant J. x stepanense is a pink­

glasshouse plants. •

semi-ripened wood cuttings.


form an es entia! oil w i l h a rich. 11 arm floral scent L llaL is i m portant in JJerfu m e ry.

I L blend

well with other

·noral"-. t le oil ', ·uch a ros . and is parti u larly helpful i n prrJJaralion

Propagation Propagate jasmine from

flowered hybrid. The large-flowered Catalonian jasmine, also known as

tar-shaped flower

evergreen �ine are di ' li l led LO

dry, irr'itated


or cnstlive ski n . The oil

i also u,eel i n


as an

anlidrpre sam and relaxant.

& � �»

fronv t� PerJialv r� »' whidv � ffft fronv yorl. COfhAY.y


Opposit�: Wom�n in India display th�ir bask�ts of harv�st�d jasmin� flow�rs.

L a ve n d e r Lavandula sp. Lam•aceae l 'o p u l ii l d i'O l l l l l i l ll t ' \\ 111\d . l ragra n l liJI ( ' I H I I ' r is I H ' t'Olll i l l g 011{' or [ \1 ( ' most I I I I J H l l l a n l \ H il <Hl l t'cih 11 1 1 11 a 11 idt' rclngt· o l m t • d i r i n<�J u q•..,, <'a r n i ng it t ill' .. t i l i t · or " t lw S11 l'is \ nm J... 1 1 1 l <' ol hl'rha l nwd i c i n t' . l·'n•s\1 or d 1'H' d . lil\ t ' lldt·r c 1 l ·o lids m c � n � d p p l i c a l iun-.; a ro u n d t h e hom<' a nd t h e rsse n l i a l oil i

u st'd i n IH I I lH'Ill<Hh' a i r l rt ' · h t ' I H'I'� a n d c l t •a n i ng pror l u c t


• C a rei e n i n g

True l avender

There are about 30 spwes o f lavender,

L. angustlfolio syn L. vera, L offiCJnolis,

which can be found from the Canary

or 'English' lavender, occurs m the w1ld

Islands eastward into western India, and

on dolam1tic soils at altitudes of 1 , 500 to

they are divided m o s1x sect1ons, of wh1ch

5,000 ft. (500 to 1 ,500 m). L1ke all

four are Significant as herbs Lavandula,

lavenders, it

contain1ng true lavender (L ongustlfolia)

and will rarely exceed 2.5 ft. (70 em) in

and 1ts subspecies - woolly lavender

he1ght. It has unbranched flowering stems.

(L. lanato). spike lavender (L lotifolio)

Excellent dwarf vaneties 1nclude 'Rosea:

and hybrid lavender (L.


intermed1a) ;


a woody-based subshrub

Lavrnder (Lovondulo ongustlfoliol

'Compacta' syn. 'Nana Compacta; 'Folgate'

Stoechas, contammg L stoechas together

and ' M unstead' Medium-he1ght variet1es

Spike l avender

w1th 1ts various subspecies and green

1nclude 'Hidcote: 'Miss Katherine; 'Pacific

Sometimes called Nordus ltolica, spike

lavender ( L. viridis) ; Dentata, contammg

Blue; 'Sarah; 'Summerland Supreme;

lavender (L /a(Ifolio syn. L spica) is

French or fringed lavender (L. dentoto)

'Melissa; 'Tw1ckel Pi)[ple; 'Tucker's Early

endem1c to Spain, France, Italy and the

and 1ts vanet1es and hybrids; and

Purple' and 'Ashdown Forest: The taller

Balkans, and grows in the wild at much

Pterostachys species, characterized by

variet1es 1nclude 'Alba' and the twice­

lower altitudes than L ongustifolio.

branched inflorescences and pinnate or

flowenng 'Irene Doyle:

b>pmnate leaves. All have fragrant foliage.

Essential oil gathered from wild harvested lavender 1n France is greatly prized, particularly therapeutically. The very fragrant camphor-free essential 011 from high-altitude grown seedling or clonal (single variety) lavender is highly valued m the perfumery mdustry, herbal medicine and aromatherapy. Lavender has been grown 1n France on a large scale for the perfume trade since the 1 7th century.

To cleter 6"{F, cr�� ririe�/ tuu;e,&/ Wo

6o� of clo� or rlro� cru&iuul tuu;e,&/ 6eiund Jklved 6ookY.

The varieties grown for essential oil production mclude the great 'Maillette; 'Matheronne: 'Fnng; 'Heacham Blue; 'No. 9' and ' Norfolk 12: Both fresh and dried flowers are used

The plant has a lavender and camphor scent. and the flowering stems have paired lateral branches. It is the source of 011 of aspic (oleum sp1coe).

m cooking (including herb mixtures such as herbes de Provence) and craftwork, for

Propagatr vanrt•rs of lavrndrr by cuttings tak(n m summr r (srr Strm cuttings, page 1 63).

l ntermed i a l avenders

wh1ch the finest vane y 1s 'Super-Blue:

In the overlap zone on mountamsides

Make sure that any flowers you use for

where both L angustifolio and L lotifo/lo

culinary purposes have not been sprayed

g row, natural hybridization occurs, resulting in plants wtth mtermediate

with garden chem1cals.

• Pos ition All lavenders req uire excellent

characteristics. They are larger and

drainage and full sun. They a re better

stronger-growing than true lavender,

grown fairly hard, and a slow-release

more tolerant of humidity and yield twice the volume of essential oil

fertilizer or a light application of organ1c compost is recommended. They a re all

compared with true lavender. Selected hybrids of L intermedio are the maJor producers of lavender essential oil worldwide. The oil contains perceptible

suited to being grown i n large pots.

camphor and is valued at approximately half that of true lavender. It is widely used for personal and household toiletnes.

in spring. • M a i ntenance Prune lavenders

• Propagation Varieties a re propagated by cuttings, but species are seed sown

annually, preferably 1n early spring. True and lntermedia lavenders can be shaped

lntermedia lavenders may be Identified by their paired flowering side branches. The most popular variety for essential

In Europe lavender is harvested from July to September, often by hand.

during harvestmg. Never cut back h a rd

Stoechas l avenders

generally free of pests as well as diseases.

'Abrialii; 'Super; 'Sumian' and 'Provence'

into old wood, or the plants may die. • Pests and d iseases Lavenders are

oil production is 'Grosso: although are used, too. The flowers are also dried.

These lavenders have compressed flower

• H a rvesti n g a n d storing Harvest True

Many fine landscape varieties fou nd

spikes shaped rather like a pineapple

and lntermedia lavenders 1n midsum mer

among the lntermedias include 'Alba; 'Dutch White; 'Grappenhall; ' H 1dcote

surmounted by flag-like sterile bracts.

when spikes are one- to two-thirds open.

All of them are suited to low-altitude

T1e lavender stems 1n bunches and hang

Giant; 'Impress Purple; 'Seal; 'Silver

warm-climate gardens, including those

them upside down to dry; strip them of

Edge' and the double-duty 'Provence:

near the sea. The Italian or Spanish

their flowers. The oil


steam distilled.

lavender (L. stoechos) has short flowering Wool ly lave n d e r

stems (peduncles). while Portuguese

L Janota h a s leaves that a r e heavily felted

lavender (L. stoechos subsp. pedunculoto)

with ha1rs, and long spikes of scented

is distinguished by long stems.

flowers. It is very resentful of rain and will not tolerate wet feet. It is best grown in large pots in full sun. Several hybrids are popular for gardens, including 'Richard Gray; 'Silver

Excellent vanet1es mclude 'Major; 'Kew Red; 'Marshwood; 'Somerset Mist;

\I so knm1 n as �anLo l i n a . coLton

'Avonview' and 'Butterfly' syn. 'James


Comp on: The 'Bee' and 'Bella' series developed by Bob Cherry in New Sou h

Frost' and 'Sawyers; which is stronger

Wales in Australia and sold worldwide

than the species, with long spikes of

are remarkable breeding breakthroughs.

bright violet flowers and silver foliage.

Green lavender (L. viridis) has green

( Santolma chamar'(l fiJI'/,,SI/S)

has a com pael l ldh l l t h d l m a kr s t l ith'al lor a

lUI\ lw!lgr

s u n i l d l' srt' n l In l a i !'IHlrr and dre w n

u s du l ror 1 !'P!' I I 1 ng mot hs. \ d d t ht'

foliage, and g reen inflorescences with cream flowers and g reen sterile bracts.

and place

bracts. Fringed lavender ( L. dentoto) has fragrant Inflorescences similar to L. stoechos, but the narrow linear leaves are evenly rounded-denta e. Vaneties 1nclude 'Ploughman's Blue; the green and cream variegated 'Lmda Ugon' and the hybrid 'Goodwm Creek GraY: Pterostachys lavenders These include a number of des1rable landscape spec1es. mcludmg L buchn, Canary Islands lavender (L. conorrensisl. Jagged lavender (L. ptnnoto), ernleaf lavender (L. multtfido) and the electnc blue-flowered L moroccono.

or l'!lgmg a JJalll. I t s

grCJ\. toothed <�romcl l lc lraw� ha1 r a

driecl lrm es

'Beverley' differs in having white sterile

L denrara, one of the Stoechas lavenders

CoffofV tcwender

to mut 11-rrpt> l k n t s.trheh

tined hunches 11 l l h slon•d

lJi d n kc•ts and o i i H ' I II DO I IP n s. S t l l l'l'rish dbo h<lle �a n tolin,l.

Jj a \'C n cl e r


J l e r ha l m e ct i r i n e Lavandulo angustlfolia. Part used: flowers. An age-old remedy for calmtng and soothing the nerves. 1mproving mood and relaxtng m uscles, beautifully scented lavender and 1ts essential oil are commonly

Spritz still-damp washing with Lavender linen water (see page 288) and hang it out to dry.

used for inducing a restful sleep, rel1eving

A ro u n d L h c h o m e

depression and anxiety and for other dis­ orders relating to a nervous or tense state,

If you could choose only one herb for

includtng stomach upsets.

household use, lavender would have

Lavender flowers can be taken as an infusion or added to a bath to soothe

to be at the top of the list. Apart from its pretty flower and much loved scent,

and a1d in relaxat1on. Apply undiluted

lavender is antibacterial, antibiotic,

essential oil to relieve the sting of insect

antiviral, antiseptic, deodorizing and

b1tes or to prevent cuts and grazes from

i nsect repel l i ng , which means that you

becomtng infected. You can add essential

can use it in the living room, kitchen,

oil to massage oil to help relieve muscle

bathroom, laundry, nursery and patio,

tension and headaches.

as well as in your wardrobes and drawers,

For the safe and appropriate internal use of lavender, consult your healthcare

on your pets and on your skin.

.,etWender �ud

oil w anliM!fl'ib and antibacterial) ideat for 6��ilv. •

Dampen a cotton-wool bal l and add a few drops of lavender essential oil. Drop i t into your kitchen pantry, or

Use both the dried flowers and leaves

your vacuum cleaner bag, to eliminate

professional. For 1ts topical uses, see

to make moth-repellent sachets and

stale odors.

Depression and a nxiety, page 2 1 1, and

lavender bags (see Croft, pages 302-5)

F1rst a1d, page 220. Do not use lavender


if you are pregnant or breastfeeding,

that insects hate.

except under professional supervision.

Rcputrd t o haw twrn brought rrom thr Garden or Eden b� \dam and


they both contain the aromatic oil

• C oo k i n g Lavender's culinary applications are

I nfuse distilled white vinegar with the

limited, although the flowers are edible.

flowers and leaves, fresh or dried, for

They are used in the Moroccan spice

an i nexpensive and very effective spray

blend ras el hanout and in the French

for cleaning and disinfecting a variety

herbes de Provence. Lavender goes

of surfaces.

well in sweet dishes containing cream,

Add drops of lavender essential oil to

such as ice cream. It can be added to

environmentally friendly unscented

shortbread and icings and used in jams

kitchen and laundry cleaning products

and jellies. Crystal l ize the flowers as

for a fresh, natural scent.

edible cake decorations (see page 380).

la1 ender ha� a h i story t h a t is a l most as old a

h um o n k i n d 1 t'elL ThP ancient

Egy p t i a n s d i p pel l shrouds I n

la1 enuer

11 atC'r. \\ h ile t hr Romans scrntrd t h e i r p u b l ir lla l h s 11 i t h

1 L - hrncr i t s

l rom t h r Latin word 'to \\ as h . '


la l 'arc. mea n i ng

l ndrr J L · b 1 l l l 1c a l name

·spikrndrd.' i l \I dS popu l a r l y �u pposed

tu have llecn usrd b� thr \ irgin l.lil� to perrumr


J esu s 's 'll drlcthng clotlws.

hy \ l a r} �lagdaknr to

ll'l' l.

JllOJill Jesu<b

and 11 as also ra1oured 1 11 the

�l uhJir -\grs h\ apotht•rar\ monb. WhO II ·ed


to trt•at f'I P I'\ l h l llg [1'0111

lahour pd i n s

to tll'monil posst·ssirm These racks of commercially grown lavender will be dried out of direct sunlight in a dry place.

Lemon balm Melissa officina/is Lamiaceae Lemon l 1alm

mc l l

l i ke wert lemon and is usee! in herhal teas. wine.

\\'e l l a in man] cau-dc-cologn

and liqueur. a

Carmelite water. Handful oil. IH' re one

formu lation . inc l uding

or t h e leave . wh ich contain a lemon-. cented to noli, h wooden furniture.

Other common n a mes Bee ba lm, common balm, melissa, sweet balm Part used


• G a rd n i n g

• Pests a nd d iseases Lemon bal m is

Lemon balm IS a hardy perennial that

prone to powdery m ildew, particularly

bears some resemblance to its close

i n areas with little air circulation.

relations, the mints. It is multi-stemmed,

• Harvesti ng and storing Harvest

Lemon balm (Melissa officinaf1s)

growing to about 2.5 ft. (80 em). with

the fresh foliage as required. To dry,

ovate. regularly toothed green leaves. The

cut the plant down to about 3 in. (7.5 em)

insigni 1cant lipped flowers are lemon

i n mid- to late afternoon, secure the

Recent scientific studies have shown that lemon balm has a ntiviral effects,

yellow, and borne in clusters on the upper

stems in small bunches with rubber bands,

and topical preparations of the herb

parts of the stems.

and hang upside down 1n a well-ventilated

have been used to relieve the symptoms

• Va r iet i es While the common form

area out of direct sunlight. Strip off the

of cold sores. which are caused by the

of balm has a fresh lemon fragrance,

dried leaves and store them in airtight

herpes vi rus.

there are varietieS with related but

containers i n a cool place.

different scents, including 'Lime; with a true lime fragrance: 'Liqueur'; and

For the safe and appropriate use of lemon balm, see Tension and stress,

H e rbal med i c i ne

page 2 10. Don't use lemon balm if you're

'Citronella; which mimics the scent of

Melissa officina/is. Part used: leaves.

pregnant or breas feeding, except under

citronella oil and is said to ac as an

Lemon balm's mild sedative and mood­

professional supervision.

insect repellent. Two attractive color

enhancing effects are commonly used

variations are available: 'Variegata' is a

to treat sleep disorders, restlessness.

• C oo l-.. i n g

gold-splashed form, and 'All Gold' has

anxiety and depression.

Lemon balm's lemon scent and lemon­

pure golden foliage in spring.

It is also suited to afflictions of the

and-mint flavor go w1th most foods

• Position Lemon bal m is an unfussy plant. but prefers full sun to part1al shade

flatulence, spasm and nausea, particularly

Use the leaves 1n tea, salads, cordials, fruit

and a well-dra1ned but moist soil. It also

when these are aggravated by periods of

dishes, wine and chilled summer drinks or

grows well i n pots. • Propagation Lemon balm 1s a

stress and tension.

1 n stu fings for poultry or fish.

gastrointestinal tract and can help with

complemented by either of those flavors.

perennial usually grown from seed, although it is easy o raise from cut 1ngs taken in spnng and autumn, or from rooted divis1ons. Grow named varieties from lip cut ings, wh1ch will root easily,

?ronv � to bU/ Lemon llalm'


assonallon 11 1 1 h

l O a n r w n t l l m<·s

or by layering.


• Maintenance If you do not want

\et urd1ng to ( , rrel-. Ill\ lhOIIJQ\.


seedlings, or you desire a new flush of

\ll'IISSil II J\

foliage, cut back the whole plant.

11 lin h i ll Ze u s I rom h is l d l h l ' l

including the flowering heads. Cut back

Cro n u s. ll'l'di nl.! h 1 1 1 1 111 1 1 1-. and

'All Gold' regularly to mam a1n i s color. Remove any plam green shoots from both 'All Gold' and 'Vanegata'

h ! l llt'l .



! Ill' 11\ l l l p h '

Olll'l' /,l'us rult•d 011 mpus.

h•· rhang<•d hn info a

qllt't'll he·•·

L e m o n g ra s s Cymbopogon cttrotus Poaceae L l ' l l ton grass. a tell I t i'O plcal grass v, i l h a I HJ\\ rrful ll'mon It agra nc1 · . i � '' ide I� u sed for i n

Harvested lemon grass

Thcl i la n d . \ i t l n d m a n d o l lw r Sou t h · a � l \ s i a n rnu n l rit's. I t m a kes a \ i l d m i n A-ricll lt>a . a n c! L h c I' ·st•n l icll o i l i s u s e d i n m a n � co m me r c i a l t o i l c l r i t\' .

Part u

S ems

• G a rd e n i n g

69•F and 1oo•F 1 s•c and Js•c - and high

A number of the 56 Cymbopogon species

humidity. In cooler areas 1t is best grown

are fragrant, but the herb most commonly

i n a large pot and overwintered indoors.

called lemon grass


West Indian lemon

grass [ C. Cttrotus). one of several species

• Propagation To propagate, carefully divtde the clump. Ra1se other species,

that share this scent. Its narrow, leafy

mentioned above, by seed. Feed with

stalks grow in large clumps that reach

seaweed fertilizer.

3.5 f (1 m) or more.

• M a i ntenance Water plants regularly.

East Indian lemon grass or Cochin

• Pests and d iseases Crown rot can

lemon grass ( C. fie uosus) is also widely

occur m plants grown m poorly drained

grown for 1 s essential oil. Ceylon

or flooded sods.

Citronella (C nardus) and Java citronella

• H a rvesting and storing Harvest

( C. winterianus) share the lemon-related

stems as required. Cut the upper g reen

scent of citronella.

part into segments and dry it out of

Palma rosa, geranium grass or rosha

direct sunlight, then store 1t in airtight

grass (C. martinit) smells delightfully of

containers and use it for tea. For cooking,

rose geranium when crushed. The closely

wrap the white bulbous lower portion in

related gtnger grass (C. mortmu var. sofia)

plastic wrap and store m the refrigerator

has a harsher scent.

for several weeks.

• Position This herb is best suited to a sunny position, well-drained soil, warm growing conditions - tdeally between

orne protection from

nea . lick . lice and mo. qu1 toe�. The e enlial o i l can be u ed m an oil burner. ,\lternatively. combm a fe11· drop 11 ith equ I amount or eucal} ptu oll tn a 11 a ter . pray and hgh tl:y pnlz O\er outdoor furniture on . um mer evrnmgs Or. light


andle made wtth citronella (allo\e). a


e relat11e of lemon gra


I I rbal m di i n Cymbopogon citratus Part used: stems. .

Lemon-grass tea was traditionally used

professional. Do not use lemon grass

to treat digestive upsets and to alleviate

in greater than culinary quantities if

stomach ache, cramping and vomtting.

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

It was also used for a number of other disorders, including cough, fevers. high

• C o k i ng

blood pressure and exhaustion.

The strong citrus flavor of lemon g rass

Lemon grass has also traditionally

goes well in Southeast Asian cooking and

been regarded as having pain-relieving

is often teamed with chillies and coconut

effects and has been used internally as

milk. Lemon grass is also an excellent

an mfusion for nerve and rheumatic pain.

addition to Western cooking, particularly

Applied as a topical remedy, lemon grass

in fish and seafood dishes. Use the lower white part of the fresh stems and slice

and its essential oil can ease the pain and discomfort of headaches, abdominal pain,

finely crosswise to avoid a fibrous texture

aching joints and muscles and neuralgia.

in the finished dish. If using a whole stem

For the safe and appropriate medicinal Lemon grass (Cymbopogon cirrorus)

/1 natura l in eel repe l lent. lemon gras offer

use of th1s herb, consult your healthcare

or large pieces, bruise first to release the flavor and remove before servmg.

L e m o n ve r b e n a Aloysia citriodoro syn. Llppio citnodoro. syn. A. triphyllo Verbenaceae The delicio u I� frc h . re rined a n c l i n t c n sr lrmon fragra nce of I i l L ' IH'rb . \\ hich i s n a l i \ c t o Peru a n d '\ l'gen l i n a . h a s l u n g l ll 'c n p r izc•ct for usc i n t i sane: . l i q u e u r . coot.. i ng. po t - pou rr i a m i perru m < ' r� .


Herb Louisa. lemon beebrush n m nar Parts u. J Leaves. flowers

Other co

• G a t'd e n i n g

He rba l m e d i c i n e

Lemon verbena is a shrub with arching

Aloysia cttriodoro syn. Ltppio citnodoro

branches and pointed leaves arranged

syn. A. triphyllo. Parts used: aerial parts.

in whorls of three around the stems. I n

Lemon verbena is used as a digestive aid

summer the bush produces large terminal

for symptoms of flatulence and colic.

panicles of tiny, four-petaled. white or

It is thought to help wtth insomn1a and

pale lavender flowers.

nervous agitation. Lemon verbena is

• Position I t requires full sun, and a

also prescribed for feverish conditions.

free-drainmg loam with nearly neutral pH.

For the safe and appropriate use

• Propagation Propagate by semi-ripe

of these herbs. consult your healthcare

tip cuttings.

professional. Do not use these herbs if

• Ma intena nce Lemon verbena is cu

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

back by frost, so it should be winter mulched in cool climates. I n heavy frost

• C o o k. i n g

flavor to fruit salads and other fruit

areas grow it in a pot and bnng it under

The leaves are best used fresh and young.

dishes, desserts and d ri n ks. Infuse them

protection during winter dormancy. Trim

Use sparingly, otherwtse the flavor can

1n custard-based sauces for desserts, or

to shape. Bushes often leaf out very late in

overwhelm the food and be remintscent

finely chop and add to Asian dishes.

spnng; don't discard them prematurely.

of lemon-scented soap. Lemon verbena is

poultry and stuffings.

• Pests and diseases Under greenhouse

a common mgredient in many herbal teas.

condt ions. lemon verbena

tmparting a wonderfully fragrant flavor,


prone o

Lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora)

The leaves are used to g ive a lemon

Add whole leaves to apple Jelly, and chopped young leaves to fru1t salads.

whitefly and spider mites.

and can be substituted for lemon grass

With i s digestive and relaxant proper 1es.

• Harvesti n g and stori ng Leaves can

1n As1an rec1pes.

the ea is tdeal for d n n ktng after dinner.

be harvested at any time to use fresh or for air-drying.

Tht' lw rh \\ Ofld oiler� Slllnl' ('\l fdllfdllldr\ S\\ l'('lf'r- l h d ll-U�dr pi.J I I I




\\ h it h

1 s . 1 1 �1· lt•mon l t'rht·nc�. d llll'ffi ht'l ol t ht• \ t • rllrn<H'l'<Jl' l a m t i l . \zlt•r s\\t'l'l hnh IP/J_I /J

�ralwrrtmd s� n . /,t/lfltil tlulr·ts)

\\ l l h s l l ll r l . l l l l l l f ll'l'S ;t•tJ '

111 l ht• 'un I I

IJil\\l'rs dllU 0\ <lJ it•d\ 1'

t racT



1 dlllpiHII \htllilli l ll' ,n llldt'li.

a l t hnugh


L ilt' <.uh,l!l rh1·rnot1 Pl'

d ldlJ PI'IC ' I I II I d i I l l l ht• \ s [ t • r.trt'dl'

1 111· I C 'I'iw rltt fct · oi i iH · c ; ud r < � n � lntl ldns.

m a r t'·. d l l <�< i t l ll!lldl l t 'd lll<�<it• l rom d ' lt 't l l 's l

In mild cllmatrs. lemon verbena can grow to 5 m htgh, topped wtth ttny flowers tn summer


or l'illllphOC

i 'd Jdgllil\ S\\1'1'[ h 1 · rl l ( S/1'1 hi t'l'ildllr/l<illil) I

ra m 1 1 1 I L

! J((J[

rn n l d i i i S ht'rndn t l u l n n . 11 Inch ' ' more l h.1 11 1 000 l llllt's s\\ t'l'lt'r l h J I I

s uga r. S l l dills Jngh

hd\ llll l\ d

IS " frosi - L entlrl. St'ffil-pros l i <J l l' pl ' r e n n ld l

\ j l l �l'\ or \\ 1 1 1 1 1 '

l ' ! l n [ J I I I \ \ [ 1 ' \ I O S i d C 1\ I I ICII

is Up Ill ,l(l()

1 1 1111'

11 l1o usl'li l l l o sll t't'lt·11 ' '' l ha nl l lolll l ilt'\ fl,ll.l/.!lhll'l l'll'l'l. St1·1 1., S\\ l' l ' ( c • r 1 11,111 sug,JI

Lic o ric e G/ycyrrhiza glabra Papilionaceae In 1

03. t:d11 a rd I of �:ngland ta\cd i m po r t . o f conli n c n ta l l i cori r t o pa

for repa i r

to London B ridge: Dome Lie crops be ame concen t rated a ro u n c l

Pon t fract. \\ here Dom i n ican monk Parts u

pi n ted l icorice i n t h e 1 4 L h ccn t u r .

Taproot, rhizomes

• G a rd n i n g Ucorice is a graceful, arching, deciduous perennial to about 5 ft. ( 1 .5 m). It has a thick, deep taproot and spreads underground via extensive stolons. Aboveground, it has pinnately compound leaves and loose spikes of purple flowers. Ucorice grows particularly

Slices of dried licorice root

Licorice (Giycyrrhiza glabra)

still a leading world supplier.

• M a i ntenance Keep weeds at bay.

effects and ability to expel mucus. licorice

• Varieties There are three recognized

• Pests and diseases There are no

is used to treat coughs, bronch1t1s and

botanical varieties: Spanish or Italian

signi ficant problems.

catarrhal lung conditions.

licorice (G. glabra var. glabra), Russian

• Harvesting and storing Both the

A compound called glycyrrhizin, which

licorice (G. glabra var. glandulifera) and

taproot and the rhizomes can be used.

is responsible for the herb's licorice taste,

G. glabra var. violacea. Other species used

They are usually dug when 3 years old

is known to be responsible for the healing

in a similar way are Chinese or Mongolian

and air-dried before being ground and

effects of licorice on gastrointestinal ulcers

licorice (G. uralensis) and Manchurian

then processed.

and inflammatory conditions of the

licorice (G. pallidif/ora).

• H rbal m dicine

digestive system. It also acts as a tonic

• Position Licorice prefers a rich, deep, sandy loam and a sunny position.

Glycyrrhiza glabra. Part used: roots.

prescribed as a supportive remedy in times

• Propagation New crops are

Licorice root is one of the most scientifically

of stress and exhaustion.

propagated by rhizome segments

researched herbal medicines of our time

For the safe and appropriate use of

planted in spring, but can also be

and investigations are confirming many

licorice, consult a healthcare professional.

well on the rich alluvial plains of Turkey which, together with Spain and Greece, is

for the adrenal glands, so licorice is often

propagated by seed. Portions of

of its traditional uses, which date back

Do not use licorice if you are pregnant

rhizome left in the soil at harvest

to ancient times. A common ingredient in

or breastfeeding.

time will generate new plants.

many respiratory remedies for its soothing

a t u ra l b e a u t

This herb is considered a n effective natural lightener for brown age spots. For the best result, use it for mild discoloration and Pontrfract. or pomfret. cake became a popular sweet m F.:ngland in the 1 6th centur ·. The e

made w1th licorice. gum arabic and " il h a


nat disks

ugar '.Vere stamped

tylized image or Pontefract Cas lie. The

are still

made and lo\ed. along '.Vilh anothrr Engli' h fa1orite. l h • dlsllnct��e m u l l ic olore rJ licorice allsort that

. I t i . a1d

apolrun Bonapart alway carried licor1 e lozenge .

11 h1Ch 11 cre lJa�ecl on pont fract cake .

pair it with a natural fruit peel containing vitam1n C and alpha hydroxy acids to slough off dead skin.

• Cooking Licorice root is one o f many spices and herbs used in Chinese master stocks, adding to their intensity and depth of flavor. Add the chopped root sparingly (it can be bitter) when stewing fruit.

Lime Tilia cordata syn. T. parvifolia, T. x europoea Tiliaceae Ca l led the ··tre

of l i fe ·· due to i ts man

p riod l i me wa a it


i t h the

mecl i c i n a l u e i rg i n

fragra n t hea l i ng flower and to provide


in Lh

1ar . and ' a


p la n ted for

hade i n mona t r

garden .

Linden tree are popular ornamen in Europe. '' bere tbe nowering t i p a r e har.·e ted at their peak and a i r­ dried ror use in lime blo

om tea. a

particular ly popular li ane in Prance. is Buis le

The center

of productio n

Part used Flowers


(below). a medieval town

• G a rd n i n g

l i m e blo som festival . together with

Other common n me

Linden, tilia

that each Jul

Small-leafed lime (T. cordata) is a small-

ume is also known as the linden tree in Germany and tilleul in France.

to-medium deciduous tree (to 33 ft.)(lO m)

• Position Tilia prefers a moist neutral

with glossy, dark green, heart-shaped

to a l kaline soil and a sunny open position.

leaves. In midsummer, it bears clusters of

• Propagation It can be propagated

pale yellow flowers, heavy with fragrance,

by fresh ripe seed or by stratification

which attract bees to their copious nectar.

of stored seed planted in spring (see

H1ves placed around flowering trees yield

page 44) and also by suckers.

a prized fragrant honey. While T. cordata

• M a i ntenance Tilia species tend to

is the principal species harvested, other

sucker. Either remove these, or pot them

species used herbally include T. x europaea

and, when established, plant elsewhere.

and T. platyphyllos. Tilia is occasionally

• Pests and d iseases Aphids and

confused with the citrus fruit species

caterpillars on leaves can be a problem,

known as lime ( Citrus aurantiifolia).

although rarely so in Mediterranean areas. Look out for gall mite, too.

celebrate an a n n u a l

their annual harve t sale .

Lime flowers are a specific remedy for

• H a rvesting and storing The petals

certain circulatory disorders. They have

drop rapidly to allow the fruits to swell

both relaxing and restorative effects on

so, over a short time interval, harvest

the blood vessel walls. and have been used

flower clusters together with a few

to counteract high blood pressure.

attendant young leaves at the peak of

especially when it is associated with

flowering. Spread out the flowers and

nervous tension. The flowers can also be

thoroughly air-dry them before storing.

helpful in the treatment and prevention of

H rba l m d i i n Tilia cordata, T. platyphyllos. Parts used:

atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Regarded as one of the most i m portant diaphoretic herbs in European medicine,

flowers, bracts. Lime flowers are a

lime flowers are beneficial in feverish

common ingredient of many herbal

conditions such as colds. influenza and

teas that are prescribed to help induce

other respiratory infections.

a restful sleep, especially in children.

For the safe and a ppropriate use of

The plant has a sedative and calming

lime flowers, see High blood pressure

effect on the nerves and muscles, and

and cholesterol, page 228. Do not use

can help to reduce restlessness, tension

lime flowers if you are pregnant or

and anxiety.



(TIIio cordata)

L ovage Levt5ttcum offJcmale Ap1aceae LO\ agc l m· dn l l l t P n S( ' l'(

lcr� fl m or· t h a t \

I H ' r l t' C I for '' i n t e r d i s lw" . ! J u t i t i'i l a r P a s i t • r l o gnm t ha n n • l r r � . · n·acl i l lon a l l� u :rcl i n a p h rodi '>iacs a n d IO\ t ' pol ions. t h ese


p la n t s p rO\ id<' gr n <'rous h a n r L'l a n d l l a ' (' a " i< l r range o l m <'dic i n a l u sc·s.

Bladder seed, Cornish lovage, ga rden lovage, Italian lovage, love parsley Leaves, seeds, roots

• C a rd n i n g

• Propagation It is propagated by seed,

Lovage IS native to the eastern

wh1ch remains v1able for 3 years, or by

Mediterranean and 1s the only spec1es

division in spring. The plants benefit from

in its genus, although it IS closely related to both angelica and celery. Th1s hardy

generous quantities of compost. • M a i ntenance Remove older, yellowing

1ntend to use them for essential 011

perenn1al plant, with large, frondlike,

leaves, and consider cutting back older

extraction or medicinal preparations, pick

glossy compound leaves divided into

plants to about 1 ft. (30 em ) high to

them before flowering. Harvest when ripe.

diamond-shaped leaflets, can grow to 6 ft.

encourage fresh foliage growth in

Dig the roots after the plant dies down,

( 1 .8 m). The tiny yellow flowers, borne in


umbels, are followed by oval seeds ( fruits) ,

the position of lovage, because it is u lly

parts of the plant and also freeze the leaves in sealed plastic bags.


a m ixed herb garden, mark

lovag� (Levisticum officina/e)

usually 1n the h1rd year. You can dry all

which can be used like celery seeds in


cooking. The plant dies down completely

• Pests and d iseases Lovage 1s rarely

1n winter, emerging early in spring.

affected, but young leaves may be

• Position Lovage requ1res a rich,

damaged by leaf m iner or slugs.

Called celeri bOtard, or false celery, by the


moist but wel l -drained soil, and light

• H a rvesting and storing For cooking,

French, lovage IS used as an ingredient in

shade where summers are hot.

pick the leaves as required, but 1f you

many commercial bouillons, sauces, stocks and condiments; its seeds are added to liqueurs and cordials as well as to breads and sweet pastries. Blanch the stems in the same manner as rhubarb, or eat them

t\� its rornmon name 1nd1caLrs. lo1 age. or achr a

l01 c

1L 11 as once called. 11 as traditionally

used a� an aphrodisiac and an mgredient m

raw in salads. You can also candy he stems and eat them as confectionery, or use the leaves in cookmg to provide an i ntense, celery-like flavoring.

love potions and charm . On a more prac11 al note. hoi�Cier. nH'dlrlal trawler t hr 1 r IJoo t

once hnrct

11 itli lovagr leaves to ab orb


odor·. 11 h1le a deco lion or IOI'agr ro t and foliage ma�rs an errrcli\ r hod\ llt•ouorant. Perhap.· lovage w a� les. a IO\ e pot ion than a deodorant. malodng close phy 1ral conta t more appealing in a penod 11. hrn pt•oplr rare!� wa hed

cfpv� i.Y J,(;fh.d� cdtetl ,fJ1���

6� ii:Y(k;or i.Y r� o{ fYl� 6oudto�V cuhe!Y.

M a l low a n d h o l lyho c l< Althaea afficmolis, Malva sp. and A/ceo sp. Malvaceae I l o l l � hoc� report ed!� rcaclwd � u ropr from C h i n a ' 1 a t 11r l l ol hence i t

original n a m e o f holy ma l lc m o r holyoke. Til

La n d .

m u c i laginous

mar ·h mal lO\\. i s " iclrly used medi i n a l ly. '' hilr t h r ornam 'ntal m u s k mal iO\\ " a · once used for magica l protec t ion.

Other co Parts u


Hollyhock (cheeses) n n nc. 1 Roots, leaves, flowers, seeds

• G a rd n i n g

tall flowenng stems can reach 3 m, and

Mallow and hollyhock contain s1milar

the single or double flowers - in shades

mucilaginous compounds.

of lemon. apricot, white, pink, red or purple - are borne in racemes.


• Varieties The black hollyhock ' N1gra'

A perennial with finely hairy, gray-green, coarsely toothed leaves, marsh mallow

is the darkest maroon smgle. All mallows

Marsh mal low (Althaea afficmalls)

have disk-shaped, nutty-flavored seeds.

(Althaea officina/is) has small, five-petaled

• Position All species prefer a well­

pmk flowers on stems to 4 ft. ( 1 .2 m).

drained, mo1st soil and a sunny position;

mouth and throat and as an 01ntment

Musk mallow (Malva moschoto) is a

hollyhocks will thrive in an a l kaline soil.

to soothe eczematous skm condit1ons.

European perennial with idney-shaped

• Propagation All species are

basal leaves and contrasting, much­

propagated by seed sown m spring.

mouthwashes for mflammat1on of the

Malva syfvestris. Parts used. leaf, flower Due to s1milar mucilaginous compounds,

divided leaves on the upper stems. The

• M a i ntenance Stake both hollyhocks

mallow has been used for s1milar purposes

leaves and profuse pink (pure white in the

and musk mallow in summer. Cut plants

to marsh mallow, although it is considered

variety 'Alba') flowers are musk-scented.

down i n late autumn.

less potent. Like marsh mallow, 1t 1s used

• Pests and diseases All members of

for respiratory and gastroin estlnal

Hol lyhock

the Malvaceae family are prone to rust

conditions, characterized by Inflam ma tion

Hollyhock (A/ceo roseo) forms a large

(Puccmio mofvoceorum) and are also a

and irritation. that bene 1t from the plant's

basal rose te of large. long-stalked,

food source for some butterfly larvae.

soothmg propert1es.

rough-textured leaves, which may be

• Ha rvesti n g and storing Gather

For the safe and appropriate use of

broad and palmately lobed or, in the

flowers and leaves as required to use

marsh mallow, see Sore throats, colds and

ancient yellow-flowered Antwerp holly­

fresh or dned. D1g up and dry marsh

flu, page 200. Don' use these herbs 1 f you

hock (A. ficifolio). fig leaf-shaped. The

mallow roots when they are 2 years old.

are pregnan or breastfeeding.

l l c rba l m d i r i n c Althaea officmolis. Par s used· leaves, roots. R ich m mucl!ag1nous compounds, the leaves and roots of he marsh mallow have a soothing effect and are bo h used to treat 1rntated and 1nflamed condit1ons of the respiratory trac , mclud1ng irntable cough, bronchitiS and sore throat. With a h1gher amount of mucilage, he root IS regarded as the more effect1ve remedy for mflammatory conditiOns o the Conf�ction�ry marshmallow was one� made from the mucilag� in th� roots of marsh mallow

gut, such as stomach and Intestinal ulcers, gastroenteritis and ulcerative coli IS. The root 1s also used as a top1cal agent m

Hollyhock (A/ceo rosea)

M a r j o ram a n d o rega n o Origanum sp. Lam1aceae The• G reeks ra l lccl t lwsc· fragra n t-lcafrd herb ··Bngh t ncss of the \ 1 o u n t a l l 1 . ·· and it i' i m po,· s i h l t o i maginr t h e r u i sinc-; of t h e M r d i t e r ranean a n d \c'gcan \\ i t ho u t t hr i r s t rong. warm a ro m a t ic La, Lc.



Leav es, fl owe rs

• C a rd n i n g

that has undergone

Origanum is a genus that is fraught with

relaxation therapy.

taxonom1c difficulties, and there are more

Pot m a rjoram or Turkish

than 30 species from the Mediterranean

oregano (0. onites) is a quite cold-tender,

and the M iddle East. Confusingly, marjoram

strongly aromatic spec1es from Greece.

sw�et marjoram ( Origanum marjarano, l�ft) and common or�gano I Origanum vulgar�)

and oregano are common names that are

Selections of 0. vulgare are often incorrectly

often used interchangeably.

sold under this name.

and 'Jim Best: which is a vigorous gold

Sweet or knot marjoram (0. marjorona

Common oregano (0. vulgare) contains

and green variegated variety. 0. pulchellum

syn. Morjorona hortensis) has gray-green

six subspecies. 0. vulgare subsp. vulgare

is a name attached to forms of 0. vulgare

leaves with a mouthwatering fragrance.

is the mild-flavored wild marjoram with

with purple bracts. Greek oregano (0. vulgare subsp. hirtum)

Although usually treated as an annual, it

clustered heads of pink flowers and deep

is a short-lived perennial in mild climates.

burgundy bracts that attract bees, but

has a deliciously strong fragrance. The

A hardier hybrid, 0. x morJoricum, may be

lacks any appreci�ble flavor. It is often

very mildly aromatic 0. vulgare subsp.

sold incorrectly as 'Italian Oregano:

sold as oregano. Cultivars of 0. vulgare

virens and 0. vulgare subsp. viridulum

Spartan oregano (0. minutiflorum) is

subsp. vulgare include the very attractive

are both called wild marjoram.

frequently included in dried oregano

golden oregano, 'Aureum: sometimes sold

Lebanese oregano, Syrian hyssop or

mixes from Turkey. It resembles a

as 'golden marjoram: which makes a

white oregano (0. syriacum) forms a

diminutive gray-leafed sweet marjoram

superb aromatic groundcover for full sun,

tender perennial subshrub with gray­ green foliage. Ezov, the biblical hyssop, was almost certainty 0. syriacum. A hybrid with 0. vulgare, sold as 0. maru, has greater cold resistance. Russian oregano (0. vulgare subsp.

za· i

a n Arabic t rm for a n u m ber of

gracile) has an aroma that is similar to


herb . ofl.l'n var ing accord ing to

Greek oregano.

the r glon and at o th

local flora. While the

term mo t oftrn refers lO origanu ms. za"atar

pe 1c a l so mclude ronehrad thyme ( Thymbra

Algerian oregano (0. vulgare subsp. glandulosum) is rarely seen outside its native land but is a good culinary herb.

cap11.ata). za· hom mar ( r. ·pica La). true

Ornamental origanums Many species and

thyme ! Thymus sp. ) a nd

hybrids of Origanum are grown simply for their beauty and fragrance. They include

awrP/a sprc1es such

S. cuncifo/ia and S. Lhymbra. The ca oning m1xtun· rallt•d ·za·ar.a r· u, ually in tudes wasted

'Herrenhausen: 'Country Cream: the

sesamr srrd� and coarse salt. and IS used on

aromatic and strangely beautiful Dittany

vrgrl.ahlr and rnrat cl1shrs and also sprmklrd

of Crete (0. dictamnus) and 0. creticum,

on brrad before h k1ng.

a very aromatic species. the source of the essential oil oleum origani.

l\la rjora m a n cl saus age pa, ta

• Positi on Onganum spec1es are found in the wild in sunny, well-d ra1ned and ohen stony places . They thnve 1n full sun and are stronger flavored if g rown w1th tough love. • Propagation Raise the species from

1 0.5 oz. (300 g) riga toni

9 oz. (2 50) g sausages 2 tablespoons ol ive oil 1 large red onion, roughly chopped

seed in spring, and ornamental varieties by cuttings. • Mai ntenance Once the plants are

3 cloves garlic, finely chopped 1

small eggplant, diced


small zucchini, diced

established, do not overwater them.

2 cups (500 g) tomato pasta sauce

Cut back old growth in spring.

1 tablespoon chopped fresh

• Pests and diseases Origanums are very resistant to both.

Common oregano (0. vulgare!


marjoram or oregano


1 . 5 oz. (40 g) black olives

• Harvesting and storing You can harvest the foliage fresh but the flavor is enhanced if you dry it 1n bunches in a dark, dry, warm, well-ventilated place for

oil, wh1ch is applied topically to ease

several days. When dry and crisp, rub the

headaches, sore muscles and rheumatic

leaves off the stems and store in an

pain. As an external remedy i t can also

Coo� IJaWl 1n hoilmg 11 a l e r u n l l l a l

relieve catarrhal conditions of the lung.

denlc. about 1 0 m i n u tr · . Dra i n . G n l l

digestive colic, flatulence and period pain.

sa u sages u n l l l b i'O\\ n. Cool s l i gh l ly:

a1rt1ght container.

H e rb a l m c d i i n

Medicina l ly, sweet marjoram


9 oz. (250 g) cherry tomatoes


predominantly in the form of its essential

For the safe and appropriate medicinal

2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley fresh marjoram leaves, for garnish grated parmesan, to serve

cut i n t o t h i6

!ices. I !rat o i l i n

Origanum vulgare. Parts used : leaves,

use of these two herbs, consult a health­


flowers. An infusion of the herb is a useful

care professional. Do not use these herbs

onion u n t i l

remedy for feverish conditions and also

in greater than culinary quantities or

3 m m ut . . \cld ga r l i c and a u. ages:

0\ e r mode r a te heaL F'r�

ta rl ing 10 color. a bo u t

for treating coughs, colds and influenza

the essential oils of these herbs internally

roo� a fr11 m m u lrs. I ncrease lwa l :

due to 1ts ability to improve the removal

or externally i f you are pregnant or

aLitl rggplanl a n d zucc h m 1 : cou�.

of phlegm from the lungs and relax the


s l i m ng. - m m u tes. u n t i l eggp lant

bronchial muscles. Traditionally, oregano

• C o o k i ng


IS also

regarded as an herb for the gut; it

relieves flatulence and improves digest1on as well as treats mtestinal infections due to a strong antiseptic effect. The essential oil of oregano has been

t o softe n . -\dd t o ma to pasta

aurr. s t i r m maqoram anrl 'l'a ·on

Oregano has a more pungent scent than

t o wstr. Cmrr a n d s 1 m mer. · t 1 rn ng

marjoram, with a stronger flavor. The

occm,IOn a l l \ . 1 5 m i n u t r . or u n t i l

hotter and drier the climate, the more

eggplant 1s tl'lldl'r. S t i r

aroma and flavor a vanety will have.

tomator�. CO\ r r anll l'oo� a fu r t he r

i n o l i l r s ami

shown to possess potent antimicrobial and antioxidant propert1es, primarily due to the presence of the constituents thymol

cooking. Its aroma is damaged b y heat.

111 a ld rt;r h0\1 I .

so use it in uncooked or lightly cooked

and carvacrol. Some commercial oregano

S p rm � l e 11 l l h maqorom l ea \ P.

d1shes, or add it at he end. Oregano

dlld parmt'san

oil products have been used to treat a range of conditions, including resp�ratory and gastrointestmal infections, although

a more robust herb and can withstand

substantial clinical evidence provmg its e 1cacy IS lackin g.

wine, meats, fish, salads, Greek and Italian

Origanum morjorano syn. Mar;orono hortensis. Parts used: leaves and flowers.

Sweet marJoram


the type used i n


longer cookmg. Both herbs go well with lemon, garlic, dishes, beans, eggplant, capsicum and tomato-based d1shes and sauces. They are also used in commemal mixed herbs.

?or � r� J-Oak, fib � fab�on{d eadv of rlrietlweet h7Arjoranv ad oainuud info �� of �tlv ad rlro/P into tizb hai'lw.Jaier.

:'i m i n u t rs. Comlllne pasla a n ti sauce St i r

1 11 pa rsle) .

St'l'\ rs 1.

M e a d ow swe e t Fillptndulo u1morio syn Sp1roeo u/mono Rosaceae \\ i l l l i t s l ragrCJ n l d iH I I H' a u l i l u l l'lml crs. mt·adoii S II l'< ' l wa'i

('( ) ( 1 -; l ! l i ' l'<'d Oil(' OI I IH '

Ill O S I

j H l\1 I'I' [ U I il ll(l S<IC'I' t'd i l l ' rhs ()[ L il t '

l l ru i c h . I n nwd ic'l d l t i m ( ' s . r l 11 a s a 1 c r� po p u l a r s i n ''' i n g l lnh. a l't�\ OI' I I <' of l•: l izdiH' I Il I. 11 llo orclt•rc • c l il u srcl in il l'r ll<'c l c h a m hc r . rd Bridewort, lady of the meadow, meadow queen, q ueen of the meadow Flowers, l eav es a wS

• G a rd e n i n g

North American species F. rubro is larger,

Meadowsweet forms a basal clump of

with pink- to rose-colored flowers.


pinna e leaves. and bears dense. frothy,

• Position Hardy meadowsweet will

( Filipendula ulmorio)

tall corymbs of almond-scented, creamy

grow in full sun, provided the so1l

wh1te flowers to 1 .2 m 1n summer.

very moisl lt prefers a well -enriched,

(Corymbs are flower clusters with the

a l kaline soil.

is often recommended for the treatment

appearance of a flat or rounded top.)

• Propagation Propagate the spec1es

of colds and flu. The plant's medicinal

The leaves smell like Wintergreen when

by seed in autumn. or by stratified seed

effects make it an effective remedy for

crushed. The plant occurs in moist meadows

(see page 44) and plant in spring. Both

helping to alleviate joint and muscle pain.

and around fresh water, and

the species and named varieties can be



distributed across Asia and Europe.


propagated by division in spring.

help o bring down fevers, so this herb

For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of meadowsweet, see Indigestion,

• Varieties Ornamental but herbally

• M a i ntenance Every 3 or 4 years, lih

page 204. Do not use meadowsweet if

active varieties include the particularly

and divide meadowsweet in autumn.

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

desirable double-flowered 'Flore Pleno';

• Pests and d iseases Check for mildew

'Grandiflora; with large flowers; 'Aurea:

toward the end of the growing season.

• C oo k i n g

w1th golden foliage; and Variegata;

• H a rvesting and storing Cut and dry

The flowers are used to flavor jams.

with cream-variegated leaves. Dropwort

flowers when in full bloom and use fresh

stewed fruits and wine as well as mead

(F. vulgaris) is a closely related plant,

for culinary use, or dried for herbal use.

and the non-alcoholic Norfolk Punch.

once employed as a d i u ret1c. It has s1milar

Harvest and dry leaves at the same time.

flowers, although the individual leaflets are re-pinnately divided. The beautiful

• Herbal m dicine Filipendulo ulmario syn. Spiraea ulmario. Parts used: flowers. leaves. Meadowsweet is considered one of the most important digestive remedies, Indicated for many conditions of the gut, particularly those

I n 1 827. sa licm 1solatrrl rrum

associated with inflammation and excess

mf'adowswrrt 's saliq la l t's-con tain ing

acidity. Meadowsweet has a balancing

lravrs. then syn thrsizrd to acetyl

effect on acid production in the stomach

salicyliC acid (aspinn) hy Frl1x

as well as a soothing and healing effect

l lorrman 10 Germany m 1 890. His

on the upper digestive tract. It is prescribed

Pmplnyer. Ha}er \ G . named the drug

commonly for acid reflux, indigestion,

asrurin aftrr a n old llotan1cal name

gastritis and stomach u lcers.

Fur mradowsv.. e rt. Splrl'd ulm:ma. l'he hl'rb


considrrrcl less lrflt,llinl.t

to r ile . tnmarh than the punfir11 dru�.

Meadowsweet contains aspirin-like compounds that are responsible for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds can also

Meadowsweet was once used in garlands for brides and as a strewing herb at weddings.

M in t Mentha sp. Lam1aceae Tru1· m i n t s co1nr in clll anw!lng range ol ria\ Ol" a n d

[ragl anCt'S. \\ i l l \(' 1'\ l' I'� Ont• i s l'cl lll l l i a r \\ i l h �pra rrninl a n d rnm mon n r i rr l . L hl'r t ' a r( ' llld l l \

rnon• moul h-\\ d lr r i ng \ 8 1'icl i('s. I nc l u d i n g c� pplt'. chocnl<rlc. l i m!'. grapdru i l . lemon and g i n ger.

Part us d


• G a rd n i n g

resembling water mmt; 'Mitcham; the best

Spearmint !Mentha spicato) has termtnal spikes of lavender-colored flowers. There are many named clones, some w1th typical

a spearmmt-like i nflorescence. Other

spearmtnt fragrance, such as the very sweet 'Provence Spearmint: Others have

varieties include the quite deltcious 'Chocolate' mint and 'Grapefruit:

a peppermmt, fruit-and-mtnt or even lavender fragrance.

Water mint !M aquatico) has a strong peppermmtlike scent. The best-known

finely ha1ry leaves. Commercially they

Curly spearmint !M. spica to var. cnspa)


are sold as 'Apple' mmt or 'Ptneapple'

has ornamental fluted and curled foliage

with a strong and delightful true scent of

mint !the variegated form).

w1th a true spearmm scent. The large

eau-de-cologne The whole plan is deep

Woolly or Bowie's m i n t IM.

and slightly crinkly leafed vanety,

g reen suffused wtth purple.

olopecurotdes) ts a v1gorous, all-growtng speetes with broadly oval furred leaves,

selection of black peppermmt; and white


peppermint [var officina/is), with

( Men tho sptcoto)



'Eau de Cologne' or 'Bergamot;


vtlloso var

'Kentucky Colonel; is very close to the

A natura l hybrid between corn mmt

common garden mint of Australia and

(M. orvensis) and spearmtnt !M. spicata),

often sold as 'Apple' min , but 1 is

England. 'Moroccan' mint is a neat form

Menrha x gentilis has a long in lorescence

distmgu1shed by he dense, pom ed

with a very sweet lavor.

with clusters of lavender-colored flowers

term mal clusters of lavender flowers.

Peppermint ! M x piperita) IS a wtually sterile natural hybrtd of water m1nt

m the axils of the lanceolate leaves. Two

Japanese peppe r m i nt or North Amencan

vanet1es are 'Red-stemmed Applemint'

cornm1nt !M. canadensis) s ptercmgly

1M aquatica) and spearmmt !M. sptcota).

('Madalene Hill') and 'Gmger'

pepperm1nt -scented.

The most commonly cultivated clones are

Apple or pineapple m i n t IM. suaveolens)

'Black' !var. ptperita). with an inflorescence

tS a sweetly frutt-scented spwes wi h

Pennyroyal ! M pulegium) 1s a creeping mtn that forms dense mats. Its small smooth leaves a re powerfully hot mtnt­ scented and he I nflorescences have clusters of lavender lowers. The Amertcan pennyroyal tS Hedr?omo pulr?gtotdes. Corsican m i nt ! M reqwnti) 15 a strongly m1nt-scented ornamen a\ hat forms a very dense groundcover of t1ny emerald green eaves. we\1-su. ed to mo1st areas or cui Jvat•on n large po s Rau ram I Pers•carta odorato syn Potygonum odoratum) s ar eas,\y g•own perennta t, 1deal for po cultur a gh 1 shaded post 10n Althoug r no o the m 1 n t fam ,ty,

Vantga ttd app l t

mtnt (M suoveolrns 'Vanrg ata')

s also c a l e d�e n' nt and 1s used 1 As ar coo .ng t s po nred. 1ance-s haped oppos, ng .ea es are g reer Prnnyroyal

(M pulegwm)

mar ed wttr deep browr a d burgu nd



l l c r ba l m e d i c i n e



piperita. Part used· leaves.

Peppermint produces notable relaxing e fects on the gut and can help to relieve mdigestion, nausea, gas and crampmg. Clinrcal trials have verified a therapeutic effect of the herb on many of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, including diarrhea, cons ipation, bloating and abdominal pain, especially when taken in the form of enteric-coated R a u ram o r V1etnamese mint (Persicaria adarata)

Peppermint [ Mentha x piperita)

peppermint oil capsules. Topically, peppermint essential oil

• Sprinkle cotton balls with peppermint

has a pain-relieving effect, w hich can

essential oil and leave them where

be valuable in allevia ing the discomfort

rodents enter.

• Position The ideal condi ions a re

of joint and muscle pain and headaches.

• Add a few drops of peppermint

moist, nch soil and half to full sun.

When it is inhaled, it can also help to

essential oil to a damp rag and wipe

• Propagation You can easily propagate

reduce feelings of nausea and act as

on cabinet interiors to deter ants and

mmts from cu tings or by dividing clumps.

a nasal decongestant.


• M a i ntenance If your mint is proving

For the safe and appropriate medicinal

• To make a personal insect repellent,

invasive, grow it in large pots.

use of peppermint, see Wind, bloating and

mix 1 part lavender, 1 part eucalyptus,

• Pests and d iseases Some mints,

flatulence, page 206; Nausea, page 205.

1 part peppermint essential oils with

mainly varieties of M. spicoto, a re prone

Do not use peppermint rn greater than

3 parts unscented moisturizer or sweet

culinary quantities, and do not use

almond oil, and rub into the skin.

o a rust disease, Puccineo menthoe. The mmt flea beetle can cause leaf fall and

the essential oil if you are pregnant

• To deter fleas, sprinkle dried pennyroyal

brownrng; caterpillars are also a problem.

or breastfeeding.

under your dog's bedding or put a spot of

• H a rvesti n g and stori n g Mints dry

oil on its collar. Don't use pennyroyal on

well in a warm, airy place away from direct sunlight. Store crumbled leaves

Peppermint and pennyroyal ( M. pulegium)

in an a i rtight container. Harvest foliage

a re both natural insect repellents that are

• C oo k i n g

o use fresh as required.

easy to grow.

Lovely though its flavor is, fresh mint can

ro u n d t h e h o m e

cats or pregnant dogs, because it is toxic.

overwhelm milder flavors and is best used with a light hand. Dried mint is less assertive and is favored in eastern Mediterranean and Arab countries. 1

In general, mint does not complement lb.


g) green apples, cored

other herbs well, except parsley, thyme,

and roughly chopped 't. oz.


marjoram, sage, oregano and coriander. It goes well with yogurt, and is used

g) roughly chopped fresh mint


1 1/2



1 l b. (500

g) jam-setting sugar


g) finely chopped fresh mint



in Vietnamese food and in some Indian dishes. The coriander and lemon taste of

ml) white wine vinegar

Vietnamese mint is refreshing in salads. Spearmint rs the ordinary garden mint, and the most common culinary type. It is

leaves, extra

Plan· apple.· . m i n t and 1 rnrgar


mrd i u m

a classic flavoring for roast lamb and its accompaniments, and also goes well with

saucepan. cook. unro�erPd. u n l l i applrs an· 1c•ry tr n d er. Pure · applf'S;

< I ram

l h rough a srr1 r (don'l push them r h rougll. bur � l in\\

Uw llqurd to run t h rough so It'll

c l ! w s n ' l l1ecomc rluudy). l<t'turn h q u 1 1 1 to ;wn·pmL add

ugar RPLurn to t ill'


llorl ing ror I 0 m i n u tes. Removr rrom heat. stir th rough l'\lra m i n t . Pour i n to rlran container: rrrrrge rate 6 h o u rs. or·

unl!l set. �1akes about 2 cups (600 g).

potatoes, peas and salads. Peppermint has a particularly strong flavor and aroma. It makes a pleasam digestive tea. The oil is used in ice cream, confectionery and liqueurs.

N e tt l e Urtica diaica Lam1aceae u l pt ' I H'I' notcrl \\ h i lt' t he ramou� 1 7l l l -crn l u l'\ lwrl >a l i s t C ·· ma� l >c fuu n t l I >J fee l i ng. 11 ith u n u : u a l lc1 i t � l 11 a 1 n l ' t l lc� lv l i i pprrl in t iH' cla r�r'l n igh t . " a r t h ri l i � s u fferers oncr t hcmscl\l',


i l h s l i nging nt' l l l cs to rl'l iC\l' t he i r· pa i n -

nol a t rea t m e n t for L hr fa i n l - lll' D r l t'rl. Part. used

Nettle ( Urtica dioica)

Leaves, roots

• G a rd e n i n g The stmgmg nettle ( Urtica dioica) IS a cold­ olerant herbaceous perennial growing to 4 ft ( 1 .2 m), with coarsely toothed, oval leaves armed with st1nging hairs. T1ny

l2d:,w� f� rliMxltn{orf of ndf� Jf� 6�



witlv � or

l lerbal medicine

f� �e!Y of clock.

disorders of the prostate gland, such

green male and female lowers are borne on separa e plants, the pendulous branched 1n lorescences emerging directly

Urt1ca dioica. Parts used: Leaves, roots.

from the upper nodes of the square stems.

remedy. It has a gentle diuretic effect and

The spreading roots are yellow. The young

encourages the removal of oxins from

Do not use nettle in greater than culinary

he body. It is used medicinally to treat

doses if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

leaves are nch in mmerals (particularly

as frequent u rina ion and weak flow. For the safe and appropriate use of

Nettle leaf is a tradit1onal blood-purifying

ne tie, consult a healthcare professional.

potass1um, calcium, silicon and iron) and

arthritiC conditions and certain skin

also contain vitamin C. Roman nettle ( U.

disorders such as eczema, which some

• C oo k i n g

pilulifera) finds similar uses.

herbalists believe can benefit from a

The young leaves were once widely used in

Classified into five subspecies, all of which have similar uses, U. dio,ca is

detox1fymg action.

the spring diet to revitalize the body after

indigenous to much of the temperate

allergic properties, and herbalists ohen

Northern Hemisphere. As an introduced

prescribe it for symptoms of hay fever

since these have yet to develop the slinging

plan , 1t is widespread in the temperate Southern Hemisphere.

and skm rashes.

compounds. Nettle leaves may be cooked as

Position Ne les pre er full sun to light

shade and hrive 1n a rich, moist soil that is high i n nitrogen. •

Propagation Plant seed in spring

or, 1f you are brave, by division of plants 1n spnng. •

The leaf is also assoc1ated with anti­

wmter. For culinary purposes, use leaf t1ps rom plants less than 4m. ( 10 em) h1gh,

Modern research has shown that

a vegetable, in s1milar ways to spinach, or

nettle root may 1nhibit overgrowth of

added to soups or o vegetable, egg or

prostate issue, and clinical trials have

meat dishes. A t1sane can be made from the

provided some compelling evidence that

leaves. Do not eat net les raw; also note

therapeutic use of the root may 1mprove

tha older leaves are h 1gh i n calcium

the u nnary symptoms assoc1ated w1th

oxalate and should not be eaten at all.

Mai ntenance Ne ties can become

1nvasive plan ts. •

Pests and diseases While ne ties

are qu1te disease-free, hey are a valuable food supply for the caterpillar s age of a number of but erfly spec1es. •

H arvesting and storing In add1t1on

to spnng p1ckmg, harves i n m1dsum mer and again 1n autumn , and always wear gloves to protect your hands. D1g up the roo s m autumn and air-dry them w1th the tops out of direct sunlig ht

\ lidiHiilli!dt•

Sl'IOI-hil n l


Cil'dlll\ ld>l l ' . C:orlllsli l dr g is


II I til


11 l'ii J l t ll'd

lil' f [ li • il' d l l ' s <J i l l ' l J II'!'SSIOI-( ilflli hl' l l l l l lg


it•<J i t ' >

dr<' ldl'f ' f ll l i l ,lf'I<JIIgl'cl ll\ l i d l l d

t o lonn " pit'dSi flg pd l l l ' lll a n d Jho t o . J i l rdlt ll.t l U I <II l l l l l i i ls Ill

I diiiJll\ rotors

lli<l l iild Ill ! Il l ' I i i >t 'll lng f l l l l!'l'ss. d l i i l l llg d sub! it·

nwslt mom t a s l l ' . Kt'llllll l' \ d l'g lmm t llt· l l ' l ngt' l d l t l l d l ll l l l l d l l liour l l t ' l l lrt' st' I I I I IL:.

Pa r s l ey Pr•roseltnum sp Ap1aceae/Umbelliterae I 'il l -; I t '\ ilt�s '' idt•sp n·ad c u i J I I<I r\ . n w d i r i l l d l d JHI rosnwt ir 11 ·c·s. :u1d i s d i s( ! u -.;ed cl' c1 d � t· p l a n t . It \\ d " olin' u st•d a -.; loddn fo r I IH' Cilcll'iol ho rses ol t iH' \ l l r i l ' n l C n •t • b . \ d l l \ t ' lo I l l<' -;o u t ll ­ t'dSI<'I'II \ l l ' d i l < ' r J dllt'dll. p d r I t ' \ i nm1 r u l l l \ <l l l'd in l l' lllpl'r a l l '

c l nll<l l < ' " t h rougho u t l h t• \\ orld . a n d i s O IH' o l I l l < ' m o s t po p u l a r lwr!Js l o r g rm1 i n g . 1 1 ilonH' . bot h i n gd n l t• n s a nd ron l a i n t• r· .



Leaves, stalks, roots, seeds; root of Hamburg parsley

• G a rd e n i n g Parsley ts a biennial crop, formmg a dense rosette o leaves in the flfst year and flowering 1n ts second summer, when the foliage becomes bitter. There are three distinct types of parsley. Probably the most fam iliar ts curly parsley (P crispum var. crispum). The many excellent varieties nclude 'Triple Curl' and 'Green River' The plain-leaf types, known as Italian or French or flat-leaf parsley [P. crispum var. neapolitanum), have flat

leaf segments. In Italy, the true Italian parsley is constdered to be 'Catalagno:


whtch is usually listed elsewhere as 'Giant



in the same family. Its flavor

a mtxture of celery, angelica and parsley.

Italian: Hamburg or turntp-rooted parsley

• Position Parsley prefers ful l morning

[P. crispum var. tuberasum) ts grown more

sun to partial shade, and well-composted,

for its delicately flavored tap root than its

well-dra1ned but moist soil. It tolerates

• Propagation This herb is grown

leaves, although they can also be used.

fairly acidic to alkalme soil, but if the sod 1s

only from seed and takes 3 to 8 weeks

Japanese parsley or mitsuba (Cryptotaema

very ac1dic, Incorporate lime before planting.

to germmate. You can speed up this process by soakmg the seed in warm water overnight before planttng tnto trays or pots. Alternatively, pour freshly boiled water along seed drills just before plant1ng.

For a ill' l ruuus-Lasung .11111 <J i l racl ll l'

t'llll'fahJ-grrrn lwrll n ·ouo. rook a r i a ·stc nso l l u

11'1'1111' u�mg dl'hono


1 h i r�t· l l

or l l'gt'ldhlt· stor� d r H I \\ h t l t ' ll l n l '

a hdiHII U I III choppt•ll

11 111'11 I ll(' IICI' I · m 1'

h l u l l\


il l ll l os t

liul t�dd

S [ l l l ldt'h ll'dll'S


Ollrt' t hl'

Cllo�l'il l l l shou lrl l ll' d

dropping consrstr•nr\ 1 . s l t r i n d

nea m�.

gl'rll 'nHts

,lllll l llllt ol l 1 11l'11 rhoppl'll l r t· h pdr'h'\

111d cori.uu!Pr St'"'"" to t.t-,tt•.

Cover seed very lightly with soil. Transplant seedlings into the garden (or thin seedlings sown directly into the garden) to around 10 in. [25 em) apart. Parsley self-seeds

under suitable cond1t1ons. In cold climates. a cloche will warm the soil and allow for earlier planting of seedlings, or even protect a wmter crop. • M a i ntena nce Water regularly or parsley will flower ('bolt') in its first season. Cutting out the emerg1ng flowenng stalks w1ll frustrate thts process to some extent.

CoUfli"r:rfotk otLCe/ �that 0�/JM� who were- wicked were- ab� to yow


H e rba l m e d i c i n e Pr?troselinum crispum var. cnspum. Parts used· leaves, roots. seeds. The leaves are a good source of v1tam1n C. and both the leaf and root are well- nown for eliciting considerable diuret1c effects m the body Parsley has been used to treat fluid retention, urinary tract d1sorders and arthritiC conditions of the joints, includ1ng gout, an inflammatory condition usually affectmg a s1ngle JOint, such as a big toe.

Pests and diseases Generally easy

to grow, parsley can be attacked by pests of closely related members of the same am11 - for instance. celery fly and carrot weevil. Septaria leaf spot can also be a

Parsley has a calming effect on the gut, alleviating fla ulence and colic, and also a gentle stimulatory action. encouraging appet1te a nd improv1ng digestion. It can also have a notable stimulating effect on the uterus and has

problem. In Hamburg parsley, crown ro can occur after prolonged ram. • Harvesti ng and storing New

been used to encourage menstruation -

growth comes from the center of the

pregnancy is a possibility.

stem. so haNest leaves from around the outside o plan s. Wrap 1n a plastiC bag and store in the freezer. Parsley


not a

but should no be used for this purpose 1f

professional. Do not use parsley m greater than culinary quantit1es 1f you're pregnant

1 s lavor. Collect seeds when pale brown.

or breas feeding.

of he mflorescence mward. Hang bunches

of npenmg seed heads upside down 1ns1de

Flat-leaf parsley is generally cons1dered to

paper bags. Harvest he roots at the end of

have the best flavor, while curly parsley

the second season and a 1 r dry them.


sprang frurn t lw hlood of a Grr.rk

l ilt' foreru n ne r Of d P a t h .


\rchrrn OI'II

11 lliiP English

fu l k lo rl' has

it t h a t

p a r ley serd g o t o t he Dl'\ i l and back

�ewn t inws befc11 r t hry grrrn i n a te.

n• rer r i n g w I he

ract t l l il t t hry can be

i. a l�o

-.1o11 to S!Jro u t . I t

c l a i med t h a t

on!� 11 1 t he r a n grm1 i t . O n a mort· l ight hearted note. hnM1rr. par�lcy

tra l it ion a l l y a curat i\l'. il fact t hat


B • a t r i \ l 'ottrr

wraves i n to The Talc

of Pc/1'1' Rabbi/ 11 hen l'rtl'r e a ts too rn u r h




' F i rst

�lcG regor·, 1 rgetable

h e il t e somr

and some hroa d brans.


t hen



ra d 1 s h r�. anu t l il' n . ree l i ng ra t he r

· icl<..

lw 1\ Cn l t o look fo r ome par'le ·

For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of parsley, consult your healthcare

good herb for dry1ng, as 1t loses much of They npen progressively rom the outside

\ccordi ng to G reek m y t h . par�h·�

ook i n g

has a pleasing crunchy texture. Use either one as a garnish or m salads, vegetable and egg dishes and sauces (see Frankfur gree sauce rec1pe, page 338). Parsley is essen ial to many traditional

{'Atv lwi'U!4f taborwtv.Y

Cor..ut:rtr - , witlv �or/ Bre«d, Salt and w � Par�, wilt �e- w contented f11ud witlv w roaM-ed On«J�v. " nuuv

flavoring mixtures, partiCularly m French cookmg. Bouquet garn1, a small bunch of pungen fresh herbs for slow cooking, is most of en comprised of a bay leaf. spngs

C h i m i c h u rr i R a u c e

of parsley a nd sprigs of thyme. Other

l 'ar-;h·� I S u s e d 111 mam

mixes include perslllade (finely chopped

111 1 \t ' s JI'OUIHI LIJt• \\ fll'ltl (st't' Cht'tlllOUid

parsley and garl1c, see rwpe, page 352)

iilltl l 'nsliladt' tt•npcs.

Sprinkle them on a d1sh near the end o 1ts preparation to retain 1ts laver.

1 11 1 ..,

(P crtspum var. tuberosum).

grown for its roots rather than 1ts leaves, has a


taste It can be grown '" conta1ners as

well as 1n the ground


fi.J!?t ' 1.1!1 Tl'\

\rg!'ntin i.Jil sc� uet• \l i t h llii'JI hot

oil L 111• hdrlwrut•

The edible root of Hamburg parsley

Hamburg parsley

l w rll .1nt1

I n <1 l d l' .

(lef ) is used m soups and s ews and can


t'I HIIill nt• b

rlol t's

gdt lw.

t;Jh!I'SIXl(lll'i i 11•sh l lr!'l!d lll l it'd\I'S .11111

be roasted or boiled 1n the same way as

d hanl l l u l o[ p&slt•\ it'd\t''· ,Jil l n it ' !�

other root vegetables.

t h"llllt'd

Mi suba IS used 1n Japanese cookmg, m soups, salads. slow-cooked d1shes and ned foods. Blanch the leaves bnefly to tendenze them or add to food at t he las

thoppt•t l . 1 p 1 n r h

moment o preserve the delicate flavor.

\till I

l.thll'spoou rt't l on1on.


I tt'dsj K X III ground 1 I :;o 11 1 1 1


tli lt'tl clulh


011. 11


I K ' i 'Pt'l .

1 11 1 11

t<�hlt·'' " "ll' n·tl 11 n11·

dllil Sdlt. to t;Jslt• St'.li ldl I .t'<llt'


h<ikt• \I t'll 1 1111111 s l tll tll , ! 1 1 dt'\t'iop

Pa s i o n fl ow e r Pass, flora tncarnoto Pass1floraceae To S pt� n h h n J i s .., i o n d r t l ' " in Sou t h

\mniciJ. I ll ! ' pds.'ion!IO\\ t' r rcpresr·n tecl

l lw 1 '<1'-Sion ol CJm ., l : 1 111' t lm • t • s t Jglllas s� m l >o l i zcd t lw n a i l s. t he corona l lw nm\ n o l l iH H"Il'< I lit' I J \ t '

J a nw n s t he wou n d s . d n c l t h c· len pe t a l s l hl'

\JlO'-'I IC's ( t'\CI'Jll .J tidciS l sca riot CI JHI l 't'I('J'). 'Ti m o Maypops, pu r p l e passi onf lowe r, w i l d a pncot, wild passionflower Dned aenal parts (especia l ly leaves). ripe fru its. flowers

Passionfruit ( Possifloro edulis)

• G a n lr n i ng

• Position It prefers a light. acidic soil

There are about 400 spec1es of passlon­

and a warm. sunny position. I n cooler

Possiflora incarnata. Part used: leaves.

l lcrbal medicin

ruit. Many are ornamental. tendrilled

areas, it is an excellent greenhouse plant.

Medicinally, passronflower can be of

climbers; some produce delic1ous fru1t.

• Propagation Sow passronflower seed

1 mmense benefit in conditions in which

Most require warm-temperate to tropical

in spring when the soil has warmed. Or

nervous tension and stress are prominent

conditiOns. although P mcarnata 1s one

propagate by semi-ripe stem cuttings in

factors. This herb has a calming effect

of he most tolerant of cooler cond1t1ons.

summer. or by layerrng.

on the m1nd and body, and is commonly

Deciduous in colder areas. 1t can survive

• M a i n tena nce Provide a trellis or other

prescribed for insomnia in adults and

occasional w1nter freezes.

support, and mulch plants well. Shape and

children, especially when there is difficulty

prune the vine as necessary i n spring.

falling asleep.

A common wildflower

the southern


U nited States. it was used as a tonic by

• Pests and d iseases Passionflower

Nat1ve Americans. and was first noted

vines are mainly pest-free and, although

Results of preliminary human trials have provided supportive evidence for

by a Western doctor 1 n 1 783. The leaves

Possiflora is an important food source for

the traditional use of passionflower

are palmately divided with 3 to 5 smooth,

the caterpillar stage of some butterflies.

for treating anxiety disorders. It's also

textured. pointed lobes with serrated

they cause no permanent damage.

interesting to note that further research

marg i ns. The fragrant large flowers are

• H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest

has elucidated a potential role as a

lavender-colored, w1th a white cen er

the aerial parts in mid- to late summer

supportive remedy during withdrawal from addict1on to narcotic drugs.

and a deeper purple, threadlike corona.

and a�r-dry for medicinal preparations.

The frui s, ovoid yellow berries when ripe,

For culinary use. pick the fruits at the

are about 2 1n. [5 em) long.

"dropping" stage.

The relaxing and a ntispasmodic effects of passionflower can also be applied in the treatment of digestive symptoms, nervous headaches and neuralgic pain

Pass i o n fr u i t c o rd i a l

that are exacerbated by stress and tension. For the safe and appropriate medicinal

Spoon J IH· p u l p n f 8 passion fru i l

use of passionflower. refer to Insomnia,

111to a

m i \ l ng ho11 l . You nt·t·rt

page 2 1 4. Do not use passionflower if


1!1 c u p I 1 flO mit pu l p .

you are pregnant or breastfeeding.



1 Lea.,poon 1 an l i la


rx1 ri:lrl.

( 2:lO g) ugar anrl 111 up

100 111 1 1 fn•,hl) ,qut·rzl'd h'mon 1 1 1iCf ' S i i r




mlll d t lrp­

IJol l lr and rl'frrg!'r au•.


• Co k i n g The seeds and pulp of ripe fruits have a tangy flavor, and are eaten raw or used in fruit salads and other desserts. curds.

hu I Il l'!'�. l'our i n lo a 1 ug. 1\dt.l

jams. jellies and fruit drinks. The popular

1 c u r> 1 1 II h r l l ed cluh soriJ.

cocktail called the Hurricane is made with

St'l'll'' H

passion fruit syrup. rum and lime juice.

Pass,onfruit from th� P. edults vine

Opposite: Passionflower (Possifloro inrornota)

Pe o ny Poeonia lactdlora syn P alb, flora, P officmalis, P suffruticosa syn. P mouton Paeoniaceae O n ce l lw l m orrtl l lo\\ l ' f' of C h i n e l' t•m pnor . peo n i r s \\ (' I'C' fi r s t m r n l ioncd cJ s a med i c i n a l llerh i n <�l>o u t :i O O 1 1 : . I I O\\l'\ C'r. t ile rn rd i c i n a l u s e o f d l l l lm·e o l l lwse I H'On ir•

Oth r c Part u

i · re�t r i c t ec l to q u a l i rircl practi t io n e r .

n Bar shao, Chinese peony, wh ite peony ( P. Ioctifloro) Roots, flowers

• G a rcl e n i n g The Chmese peony (P. laccif/ora) is a herbaceous perennial. It has erect stems w1th lobed leaves and very large, scented flowers, which in the wild are wh1te and srngle. Cultivated plants g row to 3.5 ft.

&/M0111f 1/.v �

afer PMO;v, � to t� yruk y;r/y,

( 1 m), are fully hardy, can be red, pink or

Peony ( Poeonio loctiflora)

blood pressure due to its ability to dilate blood vessels and i mprove circulation.

• Propagation Plant fresh seed in

Traditionally and i n combination with

autumn, or stratify older seed (see

other herbs, whrte peony has also been

from Western Chrna o Bhutan, forms a

page 44), then plant it in spring. You

used to ease muscle cramps and reduce

branched upright shrub to 6.5 ft. (2 m) with

can also divide plants in late autumn

intestinal griping, enhance memory and

slash-cut and lobed leaves. The terminal

or sprrng, take root cuttings rn winter

concentratron, relieve night sweats and

flowers are very large and slightly fragrant.

or sem1-ripe stem cuttings.

treat angina.

purple and are usually double. The tree peony (P suffruticosa), ound

Common peony (P officina/is) is a

• M a i n tenance Peonies require heavy

For the safe and approprrate use of

herbaceous perennial with many erect

feed1ng, and their roots resent disturbance.

white peony, consult your healthcare

stems to 2.5 ft. (75 em), bipinnate leaves

Remove dead wood in spring.

professionaL Do not take white peony

composed of ovate-lanceolate segments,

• Pests and d i seases These plants are

if you a re pregnant or breastfeeding.

and large terminal flowers that are srngle,

susceptible to Botrytis. peony wilt (caused

fragrant, usually purple-crimson and

by a blight fungus), leaf spot, nematodes


(eel worm) and honey fungus.

The flowers of P. offic1nalis are used to

• Varieties Common peony varret1es include 'Alba Plena' and 'Rosea Plena:

I I rbal m dicin

• Posi tion Peonies prefer cold wmters

Poeonia lactiflora. Part used: roots. I n

and a deep, rich, moist (and in the case

traditional Chinese medicine, white peony

of P. officina/is, slightly alkaline) soil.

root nourishes the blood and is a key

oo k i ng

scent tea, and the seeds were once used as a spice.

remedy for the treatment of conditions of the female reproductive system. Laboratory studies have shown white peony possesses moderate hormonal act1v1ty. Herbalists prescribe this herb, often with licorice, to regulate the menstrual cycle and relieve pain. This combmation


used to treat irregular.

heavy, delayed or absent bleeding, period pain, premenstrual syndrome, fibroids and polycystic ovarian syndrome. A sculpture 1n Wangcheng Park, Luoyang, China, where the beauty of the peony is celebrated.

Wh1te peony can also have a relaxing effect on muscles, and it may lower

The old hcrbalr L reco"n izrd li\ O dtrrert·nl tea r form of P. omcmJJi, a.· ·mall'" and · rrma le·· peoore .

\\ hich 1\l'fl'


Pd for mal and

[('male complaints. re�11eclivel� Thr ·rrmJI

peony had I arrer

rolla t' . . ern ted d rl. purple n(llw r

ami blac� sreds.

hi I' IJlt' ·malr"

llfony had purplt'-rrd' and black an<l nrm on eecb.

Pe r i l l a

In Japan thr frr. h rrd It'd\

Perillo frutrscrns syn. P octmoides Lamiaceae i · u sed rresll Peri lla i, a pop u l a r. s p i c i l ) a rom a t ic c u l i n a r� lwril l ll a l c u rl� lcafr!l d n a l in salatl: and for p i c � l i n g anti nm n r i ng. Tile colorfu nual. forms arr incrrc�si ngl� JJOI u l a r a� an o m a rn C ' n ta l lwd! l i ng a n

Beafsteak plant, Chinese basil, shiso Part u d Leaves, flower spi kes, seed

Oth e r c mmor n a m e

• Position Perilla lourishes in moist,

Perilla 1s a hardy, branched annual to 4 ft.

well-dramed soils enriched with compost.

{1.2 m) with broadly ovate, serrated leaves.

• Propagation Plant seed in spnng

wh1ch vary

when the soil has warmed.

color from green to red and

purple. The leaf edges may be curled

• Mai ntenance Pinch out the initial

{a form previously called P. crispum). while

flower spikes to encourage bushy growth.

the uny white to purple flowers are borne m

dense spikes abou 4 m { 10 em) long.

arr <:tl · o usl'tl t o co lor and

na1or pitlled plum

(pi< tun·d) and

gmgrr. 11 h i l e the �t'l'd. arr sprouted for usr m salads. or p1cklrd as a tondmw nt for Japanr.e rhshc•s. Different vaneliP. · or p!'rilla arc a l so u ·ell in In done ian.

• Pests and diseases This herb has • H a rvesti n g and storing Harvest the

Cumin; both readily available, have cumin­

leaves tn summer and use them fresh or

and c1nnamon-scented leaves. 'Aojiso' has

dned. Harvest flower spikes when hey are

green ginger-scented leaves. o en used

fully developed, and the seed m autumn.

deep red to purple leaves. The large-leafed

Th!' lravl'

few problems.

• Varieties 'Green Cumm' and 'Purple

w•th sash1mi. 'Red' or 'Akajiso' has nch,

IHappm g for ch:he� su h a. sush1.

\'irtnamr e and kon•an cui me.

• G a rd e n i n g m

of pcn l la

arl' usrd m saldfis or a.- a garnish or

I I rba l mcd i c i n

'Kkaenn1p' or Korean penlla is used m

Perillo fru tescens. Parts used · leaves,

salads, as a food wrap and preserve, and

seeds. Both the leaves and seeds of penlla

Labora ory research has confirmed substantial antJ-allerg1c as well as anti­

the seeos for culinary flavoring. 'Thai'

have been used for cen u ries 1n traditional

Inflammatory effects of perilla extracts.

penlla has a strong, delic1ous flavor.

Japanese med1cine (a system known as

Clinical trials have produced prom1smg

Kampo). and also by Ch1nese herbalis s for

results for the use of oral preparations of

s1milar therapeutic purposes. Perilla is commonly prescribed w1th other herbs for the trea ment of resp1ratory conditions,

perilla for the relief of hay fever symptoms, mclud1ng watery, Itching eyes. Addi!IO al studies have also recorded mprovements in the symptoms of allergic derma i 1s w1

1ncludmg colds, flu and

the use of a topical perilla cream.

coughs. and to ease

such as lack of appet,te,

For the safe and appropna e medicmal use of perilla, see Hay fever and S1nus1 1S, poge 203. Do 't use perilla ,n grea er han culmary quantities 1f you are pregnant

nausea and bloattng.

or breastfeeding.

symptoms caused by poor digestive function,

Perilla IS also used successfully for the managemen o hay fever and dermat1t1s. I 1s a key mgredient 1n the Kampo herbal formula known as Sa1bokuto, a popular remedy tha is used for a number of allergic cond1 1ons Penlla IPen//o frutescens)

C o o "- i n g The red va(ety of per• Ia os more of en used for culinary purposes tha the gree11. [Be aware tha excess1 e handl,ng ot h e 1eaves can cause derman is I A volatile 011 m the leaves of P fru tescfns conta1n s a compo und that 1s 2,000 mes swee•e r han sugar and IS used as an ar t1C1al swee ener 1n Japan.

P l a n ta i n Plan tago maJOr, P. lonceoloto, P. osiottco syn. P. maJor var asiatica, P psyllium Plantag•naceae C :on 1 1 1 1 o n p l a n t c� i n i-; con s i d c rrrl a \\ t'ed ll:r m a n � ga rde n e r s . hu t 1 1 l l d 'i l ong I H'cn \ a l u cd i n fol k m ed i c i n e . a n d con t i n ues to

l i n d lw rllal u •w ·. Thr•n· c1 rr a l so :omr• cquatt:r useful a n d \ C ry o rnc�nw n t a l ' d i' i c l l<''> l o r UlC' ga rd e n .

Other cc

Parts us

Greater plantain, rat-tail p lantain (P major) Leaves ( P major. P lanceolata) ; seeds, seed husks ( P psyllium, P ovata)

• C a rd n i n g evergreen perennial that forms a basal

• Pos ition P. psyllium, P. avo to and P. asiatica prefer full sun and a well­ drained so1\. P. major prefers a moist

rosette of stalked, broadly ovate leaves

SituatiOn with light shade.

to 1 5 em, from which emerge cylindrical

• Propagation Plant seed directly

spikes of tiny green flowers to 20 em.

in spring after the soil has warmed.

Common plantatn (P. moJorl is a n

Rose plantain (Plantago major 'Rosularis')

Ribwort plantain ( P. lonceolato). wtth

• M a i ntenance Weed regularly

recovery from anal/rectal surgery and

ribbed lanceolate leaves, is used i n ter­

• Pests and d iseases In dry weather.

haemorrhotds where a softer stool IS needed to ease the passing ot stools.

changeably with P. maJor tn herbal medicine.

powdery m ildew JS a problem for P. major.

Astan plantain (P. osiattca syn. P. maJOr var.

• H a rvest i n g and storing Cut the

Its content of soluble fiber also makes

asiatica) bears flower sptkes to 50 em.

leaves and d ry them for herbal use, as

psyllium a valuable part of any cholesterol­

Psylltum (P. psylltum) ts an annual with in orescences that release tiny seeds. Blond psyll1um (P. ovoto) is also widely used; black psyllium (P. indica) and golden

required. Collect seed when ripe, as soon

lowering program. The fiber binds o

as the dew has dried, and dry them also.

cholesterol in the gut, enabling it to be

I I rbal medici ne

excreted from the body. For the safe and appropriate use of

Plantago lanceolata, P. major. Part used:

plantain, consult a healthcare professional.

• Varieties The inflorescences of rose

leaves. Due to plantain's mucilaginous

For the use of psyllium, see Constipation

plantain (P major 'Rosulans' ) resemble

compounds, it has a sao hmg effect on

and haemorrhoids. page 207, and Detox,

double green roses. 'Rubrifolia' has purple

the l ungs, reducing inflammation and

page 209. Do not use these herbs if you

leaves, and Variegata' is marbled white.

irritation, and helping to remove catarrh.

are pregnant or breastfeeding, except

Plantain ts also used for its healing effect

under medical supervision.

psyllium (P. arenaria) to a lesser degree.

on peptic and i n testinal u lcers, gastritis and colitis. Pla n ta i n can be used as a mouthwash One or I ht' '\tnt' Sa crl' d 1 \rrbs of lhe \nglo-Saxons. plantain 11 a .· helie\ed to

cure hrauachl' · . T h l' Larnunga. a

co\lerliun of m ed ica l Ll'\h IHilten m I he l i t h or 1 21 h rl'n lur:v. relates this �tOr� ol ih!' /.!Oil 1\0dl'll·



.OUt or thl'

11 01111 'ill'<lilf.! nint' pohon� So llo<irn

lOOK hiS S\\I Jrll dlltl thil ll/.!1'(\ it IIllO

lll llt'

ht'J ils. Thl'sl' ht•rils d u t 1 \w 11 Jst' lord rrt>al t ' .Jrtd st•nt them i n to thr �,�,orld

lnJ r w h Juri p(J(Jr. d J'I'JTII'd� 101 all . . '

or gargle for inflammatory conditions of the mouth and throat, and as an ointment it can be applied to haemorrhoids. cuts and bruises to aid healing. Plantago psyllium, P. ova to. Parts used: seeds, husks. Psyllium is a n excellent bulk laxative The soluble fiber contained i n the seeds absorbs water, making bowel movements easier and more regular. Clinical trials have confirmed its benefit in the treatment of chronic constipation and Irritable bowel syndrome. Psyllium

Plan togo psyllium sted has commercial worth as

can also be used in cases of anal fissures,

a htgh-fiber ingredient in breakfast cereals.

Po pp y Popover rhoeas, P somniferum; Eschscholzia californica Papaveraceae Cul l i\ a tell for :1.000 year . poppic · \\ ere once symho l i c bo t h of t h e e a r t h godde:s ancl of Ceres. t i l e go<ldr.· . of cerea ls. O p i u m poppy i

the .ou rce of some of o u r most i m po r t a n t pa i n k i i iNs. m o r p h i n e

a n d codei ne. b u t a l so of flangcrou I� adc l i c li\'c h e ro i n . -----

---- --------- --

Parts used

--------- -- -----

Aerial parts (Californian poppy only) ; latex (opium poppy o nly)

• G a rd n i n g

& � IUUI1R/ pr

The opium poppy (P. somniferum) is a

t� �/M�J


hardy annual that grows to about 4 ft. (1.2 m) with large, coarse, toothed, silvery green foliage and tall flowering stems beanng four-petaled flowers that may be


'�-inti� '

white, pink, lavender or red, followed by a

Californian poppy (Eschscholzio cailformca)

The blue-green, finely div1ded leaves form a basal rosette and the many flower stalks

globose capsule with an operculum that

bear single silken, four-petaled flowers 1n

opens to scatter the ripe seed. The wall of

The European annual red or field poppy

the green capsule oozes bitter white latex

(P. rhoeas) has four silken, bright red petals,

when wounded.

sometimes with a black blotch in the

• Position Al l poppies, including

center. It was used to breed ornamental

Californian poppy, require a well­

Shirley poppies.

d rained soil and sunny position.

Opium poppy cultivation is strictly controlled in many countries; however, a number of ornamental forms are widely grown, including the 1 9th century red and

Californian poppy ( Eschscholzia

lemon to orange.

• Propagation To sow poppy seeds

californica). which is related to true

evenly during spring, mix them wi h

white 'Danish Flag; double 'peony' forms

poppies, is a heat- and drough t-resistant

dry sand.

and the very old 'Hen and Chickens: which

annual, native to the western United

• M a i n tenance Weed regularly.

has a ring of tiny flowers encircling each

States, with the subspecies mexicana

• Pests a n d d i seases Powdery mildew

large flower.

extending south 1nto the Sonoran Desert.

can be a problem. • H a rvesti n g and storing H a rvest and dry the petals 1m mediately after the flowers fully open. Collect seed from ripe capsules and d ry them.

OpiUm drm ru rrom t h l' latex or t h t'

u n ri pl' red rapsulrs of t h e opium popp� ( i'

somnif crum) 11 dS once a

trathlional hrriJal medir m!' as

ll t' l l

a · a lrgal recreattnnal drug. btll 11 r no11 knm1 thai O!liates are atlrtic1 11 e and associalt'd 11 1111

errech. In


l hr

t•riou. ad1 cr. r

\\estern 11 0rld. Opium

a hra1 ll\ regu l al rrl and llrt'nsrd

product used

to p roclucr

antl rotlruw.

� l mph inr and codeine

prOI ItfP

1'\CI'jll tona l palll


rl'I IPr J.

pharmact' U l iCal tfrugs. hul s 1 1 1 1 carr)

a ris� ol dt'prndt·nrv 11 ilh 01 eruw


r' ba l m c d i c i n

Eschscholzia californica. Parts used: aerial parts. The aerial par s of Californ1an poppy were used by Native Amencans as a pai n killer, and have been mcorpora ed 1nto Western herbal medicine as a valuable pain-relie ving and relaxtng herb. It is used for treating msomn1a , anx1ety and over-exc itability, and may be a useful remedy for aid�ng relaxatio n dunng times of tension and stress. Californ ian poppy allevtat es many types of pa1n, includi ng headac hes, nervou s cramp tng of he bowel, and rheum atic and nerve pai n



Substances known as alkaloids are responsible for the plant's sedatmg and pain-killing properties, and are similar to hose found 1n opium poppy, from which morph1ne and codeine are derived.

P0/1-U;r<I.Y, tluv J,(;ureh offXJ#;t' o� arf!/


6a.kedy;oci.Y. For the safe and appropriate use

therapeutic effect and are also regarded

of Californian and red poppy, consult

as non-habit forming.

your healthcare professional. Do not

Papaver rhoeas. Part used: petals. Despite being closely related to the opium poppy, the red or field poppy possesses


thr World IVar l llalliPIICid� around


no r t he r n F.uropc•. red m·


[ielrl pop pit'S lJIOomefl Cl rry\\ herr in I hr ravagrd eart h . Since thrn. t l1ry

hal P lJ come a symbol of �nnist icr or Rrmcmllrance Da:r on



each ye31'. John MrCrar wrotr i lle

However, the alkaloids that are found i n Californian poppy have a far gentler

R e m e m bra nce Oa�

follo11 ing porm 111 1 9 1 fi. l hl '

ildy after

he 11 iln s. eel lhP cfea t h of a frwnlf.

use these herbs if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.

none of its counterpart's potent narcotic

• C oo k i n g

effects. I nstead, it is used as a reliable

Poppy seeds are not narcotic and are

traditional remedy for soothing respiratory

widely liked for their flavor and crunchy

conditions that are associated with irritable

texture. They are popular in baked goods,

coughing and the presence of catarrh.

such as breads, cakes, pastries, muffins

Red poppy IS regarded as mildly sedating

and bagels. I n India, the seeds are g round

and can be useful for alleviating poor or

and used to thicken sauces. The seeds also

disturbed sleep.

feature in Jewish and German cooking.

On Novemberl l , Remembrance Day, wreaths of artificial fi�ld poppies are placed on war memorials in memory of the fallen.




l lw

poppirs blo11

BNwren Lh · c rosses. row on roll'.


mark our place: a nd

Thf larks. Scarrr

' l i l l l lra 1· e l �

in the s�y

·ioging. My

h ea rd am1d lhe guns below.

\o\e arr lhr droll. Short da�s agu \\ c

li1cd. frlt da11 n, sm1 sunset giOI\.

Lfll'ed. a nd 1\ P I'I' lOIN!, 311(! 11011 \�C

I n Fl


nc!ers field�.

Takl' u p our q u arrel \\ i l h I he for

To you from falling hands we t h rO\\ The torc h: he your. w h o l d It high If yr ureak

fa i l l l 11 .1th us 11 ho die

\\'(• shall not slec•p. though p o pple : ,g£'0\\ In lllanclrr · firld .

Red or field poppy (Papaver rhoeas)

M.lf"' John \lrr.r " . 1Rn- J H 1 1l

Prim ro s e a n d cows l i p

I n the

Primulo vulgons. P. v�ns Primu laceae

"'err u ed instrad or. or m1x d

c01, ' l i ps 1\ l'rr once l--. n011 n as "cOI\ Sioppr . .


u p po rdly d rop ned

pring u p 11 h c rc t he

fe l l .

• G a rde n i n g

a noor

helped to rna k

covering. The

u nplea ant odor . deter hou ehold pe t and. i t was belie\ed . protect against d i sea e. ccording to Thoma

Other commo n a m e Paigle (cowslip) Parts us d Leaves. flowers, roots

Pnmrose ( P. vulgaris) i s a perennial forming a basal rosette of oblong, rugose leaves. rom whtch spring a number of

tre"' ing herb

\\ tlh. rushes or straw a

in t h e bel ief I h a l Lhr� gre11

·· ' in cm1 dropping• . or as t h r leys of SL Petrr. \\ ho l he ke� . from hea1·e n . ca u ' i n g COl> , l i ps Lo

1 idrllf' o\ge .

1iJ •er ·

fhe Hundred Goorl Point. of /lu bandr:r ( 1 5 73). t he 2 1 strewing herb comprised: ·aas e l l l basi l ] .

pers1stent rufflike calyx; 'Hose in Hose:

Ba\1 Im e ! lemon bal m ] . Camamel

with a second flower emerging from the

lchamom i le l . Costemary lcostmary].

first; and the very attractive fully double

Cow l er and paggle

varieties such as 'Alba Plena; 'Double


Sulphur' and 'Miss Indigo:

Germander. lly op l h � sop].

! cow ltp ] .

i e o f a l l �orts. Sweet fennel.

stalked. solitary flowers with a sweet, fresh fragrance. The flowers are five­ petaled and pale golden yellow (rarely

• Position Primroses requtre a moist.

l .a\ender. La1cnder pike. Lavender

rich soil and l ight shade. while cowslips

colten I antolina ] . \la rjorom.

whtte), with a central cleft i n each petal.

prefer a well-drained drier site in ful l sun

�la\\ del in. Pen

The foliage of cowslips closely resembles

or light shade.

Ro�e of a l l nrts. Red myn l r . Sag .

that of primroses. but the smaller. golden

• Propagation Propagate cowslips and


yellow, sweetly scented flowers are borne

primroses by seed or by division. Stratify

tn clusters at the top of each flowering

the seed for 10 weeks to break dormancy

stem. well above the leaves. According to

(see page 44). Because of habitat loss and

\ 10IPl

ryall l pennyro a l ] .

. \\'inter avery.'

the English herbalist John Gerard, writing

over-harvesting of these plants, do not

coughs associated with some resp1ratory

in the 1 6th century, a tisane made from

gather them in the wild.

disorders. such as bronchitiS.

the flowers was drunk in the month of

• M a i ntenance M ulch the plants. Break

May to cure the "frenzie.'

up any clumps and replant well-rooted

For the safe and appropnate use of cowslip, consult a healthcare professional.

divisions every 2 years.

Do not use cowslip if you are pregnant

mentioned tn Tudor and Elizabethan

• Pests and diseases Leaf-eattng

or breastfeed1ng.

herbals. and are still available, tnclude 'Jack tn the Green; with a much enlarged

insects can damage plants. Rust may

Varieties Primrose varieties that are

infect leaves. and Botrytts can kill plants. • H a rvesting and storing Gather leaves and flowers i n spring to use fresh, and for use in preserves and wine. Before storing, a1r-dry flowers, leaves and roots (lifted in autumn).

I I rba l mecl i r i n r Pnmulo veris, P. officmalis. Parts used flowers. roots. Both the flowers and roots of cowslip have been used med1c1nally over t1me. The flowers are more commonly associated wi h relaxing and sedative properties and are used o treat nsomn1a and restlessness. They can also act as a valuable support1ve remedy tn 1mes of stress and tens1on. Trad1t 1onally, i t was believed that 1f you n1bbled on COwslips you would see fa�r�e s.



also rad1t1onally used o

alleviate catarrhal congestiOn and trrttable

Pu r s la n e Portulaca aleracea Por ulacaceae In C<' ll L U I'I<'s pel l. p u r ' l tl l l l ' \\ il S lw ld up as a c u re lo r " i l last i ngs IJ� .. l lgh l ll ! ng or p l a n l ' t " . L i k.c · a n u m i l !' l ' or '\l l'<'d:" contlc•m necl in m odPrn garri< ' n s . L h i s -; u cc u l l ' n l lwril li d S o n c e a p p r<'c i a lc fl a

a ·alafl. picklr

d i H I . d U L(t'd l l'g<' t a h l c . I t i .· 110\1 com ing hack. i n t o c u l i n a r

Parts u s

Leaves, stems

• G a rd e n i n g Purslane

fasll i o n .


a n annual hat grows to about

3 m. (7 em) h1gh and up to 1 . 5 h. (45 em) w1de, w1th soft trailing branches and wedge- to spoon-shaped, succulent green leaves. The ephemeral flowers are

P� JireAAJtv aroUJUI

6ed Wa!Y 6eJievetf to wan/ off wd J�Uri&



inconspicuous, five-petaled and yellow, while the seeds are tiny, spherical and

hem mto the soil, which should be kept

Purslane ( Portulaca oleracea)

black. Cultivated purslane is somet1mes

moist. Leh uncovered, they will germinate

sold as var. sativa. The leaves are ender and fleshy, with a slight crunchy texture.

rapidly. Dunng the growing season, trai l ing branches will root where they

Purslane has been used both as a food and

touch the ground; detach the rooted

favor as a culinary herb. You can cook it

a medic1ne in the Mediterranean basm,

tips and plant them out. In an area

in a similar manner to spinach. I n French

Purslane was popular in England 1n the E lizabethan era and is once again finding

India and China for thousands of years.

with a long growing season, you can

cooking, the fleshy leaves are used raw in

• Va rieties There

sow month ly.

salads, or cooked in equal amounts with

variety (var. aurea) with reddish stems.

• M a i ntenance For a tender, abundant

sorrel to make the classic soup bonne

• Position Purslane is found very widely

crop, keep the soil mo1st at all times. An

femme. They are sometimes included in

i n well-drained soils, growing i n ful l sun

occasional light application of liquid

fattoush, a Middle Eastern salad. Add a

to light shade.

seaweed fertilizer at the recommended

few leaves to the version of this dish

• Propagation Plant the seeds after

rate is also helpful.

featured on page 357. In Asia, purslane


a golden-leafed

he soil warms in spring. Barely press

Pur'Ia n 'h



4 'h



cups lb.


g ) purslan�. chopp�d


Cook purslane \\ l lh butter 1n Lock.


u n ti l potato L tender. lh n puree m a hlender. Sur tn garnhh


will deteriorate. Dry them

with garlic, chili and whole peppercorns.

Purslane makes an excellent pickle,

for decoct1ons.

spinach flavor and has been eaten for

fr�sh purslane, to garnish


using wine or apple cider vinegar spiced

thousands of years in India, where it

tabl�spoons cream

cowred pan .

• H a rvesting and storing Harvest fresh plants before flowering, or the flavor

Purslane has a slightly sour, salty, lemony

g) potatoes,

p��l�d and sliced


is used in stir-fries. Abonginal Australians used the seeds to make seed cakes.

• Coo k i ng

g) butt�r

(1 I)



• Pests and d iseases Slugs may be a problem.

ream. Lht'n

llh frr h pur lan .

grows wild. It is the leaves that are most commonly used, but the roots, flowers and seeds are also edible. The plant contains mucilage, giving the palate a glutinous sensation and also serving to thicken such dishes as soups and sauces. Blanching reduces both the mucilage and the jellylike leaf texture.

Rich in vitamins A, C and E, purslane is consider�d one of the future 'power foods:

Re d c l ov e r

Trifolium pro tense Fabaceae

Red cltM'J' ha. been an i m po r ta n t agri c u l t u ra l l'or'Cig(' a n t i i n r r t hr � l r<ltl ll' i\ge, . Til<' p l a n t

rr r l i l i l� -impro\ i n g CI'OP

cant in, ph� toe t rogC ' n s a n d i: i n c re a s i ng! a rneclirin a l hrrh . pa rl icu l a r l

i m pol'l a n L a �

for m r nopa u s a l .y m pto ms.

(' ., c Meadow honeysuckle, meadow trefoil, purple clover, wild clover p s i Flowers, young leaves

• G a rd e n i n g

curry powders. Medicinally, it is used

Red clover is a shor -lived European

under professronal supervision to help

perennial now wide! grown as a valuable forage crop. In common wr h o her clovers,

manage blood sugar 1n pat1ents with

White clover

d iabetes, and as a cholesterol-lowering

( Trifolium rep�ns)


rogen-fixing bactena rn its root nodules



atmospheric nrtrogen mto the

agent. See Spices. page 138. • Varieties There are about 300 spec1es

These days, the most common medicmal

plant and significantly improve soil fertility.

of clover, Including the beautiful crimson

appl1catron for red clover centers around

The plants form a creeping groundcover

clover (T. incarnatum), an important forage

the use of isolated compounds known as

wrth stalked tnfoliate leaves, each leaflet

crop that is also used in herbal crafts and

isoflavones that come from the leaves

mar ed wrth a cen ral pale arrowhead. The

planted for roadsrde erosron control, and

and flowers. These compounds have been

stalked mflorescences are dense and club­

white clover ( T repens), which is likewise

shown to possess mild oestrogenic

shaped, composed of many pink to purple

an excellent fodder crop. I also has similar

act1v1ty, and clinical studies suggest that

pea flowers, which are rich rn nectar.

culinary uses to red clover, and IS used as

they can allev1a e many of the symptoms

a tisane (flowers only).

associated with menopause.

Closely related species include lucerne or alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and fenugreek

• Position Red clover prefers a light soil,

(Tngonel/a faenum-groecum). The latter rs

good dra1nage, a cool to mild spring and

an rmportant spice, partrcularly

full sunlight.

Do not use red clover if you are pregnant

• Propagation Sow seed i n spring.

or breastfeedrng.



• M a i ntenance Keep plants weed-free. • Pests and d iseases Powdery mildew can be a problem dunng dry weather. In


teac h mgs or St.

clo1 er' trifolial!'

Patrick. the

lra w

( from

thP Latm cri. mran111g -Lhfl'l' . - a n d

fulwm. - l ea n � mholi r· d t h r l luly Trm1ty - the doct rrne t h t God 1s the Father. Son and l lol


- and became t h t' shamrock ol Ireland. A l t hough the 1 · the

Crl t r(

offici al ·}mho l nf I rr•lancl .

Lhr . ham rock 1 t hl' jlOpu lar ymi.Jol of •


ha rp

Patrick' oa1.

lh� fou r-l�af�d

clov�r 15

an abwation of

T. r�p�ns.

• H a rvesting and storing Harvest red clover up to 3 trmes in a growrng season. Harvest he leaves when young; use the flowers fresh or dned.

l lcrhal med i c i ne Tflfolium pratense. Parts used: flowers, isolated 1soflavone compounds. Red clover flowers have been used tradrtronally, both internally and externally, as a remedy for the treatment of chronrc skin condi rons such as eczema and psonasrs. particularly rn chrldren Taken as a n infusion or syrup of the flowers, red clover also alleviates the coughrng assocrated wrth some resp11atory conditrons, such as bronchrtrs.

For the safe and appropriate use of red clover, consult a healthcare professional.

Ro c ke t o r a r u g u l a Eruca sattva syn. Eruca vestcana subsp. sativa Brassicaceae \ ,l l i \ t' to l i H· \ i t ' ' l l < ' IT<I IH'd l l l la s l n a n d e a '> l \\ a rd t o Turh.r\ a n c l .lor(l a n . roch.t • l h d \ I H ' t ' l l J H l J H I I d l a s d sc� l a c l grcc•n s i nce d ll C i t ' l l l Roman t i m e s lor i t c1

P<'PP<'I'\ . -. m ol-.. � . ITH' d l � rlm o r. 1·:\ t'n no\\ . i t L : t i l l ·omr l i m rs "n 0\\ 11

Komt�n rndt · t . "1 ltal1an cress, Roman rocket, rucola, rugula Leaves, flowers, seeds

and contain s1miliar isoth1ocyanate compounds to horseradish (Armaracia rusticana) and wasabi ( Wasabiajapanical ; see page 64. The leaves add considerable flavor to other salad greens, wh1le the piquantly flavored, four-petaled white flowers can be added to salads. The small round seeds are borne in siliquas (which are seed capsules that separate when ripe). Tall rocket or tumbling mustard

Wild rock�t (Diplotox•s tenuifo/10)

Rock�t or arugula ( Eruco sativa)

raquette sauvage are usually Diplotaxis tenuifolia syn. Brassica tenuifolia, a species with yellow flowers and eaves

(5isymbrium altissimum), London rocket

that resemble a more slender version of

(5. irio) and Mediterranean rocket or

rocket. The flavor is more intense.

smooth mustard (5. erysimoides) all have

• Position Plant rocket in full sun in

a peppery flavor. Sweet rocket or dame's

the cooler months, but in midsummer

violet ( Hesperis matronalis), sometimes

provide some light shade. Rocket is quite unfussy otherwise, thriving i n average

• G a rd e n i n g

confused w1th rocket, is a popular old­ fashioned garden flower that resembles

garden so1l, while wild arugula reqUires

Rocket (Eruca sativa) is an annual plant

a tall single stock with purple or white

s1m1lar condit1ons.

resembling an open lettuce, w1th deeply

evening-scented flowers.

pinnately lobed (occas1onally entire) leaves that are aromatic and peppery,

Plants that are sold as wild rocket or wild arugula or Ruchetta selvatica or

• Propagation Sow rocket in success1ve plantings each month, from spring to autumn, because it tends to run to flower

Grown 1n the Mediterranean area since Roman t1mes, rocket has only been cultivated commercially since the 1 990s.

Rock�! or arugula (fruco sat1va)

fairly easily. If 1t doesn't self-seed in your garden, carry out monthly plantings to maintam your supplies. • Maintenance Weeding, providing shade protection in midsummer and regular watering are required. •

Pests and diseases Flea beetles

can be a problem, and some butterfly



IJitan-vilv c

tUU/ irotl/, rocket

.VinutlatetY fhe, �itt?/ tUU/ aMidt.Y rl�iotv.

laNae may eat leaves. •

Harvesting and storing Pick rocket

oo k i n g

Ro m a n ' a l a d The Roman, con 1drred r o ket a n aphrodisiac n u t t heir recipe for a

mixed ·alacl of rocket. w i tlor. cos lettuce. la1entler and tender m a l lo11 lea1es w 1 t h chee ·e

ancl dre sing 1

urflciently seducli1e in it. ow n righ t .

leaves before flowering. Harvest the

A member of the same plant family as

\ modern t a ke o n t h i s �a lad i

flowers as required for fresh use. and

cabbage and broccoli, rocket has a tangy,

si m ply ctres.·rtJ 11 1 t h good o l i 1 e 0 1 1 .

collect seeds when ripe.


peppery flavor when grown during he

1Ja 1·am1c l'inegar and some shm ing

cool sprmg and autumn months, but a

or panne ·an cheese.

stronger, mustardlike taste 1f harvested during summer. The leaves are best gathered before flowering, after which they become more bitter. Wash rocket well and store 1t i n the refrigerator 1 n the same way you would lettuce. This salad herb goes well with other salad leaves to make a m1xed salad or mesclun ( see Salad greens 1n the box, nght); the younger leaves tend to have a milder flavor, but old leaves can be bitter Rap1dly saute or steam rocket for use m pasta and risotto dishes, st1r-fries. soups and sauces, or to replace basil 1 n pesto. Rocket needs only the br1efest cooking. Add a scattenng of the fresh

For a salad 11 1 1 h morr rotor. nmor and

herb as a traditional topp1ng for pizzas

n u t ri l lonal 1al ue. l r\ t omllinl llg

at the end of bak1ng

a selrcl lon of

The Anc1ent Romans used rocket seeds to flavor oil and to concoct aphrodisiacs. Plan t rock�t in spring and autumn. In summer, you'll n��d to provide som� shad�.

Sa l a d gl' • e n

The seeds make excellent sprouts and are also pressed for oil.


greens Roc�ct.

1111Wna . 1\ illt'll'l' l'ss and r u r l \ rntll\l' d l'l' a i J l l l llft' llUll'ii iOlls l hctll ft' l l liCt'. I n cnmhl nallnn . t ill'\ h,l\ l' a slig h t ly lll t trr t a s l t ' .

Ro s e Rosa sp. Rosaceae Tlw ccl i l llc• pelc� l s of h<'rhal rosc•s m a �e <l<' l icious consr n rs a n d a re usecl i n

·alar! -; a n d di'.'SC' r t s . \v h J if' t h e pf'Lals of s o m e va ric l irs yirl<l t h e fa bulously l'\pc• n s i \ e d n d richly fragra n t a ll a r o f rosrs used i n pe rfu mer�. Both t he m:C ' h i p'l a n c l I H' t a l 'l fi nd many usc's in eosmel ics.


Petals, rose h i ps

Rosa rugosa 'Frau Dagmar Hastrup'

• G a rd e n i n g

other roses, the fragrance m the petals is

Other long-favored roses for the

Herbal roses. not modern ones - fragrant

strongly retained after drying. The petals

herb garden include the Gallica roses

and beautiful though they are - are the

are tonic and astnngent, and were used

'Tuscany' ['Old Velvet'). 'Belle Isis;

roses of choice for cooking, fragrance and

by many physicians, includmg the great

'Duchesse de Montebello' and 'Belle

herbal medic1nes.

Arab doctor Avicenna.

de Crecy; together with the Cent1folia rose

'Apothecary Rose'

were manufactured into conserves,

The most famous herbal rose is R. gallica

jellies, syrups, cordials, pastilles, fragrant

Atta r of roses

'Offici nails; sometimes called the 'Rose

perfumes, salves, creams and candles,

Today, the major producers of rose

of Miletus; the 'Rose of Provins; the 'Red

all products still favored today.

products and the extremely expensive

I n Provins, the petals of 'Officina lis'

'Reine des Centfeuilles:

Rose of Lancaster' and 'Champagne Rose';

'Officinal is' was grown in monastery

perfume concentrate attar (otto) of roses

(see also The Wars of the Roses and 'Rosa

gardens throughout Europe. The petals,

are Iran and Bulgaria. Both reg1ons grow

Mundi' features, opposite page).

either administered as a tea or a syrup,

the Damask rose (R x damascena),

were used to treat the common cold,

'lspahan' and 'Gioire de Guilan' being

The 'Apothecary Rose' was cultivated in vast fields around the famous town of

inflammation of t!:Je digestive tract and

favored in I ran and 'Kazanlik' syn.

Provins, 30 mi. (50 km) southeast of Paris,

hysteria. A decoction was used to treat

'Trigintipetala' in Bulgaria. The area

from the 1 3th to the 1 9th century. Unlike

sprains, chapped lips and sore throats.

around Grasse in France still produces

The single-flowered vanet1es of Rugosa rose (R. rugosa), with their abundant, repeat-flowenng habit, and tolerance of cold and seaside locations. bear clusters of plum-size hips that are excellent for use 1n syrups and teas. Rosehip oil, also known as rose mosqueta, is very rich m essential fatty ac1ds and has multiple benefits for the skm. Th1s oil, an antioxidan t and astringen t that conta1ns flavono1ds and carotenoids, is prepared from the h i ps of both R. canma and R. eglanteria.

Rosthips of Rosa rugosa

IIH' · \pollii'C&\ Ro. 'OfiiCn lillls.'



Rosa f?iJ/IIC,I m t rodun· !l

h a l l ' brrn

from t ht' \l idtlll' l·;c�,l 1111o \\rstt>rn t-: u ro pr hy t lu • Cru,a!l ers In l·:nglan d. 1 1 ll!'rarrw tht• '� m i lo ! of lh!' l lousc• of Lanr;ts tc•t' tn t ill' \\ars of

L hC' Ros1•s

( 1 l!i'i 1 I H 7 l . Tht• opposmg I louse• uf \or� <.�doptl'd t il!' anrwnt em H.IouhiC' \lim rcN'. 'The \\ ilttt' Ro sr

( R a lba

of York'

·sctnt-plc nc�' l. �� h i l l' t h1•

Jarohttc•s dw ·1· th<' lull� d o u h l r \\ h ich Rns('


the Jarohtlt'

h1·rc�mc• kncmn a

(R ai/Ja l'lcnal AI

t h r l'ntl

of the \l t�rs. l l l'nrv \ I I. th<' fa l hrr o f l l1'nr� \ I l l . comlmwcl L h l'm m to the Tudor Rosl'. usual!\ dt•ptctl'tl as a

Rosa gollica 'Tuscany'

douhlt• rcN' I\ t i l l ll htte on red. otll' of

attar, which •s derived ma.nly from

• M a i ntenance Old roses are very

the very fragrant 'Old Cabbage Rose' IR. cenrifolia). A small amount comes

tough and need not be pruned or sprayed.

from he Alba rose and the Damask rose

so immediately after flowering ceases

'Qua re Sa •sons:

because they flower on ripe wood. Apply

Position The herbal roses prefer full

sun, although he Alba roses are the most shade tolerant of all roses. •

Propagation Most of the herbal roses

llw s� m i Jo l s of t ht• I I oust'



If you w1sh to prune them for shaping, do

mulch 1n summer. • Pests and d iseases The varieties mentioned above recover rap•dly from any attack and can be grown without

flower only once a year but extremely abundantly over a month. 'Ouatre Sa,sons'

sprays, while rugosa roses such as

•s repeat owenng. Rugosa roses are h•ghly

remarkably disease-resistant.

repea flowenng over a long season.

• Harvesting and storing Harvest

'Frau Dagmar Hastrup' and 'Alba' are

AI respond to the mcorporat1on of well­

herbal roses when they have JUSt opened,

rotted compost, but avo1d usmg modern fast-release fer ilizers.

on sunny mornings as soon as the dew has dried. To dry, spread the flowers on flyscreen-covered frames out of direct sunligh . Harvest the hips when fully colored and dry in the same way as the flowers.

This portrait of Edward VI of England ( 1 537-1 553). the son of Henry VIII, shows the Lancaster and York roses combining to form the Tudor rose.

IJV Brit-a.iA'v,

clur� Wortd War IL iLd ro�



hart�eaied to �£!/ w Rosa x domosc�no 'Kazan lik; a Damask rose

tJit-� C � �r cJuldre�v.

Tlw rildlnlllll!

Rrh./ 1!.1111< .1 ·\n

u o l ot '

01 'Ro ·a lll lllltlt' ['ro't' ol l l u • 1\ orld ' l .

ts lldllll'd lo1 Rn s .t fll l l l t d

C l t lluJtl.

n· l u r t . t n t l l l l s t n•,, "' I knn


En:,:l.uu i JII t il • ·

.lfll'll'll l

f il i i

'''llll·d lluhlt·

\\ h i l t

1 2 1 1 1 n·nl lll\ \ 1 1

I 1 1! 'l lf!Jnn.t hs,' I I bt•.trs dt•t•p f l lll� h l 1 1o m . up to

.l.i 111 l ! l nnl Ill

t hl'

I I . "-1111!

,u·"'" ·

l l lt'gUid l

\l i t h p,J11• f l l l t �

l l l f ll ' '.


Con t1nued

ll<'rhal nwclicine R oso canma. Part used Rose h1ps. The hips of dog rose con tam notable leve ls of vita m m C, and can be taken as a tea or syrup m winter to help fig ht off common colds and flus. Because of their slightly drying nature, roseh1ps have also been used to reduce symptoms of diarrhoea. Medicmal preparations of rosehip, mainly n powdered form, have been the focus of recent scient1fic research for the treatment of osteoar hri ic conditions. The

'Retne des Centfeutlles; a Centtfolta rose

results of clinical tnals suggest that it may reduce symptoms of pain and stiffness. For the safe and appropnate medicmal use of roseh 1 ps, consult your healthcare

the skin; 1t 1s espwally useful for chapped

\round the hom

skin and may also be used in soothmg

Place Rose and lavender pot-pourri !see

professional, and also see Pregnancy,

preparations for eye i n fectiOns, such

page 284) m bowls around your home.

page 236. Do not use rose h 1 ps 1n g reater

as COnjunctiVItiS.

than cui mary q ua ntities if you're pregnan o r breastfee d i ng, except u nder the superv1sion of a professional.

The essential od has ant1 -agmg effects

The h1ps (fruits) and pe als of some

and sensitive skms as well as to reduce

varieties of roses - 1ncluding R. canina,

the appearance of fine wrinkles.

• \atural be a ut�

C oking

and may be used 1n preparattons for dry

To make beauty products using the

R. x damascena and R gal/ica- are edible. The petals can be crystallized and

Rosewater distilled from the petals is a

rose, see Three roses moisturizer, page 247,

used for decoration, to make rose petal

fragrant and m ildly astr1ngent ton1c for

and Rose-petal bath bags, page 268.

Jam, or (w1th the b1tter 'heel' at the base of the petals removed) added to salads. See recipe for Rose-petal Jelly, page 376. Rosehips are high in vitamm C and can be made into Jams, Jellies or a syrup that se rves as a dietary supplemen for bab1es.

�osl'\\illl'r. a tJ�-produC'l nf I he cllslill1ng process

Ras el hanout, the Moroccan sp1ce

tlwt ma�r·s

blend !see page 368), has many vanations,

1nst• oil from rosr 1wtal�. 1s an

some of which contain dned rose petals

Jmporldnt fl m o r mg

and flower buds.

lfl \lidt lil


Easlt·rn rooking.

II 1 U'of'd rm•

some \Siiln and

lultllf• !<:� ·rrrn

s\\t'f'ls. In c l ud i ng 1)1rkJsh l ll' l i � h l. dlld till' ra�gulla' dlld gu l diJ 1amun

of l 1 11han rookmg a

'l)n kl\li'liglll is

\I i r k�. Jf'll)o-like but linn s\\l'rl.

madl' from s tarr h and sugdJ. II 1s

li<HIIIIflllal l\ \\Jlf'f



f!Ct\OJ'I'rl \\ llh


gc•nt•ruu I� rluslf•d \\llh

'ugar: otht·r

l ld\01 s


II'JlltHI and mini Till' s\\l't'l \\Js lrllfltdlll t•d IO 1111' c 1' 111111


\\ lit•n



\\t'SI Ill 1111' 10111

� od wa.cY tradilw� uJUI

to tUWW Brilidv

nwn,arclw rlurinf t'luY

corotudwtl/ cerWUJfUJ"

l'lril l sll lllilll. \\ lio

\\11 lond ul 11. liippt•d



Opposite· The beauttful Rosa conmo is a source of rosehip oil, whtch has benefits for the sktn.

Ro s e mary Rosmonnus offionolis Lamiaceae i"<'\\ lll' r l l s are us u nh<' rsa ll� gro\\ 11 d ll d loved a s ros<'mar�. Tlwn• ell'<' a n urn l>l'r or varie t ies a \ a i laiJic a n d J'<ls<'lll dl\ ll d S mdn� gdrdl'n uses. l rom hedgi ng. ·pi l im < ' rs dJH I pot s to gro u n dco\ t'J'S and to p i a ry. The n • lrt>.' h i ng n's i no u s sc< ' n l a ncl nmor of ils rvergrren fnlidgc i: i n d i s prnsa hlt' in cook i n g .

Compass plant, dew of the sea, incensier, Mary's mantle Leaves, flowering tops

• G a rden i ng Rosmorinus means "dew of the sea," and

to one species, R. officina/is. There are

in the wild this herb is most commonly

two other species that are both rare -

found growmg on sea cliffs a round the

R. eriocolyx and R. tomentosus, from

Mediterranean. Despite the i r different

southern Spain and north-western Africa,

forms and colors, all the rose m a ry

which have not entered general cultivation.

varieties offered in n urseries belong

Rosemary flowers vary from pale to rich blue, violet, mauve, pink or white. The form vanes, from rounded bushes and prostrate varieties to columnar varieties up to 10 ft. (3 m) tall. The majority are well suited to culinary uses. All are evergreen with small, dense, narrow, pointed leaves. • Varieties Recommended tall varieties include 'Tuscan Blue' syn. 'Erectus; with large leaves; the delightfully scented 'Portuguese Pink; with pink flowers; and 'Sawyer's Selection: Among the most intense ly blue­

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officina/is)

flowered bush forms are 'Collingwood Ingram' syn. 'Majorca' and 'Benenden

g rowing, superbly fragrant 'Gorizia;

Blue; 'Salem; 'Blue Lagoon; 'Severn Sea;

introduced into gene ral cultivation by

'Corsican Blue; the violet bl ue-flowered

Tom DeBaggio from the city of Gorizia

'Miss Jessup's Upright; 'Suffolk Blue; the

in northern Italy.

excellent ' Herb Cottage' and the strong-

Pin k-flowered bush forms include 'Pink;

Itv Wortd War II, roJUn,ar� teave:Y

ad� 6errie!Y werf!/ 6urner/ i#v ?rencJv. lwJ!Ufak

dunng exams to improve their concentration.

to kdtp�

'Majorca Pink' and 'Provence Pmk: while white-flowered forms include 'Wendy's Wh1te' syn. 'Upright White: 'Sissinghurst

often first seen as browning of the leaf t1ps. Porous clay pots are preferable to plastic because they allow the soil to drain properly. Regular light trimm1ng allows good aeration of the foliage and inhibits

White' syn. 'Albus'

fungal wilts. Other problems, largely

and 'Nancy Howard:

associated with overwintering plants in

��--� forms 1deal for


greenhouses, mclude spider mites, white flies and mealybugs (see page 170).

trailing over walls

• Harvesting a n d storing In milder

include the glossy­

climates, take clippings of rosemary any

leafed, mid-blue 'Lockwood de Forest; ' Fota Blue: the very fine-leafed 'Mason's Finest; sky-blue­ flowered 'Prostratus: 'Santa Barbara; 'Huntington Carpet' and the

time of the year, then air-dry in a well ­ ventilated place. When completely dry, strip the whole leaves from the stems and store 1n airtight bottles. Major harvesting should be done before flowering. Gather fresh flowers to use as a garnish on salads and desserts.

J l u ngary \va ter Until t h l ' invcntloll o f


a u-de-cologne.

n•cipe wa · Eu rope's favorite

fragrance. but it


became popu lar

as a c u rr-a l l remedy for everyth ing tomach

from d1zzm s . rheu matism. cramp

and hcada hes to indige t i on

and lack of appelltr. The 1 111ention

1 unclear. but

tory of its ll i

though t

that. in t he 13th centu ry. a h rmit ga1e the recipe

lO Q u r n I abella of

Hungar . whose legs were cri ppled 11 ith rheumall m. DallY bat h ing in this water wa

a1d to have re tared

her leg and al o her youthful beauty. Later add i t ions to the form ula included

thyme. sage. m ini and ma rjoram.

beautiful 'Shimmering Stars; with pink buds and blue flowers. Variegated leaf forms currently

Her bal m dicine Rosmarinus officina/is. Parts used: leaves,

available include 'Genges Gold; 'Gilded'

flowering tops. The medicinal properties

syn. 'Aureus' and the white-margined

of rosemary as a tonic and stimulant to

'Silver Spires: The varieties 'Arp; 'Severn

the nerves and circu lation make it a

Sea' and 'Madeleine Hill' syn. 'Hill Hardy'

popular remedy for combating general

are more cold-resistant than most.

fatigue and depression, and for i m proving

poor circu lation. Rosemary also enhances

Position This plant requires fu ll

sunshine and excellent drainage.

memory and concentration by increasing

Rosemary is tolerant of a range of pH,

blood flow to the head.

from moderately acid to moderately alkaline soil, although the latter resu lts

infusion, the essential oil is commonly

While rosemary can be taken as an

in more compact growth and intense fragrance. In colder areas, grow plants

used for these conditions. A few drops


in a little vegetable oil and applied

pots outdoors, then take them into the greenhouse in winter. Rosemary is

can be added to a vaporizer or diluted topically for its beneficial effects.

excellent for seaside plantings.

uses lavender, rosemary

and myrtle, but other herbs can

• Propagation Propagate rosemary by tip cuttmgs taken in early autumn or sprmg. Rosemary seed germmat es poorly, and plants do not come true to variety.

In th1

be added.

l l ungar:r water recipe.

a "handful"

L Lht' number of 1-ft.

(30-cm) lengths ol herb '>tt•ms that can be en C i rc l ed h) the han<l

• Mainte na nce Regular light pruning helps to shape plants. Bushes respond well to clipping and shaping , and make excellent topiari es. Correct mulch ing IS

essenti al, because organi c mulche s tend to hold moistu re near the main stem as well as he lower foliag e, encou rag1ng a number of funga l rots. For this reason, gravel, coarse gritty sand or small pebbles


qt. (4.5 I) brandy or clear spirit


handful flowering rosemary tops


handful lavender


handful myrtle

\. u tlht' herbs mto

l-111. 12 :i-crn)

length' dnd leaH' to macrratr 1'01 d

mmimum of 2 1\rt·b lll'fon• fil tt•rmg.

are the mos suitable mulch.

• �sts and diseases Overwatered potted rosemary is very prone to root rot,

The basic formula

Prostrate rosemary IS ideal for hang1ng baskets.

ffi a ry



Used e ·ternally, rosemary essential

Ros1•mar� ha a strong a

oil can be applied in a diluted form to rel1eve m uscle cramps and arthritic

1�hrn the

JOin pa1n. It also has a reputation for

ramil) was nreing oldi�r •. 1\.la�


hrr biU(' loak mer a �,�;llltr-flo\\.ermg

stimulating ha1r growth.

ro ·ema� hu h to dr). but when shr

Rosemary 1s regarded as a traditional

remmrd the cloak. the 11h11e flo11rr

d igestive remedy and, when taken as an 1


from l lerod'·

preventing prema u re baldness and



1\llh the \irglll Mary. lt1:> aid that.

had turnrr1 hlur m ber honor. '\1 o

can help to ease cramping,

a sonatrd 11 1th ancirnt magical lore.

bloat1ng and gas, and may ease "liverish"

rosemary was oflrn calll'd 'Elf Lraf.'

symptoms, such as headaches and poor

and IJunche' or 11 11 rrr hung around

digest1on of fats.


For the safe and appropriate medicinal

to ke p thielt'� and

11 itches

out and to pn'\ent fa1rie5 from

use of rosemary, consult your healthcare

entenng and . tealmg 1nfant .

p rofessional. Also, see Memory and concen ration, page 213, for external use. Do not use rosemary m g reater than culinary quantities if you a re pregnant or breastfeeding.

\round the home Rosemary 1s one of the mam ingredients m the famous antiseptic Vinegar of the Fou r Th1eves, page 110, and can be used m

l2oJUn,ar;r few �e/.Y

(Vfayad� r� prrlark� 6runett� hair.

a number of ways around the home.

• Make a simple rosemary disinfectant

1 tablespoon bicarbonate of soda and 5 drops rosemary essential oil.

small stems in water for 30 minutes.

• Use dried rosemary in moth-repellent

Strain and pour mto a spray bottle. and combs by soaking them in a solut1on of 1 cup (250 m l ) hot water,

The leaves have a rather woody texture, so use them finely chopped. Alternatively, use whole sprigs, or tie leaves in a square of muslin, and remove just before servmg. Dried rosemary has a flavor similar to that of fresh, but 1ts very hard texture may not

by simmering a handful of leaves and

• Disinfect and deodor1ze hairbrushes

and stews, or steeped in vinegaror olive oil to flavor them.

sachets and m pot-pourri. • Use a rosemary rinse on your dog

soften, even on long cooking. Rosemary is popular in Italian cookery. Make a simple and delicious pizza toppmg with thinly sliced potatoes, crushed garlic and chopped fresh rosemary leaves.

after washing to deter fleas. • Wash your pet's bedding, then add a few drops of rosemary essential oil to the final rinse. O r, spritz your pets with rosemary disinfectant as they dry themselves in the sun after a bath.

• Cooking The bruised leaves of rosemary have a cooling pinelike scent, with mint and eucalyptus overtones, and the strong taste can overwhelm other flavors if used too generously. It complements similarly strong flavors such as wine and garlic; starchy foods (bread, scones, potatoes); rich meats such as lamb, pork, Rostmary stems, stripped of most of their leaves and used as skewers for fish, meat or vegetables cooked on the barbecue, will impart their flavor.

duck and game; vegetables such as eggplants, zucchini and brassicas; and is also used m sausages, stuffings, soups

You can crystallize the flowers of rosemary with egg white and caster sugar (see page 3801.

St. John's wo rt Hypericum perforatum Clusiaceae (Guttlferae)

CJ'h•ilrnllng th(' s u mmr r sol. tict·. Lhl' lnngr�t tla� of lhr �Par. 1. a ragan ft•stilalrhat's still ohsrr\C'tl

n·atfitinnall�. golden-floi\Ct-e<l St. John\ 1\0I'l \\a, hung O\t'r entrances and

ca t nn mid�tnnmrr nre: as an hcrll of great pr·otcction and purilicalion. lbdaJ. it i, ·till the s rnhnl of midsulllllll'l' :nl ·ticc Ct'IPI>r<rtions in l·:uropc.

Part us

wlla\. Tradilronall�. parlllJJlanh

IIOUid enst St. John\ wort onto ,1 honflrr and

then IUfllll ml'r it

Ill clcansr the bod� of


II spirit�.

St. John· 110rt fiOIIC'rs lll'rt:' al'iO

Flowering tops

p l arl'd a1Jo1r rrligrous imngc•s 10

d�tt•r C\il on tht' tldV.

• Gardening

disorders such as anxiety and depressron,

Hypericum is a very large genus of about

St. John's wort con inues to be used for

400 species. H. perforatum rs a hardy,

these conditions but these days is best

partrally woody perennial, an upright

known for rts antidepressan actrvity

growmg, unpleasant smelling, clumpmg

St. John's wort has been proven to

plant that can reach 1 m high. Its small,

be effective against mild to moderate

premenstrual syndrome. for obsessrve compulsive disorder and also for seasonal affectrve drsorder. Laboratory studres have shown that

smoo h, oval leaves have numerous tiny

depression in a large number of clinical

oil glands, borne in opposite pairs along

trials. It was found to have similar

the stems. The small golden yellow

effectiveness to other antidepressant

pai n - relievrng and a n trviral activity. A tea

flowers are borne in large dense cymes in

medicatron but with fewer side ef ects.

or extract taken internally as well as the external use of the red oil prepared from

St John's wort possesses anti-inflammatory,

midsummer. The small, ovoid seed capsule

Two compounds, hypericin and hyperforin,

contains round black seed. The crushed

are believed to work rn a similar manner

the flowers can relieve sciatica. shrng les,

ewers ooze a red, bloodlike pigment

to pharmaceutrcal antidepressants, and

cold sores, genrtal herpes and rheuma rc

contai nmg hypericin. Do not confuse St.

many preparatrons using St. John's wort

pain. Toprcally, the oil is also a valuable

John's wort w;th the many ornamental

are produced to contarn a ixed level of

wound- and burn-healing remedy

Hypericum varieties grown i n gardens.

these constituents.

Position This plant is easy to grow in a

Clinical trials of S . John's wort also

For the safe and appropnate use of S . John's wort, see Depression and anxiety,

well-dramed, moist to fairly dry soil rn fu ll

suggest a benefiCial use for treating

page 277. Do not use St. John's wort rf you

sun o ligh shade. It's recommended for ornamental meadows, but consrdered a

mood symptoms of menopause and

are pregnant or breastfeeding.

weed toxic to livestock; it's under statutory control 1n Australia and New Zealand. • Propagation Sow seed as soon as rt is npe rn autumn (under protectron m colder areas), or in the followmg sprmg. Germrnation can take up to 3 months.

You can also drvrde the runners er her m autumn or spring.

Maintenance It is a strong g rower

requiring little tendrng.

• •

Pests and diseases None worth notrng. Harvestin g and stori ng Harves the

lowerin g heads 1n early summer, when buds commence openin g, and dry them.

I I r bal mcdi inc

Hypericum per aratum. Part used. flowen ng tops. Tradit ronall used y for treatrng nerve pain, rncluding neuralgr

and sciatica as well as psych ologrc al


Sage Salvia sp. Lam1aceae There are more than 700 'pecics of 'al\'ia . man of them spectacular ''hen in flO\\ er. and a number '' ith lea\

that arr ,·ariou�'l� scented ''ith pineapple. grap s.

tan erine. grapefruit. ani� r. honr� melon or fruit alacl . al\'ia flO\\ cr attract hullerflie p rt


ancl necLar- ipping bird

Leaves, roots, seeds, flowers

• G a rd r n i n g

In addition to the

Com m o n o r g arden sage (5. officina/is)

common form of

is one of the best-known culinary herbs,

garden sage, there

but there are also many ornamental species,

are handsome broad­

all with small, lipped flowers in delightful

leaf varieties, such as

shades, from white to dark purple.

'Berggarten; and

A subshrub native to the Dalmatian

colored-leaf forms,

Coast, common sage has silver-gray

such as the purple-leafed

elliptical leaves and spikes of attractive

'Purpurea'; the cream-,

lavender, pink or white flowers. It is a

pink- and purple-variegated 'Tricolor';

pleasantly pungent culinary herb, which

and gold- and gre�n-variegated 'lcterina:

also aids digestion.

Three-leafed sage (5. fruticosa), native to Greece and Turkey, closely resembles garden sage except that most leaves are subtended by a basal pair of leaflets. The d ried leaves are often sold as 'garden

Common sage

(Salvia officina/is)

sage: A hybrid between this species and garden sage, known as 'Newe Ya'ar; is

used by Native Americans as a flavoring,

cultivated commercially in Israel.

medicinally to reduce mucous formation

Spanish sage (5. /ovondu/ifo/ia), also

and salivation, and for smudge sticks

known as lavender sage, resembles a

in purification ceremonies.

narrow-leafed garden sage. It has a

The golden chia (5. columbariat:), an

lavender-and-sage fragrance, and its

annual, is native to the southwestern

oil is extracted for toiletries.

United States. Like chia (5. hispanica),

Clary sage or muscatel sage (5. scloreo), a bienn ial, is one of the most beautifu l sages, forming a large rosette o f broadly ovate, pebble-textured leaves and sending up tall dense spikes of l a rge pink flowers. The leaves add a muscatel flavor to a diverse range of liq ueurs, vermouths and w ines, while the essential oil is used in perfumery. In water, the seeds become mucilaginous, and were once used to remove specks from the eyes. White sage (5. apiana) is a silver-leafed, Usc the pineapple-scented leaves of pineapple sage

(5. �l�gans syn. 5. rutilans)

to flavor drinks.

rosette-shaped subshrub native to south­ western North America. The leaves are

Thr root or rrd root agr or

dan hen {S. milliorrhiza)

staple crop by the Aztecs until colonization

25 g buurr in large frying pan over

that are gluten-free, very rich in omega-3

moderate heat. Add I finely chopped

fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid), and high

onion and 2 finely chopped celery

in anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals and

talks. Cook about I 0 minute . until

fiber. A third chia, 5. polystachya, is also

oft. Rem01·e from heal and tran fer to

nutritionally valuable.

a bowl . Stir in I 'I; cup (I 00 g) fre h

Diviner's sage (5. divinorum) exists only in cultivation and has been used for many

\1 hite


I lightly beaten egg. Mix well to

bmd the mixture:

and promote spiritual healing. Despite sensationa lized media reports, it is neither LSD-Iike in action nor a "party drug."

ea on generou ly

with salt and pepper. Allow luffing

to cool completely.

e it to tuff a

turkey. Alternatively. u e mixture

It is generally understood to be non­

lO loo el� tuff a large chicken and

addictive, and toxicological studies have

cook remaining Luffing in a bullered

shown it to be non-toxic. The plant is a


baking di h. putting it in the oren

prohibited substance in Australia, South

the Ia l 30 minute or the chicken

Korea, Belgium, Italy and Denmark. In France, clary sage (5. scloreo) is cultivat�d and the essential oil �xtracted for perfumery.

cookmg time. To a\ oid the ri k or rood poi oning. do not tuff poultry until you are ready 10 cook it. To vary the

(5. elegans syn. 5. rutilans) has slender spikes of red flowers and pineapple­

California species, Cleveland sage

scented leaves used to flavor drinks

(5. clevelandii).

and garnish desserts. Others include its variety 'Honey

breadcrumb . I table poon each

chopped fre h age and fre h thyme

centuries by Mazatec shamans in Oaxaca, Mex1co, to create visionary experience s

species find culinary uses. Pineapple sage


Gently heat I tablr poon Oli\e oil and

by the Spanish, it produces tiny oily seeds

Fragrant-leafed species Some of these

and lhym


wh1ch was cultivated as an Important

Found on several Greek islands, apple

recipe. try u ing 1 table poon each fine!

chopped fre h lemon gra


par ley in place of age and thyme.

sage (5. pomifera) forms fruit-like semi­

Melon'; fruit salad or peach sage

transparent galls that are candied and

(5. dorisiana), with large, lush spikes

eaten as delicacies.

of rose-pink flowers and broad fruit­

• Position With few exceptions, the

scented leaves; and the very fragrant

Salvia genus, particularly the gray-leafed species, req u ires a sunny, well-drained position. Sa/vias generally make poor i ndoor plants and become easily infested with white fly and scale. 5. officina/is prefers alkaline conditions. • Propagation Sages are propagated from seed, or by tip cuttings or div1sion for named varieties.

Maintenance Most shrubby sa/vias

respond well to gentle pruning or pinching back, particularly aher flowering. Do not heavily fertilize these plants. • Pests and diseases Pick caterpi llars off by hand. Sudden wilting indicates poor dramage and root rot. • Harvesting and storing Harvest fresh leaves and flowers for culinary use a any time. Dry mdividual leaves and sprigs before flowenng; spread Pott�d salVias · '" · flower make a pretty display ' to long-term indoor life.

but ar� not suit�d

them out in a well-aired place, then store in airt1ght containers.

'� r/Uirf!/ of tb-

to render hUUv ihvnwrtrd. "


"Henvho would


tiAlf!/fr �'

l l e t' ba l m e d i c i n e

f11.w.vt eat�

Solvta offic:molts. Part used leaves. Sage •s an an 1- nflammatory and ant•m1crob1al remedy, and



frequently used as a

mou hwash and gargle for sore throats,

lll<l hn�ll h 111 "" 1 h

g u m 1n ect1ons, tonsillitis and mouth ulcers. I appears o have a drymg effect on excess1ve swea mg and IS a popular herb for he treatment of night sweats

For the safe and appropriate medicinal use of sage, see Menopause, page 235. For

assoc1a ed with menopause. Sage also has

the safe and appropriate use of dan shen,

a benefic ial e ect on the mind, 1mprovmg

consult your healthcare profess ional. Do

memory, concentration and mood ; results

not use dan s hen if you are pregnant or

o a recent clinical nal suggest that 1t may

breastfeed1ng. Do not use sage 1n greater

have a pos1t1ve effect on the symptoms of

than c u linary quantities if you're pregnant

Alzhe1mer's disease.

or breastfeeding.

Salvta mtlttarrhtza. Part used: roots. In rad1tional Chinese med1c1ne, dan shen (see also page 708) is described as a remedy hat "moves blood." Modern research has

Golden variegated sage

(S. officinolts 'lctenna')

can be used instead of common sage '" cooking.

less so in France. In the Middle East, it

ro u n d t h e h o m

Sage, like so many herbs,


rich in essential

is used in salads. Sage tea is popular in many European countries. In Dalmat1a,

oils, antiviral, antibacterial, deodorizing

where sage grows wild, the flowers are

mos ly focused on its beneficial effects

and antifungal, and this is reflected by its

used to make honey.

on the mculatory system and the heart.

old French name, toute bonne, or "all is

The results of some clin1cal tnals 1ndicate

well." Use the leaves to make Herb vinegar

potential use for he treatmen of angina

spray (see page 292) and insect-repellent

and high blood press ure. Laboratory stud1es

s prays (see box, right). Alternatively, simply

have shown liver-protective effects and

put a few drops of essential oil on a damp

may explam dan shen's traditional use in

cloth when you're wip1ng down bathroom

treatmg acute and chronic liver conditions.

and kitchen s urfaces. Sage is also a moth-repellent - use it


herbal Yinegar i a

well a on , ock and hoe

in dried herb or essential oil form to repel

s�1n a

clothes moths and pantry moths. In the

to ui. courage licks and m1tes. Dilute

garden, plant sage to repel cabbage moth.

it 50:-o

\1 ith

it onto our

• Coo k i ng

jar. combme 8.- cup

c1der \ inegar and 2 poon s


savory, with camphorous overtones.

age. lavender. worm\\DOd and

. unny

tecp the mixture In a

pot r r about 2

fatty foods such as duck, with poultry

the Jdf dai l .

and por k (and stuffings for them), red

relllm the

sauces, casseroles and soups, and also

a wi ing additiOn to the herb garden.

chopped garlic with 2 ta b l e poon


meats, beans, eggplant, tomato-based

(2 l iter ) 3Jlple

each of the f o l l ow i ng herb : rosemary.

flavor, whic h intensifies on drying, is Sage goes with starchy, rich and


patch or �10 before using. In a gla

in flavor, common sage (5. of ficina/is) The aroma is h1ghly pungent, while the

(5. officmolis 'Tncolor')

water if �ou are pra}mg kin and te t it on a mall

Of the many types, which all differ widely is the one most often used for cooking.

Vanegated sage

trong in ect

revellent that can be u ed on your


ek ·.


train out the hrrb



liQUid. -\dd e'eral clove' or

cru ht'd garhc. and "eal again. L av to oak for 3 da .. Str 1 n OU[ the

in commercially prepared stuffing mixes

garlic fiber and d1 card. Labell he jar

and Italian dried mixed herbs. You can

and store 1 t1n a

also use deep-fried leaves as a garnish.


Best used with a l1ght hand in long­ cooked dishes, sage is popular in Italy,

cool place. Do not u e

Ylnrgar 1 f �ou are pregnant. and

do not usr 11 on m a l l children.

Salad bur n et

H 'rb cocktail

Sanguisorbo minor syn. Poterium songuisorbo, Pimpinella songuisorba Rosaceae The ferny leave cucumber. Th

or, alad burnet ha\·' a plant i



cent r mini cent of fre h Lo have be n recommendecl

by Sir Franci' Ba on. the 16th-Century Engli h philoso1 her. for gr01 ing . along aile· (path ) \\ ilh thyme "to perfum Lhe air mo t delightfully. . Other common name s Burnet bloodwort, Di Yu, pimpernel (greater burnet) Parts used Leaves, roots

The cucumber

la lt' of alad hurnrl

make. it an excellent accompanunenl to alcoholic drink : accordmg

plants ·make the heart merr and glad." For a refre. hing co ktail. bru1 e

for salad burnet, and about 1.5 ft. (45 em) apart for greater burnet.

6 prays

of alad burnet \\lth a rolling pin or with a mortar and pe. tlr. then plae�' In a large pitcher containing 3 cup \1 hile \lo!Ot'.

mru e taste.

(750 ml)


2 cup (500 ml) herry and

1 thinly ilced lemon. M1x

Space seedlings about 1 ft. (30 em) apart

to thr

Elizabrthan herbal MILer Gerard. the


allow to

ror at lea L 2 hours. S\1 e ten to dd 4 cups

(I liter) of club oda

and serve O\er cru h d ice.

Maintenance Cut emerging flower

stems for increased leaf production.

Pests and d iseases No pests or

In traditional Chinese medicine, the dried

diseases worth noting.

root is also sometimes applied internally

for the treatment of bleeding hemorrhoids.

Harvesting and storing Harvest

leaves for medicinal use before flowering. For fresh use, harvest leaves as required.

• Cooking

Lift roots in autumn for drying.

Salad burnet is an ingredient in several sauces, including ravigote, which is used

Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minorl

H er b a l


di ine

5onguisorba officina/is syn. Po terium

• Gardening

in French cookmg and goes well with cold roast chicken or sea ood. Add young leaves

officina/is. Parts used: leaves, roots. Greater

of salad burnet to salads, chilled summer

burnet has a very long tradition of use in

soups and to soft cheeses. Also use as a

Salad burnet (5. minor). a dainty, hardy,

Western and Chinese medicine. The plant

garnish or infused in vinegar. Th1s herb

evergreen perennial to 1.5 ft. (45 em),

is astringent due to the presence of some

does not dry well, but the

forms a low basal rosette of pinnate

unusual tanins, together with gums and

leaves can be frozen in

leaves with many paired, toothed. oval

glycos1des. It

leaflets. Borne on tall, slender s alks, the

minor burns and scalds, sores and skin

tiny green, wind-pollinated flowers with

infections, and to staunch

deep red anthers are borne in dense


globose heads. Salad burnet's close relative, greater burnet (5 officmalis syn. Po terium officina/is), is similar to salad burnet i n form but larger in all respects. The tiny, deep red flowers are borne in dense club-shaped spikes to 3.5 ft. (1 m). •

Position These plants prefer full sun

to partial shade, and a well-drained, moist, slightly acid to alkaline sari that con ains compost. • Prop agation Propagate both species by SOWing seed in ei her spring or au umn. Plants hat are allowed to flower will self­ seed, produ cing particu larly health plants y .


sed exter nally in treating

ice-cube trays.


Add the fresh leaves of salad burnet to


Savo ry 5atureja sp. Lam1aceae Sawrrja i repult'd Lo havC" been Lhc ourcc of the m Lhical ,al)rs· enormou, sexual, Lamina. Specirs

uch as summer sa\ ory and

are mainly used to flavor food. while

Jamaican mint bush are largrl P rt

v. inter


criJa buena anrl

u cd mcclicinall .


Summer savory

(Sotureja hartensis)

• Gard ning Summer savory (5. hortens1s), an annual

Savor;r '.v eMULtud oil � tAMd iJv J,(;�

g rowing to 1.5 ft. (45 em ) , has slender dark green leaves, pink flowers and an aroma of hyme and oregano. Winter savory

aM footlrfadl?/.

(5. montana) is a perennial subshrub with dark green, narrow-leafed foliage and white flowers. Creeping savory (5. mantana subsp mantanavar. prastata)

although the flavor of summer savory is stronger. The flavor is better before the plant flowers. Savory retains 1ts flavor when dried; in this form it is preferred for cooking. Savory goes well with lentils and peas,

with trailing branches of fragrant round

slow-cooked soups, stews, meatloaf and

is semi-prostrate, very ornamental and

leaves. Jamaican mint bush (5. viminea) is

egg dishes. Use it in coatings for delicate

resembles white heather when in flower.

an intensely mint-scented plant with small,

meats, such as veal, and for fish. Add to

oval, glossy bright green foliage.

sauces, pates and homemade sausages.


Lemon or African savory (5. biflaro syn. Micromerio biflora) is an excellent culinary

• Position Except for yerba buena,

It is a key herb in herbes de Provence (see

perenn1al herb with creeping branches,

which g rows well in a hanging basket

below ). Use summer savory in marinades,

attractive mauve flowers and bright green,

out of direct sunlight, all species should

especially for olives. In Croatian cooking,

fine leaves that a re strongly lemon- and

be g rown in full sun in well-drained

a lemon-scented strain of savory is used


neutral to alkaline soil. In cold areas,

with fish and seafood.

Thyme-leafed savory or za'atar

give plants winter protection.

rum i or savory of Crete or pink savory

• Propagation All species can be

(5. thymbro) is a low-growing, stiffly

propagated by seed sown shallowly

branched perennial with whorls of small

in spring. Perennial species are also

grayish leaves that have an i n tense

propagated by cuttings in spring and

oregano and thyme fragrance. Verba

early autumn.

buena (5. douglasii) is a perennial herb

• Maint(:nance Plants should be regularly weeded. • Pests and diseas(:S No significant

Hei'be Use tbi



2 tablespoons dried thyme leaves 3 tablespoons dried savory leaves 2 tablespoons dried lavender flowers

the leaves of other species fresh as


for s1milar culinary purposes as summer savory.

tablespoons dried rosemary leaves

3 tablespoons dried sweet marjoram

before flowering and dry them. Harvest

sealed containers.

(Satureja montana) can be used

ic berb mix to ea on

cut down whole plants of 5. hartensis

requi red, and dry or freeze them i n

Winter savory



vegetable . ch1cken and red meal.

pest or disease problems. • Harv(:sting and storing You can

de Pro


teaspoon dried sage leaves

an a1rUght 1ar.

2 Store in a ool. dark place for up

Both summer and winter savory have a

to 4 month

similar a roma - fragrant, with a hint of


thyme, and a peppery, distinctive taste,

dried herb . Place in

Combine lh


If u ing the mix \\'ilh

h. add a pinch or renn I e d .

Scented geranium Pelargonium sp. Geraniaceae Scrntrd grrnniums dl'<' LIH' great mirnics or till' plant \\OI'IU. \l liH' slight<' t touclltlll'J n'lt'dsr in ten. r trur-to-n'lnlC' rragrancc's. I'rom

lemon .;lwrhet ancl rip<' apples to Pf'JliH'rrnint and reel rosrs. ma�ing \\ill t'ring a colleclion CJ hlissJ'ul e\peri('flCl'.

Parts u

Leaves, roots, flowers The seed head somewhat rese mbles that of a stor k's head. Other rose-scented species distilled for oil are P. copt totum and i ts vanety 'Attar of Roses: together w1th P. rodens. The 011 IS valued 1n aromathera py, and is used 1n

Rose geranium (Pelorgomum groveolens)

massage oils to relieve tens ion and soothe the symptoms of dermatitis and ecze ma. Ant1fungal and a ntibactenal 1n act1v1ty,

• P. x citronellum 'Lemon Tart' • carro -scented 'Scarlet Pet' syn. 'Moore's Victory'

the oil is curre ntly used 1n the U n i ted States as a tick repellent for dogs, and IS

�lorgonium hybrid, 'Gooseberry'

• Gardening

• hazelnut-scented

antiseptic, and repels insects. Hybridization led to a proliferation of



'Countess of Scarborough'

re pellent. The oil of apple geran 1um

(P. odorotissimum] IS astringent and


'Concolor Lace' and 'Strawberry' syn.

considered both mosquito- and lice­

P. x scorborovior: 'Gooseberry' (lemon-,

clove- and mint-scented) Plants better s u i te d to large pots or

varieties, and scented gera n1ums became

gar de n beds include these pelargon1ums:

geran1ums onginated ma1nly from the

grea favorites w i th 19th-cen tury

Cape of Good Hope area in South Afnca. They were introduced mto England as a

gardeners, pa rticularly as hey proved

• the dar kly handsome, velvety-leafed, semi-prostra te P. tomentosum

The spec1es used to create the scented

adaptable to cult1vat1on in greenhouses

curios1ty 1n the 1630s, but by the 1840s the French realized their pote ntial as an

and on sunny k1tchen windows i l ls dunng

essent1al oil source.

once again, but fewer than 100 varieties

Steam distillation of rose geranium

(P graveolens] yields an essential oil

With an enlivenmg true rose fragrance that IS added to perfumes and toiletnes . It IS produced on the island of Reunion and also 1n Algeria, China, Egypt, lnd1a and Morocco. The scented geramums are soft to semi-hard wooded shrubs or subsh rubs

With a very wide range of leaf shape s. P groveolens is an upright mult1-s temmed smal l shr ub to 3 ft. (90 em), w1th bngh t green, much mdented leave s hat create a lacy shape . The small flowers are mid-p ink rouged With bnght ruby on the uppe r petals, and are borne 1n term 1nal umbe ls.

the winter months. They are fashionable have s u rv1ved.

'Pe ppermint' and i s hybrid 'Dark Lady'

• whi te-speckled 'Snowflake' • P x groveolens 'Robert's Lemon Rose' • P x copitotum 'D r Livingstone' syn. 'Skele ton Rose'

Those suited to cultivation in po s include the following plants:

• 'Nutmeg' and 1ts variegated form, together w1th 'Old Sp1ce: 'Apple Cider' syn. 'Cody' and 'Tutt1 Frultl' (a l l denved from P x frogrons) • P odorotlssimum 'Apple' • P nervosum 'L1me' and 1 ts hybrid 'Gmger' syn 'Toronto'

• varie ies of P.