Applications of ­ lgebraic Modeling A

2

This chapter will give you a brief taste of many areas where mathematical modeling is used every day. Several of the areas, such as music, may surprise you at first. Don’t let the fact that mathematics is involved ruin your enjoyment of music and the arts.

There is no excellent

In this chapter

beauty that hath not

2-1 Models and Patterns in Plane and Solid Geometry

some strangeness in

2-2 Models and Patterns in Triangles

the proportion.

2-3 Models and Patterns in Right Triangles

– Sir Francis Bacon

2-4 Right Triangle Trigonometry

2-5 Models and Patterns in Art, Architecture, and Nature 2-6 Models and Patterns in Music

Chapter Summary

Chapter Review Problems

Chapter Test

Suggested Laboratory Exercises

53

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Section

2-1

Models and Patterns in Plane and Solid Geometry Formulas are mathematical models that have been developed over the course of hundreds of years by mathematicians who noticed constant relationships among variables in similar problems. Many geometric formulas were developed by the Greeks and ancient Egyptians after much trial and error. Euclid, one of the most prominent mathematicians of antiquity, wrote a treatise called The Elements, which was a compilation of the geometric knowledge of the time (365–300 BC). This book was used as the core of geometry textbooks for the next 2000 years. The use of ­geometric formulas has made the design of buildings and construction projects much simpler. If there were no formula to calculate the area of a rectangle, for ­example, a person wanting to carpet a floor shaped like a rectangle would need to roll out a large sheet of paper to cover the floo , trace the outline of the floo , cut it out, take it to the store, trace it onto a piece of carpet, and cut out a suitable piece to finish the job. How much simpler it is to measure the length and width of the room and use the formula to calculate the square footage required for the job! Perimeter and area are two basic geometric concepts that have many real-life applications. The perimeter of any plane geometric figu e is the distance around that figu e, or the sum of the lengths of its sides. Perimeter is measured in linear units, such as inches, feet, yards, meters, or kilometers. Calculating the length of a wallpaper border needed for all four kitchen walls in a house would require f­ inding the perimeter of the room. Buying the correct amount of fencing needed to enclose a dog lot would also require the calculation of the perimeter of the lot to be surrounded. A rectangle is a four-sided geometric figu e with four right angles and opposite sides the same length. Because perimeter is the sum of the lengths of the sides of any figu e, the perimeter of a rectangle such as the one in Figure 2-1 would be l 1 w 1 l 1 w or P 5 2l 1 2w. There are other formulas for the perimeter of geometric figu es, such as the square (P 5 4s) and triangle (P 5 a 1 b 1 c), but many real-life shapes are not perfectly geometric. Therefore, it is usually best to think of the “formula” for perimeter as “add all the sides together.” l

w

w

l

Example

1

Figure 2-1

Finding the Perimeter of a Rectangle Christopher is building a 7 12-ft 3 13-ft rectangular dog pen in his backyard. If fencing costs \$4.37 per ft, find the cost o enclosing the dog pen. Since the dog pen is rectangular, we can use the formula P 5 2l 1 2w to find the perimeter and, therefore, the amount of fencing he needs to buy.

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Section 2-1    Models and Patterns in Plane and Solid Geometry

P 5 26 ft 1 15 ft

P 5 41 ft

55

Christopher needs 41 ft of fencing to enclose the lot, and the cost is \$4.37 per foot. To find his total cost, e multiply these numbers. Cost 5 (41 ft)(\$4.37/ft) 5 \$179.17 The total cost for enclosing the dog pen will be \$179.17. The distance around the outside of a circle is called its circumference. The formulas that are used to calculate the area and circumference of circles involve the use of the irrational number pi (p), which is derived from the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. The value of pi is approximately 3.14. The symbol p appears on your calculator and will display a value for pi that contains more than two decimal places. To calculate the distance around any circle, use the formula C 5 pd or C 5 2pr, where C, d, and r are the circumference, diameter, and radius, respectively, of the circle. The two formulas are equivalent, since the length of the diameter is twice that of the radius of the circle. (See Figure 2-2.)

d

Diameter

r

Diameter 5 2(radius) or d 5 2r

Example

2

Figure 2-2

Finding the Circumference of a Circle The diameter of a bicycle tire is 60 cm (see Figure 2-3). Through what distance does the tire go when it makes one revolution? Give the answer to the nearest centimeter. Because the diameter of the tire is given, we will use the formula C 5 pd and the rounded value 3.14 for p.

C 5 pd

C 5 (3.14)(60 cm)

C 5 188.4 cm

C < 188 cm

60 cm

Figure 2-3 Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Example

3

Window Molding At \$0.30 per foot, how much will it cost to put molding around the window p ­ ictured in Figure 2-4? We need to calculate the distance around the outside of the window. The w ­ indow is 5 ft tall and 4 ft 6 in. wide. (a) Adding the three straight sides together gives a total of 14 ft 6 in. or 14.5 ft. (b) To calculate the length of the curved part of the window, we need to use the circumference formula (C 5 pd ). Because the curve is only half a circle, we will halve the circumference after it is calculated. To make our calculations easier, we will convert 4 ft 6 in. to 4.5 ft.

5 ft

4 ft 6 in.

Figure 2-4

C 5 pd

C 5 p(4.5 ft) ø 14.14 ft.

Length of arc 5 14.14 ft 4 2 5 7.07 ft.

(c) Total distance around the window would be: 14.5 ft 1 7.07 ft 5 21.57 ft (d) Cost of molding is (21.57 ft)(\$0.30 per foot) 5 \$6.47 The area of any fl t surface is the amount of surface enclosed by the sides of the figu e. It is measured in square units (square feet, square meters, etc.) because we want to know how many squares of a given size will be needed to cover the surface in question. Buying enough grass seed to cover a lawn involves the use of area ­calculations. Painting a room requires that the square footage of the walls be calculated so that an adequate amount of paint can be purchased. There are area formulas for all of the basic geometric shapes, including squares, rectangles, circles, triangles, and many more. Several of the most commonly used formulas are probably familiar to you.

Important equations Common Area Formulas

Circle A 5 pr2

Rectangle A 5 lw

Square A 5 s2

When trying to find the answer to a word problem involving perimeter or area, first decide on the formulas needed for the problem. Then organize the data, ­apply the formula, and calculate the answer. Be sure the answer makes sense for your problem. Look at the following examples.

Example

4

Wallpapering a Bedroom Juan needs to purchase wallpaper to cover the four walls of his rectangular bedroom and a border to use at the top of his walls as a decorative accent. The d ­ imensions of the room are 12 ft 6 in. by 15 ft 3 in., and his ceilings are 10 ft high. Calculate the amount of wallpaper needed and the length of the border he needs to buy. (For this problem, do not subtract the area of windows or doors that may be in the walls.)

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57

(a) Wallpaper: This calculation will require the use of the area formula for ­rectangles: A 5 lw  First, note that 15 ft 3 in. 5 15.25 ft, and 12 ft 6 in. 5 12.5 ft. Using these forms of the measurements will make the calculation easier. (See Table 2-1.) Therefore, Juan will need 555 ft2 of wallpaper to cover the bedroom walls. Table 2-1

Length 3 Width 5 Area

(ft)

Front wall 15.25 Back wall 15.25 Side wall 12.5 Side wall 12.5

(ft)

(ft2)

10 10 10 10 Total area

152.5 152.5 125 125 555

(b) Wallpaper border: Calculation of the perimeter will be required in this instance. We need to add the lengths of the walls to calculate the total length of border that Juan needs to purchase. 15.25 ft 1 12.5 ft 1 15.25 ft 1 12.5 ft 5 55.5 ft of border Or, using the perimeter formula for a rectangle: 2l 1 2w 5 2(15.25 ft) 1 2(12.5 ft) 5 55.5 ft of border Many shapes are not standard shapes. A window, for example, might be a combination of a rectangle and a half-circle (or semicircle). (See Figure 2-5.) A roller rink is a rectangle with a half-circle on each end. Problems involving the area of a figu e that is a combination of several shapes must be worked in parts. The areas of all the parts are then totaled to get the final an wer.

Figure 2-5

Example

5

Area of the Floor at the Roller Rink The hardwood floor needs to be replaced at the local roller rink. The measurements are given in the diagram. Calculate the amount of flooring needed or this project.

35 ft 150 ft

(a) Calculate the area of the center rectangle. A 5 lw 5 (150 ft)(35 ft) 5 5250 ft2 Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

(b) Calculate the area of the circle (two half circles). Because the diameter of the circle is given as 35 ft, we must divide it by 2 to determine the radius needed for the area formula. r 5 35 ft 4 2 5 17.5 ft A 5 pr2 5 p(17.5)2 < 962.113 ft2 (c) Find the total area. 5250 ft2 1 962.113 ft2 5 6212.113 < 6212 ft2 We will now briefly consider three-dimensional shapes. Three-dimensional shapes have height, length, and depth. Some basic three-dimensional shapes, often called solids, are shown in Figure 2-6.

Cube

Sphere

Pyramid

Cylinder

Cone

Rectangular Prism

Figure 2-6 Basic three-dimensional shapes.

Three-dimensional objects have volume (a measure of the amount of space inside the object) and surface area (a measure of the total area of the surface of an object). If an object has rectangular sides like a shoe box, then the surface area is the area of all of the sides added together. If the solid is a sphere or a cone shape, finding the surface area becomes more difficult. There are various aspects to the surface area of an object. The lateral surface area, usually abbreviated L.A. or L.S.A., is the area of the sides alone and does not include the top or bottom areas. The total surface area, usually abbreviated S.A. or T.S.A., is the sum of the lateral surface area and the top and bottom areas. For example, the L.A. of a soup can is the area of the label only, and the S.A. of a soup can is the sum of the label area and the areas of the two circular ends of the can. In the following examples we will calculate volumes and surface areas; the formulas for calculating these quantities will be given. Additional volume and surface area formulas are given in Appendix 2.

Example

6

The Volume and Surface Area of a Sphere A smooth sphere has a radius, r, of 10.0 cm. What are its (a) volume and (b) surface area? Round your answers to two decimal places.

.

10.0 cm

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59

(a) The formula for the volume of a sphere is V 5 43pr3. The radius is r 5 10.0 cm and p 5 3.14159265 approximately. (Use your pi key.) 4 Vsphere 5 pr3 3 4 V 5 p 1 10.0 cm 2 3 3

V 5 4188.790205 cm3 V 5 4189 cm3

(b) The formula for the surface area of a sphere is S.A. 5 4pr2. S.A. 5 4pr2 S.A. 5 4p(10.0 cm)2 S.A. 5 1256.637061 cm2

The surface area of this sphere is 1257 cm2.

As you can tell from the example above, finding a surface area or volume for a regular geometric shape is fairly easy given the necessary formulas.

Example

7

The Effect of Increasing the Radius of a Sphere If the radius of the sphere in Example 6 above were doubled, how would this affect the volume and surface area? In other words, would doubling the radius of the sphere also double the volume and surface area or triple them, etc.? (a) The new volume: 4 Vsphere 5 pr3 3 4 V 5 p 1 20.0 cm 2 3 3

V 5 33,510.32164 cm3

To minimize errors due to rounding off our answers, we will divide the new volume by the volume in Example 6 before rounding off: 33,510.32164 cm3 4 4188.790205 cm3 5 8 So doubling the radius of the sphere increased the volume by 8 times. (b) The new surface area: S.A. 5 4pr2 S.A. 5 4p(20.0 cm)2 S.A. 5 5026.548246 cm2 Again we will divide before rounding: 5026.548246 cm2 ÷ 1256.637061 cm2 5 4 So doubling the radius increased the surface area of the sphere 4 times.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

From Example 7, you can see that increasing or decreasing the size of the dimensions of a three-dimensional object can greatly change the volume and surface area of the object. You cannot assume that simply doubling or halving the dimensions of an object will result in a simple doubling or halving of the other properties of the object. This holds true for all three-dimensional shapes, not just spheres.

Practice Set 2-1 Use the appropriate formula to find the ans ers to problems 1 to 4. Round answers to the nearest tenth, if necessary.   1. Calculate the perimeter of a professional football field th t is 360 ft long and 160 ft wide.   2. Calculate the circumference of a rug having a diameter of 8 ft.   3. Calculate the area of new carpet needed in a rectangular room that measures 11 ft by 15 ft. Give your answer in square feet and in square yards.   4. Calculate the area of the lawn covered by an oscillating sprinkler that sprays water in a halfcircle with a radius of 10 ft.   5. A square has a perimeter of 54 in. What is the area of this square?   6. A rectangle has an area of 65 cm2 and a length of 13 cm. Find the perimeter of this rectangle.   7. Julianne is planting a ground cover in one area of her yard. The area she wants to cover is rectangular shaped and measures 8.75 ft by 4.5 ft. The manager of the garden shop tells her that she will need to purchase four plants for every square foot of area she wishes to cover. How many plants will she need to buy to complete this project? 8. How many plants spaced every 6 in. are needed to surround a circular walkway with a 25-ft radius?   9. Mike is buying a rectangular building lot measuring 220 ft by 158 ft in a new golfing ­community. He plans to sow new grass on this lot, and each 40-lb. bag of turf grass blend will cover 1000 ft2 of lawn. How many bags does he need to buy? 10. A builder is completing the flooring in the l ving room shown in the drawing. He needs to ­purchase an adequate amount of baseboard

molding and enough carpet to cover the floo . The openings for the two doors are 3 ft wide. Calculate the number of feet of molding he must purchase. Then calculate the number of square yards of carpet needed to complete the job. ­(Remember: 1 yd 5 3 ft, so 1 yd2 5 9 ft2) 3 ft

3 ft 17 ft

14 ft

12 ft

19 ft 4 ft 11. A soup can is in the shape of a cylinder. If it is cut and fl ttened into geometric shapes, it consists of two circles and a rectangle. If a can is 4.5 in. tall and measures 7.9 in. around, how many square inches of paper will be needed for the label on the can? Round to the nearest tenth.

12. If the soup can in problem 11 has a diameter of 2.5 in., how many square inches of metal will be needed to make the can? (Ignore the overlap of metal needed when actually producing the can.) Round to the nearest tenth. 13. Will a rectangular piece of wrapping paper that is 20 in. by 15 in. cover a shirt box that is 12 in. long, 8 in. wide, and 3 in. deep? Explain. 14. The poster you are giving your friend is in a cardboard tube with a 2-in. diameter and 26-in. length. Will a rectangular piece of wrapping ­paper that is 8 in. by 28 in. completely cover the tube? Explain. 15. PIZZAZZ Pizza Parlor sells an 8-in. ­pepperoni ­pizza for \$6.99. The price of its 16-in. pizza

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Section 2-1    Models and Patterns in Plane and Solid Geometry

is \$15.95. Which pizza is the better buy per square inch? 16. A 12-in. by 24-in. rectangular pizza is the same price as a pizza with a 10-in. diameter. Which shape will give you more pizza? 17. Find the area of the shaded parts of the ­following figu e. Round to the nearest tenth.

24 m

24. Can two geometric figu es have the same perimeter and area and yet not be identical? Explain how you arrived at your answer. 25. Let us revisit the window in Example 3. To determine the amount of molding (L) needed to go around the outside of this shape of window, you need to add one width (w), two heights (h), and the distance around the semicircular top (half of the circumference of a circle whose radius is half of the width: C 5 2pr). So, a formula for calculating the perimeter would be written as:

18. Find the area of the shaded parts of the ­following figu e. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.

18 in.

25 in.

19. A rectangular lot with a 50-ft frontage and a 230‑ft depth sold for \$8625. Find the following: (a) the cost of the lot per square foot (b) the cost of the lot per front foot (c) the cost of the lot per acre (1 acre 5 43,560 ft2) 20. A cement walk 3 ft wide is placed around the outside of a rectangular garden plot that is 20 ft by 30 ft. Find the cost of the walk at \$12.25 a square yard. 21. What effect would each of the following have on the area and perimeter of a square? (a) doubling the length of the sides (b) halving the length of the sides (c) tripling the length of the sides (d) doubling the length of the diagonal distance between opposite corners 22. What effect would each of the following have on the area and circumference of a circle? (a) doubling the diameter (b) halving the diameter (c) doubling the radius 23. Eight circles of equal size are inscribed in a rectangle so that four are in each row. The circles touch each other and the sides of the rectangle. What percent of the area of the rectangle is covered by the circles?

61

w amount of w 1 2 1 h 2 1 pa b 5 molding needed 2

w 5L 2  Assume that you have 20 ft (L 5 20 ft) of molding that you may use. w w 1 2h 1p ? 5 20 ft 2 (a) Solve this equation for h. (b) Construct a graph of height versus width. (c) Make a table of values by choosing various widths in whole feet and calculating the value that the height would need to be to keep a constant perimeter of 20 ft. (d) How many of such windows of different widths and heights can be constructed with a perimeter of 20 ft?

w 1 2h 1 p ?

26. A rectangular backyard is roughly 70 ft by 90 ft. The back wall of the house extends for 40 ft along one of the longer sides of the backyard. How many feet of fencing would be needed to fence in the entire backyard, anchoring the fence to the back corners of the house on each end? 27. The owner of the house in problem 26 wants to put a small fish pond in the bac yard. If the pond is to be 8 ft in diameter, what will its area be? 28. How many square feet of sod would be needed to cover the backyard in problems 26 and 27, after the pond is installed? 29. If brick pavers cost \$0.59 each, how much would it cost to put a circular walkway 2 ft wide around the fish pond described in problem 27? For the purposes of this problem, assume that four pavers laid together cover approximately 1 square foot. 30. Referring back to problems 26 to 29, if sod costs \$3.00 per square yard (plus installation labor costs, Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

of course), how much will the sod cost to cover the backyard after the pond and walkway are installed? 31. The core of a standard baseball as used in major league baseball has a radius of approximately 1.27 inches. How many square inches of horsehide does it take to cover the baseball completely? [See Example 6(b) for the necessary formula.]

33. If the height of a can of vegetables is doubled, by what factor does its volume increase? (Use the formula given in problem 32.) 34. Suppose the diameter of a cantaloupe were increased from 4 inches to 6 inches. (a) By what factor would the volume be increased? (b) By what factor would the surface area be increased? (See Example 6 for the necessary formulas.)

32. A child’s round “flop sided wading pool has a diameter of 10 feet and can be filled to a depth of 18 inches. How many cubic feet of water will the pool hold? (The formula for the volume of a cylinder is V 5 pr2h, where h is the height of the

Section

2-2

vertical side of the cylinder.) If there are 7.5 gallons in 1 cubic foot, how many gallons of water will it take to fill the pool

Models and Patterns in Triangles A triangle is the simplest of the polygons, having only three sides and three angles. Angles are measured in degrees and classified according to the number of degrees in each. The symbol for “degrees” is a little circle on the number of degrees in the same place that an exponent would go. So “180 degrees” will be written as 180°, “52 degrees” will be written as 52°, and so on. In addition to this symbol, the word “angle” will also be indicated by a symbol. Thus “angle A” will be written as /A, “angle D” will be written as /D, and so on. An acute angle measures between 0° and 90°; a right angle measures exactly 90°; an obtuse angle measures between 90° and 180°. Similarly, a triangle can be classified by the sizes of its angles. While the sum of the three angles in every triangle is 180°, if all angles are acute angles, the triangle is classified as an acute triangle. If one of the angles is an obtuse angle, the triangle is classified as an obtuse triangle. If one of the angles is a 90° angle or right angle, the triangle is classified as a right triangle. Right triangles have special properties and will be studied in depth in the next section. These classific tions of triangles are illustrated in Figure 2-7.

Acute Triangle

Example

1

Obtuse Triangle

Right Triangle

Figure 2-7

Angle Measurement A triangle has two angles that measure 20° and 42°. Calculate the size of the third angle and classify the triangle as right, acute, or obtuse. Since the total number of degrees in a triangle is 180°, we subtract the measures of the two given angles from 180° to find the measu e of the third. 180° 2 20° 2 42° 5 118° The third angle measures 118° which is an obtuse angle. Therefore, this triangle is an obtuse triangle.

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Section 2-2    Models and Patterns in Triangles

Triangles can also be classified by the lengths of their sides. A triangle having three equal sides is called an equilateral triangle. In addition to having three equal sides, an equilateral triangle has three equal angles each measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides that are the same length and two angles that are the same size. A scalene triangle has three sides that are all different lengths and three angles of different measurements. These classific tions of triangles are illustrated in Figure 2-8.

608

608

608

x8

Equilateral Triangle

x8

Isosceles Triangle

Scalene Triangle

Figure 2-8

Each corner of a triangle has a point called the vertex (plural: vertices). Every triangle has three vertices which are usually labeled with capital letters used to name the triangle. The base of a triangle can be any one of the three sides but is usually the one drawn at the bottom of the triangle. In an isosceles triangle, the base is usually the unequal side. The length of the base is used along with the length of the height for calculating the area of the triangle. The height of a triangle is a ­perpendicular line segment from the base to the opposite vertex. Look at the labeled parts of DABC shown in Figure 2-9. C

Vertex

Height

A

Base

B

Figure 2-9

Recall from Section 2-1 that the area of any fl t surface is the amount of surface enclosed by the sides of the figu e. Remember that the units associated with area are square units such as cm2, ft2, or m2. In this section, we will look at two area formulas that can be used to calculate the area of a triangle.

Important equations Area of a Triangle A 5 0.5bh where b 5 the length of the base and h 5 the length of the height In order to calculate the area of a triangle using this formula, the lengths of the base b and the height h must be known. The height is a perpendicular line segment drawn from a vertex to the opposite side which we call the base. In a right triangle, one of the sides (or legs) forming the right angle serves as the height while the other side (or leg) forming the right angle serves as the base. Additionally, if we designate the unequal side of an isosceles triangle as the base, the height will divide the base into two equal lengths. Look at the following example illustrating the use of this formula to calculate the area of three triangles. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Example

2

Calculating the Area of a Triangle Use the area formula A 5 0.5bh, where b 5 base and h 5 height, to calculate the area of the following triangles. (a) 10 in.

8 in.

10 in.

6 in.

Since this triangle is an isosceles triangle, the height divides the base into two equal parts. Before we use the formula, we must calculate the length of the base.

Base 5 2(6 in.) 5 12 in.

h 5 8 in.   b 5 12 in.

A 5 0.5(12 in.)(8 in.) 5 48 in.2

(b) h = 9 cm

b = 6 cm

In a right triangle, the legs serve as the base and height of the triangle.

h 5 9 cm   b 5 6 cm

A 5 0.5(6 cm)(9 cm) 5 27 cm2

(c) 6 in.

10 in.

h 5 6 in.   b 5 10 in.

A 5 0.5(10 in.)(6 in.) 5 30 in.2

In many real-life applications where we are required to find the area of an object in the shape of a triangle, we may not be able to find the height of the triangle. Another formula, called Hero’s formula, can also be used to find the area of a triangle using only the lengths of the sides of the triangle. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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65

Important equations Hero’s Formula for the Area of a Triangle A 5 "s 1 s 2 a 2 1 s 2 b 2 1 s 2 c 2

where s5

a 1 b 1 c      (called the semi-perimeter) 2

and a, b, and c are the lengths of the sides of the triangle. Hero’s formula avoids the problem of trying to measure or calculate the height of a particular triangle.

Example

3

Making Pennants Calculate the amount of material that will be needed to make 10 pennants in the shape of a triangle if the sides of each triangle measure 12 in., 20 in., and 20 in. (See Figure 2-10.) Because we know only the lengths of the sides of the triangle, we can use Hero’s formula to calculate the area of each fl g.

20 in. 12 in. 20 in.

Figure 2-10

Step 1

Step 2

s5

a 1b 1 c 2

s5

12 1 20 1 20 2

s 5 26 in.

A 5 "s 1 s 2 a 2 1 s 2 b 2 1 s 2 c 2

A 5 "26 1 26 2 12 2 1 26 2 20 2 1 26 2 20 2

A 5 "26 1 14 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 5 "13,104 5 114.5 in.2

Because 10 pennants are to be made, at least 10 3 114.5 in.2 < 1145 in.2 of material will be needed. We can convert this answer to square feet by dividing the total number of square inches by 144 in.2 (because 1 ft2 5 144 in.2). 2 1145 in.2 2 (or approximately 8 ft of material 5 7.95 ft will be needed for these pennants) 144 in.2 /ft2

When calculating the area of a triangular figu e, determine the formula you will use based on the information that you are given. If you know the base and height of a triangle, the formula A 5 0.5bh is simple and easy to use. However, if you don’t know the height of the triangle but can determine the lengths of the three sides, you can use Hero’s formula to calculate the area. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Example

4

Area of an Irregular Figure Calculate the area of the shaded part of Figure 2-11. 12 cm

6 cm

6 cm

Figure 2-11

To solve this problem, we must first calculate the area of the rectangle (A 5 lw) and then subtract the area of the triangle. Because we know the length of the base and height of the triangle, we use the formula A 5 0.5bh to find its a ea. In the rectangle, l 5 12 cm and w 5 6 cm In the triangle, b 5 6 cm and h 5 6 cm lw 5 (12 cm)(6 cm) 5

Rectangle: A 5

72 cm2

Triangle: A 5 0.5bh 5 0.5(6 cm)(6 cm) 5 218 cm2  54 cm2 The area of the shaded portion of the figu e is 54 cm2.

Example

5

Area of the Wall of a Shed Calculate the area of the side of the shed, including the door and window, as shown in Figure 2-12. 9.5 ft

9.5 ft

10.8 ft

15 ft

Figure 2-12

We will subdivide the figu e into two parts, a rectangle and a triangle, calculate the area of each, and total the areas. Because we are not given a height for the triangular portion, we must use Hero’s formula to calculate the area. (a) Calculate the area of the rectangle having l 5 15 feet and w 5 10.8 feet. A 5 lw 5 (15 ft)(10.8 ft) 5 162 ft2

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67

(b) C  alculate the area of the triangle using Hero’s formula. Let a 5 9.5 feet, b 5 9.5 feet, and c 5 15 feet. Round the answer to the nearest tenth.

Step 1 a 1b 1 c s5 2 9.5 1 9.5 1 15 s5 2 34 s5 5 17 2

Step 2 A 5 "s 1 s 2 a 2 1 s 2 b 2 1 s 2 c 2

A 5 "17 1 17 2 15 2 1 17 2 9.5 2 1 17 2 9.5 2 A 5 "17 1 2 2 1 7.5 2 1 7.5 2

A 5 "1912.5 < 43.7 ft2

(c) Find the total area.

162 ft2 1 43.7 ft2 5 205.7 ft2 ¯ 206 ft2

Practice Set 2-2 Calculate the size of /C, the third angle in each triangle, and classify the triangle as acute, obtuse, or right in problems 1 to 6.

8.

1. /A 5 35° and /B 5 55°

1¼ in.

2. /A 5 25° and /B 5 40°

15 8 in. 1 18 in.

3. /A 5 101° and /B 5 36° 1½ in.

4. /A 5 78° and /B 5 43°   5. /A 5 90° and /B 5 29°

9.

6. /A 5 32° and /B 5 51° Find the area of the figu es below. Remember to label your answer with the correct units.

12 in.

13 in.

7.

3.25 cm

3.25 cm 3 cm

5 in.

10. 2.5 cm

1.5 cm

2.5 cm

2 cm

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

11.

16. r 5 5 in.

100 mm

300 mm

150 mm

175 mm

4 in. 3 in.

12. 16.3 cm

6.9 cm

7.5 cm

17. DABC is an equilateral triangle with AC 5 10 cm. C

13.1 cm

13.

15 in.

15 in.

3 cm A

B

18

20 in.

14. 21 ft

11 ft

16 in.

18 ft

Find the area of the shaded parts of the figu e below. 15.

74 cm

48 cm

37cm

16 in.

Complete the following word problems using the ­appropriate formulas based on the information given in the problem. Draw diagrams as needed to assist you with the solution. 19. A right triangle has one acute angle that measures 45°. Find the measure of the third angle and classify this triangle as scalene, isosceles, or equilateral.

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69

20. A right triangle has one acute angle that ­measures 38°. Find the measure of the third ­angle and classify this triangle as scalene, ­isosceles, or equilateral.

25. A sailor wishes to make a new sail for his boat. The sail is triangular shaped and measures 18 ft by 11 ft by 25 ft. Calculate the number of square feet of material that will be needed for this sail.

21. An isosceles triangle has two angles that each measures 32°. Find the measure of the third angle and classify the triangle as acute, right, or obtuse.

26. The Dodsons are planning to paint the outside of their house this spring. The paint can states that 1 gallon of paint will cover 350 ft2 of surface. Using the dimensions of the house shown in the drawing, calculate the number of gallons of paint (rounded to the nearest gallon) they will need to buy to complete the project. (Don’t include paint for the doors or windows!)

22. An isosceles triangle has one angle that measures 98°. Find the measures of the other two angles and classify the triangle as acute, right, or obtuse. 23. A triangle has a base that measures 24 inches and an area of 132 in2. Find the length of the height of this triangle. 24. A triangle has a height that measures 16 cm and an area of 104 cm2. Find the length of the base of this triangle.

16 ft

27. Tameka’s backyard has three trees that form a small triangle. She is planning to plant a fl wer garden in this triangular area and must calculate the area in order to buy the correct amount of fertilizer and mulch. She measures the following distances for the three sides of the triangle: 10.5 ft, 8.25 ft, and 5.25 ft. Calculate the area of this garden.

16 ft 35 ft

18 ft

24 ft Square windows are 2.5 ft by 2.5 ft Rectangular windows are 2.5 ft by 6 ft

16 ft

16 ft 35 ft

18 ft

18 ft

24 ft Doors are 3 ft by 6.5 ft

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

28. Miriam is sewing an appliqué of an ice cream cone on a fl g which the local ice cream shop will use as a display for advertisement. Use the diagram to find the amount o material needed for the ice cream cone appliqué. 8 in.

15 in.

The Great Pyramid of Giza

29. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the World and until the 19th century, was the tallest building in the world. The base of the pyramid measures 756 ft and the edges measure 612 ft. Each face is an isosceles triangle. Find the area of one of the triangular faces of the pyramid.

2-3

Section

30. If each block used to build the Great Pyramid of Giza has a face measuring 10 ft by 10 ft, approximately how many blocks would be needed for one face of the triangle? To find our answer, use your results from problem 29. Round to the nearest whole number.

Models and Patterns in Right Triangles The triangle is structurally the strongest of the polygons. Triangles are evident in the construction of tall towers and bridges. Right triangles are especially useful in building projects. The framing of a house requires that the studs be braced with boards that form right triangles. Tall towers are often braced with guy wires to give support to the tower. The tower, the ground, and the guy wire form a right triangle. In a right triangle, the sides of the triangle have lengths that demonstrate c­ ertain relationships. One of these relationships is stated by the Pythagorean ­theorem.

Theorem

Pythagorean Theorem In a right triangle, the sum of the squares of the legs of the triangle equals the square of the hypotenuse, or as illustrated in Figure 2-13: a2 1 b2 5 c 2

a

c

b

Figure 2-13

This theorem is only true for right triangles. It allows us to calculate the length of the third side of a right triangle if the lengths of the other two sides are known. Remember that the hypotenuse (c) is always the longest side of the triangle and is directly opposite the right angle. The other two sides of the triangle (a and b) are called the legs.

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Section 2-3    Models and Patterns in Right Triangles

Example

1

71

Using the Pythagorean Theorem Find the length a in the right triangle shown in Figure 2-14.

39 a

36

Figure 2-14

The base b is 36, and the hypotenuse c is 39. Substitute these values into the ­Pythagorean theorem.

a2 1 b2 5 c2

a 2 1 36 2 5 39 2

a 1 1296 5 1521

a 2 1 1296 2 1296 5 1521 2 1296

(subtract 1296 from both sides)

2

a 5 "225 5 15

2

(simplify by squaring)

a 5 225

Example

(substitute the given values)

2

(take the square root of 225)

Guy Wires for the Communications Company A 40-foot tower will be constructed for a cellular communications company. Guy wires will be needed for stability and will be attached 5 feet below the top of the tower. The wires will be anchored to the ground at a distance of 50 feet from the base of the tower. (Assume the tower makes a right angle with level ground.) What length of wire will be needed if the tower is to be stabilized with four guy wires? (See Figure 2-15.) 5 ft

40 ft

50 ft

Figure 2-15

Let side a 5 40 ft 2 5 ft 5 35 ft side b 5 50 ft side c 5 ? a 1 b2 5 c2 2

96691_ch02_ptg01.indd 71

1 35 2 2 1 1 50 2 2 5 c 2 1225 1 2500 5 c 2

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3725 5 c 2

!3725 5 c

61.03 5 c

Because we need to have four guy wires, the total amount of wire needed will be: 4 3 61.03 ft 5 244.12 ft, or approximately 245 ft to complete the job. Height

In trying to solve some geometry problems, figu es can be subdivided into right triangles in order to calculate certain lengths. An isosceles triangle, for example, can be divided into two congruent right triangles by drawing in a perpendicular segment called the height from the vertex angle of the triangle to the base. (See Figure 2-16.)

Base

Figure 2-16

Example

3

Pitch of the Roof Calculate the pitch (or slope) of the roof shown in Figure 2-17.

14 ft

Height

14 ft

25 ft

Figure 2-17

If a perpendicular line is drawn from the peak of the roof to a horizontal line connecting the ends of the house, two right triangles are formed. Remember that the height of an isosceles triangle will ­bisect the base. Using the Pythagorean theorem, we can calculate the length of h. a 2 1 b 2 5 c2

12.52 1 h2 5 142 h 5 "142 2 12.52 5 6.3 ft.

Therefore, the slope of this roof line will be

6.3 ft 1 5 0.504 < . 12.5 ft 2

Example

4

The Area of a Composite Figure Using the Pythagorean ­Theorem Find the painted area of the end of the house pictured in Figure 2-18. Do not use Hero’s formula to find this a ea. To find the area of the end of the house, we divide it into a rectangular portion and a triangle. We calculate the area of the rectangular portion using the formula A 5 lw, and then subtract the area of the two windows as calculated with the same formula.

Area 5 (18)(24) 5 432 ft 2      (total rectangular area)

Area 5 (2.5)(2.5) 5 6.25 ft 2     (area of the small window)

Area 5 (2.5)(6) 5 15 ft 2

(area of the rectangular window)

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Section 2-3    Models and Patterns in Right Triangles

16 ft

16 ft

h 12 ft

73

12 ft 6 ft

2.5 ft 2.5 ft 2.5 ft

18 ft

24 ft

Figure 2-18

Therefore, 432 2 6.25 2 15 5 410.75 ft 2 is the painted area of the rectangular portion of the house. Next, we need to calculate the area of the triangular portion of the end of the house. The easiest area formula for a triangle is A 5 0.5bh. In this problem, the base is 24 ft. We do not know the height, but we can calculate the height using the Pythagorean theorem.

a2 1 b2 5 c2

h 2 1 12 2 5 16 2 h 5 "162 2 122 5 "112 < 10.6 ft

Therefore,

Area of the triangular portion 5 0.5bh

Area of the triangular portion 5 0.5(24)(10.6)

Area of the triangular portion 5 127.2 ft2

Finally, to find the total painted area of the end of the house, we add our two results. 410.75 ft2 1 127.2 ft2 5 537.95 ft2 of painted surface

The Standard or Conventional Method for Lettering a Triangle Look at the right triangle in Figure 2-19. Each angle is named using a capital letter A, B, and C. Each side is labeled with a lowercase letter corresponding to one of the letters used to name the angles. Notice that side a is the side opposite angle A, side b is opposite angle B, and side c is opposite angle C. The same is true for the triangle with angles labeled D, E, and F and sides labeled d, e, and f. This method was used to label all triangles in Practice Set 2-3 and will be used in the following section on trigonometry. B

c

A

E

f

a

b

C

D

e

d

F

Figure 2-19 The standard method for labeling the sides of a triangle.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Practice Set 2-3   1. What information must you have about a triangle before you know that you can use the Pythagorean theorem?

6. a 5 45,  b 5 45 B

2. Does a triangle with sides of lengths 1.5 ft, 2.5 ft, and 2 ft form a right triangle? How do you know? Use the Pythagorean theorem to find the missing side of the following right triangles. (Note: Round to the nearest tenth.)   3. a 5 9, b 5 12

B

a = 45

c=

C

b = 45

A

7. a 5 10,  c 5 26 B

a=9

c=

C

A

b = 12

c = 26

a = 10

C

A

b=

8. a 5 7,  c 5 25 B

4. b 5 25,  c 5 35

B a57

c = 35

a=

C

5. b 5 6,  c 5 12

b = 25

c = 12

C

b5

A

Complete the following word problems. Draw a sketch to help you solve each problem.   9. The bottom of a 25-ft ladder leaning against a house is 7 ft from the house. If the ground is level, how high on the house does the ladder reach?

B

a=

A

C

c 5 25

b=6

A

10. A 6-ft ladder is placed against a wall with its base 2.5 ft from the wall. How high above the ground is the top of the ladder? 11. A rope 13 m long from the top of a fl gpole will just reach a point on the ground 9 m from the foot of the pole. Find the height of the ­fl gpole.

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Section 2-3    Models and Patterns in Right Triangles

12. Clint wants to keep a young tree from blowing over during a high wind. He decides that he should tie a rope around the tree at a height of 180 cm, and then tie the rope to a stake 200 cm from the base. Allowing 30 cm of rope for doing the tying, will the 270-cm rope he has be long enough to do the job? 13. A fl t computer monitor measures approximately 10.5 in. high and 13.5 in. wide. A monitor is advertised by giving the approximate length of the diagonal of its screen. How should this monitor be ­advertised? 14. A baseball diamond is really a square, and the ­distance between consecutive bases is 90 ft. How far does a catcher have to throw the ball to get it to second base if a runner tries to steal ­second? 15. Jackson is 64 miles east of Lazy Day Resort. Fairfield Heights is 25 miles south o Jackson. A land developer proposes building a shortcut road to directly connect Fairfield Heights and Lazy Day. Sketch a drawing and find the length o this new road. 16. A new housing development extends 4 miles in one direction, makes a right turn, and then continues for 3 miles. A new road runs between the beginning and ending points of the development. What is the perimeter of the triangle formed by the homes and the road? What is the area of the housing development? 17. An isosceles triangle has a base of 28 in. and two congruent sides of 25 in. each. Find the height of the triangle. (Round to the nearest tenth.)

75

19. The slope, or pitch, of the roof on a new house should be in the ratio 11:20. If it is 30 ft from the front of the house to the back of the house, how far is it from the edge of the roof to its peak?

?

30 ft

20. A yardstick held vertically on level ground casts a shadow 16 in. long. What would be the distance from the top of the yardstick to the edge of its shadow? 21. Find the area and perimeter of the triangle shown in the following figu e. 26 cm

10 cm

22. Find the area of the figu e shown. /C is a right angle. A

B 2 cm

5 cm

D

C 1.5 cm

E

23. Find the distance from A to B on the graph. Round to the nearest tenth. y

18. For a “shed” roof, the height h is half the width w of the building. Find the length of the rafter r if a building is 42 ft wide.

5

B

r

x

h w

C

A

–5 –5

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24. Find the distance from R to S on the graph. Round to the nearest tenth. y 5 R

x

25. A rectangular doorway’s inside dimensions are 200 cm by 75 cm. Could a circular mirror measuring 220 cm in diameter pass through the doorway? 26. A carpenter is building a floor or a rectangular room. To avoid problems with the walls and floo ing, the corners of the room must be right angles. If he builds an 8-ft by 12-ft room and measures the diagonal from one corner to the other as 14 ft 8 in., is the floor “squa ed off” properly? 27. Find the length of a side of a square whose ­diagonal is 10 in. long. Round to the nearest tenth.

T

S

–5 –5

5

2-4

Section

28. Find the length of a side of a square whose diagonal is 16 cm long. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.

Right Triangle Trigonometry In this section we will study the fundamentals of trigonometry as applied to two-dimensional right triangles, like those you worked with in the previous section. In that section you used the Pythagorean theorem to find the length of one missing side in a right triangle when you were given the lengths of the other two sides. However, the Pythagorean theorem works only if you know two of the three sides of the right triangle. If you know the length of only one side of a right triangle, the Pythagorean theorem is of no use. You will also remember that the sum of all three angles in any triangle is equal to exactly 180 degrees. If you are given the size of any two angles in a triangle, you can find the size of the third angle with simple subtraction. However, if you know the size of only one angle, then another method will be needed to help you find the size of a second angle. Trigonometry is the area of mathematics that deals with the relationships between the length of sides and the size of angles in triangles on fl t (plane or twodimensional) surfaces and on the surface of spheres. In this section we will deal only with trigonometry as applied to right triangles on plane surfaces. Now let’s get started on the main topic of this section. You will often see the words “trigonometry” and “trigonometric” abbreviated as “trig.” So a “trigonometric function” will often be called a “trig function.” First we need to talk a little more about how we determine which side is which. Look at the triangle in Figure 2-20. It is a right triangle labeled using the standard method described at the end of Section 2-3. Angle C is the right angle (90°), and angles A and B are acute angles. If we look at this triangle as if we were standing on /A, then side a is the opposite side from /A. Side c is the hypotenuse of the right triangle. (Remember that the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle is the hypotenuse, which is always the longest side in any right triangle.) Side b is called the adjacent side from /A’s point of view.

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Section 2-4   Right Triangle Trigonometry

77

B

c, the hypotenuse

A

a, the opposite side

C

Figure 2-20 From /A’s point of view.

In Figure 2-21 you can see the sides labeled opposite and adjacent from /B’s point of view. The decision as to which side is the opposite side and which is the adjacent side depends on which angle you are using for your point of view. However, side c, the side opposite the right angle, is always the hypotenuse. B

c, the hypotenuse

A

b, the opposite side

C

Figure 2-21 From /B’s point of view.

There are six basic trigonometric functions. However, in this brief introduction we will limit the discussion to the three most often used trigonometric functions. These are the same three as are found on your calculator, as we will see shortly. The trigonometric functions show that the ratios of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle are functions of the angles. Using Figure 2-20 as our guide, the three basic trigonometric functions are shown below.

IMPORTANT EQUATIONS The Basic Trigonometric Functions sine A 5 cosine A 5 tangent A 5

opposite side length opp a 5 5   1 abbreviated sin A 2 c hypotenuse length hyp

adjacent side length adj b 5 5   1 abbreviated cos A 2 c hypotenuse length hyp

opposite side length opp a 5 5   1 abbreviated tan A 2 b adjacent length adj

If you clearly establish which angle you are working from before starting any calculations, the trigonometric functions will become obvious. You will make fewer mistakes with trigonometric calculations if you actually label which sides are which (opposite, adjacent, or hypotenuse) before you start working. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Important Note  Using the right angle for your point of view will only get you into trouble. Look at Figure 2-22. Note that from /C ’s point of view, side c is both the opposite side and the hypotenuse. This means that the other two sides must both be adjacent to /C. Using the basic trigonometric functions, you cannot solve for missing side lengths and angles from the right angle’s point of view. B e id se e s enu t i t s po ypo op e h , c th d an

A

C

Figure 2-22 From /C’s point of view.

On your scientific or graphing calculator, you will find keys labeled sin, cos, and tan. These are keys that we will use as we start to analyze right triangles. At this point we should practice using your calculator to find various trigonometric function values and various angle sizes. In this section we will deal only with angles measured in degrees. Be sure that your calculator is set in degree mode. Your instructor should be able to show you how to do this.

Example

1

Finding the Sine, Cosine, and Tangent Functions of Various Angles If you know the size of an angle in degrees, it is easy to find the value of any of the trigonometric functions for that angle. If you are using a graphing calculator, press the appropriate trigonometric function key (sin, cos, or tan) and then enter the angle size followed by the “enter” key. If you are using a scientific calculator, you will enter the angle first and then press the appropriate trigonometric function key. Many times the value is a long, messy decimal number. Here we will round off our results to four decimal places if necessary. Find each of the following values: sin 60° 5 0.8660254038 5 0.8660 cos 60° 5 0.5 tan 60° 5 1.732050808 5 1.7321 sin 2° 5 0.0348994967 5 0.0349 tan 43.5° 5 0.9489645667 5 0.9490 cos 0° 5 1 sin 0° 5 0 tan 80° 5 5.67128182 5 5.6713 Note: The lowest value that the sine, cosine, or tangent functions of an angle can have is 0 (i.e., no negative values). The highest value that the sine or cosine functions can have is 1. However, there is no limit to the highest value for the tangent function. For example, the tangent of an angle of 89.999° is 57,295.77951.

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Section 2-4   Right Triangle Trigonometry

79

Before we go farther, we need to stop and consider the sine, cosine, and tangent of the right angle (90°) itself. It has already been stated that using the right angle as your point of view is going to cause you trouble. The sine is the opposite side length divided by the hypotenuse length. For the right angle, the opposite side and the hypotenuse are the same side (refer to Figure 2-22). Since any number divided by itself is equal to 1, sin 90° 5 1. Both the cosine and tangent functions require that the adjacent side length be used but the right angle has not one but two possible adjacent sides. Since no particular adjacent side can be chosen, the cosine and tangent functions of the 90° angle are define , not calculated. By definition, cos 90° 5 0 and tan 90° is undefined. ou can check this out in your calculator for yourself.

Example

2

Finding an Angle Given the Value of the Trigonometric Function Find the angle that corresponds to each of the following function values. Round to the nearest tenth of a degree. (a) sin A 5 0.0872   (b)  cos B 5 0.9397   (c)  tan D 5 0.7536 To find the value of the angle, we must find what is called the inverse of the trigonometric function. (a) In your calculator, the inverse of each of the trigonometric functions is the 2nd function of the trigonometric key itself. To find /A using a graphing calculator, the calculator key sequence is 2nd sin 0.0872 Enter . If you are using a scientific calcul tor, enter the number first (0.0872) ollowed by 2nd sin. sin A 5 0.0872 /A 5 5.002545445 /A 5 5.0° This process is called finding an inverse sine or arcsine. (b) Similarly, in a graphing calculator, the key sequence is 2nd cos 0.9397 Enter . On a scientific calcul tor, reverse the order as in part (a) of this example. cos B 5 0.9397 /B 5 19.99876379 /B 5 20.0° (c) On a graphing calculator, the key sequence here is 2nd tan 0.7536 Enter . On a scientific calcul tor, reverse the order as in part (a) of this example. tan D 5 0.7536 /D 5 37.00167917 /D 5 37.0° The next few examples will show you how to use trigonometry to find missing side lengths and missing angle sizes in right triangles.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Example

3

Using a Trigonometric Function to Find a Missing Angle Size in a Right Triangle In the right triangle below, side a is 3.0 ft long, side c is 5.0 ft long, and /C is the right angle (90°). What are the sizes of angles A and B? B

c 5 5.0 ft

A

a 5 3.0 ft

b

C

Since both angles A and B are unknown, it does not matter which angle we choose for our point of view. (Remember, avoid using the right angle, angle C here, for your point of view.) For this example we will use /A for our point of view. From /A’s point of view: Side a is the opposite side and it is 3.0 ft long. Side b is the adjacent side and its length is unknown. Side c is the hypotenuse and it is 5.0 ft long. Now we will use a trig function to determine the size of /A. So, which function should we use? Look at all three in abbreviated form. sin A 5

opp adj opp ,  cos A 5 ,  and  tan A 5 hyp hyp adj

Each of the trigonometric functions has unknowns. The numerators and denominators of the fractions are the lengths of sides of the triangle. The third unknown is the size of the angle we are working with. Since we can solve for only one missing number or variable at a time, we must pick the trig function where we know two of the required values. Since we are not given the number of degrees in /A, we need to be able to fill in the atio with the two side lengths given. The list we made for /A’s point of view tells us that we know the lengths of the opposite side and the length of the hypotenuse. Therefore we choose the sine function, insert the known lengths and then divide with our calculator as follows. sin A 5

opp 3 ft 5 hyp 5 ft

sin A 5 0.6 Now we use our calculator to turn the value of the sine into the size of the angle it represents. First be sure that your calculator is in degree mode, as there are several ways of measuring angle sizes other than degrees. Your instructor can show you how to do this. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Section 2-4   Right Triangle Trigonometry

Using a graphing calculator, with the result of 0.6 on the screen, press the key sequence 2nd sin 2nd ans. The result on your screen is 36.86989765°, which we will round off to 36.9°. (This is the inverse of the trig function.) Thus /A 5 36.9° and by simple subtraction, /B 5 180° – 90° – 36.9 5 53.1°.

Example

4

Using a Trigonometric Function to Find the Length of a Missing Side in a Right Triangle In the right triangle shown here, /F 5 90.0°, /D 5 30.0°, and side e 5 20.0 m. How long are sides d and f ? (Round to the nearest tenth.) E

f

D

30.08 e 5 20.0 m

d

F

First we must choose our point of view. Since we are looking for a missing side, we need to choose the acute angle whose size is given, /D. Remember, we will not pick the right angle, /F, for our point of view. From /D’s point of view: Side d is the opposite side and its length is not known. Side e is the adjacent side and its length is 20.0 m. Side f is the hypotenuse and its length is not known. We now need to choose a trig function into which we may substitute the given values. Look at all three trig functions in abbreviated form. sin D 5

opp adj opp ,  cos D 5 ,  and  tan D 5 hyp hyp adj

Since side e is the adjacent side here, we could either choose the cosine and solve for the hypotenuse length or choose the tangent and solve for the opposite side's length. Because we want both lengths it does not matter which we do. Using the cosine function: cos D 5

cos 30 5

20m f

(substitute the given values)

f5

20m cos 30

(solve for f )

f 5 23.09401077

(divide 20 by cos 20)

The result is that f = 23.09401077 m, or the hypotenuse is 23.1 m long. In order to achieve the most accurate results in a problem, you should use only “given information” if at all possible to derive all solutions. Therefore, to find the Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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length of side d without using the calculated value of side f, we can use the tangent function from /D’s point of view. tan D 5

tan 30 5

d 20 m

(substitute the given values)

d 5 (tan 30) (20 m)

(solve for d)

d 5 11.54700538

(multiply 20 × tan 30)

The result is that d = 11.54700538, or side d is 11.5 m long. It was noted in Example 4 that in solving for missing values in a problem, you should use only given information if at all possible. If we had chosen to use the Pythagorean theorem to find side d, the result would have been slightly different. Let’s see why. f 2 5 d 2 + e2 23.12 5 d 2 + 202 d 2 5 23.12 – 202 d 2 5 133.61 d 5 "133.61 5 11.55897919 m 5 11.6 m

If you compare the result in Example 4 with this result, you can see a difference of 0.1 m or 10 cm. This is close to an error of 4 inches. This error is the result of using the calculated and rounded value for the length of the hypotenuse, f. Another reason for not using a value that you calculated in another part of the problem is that if you made a mistake on that part of the problem you cannot possibly get the next answer correct. Example

5

How Wide Is the River? A civil engineer wishes to determine the width of a river at a certain point. He finds a point on his side of the river, say point P, and sites directly across the river to a rock on the bank. He calls the rock point Q. He then walks down the river bank on his side a distance of 120 feet from point P to a point he calls point R. The line from P to R on his side (120 feet) is perpendicular to the line across the river that would connect points P and Q. He then sites with his transit an angle of 41.8° from line PR to point Q across the river. Rounded to the nearest foot, how wide is the river? This sounds complicated, so doing a sketch such as the one shown in Figure 2-23 might be helpful. Q

41.88 P

120 ft

R

Figure 2-23

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Section 2-4   Right Triangle Trigonometry

From the picture it can be seen that the distance across the river, side PQ, is the opposite side from the angle at R. The distance that the engineer measured along the river bank, 120 feet, is the adjacent side from the angle at R. Thus we set up the tangent function as follows: opp tan R 5 adj tan 41.8 5

PQ 120 feet

(substitute the given values)

PQ 5 (120 feet)(tan 41.8°)

(solve for PQ)

PQ 5 107.2923829 feet

(multiply)

So the river is approximately 107 feet wide.

Practice Set 2-4 1. What minimum information do you need to know about a right triangle in order to use the Pythagorean theorem to find a missing side length

17. sin A 5 0.1488

18. tan A 5 4.9376

19. cos A 5 0.7071

20. tan A 5 8.0285

2. What minimum information do you need to know in order to use the knowledge that the sum of all three angles in a triangle add up to exactly 180° to find a missing angle si e?

21. sin A 5 0.7071

22. cos A 5 0.5621

23. sin A 5 0.2655

24. cos A 5 0.9998

3. What minimum information do you need to know about a triangle before using trigonometric functions to solve for missing side lengths or missing angle sizes?

Solve each of the following right triangles for all missing angle sizes and all missing side lengths in problems 26 to 36. All of the triangles correspond to the standard right triangle, ABC, shown below. Round answers to the nearest tenth.

4. If you are given only the measurements of the three angles of a right triangle, can you find the lengths of the three sides?

25. tan A 5 0.3249

B

Use your calculator to find the alues of each of the trigonometric functions in problems 5 to 16. Round answers to four decimal places.

c

a

5. sin 40°

6. cos 40°

7. tan 40°

8. sin 90°

9. cos 90°

10. tan 90°

11. sin 52°

12. cos 17.37° 13. tan 9.78°

26. /A 5 29°, a 5 32

27. /B 5 68.3°, a 5 417

14. sin 56.43°

15. cos 52.3°

28. /A 5 47.7°, c 5 132.2

29. b 5 731, c 5 818

30. /B 5 32.4°, a 5 27.5

31. a 5 2.2, c 5 3.2

32. /B 5 52.6°, b 5 1.8

33. a 5 16.1, b 5 34.2

34. /A 5 38°, b 5 8.0

35. /B 5 43.8, c 5 6.3

16. tan 89.55°

Use your calculator to find the angle A that corresponds to the trigonometric values in problems 17 to 25. Here you are finding the i verse of the trigonometric function. Round answers to the nearest tenth of a degree (one decimal place).

A

b

C

36. b 5 221, c 5 247 Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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2-5

Section

43. A 250-foot tower casts a 375-foot shadow across level ground. What is the angle of elevation of the sun in this situation? (The “angle of elevation” is the angle measured from level ground up to the location of the sun.) 44. A ship in distress fi es a signal fla e. The fla e explodes at a height of 800 feet above the ship. A rescue ship sees the fla e and measures the angle of elevation from its location up to the fla e to be about 16.0°. About how far is the ship that is in distress from the rescue ship? 45. Each of the two equal sides of an isosceles triangle is 77.7 inches long. The base of this triangle is 125 inches long. What is the size of the two equal base angles of this triangle? What is the size of the third angle? 46. A civil engineer wishes to know the distance between two telephone poles. The trouble is the river that runs between them. The engineer sites a line on his side of the river perpendicular to the line across the river between the two poles. The line on the engineer’s side of the river measures 165 feet. Next the engineer, standing 165 feet from the pole on his side of the river, sites an angle of 32.8° across the river to the other pole. How far apart are the two poles?

Models and Patterns in Art, Architecture, and Nature Perspective and Symmetry The visual arts such as sculpture, painting, drawing, and architecture are directly related to mathematics. The mathematical terms perspective, proportion, and symmetry are important elements of art and architecture. In fact, architects, industrial designers, illustrators of all kinds, and engineers will all, at one time or another, be involved in producing a pictorial representation of the objects they are building or designing.

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In order to paint or draw with realism, an understanding of perspective is essential. Perspective is a geometric way of thinking that allows an artist or architect to give the sense of depth or three dimensions to a fl t painting or drawing. (The original form of the word perspective means “to see through.”) The process of ­producing a fl t drawing that “looks” three-dimensional is based on the laws of optics. Because this section is part of a math book and not an art or architecture book, we will limit our presentation of topics to straight-line drawings only. Of course, no painting, drawing, or photograph (photographs are perspective “drawings”) can ­really duplicate our visual perception of a scene or object. The basis of perspective drawing is a principle that roughly says that all lines that are parallel in a real scene are not parallel on the perspective drawing but ­actually converge at a single point called the principal vanishing point. This ­vanishing point is located on a horizontal line called the horizon line or eye level in the ­drawing. The horizon line is at the level of the observer’s eye when looking at the drawing. A simple example of this is shown in Figure 2-24. Imagine that you are standing near a long, straight road with a fence running down the lefthand side. The fence and the road appear to vanish in the distance. You could also imagine standing in the middle of a railroad track that goes straight away from you into the far distance.

Horizon line

Principal vanishing point

Figure 2-24

Another aspect of perspective is that of one’s point of view of an object or set of objects. Looking at a structure such as a house or building can yield different ­pictures depending on which side you look at. Figure 2-25 demonstrates this concept.

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Top view or plan

Rear view or elevation Right side view or elevation Left side view or elevation Front view or elevation Bottom view

Top view or plan

Rear view or elevation

Left side view or elevation

Front view or elevation

Right side view or elevation

Figure 2-25 Six views of a house.

Bottom view

Example

1

Top

Look at the structure on the right. It is some kind of machine part. Create line drawings to show what this machine part would look like if you viewed it: Left (a) (b) (c) (d)

Rear

directly from the top directly from the front directly from the bottom directly from the right-hand end Front Right Bottom

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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(d)

(b) (c)

(a) Top

Front

Bottom

Right

The term symmetry has several meanings. Symmetry implies some kind of balance. If you were to draw a vertical line from your head to your toes, a line that goes through your nose and your navel, your body is then divided into two symmetrical halves. They aren’t identical but they are balanced. Repetitive patterns are also said to be symmetrical. For an example of this, look at the brick walkway shown in ­Figure 2-26. To the mathematician, an object has symmetry if it remains unchanged after some “operation” is performed on it. Though there are many symmetries possible, we will only look at two that are easy to identify: reflection symmetry and rotational symmetry. If an object has reflection symmetry, then the object and its mirror image are identical. For example, the capital letter H and its reflection in a mirror are identical. In addition to this, the letter H exhibits reflection (or mirror) symmetry when reflected across (cut by) a vertical line or a horizontal line as shown in Figure 2-27. Note that if you fold the letter H along the dotted lines, the two halves will exactly coincide with each other.

Figure 2-26 Brick walkway pattern.

Example

2

Figure 2-27

Reflection Symmetry for a Rectangle A rectangle is pictured here with three possible lines of reflection symmetry. Does the rectangle exhibit reflection symmetry in all the cases shown? If not, which pictures do and why?

(a)

(b)

(c) Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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If you were to fold rectangles (a) and (b) along the dotted line of symmetry, the two halves would exactly coincide with each other. So, rectangles (a) and (b) both have reflection symmetry along the line drawn. However, in rectangle (c) the two halves would not coincide. Thus, rectangle (c) does not have reflection symmetry along the diagonal line. If an object exhibits rotational symmetry, then when it is rotated a specifie amount around some chosen point, it will coincide with the original object. For example, the letter H exhibits rotational symmetry if it is rotated 180º around its c­ enter.

Example

3

Rotational Symmetry Which of the following objects exhibits rotational symmetry if rotated 180º around the point or line shown? 1808

1808

(a)

(b)

1808

(c)

The following figu es show the results of each 180º rotation. As you can see, the letter S and the square exhibit rotational symmetry under these conditions but the letter A does not.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Scale and Proportion One of the most important rules in doing realistic looking drawings or art is to keep objects in the sketch in proportion. If the proportions in a drawing are bad, then the sketch will generally be of little use. Of course, artists can bend the rule to the breaking point and do paintings that are badly out of proportion for comic or other useful effects. In many areas, scale drawings are used. One good example of a scale drawing is a map of a state or a country. Near the bottom of the map you will see the scale factor that was used, perhaps 1 in. 5 5 mi or something similar. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Example

4

A Scale Drawing of a House An architect is going to draw a house so that his picture is 241 the size of the ­actual house. If the highest point on the house is 14 ft 6 in. and a tree in the yard is 24 ft tall, how large will each of these be in the architect’s drawing? Give all your answers in inches. Since the drawing will be drawn to scale in inches, the two measurements given need to be converted to inches.

14 ft 6 in. 5 (14 ft)(12 in./ft) 1 6 in. 5 174 in.

24 ft 5 (24 ft)(12 in./ft) 5 288 in.

Now we will find the size to be used in the scale drawing by multiplying by the 1 scale factor, . 24 a

1 1 b 1 174 2 5 7.25 in.    and     a b 1 288 2 5 12 in. 24 24

Thus, on the scale drawing, the tallest point on the house will be 7.25 in. and the tree will be 12 in. tall. The next example involves similar triangles. If two shapes are similar, then one is an enlargement or reduction of the other. This means that the two triangles will have the same angles and their corresponding sides will be in the same proportion. For example, if triangle ABC is similar to triangle DEF (denoted DABC , DDEF ), then /A is the same size as /D, /B is the same size as /E, and /C is the same size as /F. In addition, the ratio of side AB to side DE is the same as the ratios of side BC to side EF and side AC to side DF.

Example

5

Scaling Triangles The two triangles pictured here are similar triangles and /A 5/D, /B 5 /E, and /C 5 /F. (a) What scale factor was used to transform DABC into DDEF? (b) How long is side AB? (c) How long is side EF? E B A

14

6

? 9

C

D

? 31.5

F

DABC , DDEF

(a) Because the triangles are similar, the ratio of the corresponding sides of the two triangles is a constant. Thus, we will compare side AC with the corresponding side, DF, in the other triangle as follows: 9 90 2 5 5 31.5 315 7

 his means that all of the sides of the smaller triangle are 27 the length of the T sides in the larger triangle. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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(b) Using our scale factor: 2 AB 5 7 14 1 2 2 1 14 2 5 7 1 AB 2 28 5 AB 7

AB 5 4

Thus, side AB is 4 units long. 2 6 5 7 EF

(c)

2 1 EF 2 5 1 7 2 1 6 2 EF 5

42 2

EF 5 21

Thus, side EF is 21 units long.

As we have said before, a mathematical basis underlies all of art, music, and architecture. Even in ancient times this was apparent. Ancient artists and architects used ratios or lengths to position objects and scale drawings, paintings, and buildings. One famous such ratio can be found in many ancient art works and buildings. It goes by several names: the golden mean, the golden ratio, the golden section, and even the divine proportion. This ratio dates back to about 500 BC, the time of ­Pythagoras, when Greek scholars were asking how to break a line segment into two pieces that would have the most visual appeal or balance to the eye. This is a question of beauty being asked by mathematicians, and oddly enough, there was good agreement on the answer. Stated in mathematical terms, the Greeks said that the most visually pleasing division of the line was into two pieces of unequal length, such that the ratio of the longer piece to the shorter piece is the same as the ratio of the entire length to that of the longer piece. In the early 20th century, the Greek letter phi, f (pronounced fi) was chosen to represent this ratio. In case this isn’t clear, here it is in pictorial and algebraic form. a

b

The Golden Ratio 5 f 5

a a1b 5 a b

By cross-multiplying and generating a quadratic equation, the numerical value of the Golden Mean can be easily calculated.

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The value of the Golden Ratio turns out to be an irrational number (a nonending, nonrepeating decimal because of !5) with a value of about 1.62. The Golden Ratio has had many uses and turns up in one form or another in a lot of artwork, architecture, and in natural objects, both ­living and nonliving. The Greeks and others applied this idea of “pleasing lengths” to the construction of geometric figu es of many kinds. A simple example is a “golden rectangle,” where the ratio of the length to the width is the Golden Ratio.

Example

6

Constructing a Golden Rectangle Suppose the rectangle shown here has a length of 5 cm, and you wish to find the width so that the ratio of the length to the width is wl 5 f. Here we will round off the value of the Golden Ratio to 1.62 to make the calculation more reasonable to do. f5 1.62 5

w

w5

l w 5 cm w 5 cm 5 3.086419753 . . . cm 1.62

l = 5 cm

So the width should be about 3.1 cm. Many artists over the centuries have scaled sculptures using the Golden Ratio and placed objects in paintings so that they will fit within a golden rectangle. Even the front of the famous Greek Parthenon is very close to a golden rectangle (see Figure 2-28).

Height

Length = height 3

Figure 2-28

Many say that the “perfect” or most pleasing human faces exhibit many ­Golden Ratios relating to the placement of facial features and their relative sizes. Here are just a few: f5

height of face eye to chin eye to mouth nose to chin width of face 5 5 5 5 width of face nose to chin eye to nose mouth to chin distance between eyes Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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The Golden Mean turns up in the “art” of nature in many forms. One common example of this is based on golden rectangles. If you start with a golden rectangle, then divide the rectangle into a square and a rectangle, the new small rectangle will also be a golden rectangle. If you continue breaking each new rectangle down and then connect the corners of all the squares with a smooth curve, you will create a logarithmic spiral. This is shown in Figure 2-29. These spirals are called Hambridge’s Whirling Squares. If you were to accurately measure the length of any section of this spiral, you would find th t it is about 0.618 as large as the remainder of the spiral. This logarithmic spiral can be seen in a chambered nautilus shell, the curve of a ram’s horns, comet tails, the curl of the surf, a parrot’s beak, the roots of human teeth, a spider web, bacterial growth curves, and the list just goes on and on. The hexagonal-shaped scales on a pineapple, the “leaves” on a pinecone or an artichoke, and the seeds in a sunfl wer all spiral around in several directions if you look carefully. All these spirals match this same logarithmic spiral.

(a)

(c)

(b)

Figure 2-29 (a) Hambridge’s Whirling Squares and a Logarithmic Spiral; (b) a nautilus shell or ram’s horns; and (c) a spiral galaxy.

Practice Set 2-5   1. What is the basic idea behind the use of perspective in drawings?   2. Are all drawings perspective drawings? Why or why not?

3. What is symmetry?   4. Describe both rotational symmetry and reflection symmetry. Find four examples of symmetry in your classroom.

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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93

These letters are for use in answering problems 5 to 8: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ   5. Find letters of the alphabet that exhibit reflec tion symmetry about a vertical or horizontal line through their centers, and show the line of symmetry for each one. Which letters do not exhibit reflection symmetry   6. If you rotate all the letters 90°, which ones ­exhibit rotational symmetry?   7. If you rotate all the letters 180°, which ones exhibit rotational symmetry?   8. Without rotating the letters 360°, which letters do not exhibit rotational symmetry for any amount of rotation?

14. Draw sketches of this machine part from the front, top, and right-hand end.

Use these three geometric figu es for problems 9 to 12.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) An equilateral triangle (3 equal side lengths) (b) A square (4 equal side lengths) (c) A regular pentagon (5 equal side lengths)

9. What is the least number of degrees that you could rotate Figure (a) around its center so that it appears to be unchanged? 10. What is the least number of degrees that you could rotate Figure (b) around its center so that it appears to be unchanged? 11. What is the least number of degrees that you could rotate Figure (c) around its center so that it appears to be unchanged? 12. All of the figu es, (a), (b), and (c), are figu es in which all the sides of the figu e are of equal length. There is a pattern between the number of sides and the number of degrees that they may be rotated and yet remain unchanged in appearance. What is that pattern? Use the pattern to write a formula for rotating any closed figu e with any number of equal sides. 13. Draw sketches of the following figu e as it would look viewed from the front, one end, and looking directly down on it.

15. A 161 scale model (1 in. 5 16 ft) of an airplane has a wingspan of 21 in. What is the wingspan of the actual airplane in feet? 16. If a model of an airplane is 161 scale (1 in. 5 16 ft), how many inches long would the model be if a certain airplane were 48 ft long? 17. The larger of two similar polygons has a ­perimeter of 175 cm. If the scale factor between the two polygons is 34, what is the perimeter of the smaller polygon? 18. Two similar triangles have perimeters of 45 cm and 75 cm respectively. What scale factor would relate these two triangles? 1 19. A 800 scale model (1 cm 5 800 cm) of the aircraft carrier USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) is 42.2 cm long and 8.2 cm wide at the widest point of the deck. What are the actual length and width of this ship in meters?

20. You want to do a scale drawing of a Boeing 747 passenger plane. The actual length of the plane is 225 ft, and the wingspan is 204 ft. If you did a Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling 1 144

(1 in. 5 144 in.) scale drawing, what would the length and wingspan be, in inches, on your ­drawing?

21. A particular map shows a scale of 1:5000. If a distance measures 8 cm on the map, what is the actual distance in centimeters and meters?

23. The following is the silhouette of the battleship USS Texas as she appeared in 1942. The USS Texas is 573 ft long. Measure the length of the ship in this ­picture and determine the scale of the drawing (? in. 5 ? ft).

U.S. Navy

22. A particular map shows a scale of 1 cm:5 km. What would the map distance be (in cm) if the actual distance to be represented is 14 km?

25. A road map of the state of Texas has a scale of 0.5 in. 5 50 mi. If the distance between two points in the state is 600 mi, what would the equivalent distance be on the state map? 26. A building is 250 ft by 120 ft. If you were to draw this building using a scale of 1 in. 5 20 ft, what would the dimensions of your drawing be?

U.S. Naval Historical Center

27. A golden rectangle is to be constructed such that the shortest side is 23 ft long. How long is the other side? 28. If a golden rectangle has a width of 9 cm, what is its length? 29. If one dimension of a golden rectangle is 45.5 cm, what two values are possible for the length of the other side?

24. The following is the silhouette of the battleship USS North Carolina as she appeared in 1942. The USS North Carolina is actually 728 ft. Determine the scale of this drawing (? in. 5 ? ft).

Section

2-6

30. If one dimension of a golden rectangle is 36 in., what two values are possible for the length of the other side?

Models and Patterns in Music It is interesting to realize that mathematics and music are linked. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646–1716), who along with Sir Isaac Newton gets credit for developing modern calculus, said, roughly translated, “Music is the pleasure the human soul experiences from counting without being aware that it is counting.” In medieval times, schools linked arithmetic, astronomy, geometry, and music together in what was called the quadrivium. Today, computers are often used to produce music, and thus the link between math and music is being perpetuated. Symbols used to denote musical notes are really indicators of the duration (time) of a note in a musical composition. Table 2-2 shows some of the symbols used for notes of various times and for rests where no note is played for a time.

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Section 2-6    Models and Patterns in Music

Symbols and Names of Common Musical Notes

Table 2-2 Note

Rest

American name

British name

whole note

semibreve

half note

minim

quarter note

crotchet

eighth note

quaver

sixteenth note

semiquaver

thirty-second note

demisemiquaver

sixty-fourth note

hemidemisemiquaver

hundred-twenty-eighth note

quasihemidemisemiquaver

Tempos can be 3y4 time (three quarter notes per measure), 4y4 time (four quarter notes per measure), or 3y8 time (three eighth notes per measure), for example. In a 4y4 measure, each whole note counts four beats, each half note counts two beats, each quarter note counts one beat, each eighth note counts 1⁄ 2 beat, and each ­sixteenth note counts 1⁄ 4 beat. In addition to notes, there are also rests where no notes are played for a period of time. Rests can be for the same length of time as any of the notes listed. This means that a rest can last the length of a whole note, half note, quarter note, and so forth. A musician has to count beats per measure and then deal with whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, eighth notes, sixteenth notes, and rests, and so on. ­Music is written so that there are a fi ed number of beats per measure. All those notes and rests must add up to the same number of beats for each measure of ­music. For example, all the notes and rests in each measure of music written in 4/4 time must add up to 4 beats. It is the same as finding common denominators for fractions so that you may add them. Look deeply enough at music and you will find such topics as ratios, periodic functions, and exponential curves.

Example

1

Adding Notes A measure of music written in 4y4 tempo must have four beats in the measure. One way to achieve this is to use four quarter notes as shown here. 1

1

1 1 1 1 4 1 5 1 1 1 5 4 4 4 4 4

Fill in the missing note or notes so that each of the following totals four beats. (a)

1 1

(b)

1

1

1

(c)

1 1

1

1

1

If you write each note as a fraction and then add them, the total must equal 4y4, as shown in the first set o notes. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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(a) Translate into fractions. Let x 5 missing note.

1y4 1 1y2 1 x 5 4y4

1y4 1 2y4 1 x 5 4y4

3y4 1 x 5 4y4

x 5 4y4 2 3y4 5 1y4

Thus, one quarter note is needed.

(b) Translate into fractions. Let x 5 missing note. 1y2 1 1y4 1 1y8 1 x 5 4y4 4y8 1 2y8 1 1y8 1 x 5 8y8 7y8 1 x 5 8y8 x 5 8y8 2 7y8 5 1y8

Thus, one eighth note is needed.

(c) Translate into fractions. Let x 5 missing note.   1y4 1 1y4 1 1y4 1 1y8 1 x 1 x 5 4y4 2y8 1 2y8 1 2y8 1 1y8 1 x 1 x 5 8y8

7y8 1 2x 5 8y8

2x 5 8y8 – 7y8 5 1y8 x 5 (1y8)(1y2) 5 1y16

The missing notes are sixteenth notes.

The Pythagoreans in Greece were the first people known to have related music and math. They discovered that the sound (note) produced by a string when it is plucked varies with the length of the string. With a little experimentation, they found that equally tight strings would give harmonious notes if their lengths were in whole-number ratios to each other. Vibrations produce waves that propagate through the surrounding medium. For example, a vibrating string on a violin produces sound waves that propagate (move through) the medium (air) that surrounds the violin. The frequency of the string’s vibration is the number of times the string vibrates up and down in one second. A frequency of 200 vibrations per second is said to have a frequency of 200 Hertz, or 200 Hz. Suppose that you have a string that will generate a sound with a frequency of 200 Hz when the whole string vibrates as one piece. This is called the fundamental frequency of the string. If you then hold this string down at its midpoint and pluck it, the new wave will be half as long as the original wave, but its frequency will be 400 Hz, twice that of the whole-string vibration. This is called the fi st harmonic or fi st overtone. If you hold the string down so that only one-fourth of its original length is plucked, the wave will be one-fourth the original wavelength, and the frequency will double again to 800 Hz. This is called the second harmonic or second overtone. This is shown in Figure 2-30.

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97

a.

b.

c.

Figure 2-30 The fundamental frequency of a string (a) and its first (b) and second (c) harmonic.

To our ear, these different frequencies have different pitches. The higher the f­ requency, the higher the pitch of the sound to your ear. Also, when the ­frequency of a note is doubled, the pitch is said to have been raised an octave. For example, A above middle C on a piano has a frequency of 440 Hz. The next higher-pitched A on the keyboard will have a frequency of 880 Hz and is one octave higher in pitch. The nextlower pitched A below middle C will have a frequency of 220 Hz and be one octave lower in pitch. To the Greeks and to people today, the most pleasing combinations of notes are those that are the same note but an octave apart in pitch. Figure 2-31 shows part of a piano keyboard. The white keys are the notes called C, D, E, F, G, A, B. The black keys are either called sharps, if they are to the right of the white key and thus a higher pitch; or fl ts, if they are to the left of a white key and thus lower in pitch. This means that all of the black keys are both # sharps and fl ts. The symbol for D sharp is D and the symbol for D fl t is D b.

C

D

E

F

G

A

B

C

Figure 2-31 An octave on a piano keyboard.

If you count the keys from C to the next C on the keyboard pictured in Fig­ # # # # # ure 2-31, you will count 12 keys (C /D b, D, D /E b, E, F, F /G b, G, G /A b, A, A /B b, B, C). These 12 keys produce 12 semitones between the two Cs that are an octave apart. To change a frequency by an octave, the frequency is multiplied by 2 as mentioned earlier. This leads to the most common method of tuning pianos. Each key is Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling 12

tuned so that it is "2 (the twelfth-root of two) different from the key next to it. This 12 means to multiply or divide by "2  5 1.0594630943593 . . . , or about 1.05946. Stated mathematically, the ratio between the frequencies of any two ­successive pitches is 1.05946. . . . Thus, if middle C has a frequency of 261.626 Hz, ­C sharp has a # frequency of C 5 (261.626)(1.05946) 5 277.182 Hz. If you continue to multiply 12 by "2 , the C an octave above middle C will have a frequency of 523.251, or twice that of middle C. Complete lists of frequencies of all notes of the scale may be ­obtained from many sources, including local music stores or the Internet at sites like answers.com. For some interesting connections between music and the Golden Ratio that you learned about in Section 2-5, refer to the suggested lab at the end of this chapter regarding sonatas written by Mozart. If you play the same note on a violin and a flut , they sound entirely different in many respects. The reason for this has to do with harmonics, which were mentioned in relation to the length of plucked strings. When a note is played on a flut , only one note is heard. When a note is played on a violin or other acoustic instrument, not only the fundamental frequency is produced but many harmonics as well. For ­example, an A at 440 Hz played on a violin with full harmonics will produce not only the A at 440 Hz but also an A at 880 Hz with approximately half the volume of the primary A; an A at 1320 Hz and about a third of the volume of the primary A; and so forth until either the frequency gets too high for the human ear to respond or the volume gets too low to be heard. Our discussion of music and math would not be complete without mentioning digital recordings. Sound is a wave and, in the past, recordings were made that actually reproduced the shape of the wave in the grooves of a vinyl record. If you are too young to remember phonograph records, ask some “old person” what a 33 13- or 45-RPM is. This method of recording music is called the analog method. To produce a modern digital recording, a computer takes the analog style of a piece of music and chops it up into very small pieces, each only a fraction of a second long, measures the frequencies present in each piece; and then records them numerically. This method of transforming music or sound into a list of numbers (digits) is called digitizing. A CD player is really a small computer that reverses the digitizing process and converts the stored numbers back into sound waves that you can hear. This process leaves a very short blank space between each set of numbers on the CD, but when played back at a normal speed, these gaps are small enough that the music sounds continuous to the human ear. A similar process is used with light waves to produce DVDs. Many modern bands produce music using synthesizers that can imitate many instruments, such as pianos, drums, and horns, at the push of a key. This all goes under the heading of digital signal processing. Here is where music and mathematics merge with each other. Sound is a compression wave that can be mathematically analyzed as sine waves broken up into different frequencies. Frequency is the number of waves per second, which is called Hertz (Hz). If the note A has a frequency of 440 Hz, then this means that 440 waves are passing through a particular point during an interval of 1 second. The higher the frequency of a sound wave, the higher the pitch that we hear. The loudness of a sound, measured in decibels (dB), corresponds to the amplitude or height of the sine wave. Sine waves can be used to recreate any sound. The sine wave related to a musical pitch is given by the following equation: y 5 A sin (Bt), where A is the amplitude of the sound, t is time, and B is the frequency of the note. The sound of middle C on the piano results from a wave that vibrates 256 times per second (256 Hz). Therefore,

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Section 2-6    Models and Patterns in Music

99

the equation of the sine wave with A 5 1 would be y 5 sin (256 t), where t 5 time. If you put this equation into your graphing calculator, you can see the wave action for this tone. Look at the picture of this wave in Figure 2-32. y

t

Figure 2-32 y 5 sin(256t).

As the frequencies increase, the pitch of each note is higher, and the waves will ­become closer together. Look at the sine wave for the note A above middle C, having a frequency of 440 Hz, in Figure 2-33. y

t

Figure 2-33 y 5 sin(440t).

When a mixture of overtones is included with the fundamental tone, derivations of the sine wave in the shape of sawtooth or square waves are formed. The wave in Figure 2-34 is a composite of several different frequencies. y

t

Figure 2-34 A composite sound with several frequencies.

As noted earlier in this section, when a note is played on a flut , only one note is heard. This is the instrument that produces the purest sound and a graph that is closest to the standard y 5 sin (x). The most complex sine wave is produced by a cymbal because of the many combinations of sound present. Experiment with the various notes discussed earlier in this section examining the graphs of the sine functions associated with each of them. Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Practice Set 2-6   1. How are frequency and pitch related?   2. In what fundamental way does one musical note differ from another?

17. Tempo 5 3/8

1

18. Tempo 5 3/8

1

4. How does an analog recording differ from a digital recording of music?

19. Tempo 5 2/4

1

5. What does it mean to digitize sound?

20. Tempo 5 2/4

3. What is an analog recording of music?

1

1

1

6. What kinds of waves are digitized on a DVD?

8. If you start with a note with a frequency of 110 Hz, what frequencies are one octave higher and one octave lower than this frequency?

Use the model y 5 A sin (Bt), where A is the amplitude of the sound, t is time, and B is the frequency of the note to write equations for sounds having the following characteristics. Since A 5 the volume of the note, let A 5 5 for these exercises. Then, use your graphing calculator to sketch a drawing of the resulting sound wave for problems 21 to 24.

9. The note that is G above middle C has a frequency of approximately 392 Hz. What is the frequency of the next highest semitone?

21. Frequency of the note A 5 220 Hz # 22. Frequency of the note F 5 185 Hz

10. The note that is G above middle C has a frequency of approximately 392 Hz. What is the frequency of the next lowest semitone?

23. Frequency of the note G 5 196 Hz

7. If you start with a note with a frequency of 261.626 Hz, what frequencies are one octave higher and one octave lower than this frequency?

11. If a certain piece of music is written in 4y4 time, how many half notes are required for one measure of music? 12. If a certain piece of music is written in 3y4 time, how many eighth notes are required per measure of music? 13. If a certain piece of music is written in 3y2 time, how many half notes are required per measure of music? 14. If a certain piece of music is written in 3y8 time, how many sixteenth notes are required per measure of music? Find the missing note(s) in each of the following so that the proper tempo is maintained. 15. Tempo 5 3/4

1 1

16. Tempo 5 3/4

1

24. Frequency of the note A at a lower pitch 5 55 Hz 25. Group Project: The note A has a frequency of # 110 Hz. The note A (A sharp) has a frequency of 116.54 Hz. Use your graphing calculator to graph both of these waves and compare them. Sketch these waves on the same graph. Pleasing chords have simple ratios such as 200 Hz:300 Hz, while dissonant chords result from more complicated ratios such as 290 Hz:300 Hz. Use your graphing calculator to graph the note A with a frequency of 110 Hz and another note having a frequency of 220 Hz. Sketch these waves on the same graph. What do you notice about the graphs of these waves? Discuss with your group ­members the similarities and differences between the two graphs. 26. Group Project: Describe how the sine waves of notes that are octaves apart compare. Give examples of notes and the related equations in your discussion. Sketch the waves of these notes.

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2   Summary

Chapter 2

101

Summary Key Terms, Properties, and Formulas acute angle acute triangle area cosine function circumference equilateral triangle frequency Golden Ratio hypotenuse

inverse trigonometric function isosceles triangle obtuse angle obtuse triangle perimeter perspective proportion Pythagorean theorem right angle

right triangle scale drawing scalene triangle sine function sine wave symmetry tangent function trigonometric functions trigonometry

Formulas to Remember Circumference of a Circle: C 5 2pr 5 pd Area Formulas:

Square Rectangle Triangle Circle

A 5 s2 A 5 lw A 5 0.5bh A 5 pr2

Hero’s Formula for the Area of a Triangle: A 5 "s 1 s 2 a 2 1 s 2 b 2 1 s 2 c 2   s 5

a1b1c 2

Pythagorean Theorem:

a2 1 b2 5 c2 Trigonometric Functions: sin 5

The Golden Ratio: f5

a a1b 5 a b

Sine Wave for Musical Pitch: Y 5 A sin (Bt) where A 5 amplitude, B 5 frequency, and t 5 time

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Chapter 2 Review Problems   1. Find the perimeter and area of the figu e shown in this diagram. 16 m

10 m

9. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 6 in., 8 in., and 12 in. Find the area of the triangle. (Round to the nearest tenth.)

6m 25 m

8. By what factor would the S.A. of the cylinder in problem 7 change if (a) the radius were doubled? (b) the radius were halved?

2. At \$0.55/ft, how much will it cost to put molding around the window pictured?

10. The siding on one side of a house was damaged in a storm and needs to be replaced. The drawing gives the dimensions of the end of the house and the windows in that end. (a) Find the area that needs to be covered with new siding. (b) If siding costs \$22.25/yd 2, what will the cost of the siding be for this side of the house? (Note that you cannot buy a fractional part of a square yard.)

4 ft 6 in.

5 ft

25 ft

3. A triangle has two angles that measure 35° and 52°. Calculate the size of the third angle and classify the triangle as right, acute, or obtuse.

25 ft

3 ft

3 ft 3.5 ft

4. Find the area and circumference of a circle ­having a diameter of 36 cm. Round to the nearest tenth.

3.5 ft 30 ft

9 ft 3.5 ft

5. Find the area and perimeter of the triangle shown. 10 in.

15 in.

11. How long must a piece of board be to reach from the top of a building 15 ft high to a point on the ground 8 ft from the building?

30 in.

18 in.

6. How many square feet of concrete surface are there in a circular walkway 8 ft wide surrounding a tree if the tree has a diameter of 3 ft? (Round to the tenths place.)   7. What is the total surface area of a cylinder with a radius of 2 inches and a height of 8 inches? (S.A.cylinder 5 2pr2 1 2prh). Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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42 ft

12. A slow-pitch softball diamond is a square with sides that are each 60 ft long. What is the distance from first base to thi d base? (Round to the nearest tenth.) 13. Does a triangle with side lengths of 7.5 ft, 12.5 ft, and 10 ft form a right triangle? How do you know? 14. An isosceles triangle has a base 24 in. long and a height from the vertex angle to the base of 18 in. How long is each of the other sides of the isosceles triangle?

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Chapter 2   Test

15. Find each of the following trigonometric functions (round your answers to four decimal places): (a) sin 67°

(b) cos 22.4° (c) tan 58.3°

16. What angle, A, corresponds to each of the following trigonometric functions (round your answers to one-tenth of a degree): (a) sin A 5 0.2079 (c) tan A 5 3.0595

(b) cos A 5 0.5678

17. A certain right triangle has a hypotenuse that is 12.5 inches long. The other two sides are 7.5 inches long and 10 inches long. What sizes are the two acute angles in this triangle? Round your answers to one-tenth of a degree. 18. How tall would a telephone pole have to be if it casts a shadow that is 8.5 m long across level ground when the sun is at an elevation of 52.0°? 19. In a standard right triangle labeled ABC, where /C is the right angle, find the length o side b if /B 5 70.0° and side a 5 45 m. 20. Which type of symmetry, horizontal and/or ­vertical reflection symmetr , does each of the ­following exhibit?

103

21. The corresponding sides of two similar triangles have lengths of 50 cm and 75 cm. What scale ­factor would relate the lengths of the sides of these two similar triangles? 22. A 321 (1 in./32 in.) scale model of an automobile has a length of 4.125 in. What is the length of the actual car? 23. A golden rectangle has longest side lengths of 32.4 cm. What is the length of the shorter sides? 24. A road map uses a scale of 1 in. 5 20 mi. If the distance between two locations is actually 35 mi, what distance would this be indicated by on the map? 25. Fill in the missing two notes so there is a total of 4 beats.

1

1

1

26. What frequency is two octaves below 110 Hz? 27. If only quarter notes are used, how many are ­required for one measure of music written in 3/2 time?

(a) The letter W (b) The number 3 (c) An isosceles triangle sitting on its unequal side (d) The number 9

Chapter 2 Test   1. Find the perimeter and area of the triangle shown.

2. Find the area of the shaded portion of the diagram.

6 in. 24 cm

26 cm

10 cm

12 in.

3. A regulation basketball has a circumference of 29.5 inches. How many square inches of material is needed to cover this ball? Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

4. What is the total surface area of a cylinder that is 48 inches tall and has a diameter of 2.5 feet?   5. Maria is finalizing the set or the school play and needs to buy fringe to sew onto the edges of the three circular tablecloths needed for the final scene. Each tablecloth is 6 ft in diameter. How much fringe will she need for the three tablecloths?   6. Calculate the size of the third angle in DABC and classify it as acute, obtuse, or right if /A 5 25° and /B 5 65°.   7. Find the length a in the given right triangle.

11. A 26-ft ladder is leaning against a wall, and the foot of the ladder is 4.5 ft from the foot of the wall. If the ground is level, what is the height of the point at which the top of the ladder is resting on the wall? 12. Find the width of a rectangle having a diagonal of 6.5 cm and a length of 5.8 cm. 13. A car tire stands 21 in. tall. (a) How far will the tire move if it completes one revolution? (b) There are 5280 ft in a mile. How many times will this tire turn each mile it travels? 14. Find each angle rounded to the nearest tenth of a degree.

a

7.8 ft

(a) sin A 5 0.9083 (c) tan A 5 2.3690

15. Find each trigonometric function rounded to four decimal places.

7.2 ft

8. Find the area of the isosceles triangle shown.

10 cm

(b) cos A 5 0.1046

10 cm

(a) sin 11.5°

(b) tan 90°

(c) cos 79.4°

16. Find the height of a man who casts a shadow 7.75 feet long over level ground when the sun is at an elevation of 39.2°. 17. You are walking up an incline that rises at an angle of 7.5°. After walking a distance of 600 feet straight along the incline, how much higher up are you than when you began?

12 cm

9. The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 2.6 ft, 3.4 ft, and 4.1 ft. Find the area of the triangle. 10. (a) Find the area and perimeter of the room shown in the figu e. (b) If carpet costs \$24.95 per square yard, how much will it cost to carpet the room? ­(Remember: 1 yd2 5 9 ft2) 21.5 ft

18. A ramp is built to reach the top of a 3.5-foot platform. If the ramp is 12 feet long, what angle does it make with the ground? 19. What letter(s) of the alphabet exhibit(s) rotational symmetry if rotated 45º? (Consider capital letters only.) 20. What letters of the alphabet exhibit rotational symmetry if rotated 270º? (Consider capital ­letters only.) 21. A map has a scale that shows 1 cm 5 2500 m. What distance on the map would indicate an actual distance of 6.25 km?

18.5 ft

4.25 ft 15 ft

22. An HO-scale model train is a 871 scale. This means that each inch (or foot) of model size is equivalent to 87 in. (or 87 ft) in real life. If a model of a steam engine that is actually 75 ft long is to be made, how long will the model be in inches?

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Suggested Laboratory Exercises

23. Does the ratio of the lengths of the sides of a rectangle that is 48 in. by 64 in. match the Golden ­Ratio?

26. Fill in the missing note so there is a total of 4 beats.

24. Which is closer to being a golden rectangle, an 8.5-in. by 11-in. sheet of notebook paper or an 8.5-in. by 14-in. sheet of paper from a legal pad?

1

1

105

1 1

27. What is the difference between 3y4 time and 4/4 time in music?

25. What frequency is three octaves above a note of 440 Hz?

Suggested Laboratory Exercises Lab Exercise 1

Room Areas Refer to Chapter 5, Lab Exercise 4, and assume that the floor plan pictured there has a scale of 1 in. 5 8 ft. What is the size of the two bedrooms, the living/dining area, and the kitchen? What is the approximate square footage for the entire condo? How many square yards of carpet would be needed to carpet the two bedrooms, including the closets, and the living/dining area?

Lab Exercise 2

A Comparison of Calculated and Measured Volumes In this exercise you will compare a measured quantity with a calculated value for the same quantity (i.e., comparing a ruler measure with a model or formula value). Obtain four cans of differing sizes, a liquid measuring cup or similar item from the chemistry department with SI (metric) volume units (mL), a ruler with SI markings (mm, cm), and a source of water. You will also need your calculator. First measure the height, h, and radius, r, of each can in centimeters (cm). Use these values to calculate the volume of each can. Vcylinder 5 pr2h is the formula that “models” the volume of cylinders with circular, parallel ends. These volumes will be in ­cubic centimeters (cm3). Record all of your data in a table like Table 2-3. Now use the measuring cup and fill each can with water, recording the number of milliliters (mL) of water that it takes to fill each on . The volume in mL can easily be converted to the equivalent volume in cm3 ­because: 1 mL 5 1 cm3. Do this for each of the cans. Now compare the calculated volumes with the measured volumes as follows: measured value 2 calculated value 3 100% calculated value This calculation will give you the percent difference between the two volume measures for each can.

Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Table 2-3

Can

Measured Height (cm)

Calculated Volume (cm3)

Measured Volume (cm3) Difference

Percentage Difference

1 2 3 4

1. Were your calculated and measured volumes exactly the same in any/all cases? If not, what might be some reasons for the difference observed? 2. If an error of difference of 65% is acceptable, did your values fall below this level? What changes might be made in the procedure that you used so as to ­minimize differences?

Lab Exercise 3

Musicians and Mathematics If you do a little research on the Internet about the connection of music to math, you will find that many musicians, both modern and classical, used mathematics as a basis for some of their compositions. Research one of these persons and write a two-page essay on how they used mathematics.

Lab Exercise 4

Are Golden Rectangles Really Cute? Draw a series of four or five rectangles, only one of which is a golden rectangle. Then do a survey around your school asking which rectangle is most “pleasing” in appearance. Is the one that is the golden rectangle chosen most often? Make measurements in inches and then in centimeters. Are the resulting ratios the same?

Lab Exercise 5

The Golden Belly Button Project It has been theorized that, on the average, the ratio of a person’s total height to the height of that person’s belly button from the floor approximates the Golden Ratio. Collect lots of belly button data and test this theory. What is your conclusion?

Lab Exercise 6

Mozart Sonatas and the Golden Ratio Table 2-4 lists the number of measures of music in the first and second parts of several of Mozart’s piano sonatas. Fill in the third column by calculating the ratio of the total number of measures in Parts 1 and 2 all together to the number of measures in the longer part. Write a discussion of your results and whether or not you think that Mozart had the Golden Ratio in mind when he wrote these sonatas.

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Suggested Laboratory Exercises

107

Table 2-4

Measures in Part 1

Measures in Part 2

77 113 24   36 39   63 53   67 38   62 28   46 15   18 40   69 56 102 46   60

Ratio (77 1 113)/113 5 1.681

Lab Exercise 7

Let’s Bolt Ourselves Down

l

Pictured below (greatly enlarged) is the head of a hexagonal bolt. The distance labeled d across the fl t sides of the bolt is 18.50 mm. Find the length, l, of one fl t side of the bolt, and the distance between opposite points on the bolt, p.

608 d

p

Lab Exercise 8

Geometric Transformations in Art Geometric transformations include rotations (turns), reflections (flips), and translations (slides). After any of these transformations occur, the object’s shape still has the same area, size and shape. These mathematical operations are often used in art, especially in artwork or textiles displaying patterns and in crafts such as quilts. This “parrot design” created by Charles Francis Annesley Voysey was done with combined media (watercolor and pencil). You will notice that each pair of parrots is reflected across a vertical axis to produce a very symmetrical pattern. Go to a website such as the National Gallery https:// images.nga.gov (or one similar) and find a piece of artwork that illustrates one or more of the elements of geometric transformations. Print a copy of the picture and write a paragraph explaining the use of transformations in your selection.

Parrot design (w/c and pencil on paper), Voysey, Charles Francis Annesley (1857–1941)/Private Collection/The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library Unless otherwise noted, all content is © Cengage Learning.

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Chapter 2    ­Applications of Algebraic Modeling

Lab Exercise 9

Similarity in Resizing Photographs Digital cameras were originally used to capture images for computer monitors. Therefore, when we talk about digital images we often express their dimensions in pixels. When we talk about images captured using traditional cameras, we express their dimensions in inches. For example, typical dimensions on a computer monitor are 640 × 480 pixels or 800 × 600 pixels while traditional cameras produce pictures that are 4 × 6 inches. Resizing either type of picture involves the concept of similarity if the photographer wishes to preserve the exact photograph in a larger or smaller version without cropping the picture.

Joseph S. Robertson

1. The size of the larger digital photo shown here is 678 × 1024 pixels. If the larger and smaller photos are similar figu es with a ratio of 2:1, give the dimensions of the smaller photograph in pixels.

2. If a photographer wants to determine the number of pixels needed to obtain a certain print size, he/she can multiply the length of each side of the desired print size by 300 to determine an approximation of the number of pixels needed for the digital image. Complete the following table relating standard print sizes to digital image sizes. Print Size

Image Size

3 × 5 inches   4 × 6 inches   5 × 7 inches   8 × 8 inches   8 × 10 inches 11 × 14 inches 16 × 20 inches

900 × 1500 pixels

3. The definition of similarity states that two figu es must have the same shape with corresponding sides proportional and corresponding angles equal. Use the list of traditional print sizes in the table and determine if any of them are similar figu es. 4. Do any of the print sizes listed meet the requirements of the Golden Ratio?

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