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Br ief Co n t en t s Chapter 1 Thinking Like a Sociologist  1 Chapter 2 Examining Our Social World  20 Chapter 3 Culture  38 Chapter 4 Socialization  60 Chapter 5 Social Interaction and Social Structure  80 Chapter 6 Social Groups, Organizations, and Social Institutions  98 Chapter 7 Deviance, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System  116 Chapter 8 Social Stratifi ation: United States and Global  136 Chapter 9 Gender and Sexuality  156 Chapter 10 Race and Ethnicity  178 Chapter 11 The Economy and Politics  198 Chapter 12 Families and Aging  224 Chapter 13 Education and Religion  246 Chapter 14 Health and Medicine  272 Chapter 15 Population, Urbanization, and the Environment  292 Chapter 16 Social Change: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Technology  312

References  331 Name Index  367 Subject Index  375

Brief Contents

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Con te n t s 1 Thinking Like a Sociologist  1-1 ​What Is Sociology?  1 1-1a Are You Unique?  1 1-1b Isn’t Sociology Just Common Sense?  2

1-2 ​What Is a Sociological Imagination?  2 1-2a Micro-sociology: How People Affect Our Everyday Lives  3 1-2b Macrosociology: How Social Structure Affects Our Everyday Lives  3

1-3 ​Why Study Sociology?  4 1-3a  Making Informed Decisions  4 1-3b Understanding Diversity  4 1-3c Shaping Social and Public Policies and Practices  5 1-3d Thinking Critically  5 1-3e Expanding Your Career Opportunities  5

1-4 ​Some Origins of Sociological Theory  6 1-4a  Auguste Comte  7 1-4b Harriet Martineau  7 1-4c Émile Durkheim  8 1-4d Karl Marx  9 1-4e Max Weber  10 1-4f Jane Addams  11 1-4g W. E. B. Du Bois  12

1-5  Contemporary Sociological Theories  12 1-5a Functionalism 13 1-5b Conflict Theory  14 1-5c Feminist Theories  15 1-5d Symbolic Interactionism  17

2 Examining Our Social World  2-1 ​Doing Sociology: What Is Social Research?  21 2-2 Why Is Sociological Research Important in Our Everyday Lives?  21 2-3 ​The Scientific Method  23 2-3a Concepts, Variables, and Hypotheses  23 2-3b Reliability and Validity  24 2-3c Deductive and Inductive Reasoning  24 2-3d Sampling  24 2-3e The Research Process: The Basics  25 2-3f Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches  26 2-3g Correlation and Causation  27

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2-4 ​Some Major Data Collection Methods  27 2-4a Surveys  27 2-4b Secondary Analysis of Existing Data  29 2-4c Field Research  29 2-4d Content Analysis  31 2-4e Experiments  32 2-4f Evaluation Research  34

2-5 ​Ethics, Politics, and Sociological Research  34 2-5a Ethical Research  35 2-5b Scientific Dishonesty  35 2-5c Political, Religious, and Community Pressure on Researchers  37 2-5d Do People Believe Scientific Findings?  37

3 Culture 39 3-1 ​Culture and Society  39 3-1a Some Characteristics of Culture  39 3-1b Material and Nonmaterial Culture  40

3-2 ​The Building Blocks of Culture  41 3-2a Symbols  41 3-2b Language  42 3-2c Values  44 3-2d Norms  46

3-3 ​Some Cultural Similarities  48 3-3a Cultural Universals  48 3-3b Ideal Versus Real Culture  49 3-3c Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism  49

3-4 ​Some Cultural Variations  50 3-4a Subcultures  50 3-4b Countercultures  51

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3-4c Multiculturalism  51 3-4d Culture Shock  52

3-5 ​Popular Culture  52 3-5a The Impact of Popular Culture  52 3-5b Cultural Imperialism  54

3-6  Cultural Change and Technology  54 3-6a Cultural Persistence: Why Cultures Are Stable  54 3-6b Cultural Dynamics: Why Cultures Change  54 3-6c Technology and Cultural Lag  56

3-7  Sociological Perspectives on Culture  57 3-7a Functionalism  57 3-7b Conflict Theory  58 3-7c Feminist Theories  58 3-7d Symbolic Interactionism  59

CONTENTS

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4 Socialization 61 4-1 ​Socialization: Its Purpose and Importance  61 4-1a What Is the Purpose of Socialization?  61 4-1b Why Is Socialization Important?  62

4-2 Nature and Nurture  62 4-2a How Important Is Nature?  62 4-2b How Important Is Nurture?  64 4-2c Is the Nature–Nurture Debate Becoming Obsolete in Sociology?  65

4-3  Sociological Explanations of Socialization  66 4-3a Social Learning Theories  66 4-3b Symbolic Interaction Theories  67

4-4  Primary Socialization Agents  70 4-4a Family  70 4-4b Play, Peer Groups, and Friends  72 4-4c Teachers and Schools  73 4-4d Popular Culture and the Media  73

4-5  Socialization Throughout Life  75 4-5a Infancy  76 4-5b Childhood  76 4-5c Adolescence  76 4-5d Adulthood  77 4-5e Later Life  78

4-6 Resocialization 79

5 Social Interaction and Social Structure  5-1  Social Structure  81 5-2 Status 82 5-2a Status Set  82 5-2b Ascribed and Achieved Status  83 5-2c Master Status  83 5-2d Status Inconsistency  83

5-3 Role 84 5-3a Role Performance  84 5-3b Role Set  84 5-3c Role Conflict and Role Strain  85 5-3d Coping With Role Conflict and Role Strain  85

81

5-4  Explaining Social Interaction  86 5-4a Symbolic Interactionism  86 5-4b Social Exchange Theory  89 5-4c Feminist Theories  89

5-5  Nonverbal Communication  90 5-5a Silence  90 5-5b Visual Cues  91 5-5c Touch  92 5-5d Personal Space  93

5-6  Online Interaction  94 5-6a Who’s Online and Why?  94 5-6b How Beneficial and Harmful Is Online Interaction?  95

6 S ocial Groups, Organizations, and Social Institutions 99

6-1  Social Groups  99 6-1a Primary Groups and Secondary Groups  99 6-1b In-Groups and Out-Groups  100 6-1c Reference Groups  101 6-1d Group Conformity  102 6-1e Social Networks  104

6-2  Formal Organizations  104 6-2a Characteristics of Formal Organizations  104 6-2b Voluntary Associations  105 6-2c Bureaucracies  105 6-2d The Informal Side of Bureaucracy  108

6-3 Sociological Perspectives on Social Groups and Organizations  110 6-3a Functionalism: Social Groups and Organizations Benefit Society  110 6-3b Conflict Theory: Some Benefit More Than Others  112 6-3c Feminist Theories: Men Benefit More Than Women  113 6-3d Symbolic Interactionism: People Define and Shape Their Situations  113

6-4  Social Institutions  114 6-4a Why Social Institutions Are Important  114 6-4b How Social Institutions Are Interconnected  114

Contents

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7D  eviance, Crime, and the Criminal Justice System 117

7-1  What Is Deviance?  117 7-1a Some Key Characteristics of Deviance  117 7-1b Who Decides What’s Deviant?  119

7-2  What Is Crime?  119 7-2a Measuring Crime  119 7-2b How Much Crime Is There?  120 7-2c Victims and Offenders  120

7-3  Controlling Deviance and Crime  122 7-3a Informal and Formal Social Control  122 7-3b Positive and Negative Sanctions  122

7-4  Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance and Crime  123 7-4a Deviance and Crime Can Be Dysfunctional and Functional  123 7-4b Anomie and Social Strain  124 7-4c Critical Evaluation  125

7-5  Conflict Perspectives on Deviance and Crime  125 7-5a Capitalism, Power, Social Inequality, and Crime  126 7-5b Law Enforcement, Power, and Crime  127 7-5c Critical Evaluation  127

7-6  Feminist Perspectives on Deviance and Crime  128 7-6a Women as Victims  128 7-6b Women as Offenders  129 7-6c Critical Evaluation  129

7-7 Symbolic Interaction Perspectives on Deviance and Crime  130 7-7a Differential Association Theory  130 7-7b Labeling Theories  130 7-7c Critical Evaluation  132

7-8  The Criminal Justice System and Social Control  132 7-8a Prevention and Intervention  132 7-8b Punishment  133 7-8c Rehabilitation  135

8 Social Stratification: United States and Global  8-1  What Is Social Stratification?  137 8-1a Closed Stratification Systems  138 8-1b Open Stratification Systems  138

8-2  Dimensions of Stratification  138 8-2a Wealth  139 8-2b Prestige  140 8-2c Power  140

8-3  Social Class in America  141 8-3a The Upper Class  141 8-3b The Middle Class  142 8-3c The Working Class  143 8-3d The Lower Class  144 8-3e How Social Class Affects Us  144

8-4  Poverty in America  144 8-4a What Is Poverty?  145 8-4b Who Are The Poor?  145 8-4c Why Are People Poor?  146

9 Gender and Sexuality  9-1 How Women and Men Are Similar and Different  157 9-1a Sex and Gender  157 9-1b Gender Identity and Gender Roles  158

9-2 Contemporary Gender Stratification and Inequality  159 9-2a Gender and Family Life  160 9-2b Gender and Education  160

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8-5  Social Mobility  147 8-5a Types of Social Mobility  147 8-5b Recent Trends in Social Mobility  148 8-5c What Affects Social Mobility?  148

8-6  Global Inequality  150 8-6a Living Worlds Apart  150 8-6b Why Is Inequality Universal?  151

8-7 Sociological Explanations: Why There Are Haves and Have-Nots  151 8-7a Functionalist Perspectives: Stratification Benefits Society  151 8-7b Conflict Perspectives: Stratification Harms Society  153 8-7c Feminist Perspectives: Women Are Almost Always at the Bottom  154 8-7d Symbolic Interaction Perspectives: People Create and Shape Stratification  155

157 9-2c Gender and the Workplace  161 9-2d Gender and Politics  163

9-3 Sexuality  164 9-3a Sexual Identity  164 9-3b Sexual Orientation  164 9-3c Sexual Scripts  165 9-3d Heterosexism and Homophobia  166

CONTENTS

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9-4  Some Current Controversies About Sexuality  166 9-4a Abortion  167 9-4b Same-Sex Marriage  168 9-4c Pornography  168

9-5  Gender and Sexuality Across Cultures  169 9-5a Gender Inequality  170 9-5b Sexual Violence and Oppression  171

10 Race and Ethnicity  10-1  U.S. Racial and Ethnic Diversity  179 10-2  The Social Significance of Race and Ethnicity  180 10-2a Race  180 10-2b Ethnicity  180 10-2c Racial-Ethnic Group  181

10-3  Our Changing Immigration Mosaic  181 10-3a Unauthorized Immigrants  181 10-3b Reactions to Unauthorized Immigrants  182

10-4  Dominant and Minority Groups  183 10-4a What Is a Dominant Group?  183 10-4b What Is a Minority?  183 10-4c Patterns of Dominant-Minority Group Relations  183

10-5  Some Sources of Racial-Ethnic Friction  185 10-5a Racism  185 10-5b Prejudice  185 10-5c Discrimination  186 10-5d Relationship Between Prejudice and Discrimination  186

9-6  Sociological Explanations of Gender and Sexuality  171 9-6a Functionalism  171 9-6b Conflict Theory  173 9-6c Feminist Theories  174 9-6d Symbolic Interactionism  176

179 10-6 Major Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States  187 10-6a European Americans: A Declining Majority  187 10-6b Latinos: A Growing Minority  188 10-6c African Americans: A Major Source of Diversity  189 10-6d Asian Americans: A Model Minority?  190 10-6e American Indians: A Growing Nation  191 10-6f Middle Eastern Americans: An Emerging Group  192

10-7 Sociological Explanations of Racial-Ethnic Inequality  193 10-7a Functionalism  193 10-7b Conflict Theory  194 10-7c Feminist Theories  195 10-7d Symbolic Interactionism  195

10-8  Interracial and Interethnic Relationships  196 10-8a Growing Multiracial Diversity  197 10-8b Interracial Dating and Marriage  197

11 The Economy and Politics 

199

11-1  Global Economic Systems  199 11-1a Capitalism  199 11-1b Socialism  200 11-1c Mixed Economies  200

11-2  Corporations and the Economy  201 11-2a Corporations  201 11-2b Conglomerates  201 11-2c Interlocking Directorates  201 11-2d Transnational Corporations and Conglomerates  202

11-3  Work in U.S. Society Today  202 11-3a Deindustrialization and Globalization  202 11-3b Labor Unions  203 11-3c Offshoring  204 11-3d How Americans’ Work Has Changed  204 11-3e Job Satisfaction and Stress  206 11-3f Women and Minorities in the Workplace  206

11-4 Sociological Explanations of Work and the Economy  208 11-4a Functionalist Theories: The Economy Provides Many Societal Benefits  208 11-4b Conflict Theory: The Economy Can Be Hazardous to Your Health  209

11-4c Feminist Theories: The Economy Creates and Reinforces Sex Inequality in the Workplace  210 11-4d Symbolic Interaction Theories: We Learn Work Roles  211

11-5  Global Political Systems  211 11-5a Democracy  211 11-5b Totalitarianism and Dictatorships  212 11-5c Authoritarianism and Monarchies  212

11-6  Politics, Power, and Authority  213 11-6a Power  213 11-6b Authority  214

11-7  Politics and Power in U.S. Society  215 11-7a Political Parties  215 11-7b Who Votes, Who Doesn’t, and Why  217

11-8 Sociological Perspectives on Politics and Power  219 11-8a Functionalism: A Pluralist Model  219 11-8b Conflict Theory: A Power Elite Model  221 11-8c Feminist Theories: A Patriarchal Model  222

Contents

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12 Families and Aging 

225

12-1  What Is a Family?  225

12-4  Family Conflict and Violence  237

12-1a How Families Are Similar  225 12-1b How Families Differ  226

12-2  How U.S. Families Are Changing  229 12-2a Divorce  229 12-2b Singlehood and Postponing Marriage  231 12-2c Cohabitation  231 12-2d Nonmarital Childbearing  233 12-2e Two-Income Families  234

12-3  Diversity in American Families  234

12-4a Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse  237 12-4b Child Maltreatment  238 12-4c Elder Abuse and Neglect  239

12-5  Our Aging Society  239 12-5a When Is “Old”?  239 12-5b Life Expectancy and Multigenerational Families  240 12-5c Who Will Care for Our Graying Population?  241

12-6  Sociological Explanations of Family and Aging  241 12-6a Functionalism  241 12-6b Conflict Theory  243 12-6c Feminist Theories  243 12-6d Symbolic Interaction  244

12-3a Social Class Variations  234 12-3b Racial and Ethnic Families  235 12-3c Gay and Lesbian Families  236

13 Education and Religion  13-1  What Is Education?  247 13-2  Sociological Perspectives on Education  247 13-2a Functionalism: What Are the Benefits of Education?  247 13-2b Conflict Theory: Does Education Perpetuate Social Inequality?  250 13-2c Feminist Theories: Is There a Gender Gap in Education?  253 13-2d Symbolic Interactionism: How Do Social Contexts Affect Education?  254

13-3  Some Problems With U.S. Education  256 13-3a Quality and Quantity of Schooling  256 13-3b Teachers’ Effectiveness  257 13-3c Dropping Out  258 13-3d Grade Inflation  259 13-3e Cheating  259

13-4  What Is Religion?  260 13-4a The Sacred and the Secular  260 13-4b Religion, Religiosity, and Spirituality  260

14 Health and Medicine  14-1  Health and Illness in the United States  273 14-1a Epidemiology  274 14-1b Some Reasons for Contemporary Illness and Early Death  274

14-2 Health Care: The United States and Around the World  281 14-2a U.S. Health Care Coverage and Who Pays for Medical Care  281 14-2b The United States Compared With Other Countries  282 14-2c What Kind of Health Reform Should Americans Endorse?  283

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13-5 Types of Religious Organization and Some Major World Religions  260 13-5a Cults (New Religious Movements)  260 13-5b Sects  261 13-5c Denominations  261 13-5d Churches  261 13-5e Some Major World Religions  262

13-6  Religion in the United States  262 13-6a Religious Belief  262 13-6b Religious Affiliation  262 13-6c Religious Participation  262 13-6d Some Characteristics of Religious Participants  263 13-6e Secularization: Is Religion Declining?  264

13-7  Sociological Perspectives on Religion  266 13-7a Functionalism: Religion Benefits Society  266 13-7b Conflict Theory: Religion Promotes Social Inequality  268 13-7c Feminist Theories: Religion Subordinates and Excludes Women  269 13-7d Symbolic Interactionism: Religion Is Socially Constructed  270

273 14-3 Sociological Perspectives on Health and Medicine  284 14-3a Functionalism: Good Health and Medicine Benefit Society  284 14-3b Conflict Theory: Health Care and Medicine Benefit Some More Than Others  285 14-3c Feminist Theories: Health and Medicine Benefit Men More Than Women  287 14-3d Symbolic Interactionism: Health, Illness, and Medicine Are Socially Constructed  289

CONTENTS

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15 P opulation, Urbanization, and the Environment 293

15-1  Population Dynamics  293 15-1a Why Populations Change  293 15-1b Population Composition and Structure  296 15-1c Population Growth: A Ticking Bomb?  297

15-3  Environmental Issues  305 15-3a Water  306 15-3b Air Pollution and Global Warming  308 15-3c Is Sustainable Development Possible?  310

15-2 Urbanization 299 15-2a Urbanization: A Global View  299 15-2b Urbanization in the United States  301 15-2c Sociological Explanations of Urbanization  303

16 S ocial Change: Collective Behavior, Social Movements, and Technology  313

16-1  Collective Behavior  313 16-1a What Is Collective Behavior?  313 16-1b When Does Collective Behavior Occur?  314 16-1c Varieties of Collective Behavior  315

16-3  Technology and Social Change  326 16-3a Some Recent Technological Advances  326 16-3b Some Benefits and Costs of Technology  328 16-3c Some Ethical Issues  330

16-2  Social Movements  321 16-2a What Is a Social Movement?  321 16-2b Types of Social Movements  321 16-2c Why Social Movements Emerge  322 16-2d The Stages of Social Movements  324 16-2e Why Social Movements Matter  326

References 331 Name Index 367 Subject Index 375

Contents

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