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Vita. Oxygen concentrator

Vita. Oxygen concentrator



Pneumonia Sub-Sahara Africa


Background What is pneumonia? Hypoxemia


Design process Design development System mapping Sketching Reiteration


Vita Oxygen Concentrator How does it work? General information Materials Ceramic membrane






ABOUT Vita project provide affordable oxygen to users (kids between 0 and 5 years old) who are experiencing pneumonia or hypoxemia in developing countries caused by the lack of healthcare infrastructure.

Hypoxemia threatment troughout oxygen theraphy for developing countries. 01


Sub-Sahara Africa “Worldwide, nearly 1.6 million children under the age of 5 years die of pneumonia annually; 98% of these children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries. According to 2008 estimates, about 177,000 children under the age of five died of pneumonia in Nigeria . This number is highest in Africa and second highest overall in the world.� (WHO,2009)

WHO- World Health Organization


BACKGROUND What is pnemonia? Pneumonia causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe. Signs may be limited to respiratory distress or progress to shock and death. Evaluation includes chest x-ray, pulse oximetry, blood cultures, and Gram stain and culture of tracheal aspirate. Pneumonia can also cause? Coughin that may produce mucus. Fever, sweating, and chills Shortness of breath Chest pain Hypoxemia

In developing countries most of the peumonia cases are passed undetected causing children between cero and five years old to show signs of Hyopoxemia wich is the lack of oxygen in the blood stream increasing the childhood mortality as previous mentioned. For many years, oxygen has been included in the World Health Organization (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), but only for use as an inhalational medicine in general anesthesia, with no specifiation for use as a treatment for hypoxemia. (Path, 2017)

“Oxygen is an essential treatment for hypoxemia, which requires early detection and monitoring with pulse oximetry for safe provision. Hypoxemia often goes undiagnosed, and many deaths occur when monitoring is infrequent or absent. Improving access to oxygen and pulse oximetry has been shown to reduce the risk of death from childhood pneumonia by 35 percent in certain high-burden settings.� (Path, 2017). Providing Oxygen for more that 52 countries would be able to accelerate process to reach the Sustainable Developing Goals 12 deaths per 1000 lives births by 2030. 13



The mother start to identify The mother start to identify uncommon behavior uncommon behavior on her child. on her child.


The child presents high fever as well The child presents high fever as wll as respiratory as respiratory distress. distress.


Thedoctor doctor or nurse thestate of The or nurse analizedanalizes the respiratory respiratory state of the newborn. the newborn.

USER JOURNEY The problems that surround respiratory diseases can be stopped if the proper infrastructure is provided. In order to identify the needs, its important to understand the user's behavior. The following storytelling shows the users journey and the steps required to fight pneumonia and hypoxemia.

4 The infant present hypoxemia, or low levels or of oxygen. The infant present hypoxemia, low levels of oxygen.

5 Oxygen is is required to improve the childthe health Oxygen required to improve condition. child helth condition.

6 Antibiotics in thein firstthe 47 hours. Antibiotics first 47 hours.

Process to identify & treat hypoxemia A. View the oxygen blood levels with a oxymeter wich measures your oxygen saturation level using two light emiting diods. The device will register the amount of absorcion detected by the photodetector.

HbO2 = SpO2 HbO2 + Hb

(% of Oxyhemoglobin)

The % needs to be always above 95%

B. Once they identify the problem, oxygen is required. A device called the oxygen concentrator or oxygen tank draws in outside air and purifies it for people with the

Ambient Air

Air compressor

Sieve bed

medical conditions previously mentioned. (Since the cost are to high, for developing countries they tend to use oxygen tanks that are used untill they dont have any oxygen left).

Using zeolite material (used to collect nitrogen)

90%- 95% of pure oxygen

DESIGN PROCESS Identify- Invent- Implement Vita project was developed using a combination of design methodologies such as SAFE and Biodesign a methodology created by Stanford University. The project is currently on the concept screening phase (process is shown on the next pages).

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT User Vita was the result of an extended research done throughout different organizations and research papers. The projects started with the goal to improve existing products that could contribute to the majority of society, focusing on human centered design. The first stage allowed to identify the core problem in order to generate Insights that are listed in this page. Followed by systemic mapping, sketching, reiteration and model making. The following pages show a deep understanding on design process untill the final concept.

Children between 0-5 years old in Nigeria Insights Lack of medical devices Oxygen concentrators + Oxymeters Lack of nurses & doctors and the volunters have trouble identifilling the pneumonia & hypoxemia symtoms. Inadecuate facilities No acess to energy or oxygen facilities.

infectious diseases

60–80% of the infant mortality rate

affects the growth

improving air quality


Proteins and vitamins

low birth weight

decreased ability immune system


Lack of nutrients


Maternal and infant health services.

Improve childh

ongenial malformations

Lack of health infrestructure


lower incomes Lack of nutrients

Lack of money

11 millio


Baby clouthing

New Borns 0-28 days

Monthers lack of nutrients





high tolerance failure to register

System maping In order to achieve a proper understanding of the problem the system was mapped out to view the best way to provide possible solutions.

Teen moms Maternal and infant health services.

Lack of health education

Lack of health knowledge

air pollution

carbon monoxide

Climate and g


plumbing inf 13

hood mortality.

infectious diseases

Respiratory infections measles Malaria Diharrhhoea

60–80% of the infant mortality rate

ongenial malformations


Lack of basic nutrition

inmune system diseases


basic medical supplies


on death

being overweight.

Lack of equipment Lack of nurses air pollution

physical capital





water shortage

Social movements

Children Under 5 1 month -5 years

Economical Social

Lack of income water problems

Lack of basic nutrition racism



domestic economy

Lack of basic nutrition

high tolerance failure to register




Organic water pollution

Lack of health education

Lack of health knowledge


frastructure 13

Sketching Form exploration and understanding the needs and the components allowed to guide the idea to the iteration phase.

Reiteration The oxygen concentrator needed to have certain elements to provide the proper feedback to the user once he enters in contact with the product. The following aspects were taken into consideration for a proper design language. Enfasise in the visual feedback as well as in the d evice feedback in order to provide information on the status of the instrument or the task after and action has been completed. Increase the perseptual cues by providing differenciation troughout color coding in order to emphasized due to their importance to the end user. Use exisitng mesurment elements and from existing products (oxygen tanks to provide association cues that will help the user understand the Instrument and corralation.


Vita. Oxygen concentrator

How does it work? Vita works by combining the oxygen tanks used in developing countries was well as the oxygen concentrators. Using the analog system to regulate the oxygen flow . But in order to reduce cost and make it usable in remote areas new technologies were implemented such as ceramic membranes and a dynamic energy system.


Oxygen pivot

Power Handle

Humidifier Bateries (Energy storage)

Power swiches Air entrance Nitrogen exit

HOW DOES IT WORK? Vita will be powered by dynamic energy to start pumping air and transform it into oxgen





01 Pull the handle

01 Dynamic energy

02 Bateries are charged

Take out the handle to start pulling.

Pull frecuently to charge the batteries in order to make the system work.

One will be in use as the other one will be there as backup.








04 Turn it on

03 The compresor quicks in

03 Nitrogen exit

06 Oxygen Flow

On the back low part of the product

The compresor will pull air into a ceramic membrain allowing it to filter the air.

The elements that were fitered and are not needed will be sent out troughout the side ventilation holes.

The oxygen that was filtered will be sent out on the oxygen valve.

CERAMIC MEMBRANE The Ionic trasport membranes (ITMs) also known as ceramic membrane i an emerging technology with the main goal to reduce the capital and operating costs of oxygen production. One of the latest filters is the Perovskite compounds wich are crystalline ceramics with a cubic structure13 described by the general formula ABO3. The A and B sites are cations occupied by alkali or rare earth elements of the Lanthanide series and transition metals, respectively. The unit cell is a face-centred cubic crystal with the larger A cations located at the corners, the smaller B cation located in the body-centred position and the O2anions located in the face-centred positions. Oxygen diffusion through dense ceramic membranes can occur only if there is a driving force which physically manifests as an oxygen partial pressure difference between the feed stream and permeate stream. Vita will work with a threee-point membraine module, the feed side of the membrane will contain pure air, possibly with small concentraitions of water and CO2 . The air feed will be pressurised in excess of 5 bars and the permeate side be mantained at 1 bar.

Nitrogen / Air


Oxygen 1313

Schematic of 02 Presentation through a Perovskite membrane. ITM technologies presents the most promiing alternative to cryogenic distillation (cylinder oxygen concentration method. High purity oxygen. However Perovskites are not mechanically stable. Fluorite are now showing good results under water and undr CO2exposure.


General information

By eliminating the Sieve bed and adding a energy efficient system Vita will be able to reduce production costs up to 40%. Thanks to the dynamic energy and ceramic membrane. Vita will have a price between 6,000 and 8,000 pesos. This price is higly competitive in the market compeeting with the oxygen tanks. The benefits provided by vita in comparison with the oxygen tank its the capability to produce no limit of pure oxygen wich would be impossible if it was with the oxygen tanks. wich have a highest costs in trasportation and logistics. Vita will have two batteries of 120 voltts each wich can last up to 1 hour if they are charged and useed properly. The energy generated and saved will power a air pump of 150 PSI energy eneough to push the air trough the ceramic membrane. Vita will also integrate the existing components of the oxygen cylinders to provide simplicity and make it more feasable to the different user to use it.


Vita. Oxygen concentrator

Costa, J. Da., Smart, S., Motuzas, J., Lui, S. and Zange, D. (2013) State of the Art (SOTA) Report on Dense Ceramic Membranes for Oxygen Separation from Air. University of Queensland Press, Brisbane. JimÊnez-Munguía RM, Iglesias-Leboreiro J, Bernårdez-Zapata I, Rendón-Macías ME. Neumonía neonatal temprana, experiencia en el Hospital Espaùol de MÊxico. Rev Esp Med Quir 2014;19:409-414. PATH. (2017). Oxygen Therapy for Newborn, Child, and Maternal Health. Theodoratou, E., Zhang, J., Kolcic, I., Davis, A., Bhopal, S., & Nair, H. et al. (2011). Estimating Pneumonia Deaths of Post-Neonatal Children in Countries of Low or No Death Certification in 2008. Plos One. Tulloch, J. (1999). Integrated approach to child health in developing countries. Elsevier. World Health Organization. Programme of Acute Respiratory Infections. (1993). Oxygen therapy for acute respiratory infections in young children in developing countries. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Pneumonia Day Org. (2017). Pneumonia Facts: Nigeria – Protect Prevent Treat.

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Vita-Oxygen Concentrator